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Treatment of Digestate

Michael Kttner

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Liquid manure processing and fertilization


Manure storage
After the anaerobic treatment of liquid manure and during the storage nitrogen losses occur in form of ammonia or hydrogen sulfide

Manure land application


During the application nitrogen losses can be presented in gaseous form (ammonia) and in mineral form (nitrate)

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Land application techniques

Drag hose tractor: precise fertilization, around 41% lower NH 3 emissions

Fertilizer distributor tractor: strong smell and Ammonia emissions, windsensitively

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Liquid manure processing and fertilization


Measures during liquid manure application
No excessive agitation before the application deploy cooled substrate from the final storage, and Spread using emission-reducing techniques (drag hose tractor, etc.) Process the liquid manure To prevent the nitrate leaching by liquid manure fertilization other measures, besides the type of treatment must be taken into account: Sufficient storage capacity (at least 6 months) Periods of application Quantity of liquid manure (and thus N-quantity) to be applied Spreading technology

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Treatment technologies for fermenting substrates


Thermal

processes Physical processes Chemical procedures Biological processes


Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Fermenting substrate
vorher 92,00% before
Water Wasser Gelste Salze Dissolved salts Partikeltrockenmasse Dry weight particle

0,92% 7,08%

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Thermal processes
Drying
Evaporation

Incineration Pyrolysis Stripping

of ammonia Using denitrification processes


Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Drying process
Stable useful product nutrient problem solutions easier to transport Waste heat utilization

0,52 kWhth Heat energy for drying 1 kg digestate with 3% DM-content 520 kWhth pro t- Digestate
Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

1. Heat coupled microgas turbine in combination with a solar supported digestate drying process at the Farm at Karle, Fuessbach, Germany

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Filling of solar thermal drying house

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Drying process after 14 days

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Physical processes
Sedimentation

centrifuge Sedimentation tank Filtration Screw press Rotary screen Osmosis reverse

Decantation

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Separation liquid - solid

Screw press - separator (FAN system)


Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Decanter separation of the mixture digestate/ fats )


Raw liquid manure Weight portion DM content P [kg/t] N-total [kg/t] NH4-n [kg/t] Org. N [kg/t] NH4-n Portion 97% 5,2% 1,2 4,8 3,6 1,2 75% 3% 41,4% 0,3 1,3 0,4 0,9 28% Fat waste Digestate (Fermented liquid manure) 100% 4,2% 1,3 4,6 3,6 2,3 79% 7% 33% 13,4 11,7 3,0 2,6 26% 93% 2,3% 0,3 4,0 3,6 2,3 89% Solid fraction Liquid fraction

Source: Hengdal fermentation gas/Danish agrarian research

Value and efficiency of nutrients and liquid manure


Fertilizer Pig liquid manure Digestate (fermented liquid manure) Separated biogas digestate Efficiency nitrogen 60 70 % 65 85 % 80 90 % Increase in value per t liquid manure 0,30 0,60 0,60 1,20

Source: Danish agrarian research

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Reverse osmosis
Biogas fermentation is ideal pretreatment for

membrane processes Fibrous and/or solid material should be separated before this stage The larger the throughput the smaller the DMcontent, i.e. the more effective the biogas fermentation was

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Chemical procedures
MAP Flocculation Ammonia

stripping Phosphate precipitation Chemical electroflotation


Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

MAP (Magnesium ammonium phosphate )


Struvit reaction by addition of Phosphoric acid (origin content x 3 - 4), MgO (Origin content x 6) = Struvit as sediment Chemical costs of removing1 kg N: 6 Euro for 1 m of pig manure up to 48 euro cost

P addition in improving areas few suitable for the


solution of the N-problem
Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Phosphate precipitation
Using lime-milk - After anaerobic or aerobic organic decomposition, 60 - 70% P can be removed by physical separation - Remaining phosphoric components are precipitated with lime-milk (30 - 40 kg CaO per m of slurry), afterwards under 2ppm P (Weiland 1997)

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Ammonia stripping
Stripping of ammonia by steam without

Chemical additive CaO additive - unwanted foam formation - sedimentation of solids later washed out by H2SO4 the final product is disappointing

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Biological procedures
Composting Wetlands Soil

filter Straw filter Nitrification/denitrification


Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Composting of solids

Heap shifting equipment


Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Denitrification for removing Nitrogen


Denitrification

Netherlands Aim: to deliver N in the form of N2 to the atmosphere Danger of the laughing gas emission

e.g. the

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Treatment costs of animal excrements


Technologie Composting of solid manure Energy2) (kWh/ t) 5 KW/H - 50 KW/H (for conversion with ventilation system) k.A. low 16 (5,6% TM) 10-38 0,5 - 4 (kWh/ m3) production 30 (kWh/ m3 H2O) production Costs (Eur/ m3) 12,4 - 37,2 Application no delimitation on farm size Test stage limited large farms extensive experience extensive experience > 130.000 Mast animals Test stage Routine

Composting of poultry dung with pine cortex Anaerobic ponds Biological treatment of pig liquid manure Ventilation of liquid dung Mechanical separation Incineration of chicken dung Evaporation and drying process of chicken dung Additives with pig liquid manure

8,1 / t k.A. 6,1 0,7 - 4 1,4 - 4,2 18 / t >2,3 0,5 - 1 / animal

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

The total costs for a decanter separation are about 0,80 per t. according to data of a Danish biogas manufacturer. This price in Denmark is profitable for many large cattle farmers. A further separation in the evaporator has a larger price (approx. 3.40 per t). This expenditure should be paid back by saved transport costs and by a better utilization of fertilizer as well as by the improved spreading. Long distances transportation of manure for the part of manure which cannot be used in direct proximity of the enterprise would be profitable Economic value of digestate is indicated either as 10 Euros per GV per year or related to the nutrients also 5 5 Euro/ t N, 56 Euro/ t P, 28 Euro/ t K.

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007

Biogas Regions: Train the Trainers Seminar, Wolpertshausen, Germany, 28-29 November 2007