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# QSM 554 ELECTRICITY

## NOOR AISYAH ASYIKIN D416

Electricity is a flow of electric charge along a wire. The more charge that are passing along the wire the larger the current

## SI unit of electricity = coulomb = quantity of electricity

BASIC OF ELECTRICITY

Electric Current = flow of electron along a conductor that forced by generator/ battery, to a consuming device then back to the source

## Figure 1: Current flow in an electric circuit

BASIC OF ELECTRICITY

2 Types of electric current = AC and DC Alternating Current (AC) = varies periodically in value and directions more economical - ability to change the voltage levels by using transformers Direct Current (DC) = has a constant flow in one direction low-voltage applications, eg: batteries which can only produced DC.

TERMINOLOGY OF ELECTRICITY

Ampere (A) - a unit of the rate of flow of electric current, eg := 1 ampere represents a current flow of one coulomb of charge per second

Volt (V) - electrical force that causes free electrons to flow along a conductor

## Ohm () - the unit of electric

resistance of a conductor

TERMINOLOGY OF ELECTRICITY
Ohms Law

V=IxR

where V is the applied voltage, measured in volts I is the current, measured in amperes R is the resistance, measured in ohms

## CONDUCTOR vs. INSULATOR

CONDUCTOR = A material where electric current flows Copper and aluminium are commonly used

## Good conductors have a low resistance to the flow of electricity

INSULATOR = a materials that do not conduct electricity E.g. glass, ceramic and plastics They are used on electrical devices to provide protection from the electricity

## POWER = rate at which energy is used = watts

i.e. a WATT is one ampere flowing under an electromotive force of one volt
Relationship : W = I2 R (watts ampere2 x ohms)

TRANSFORMER

Distribution need for long distance transmission efficiency, and yet customer safety, reconciled by use of transformer Transformer comprises primary input and secondary input windings around a common metal loop, and the respective number of windings determines whether the voltage is stepped up or down.

1. Generation

4. Supply

## GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION & SUPPLY

Turbine
Water, steam etc

Generation station
Pylons Step-up transformer Transmission

## Step-down transformer substation Distributors

Step-down transformer

Supplier

Service cable

Consumer Consumer

## Transmission, distribution and supply system

ELECTRICITY GENERATION

Electricity generation is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers The process which involves the generation of electricity Electricity is generated in power stations by using a form of energy sources such as; water (hydroelectric), steam, gas, solar, nuclear and battery.

## SOURCE AND GRID

Most power-station alternators are driven by steam, generated by heat of fossil-fuel combustion, nuclear reaction, solar geothermal or hydroelectric
mechanical energy RESERVOIR

Electricity produced

## Figure 3 : Hydroelectric schemes

types of SOURCES

Sources can be divided into 2 groups: Renewable replace in a reasonable period of time by natural process that we can use over and over again e.g hydro, wind, solar, wave, tidal, biomass, geothermal

Non-Renewable - an energy source that we are using up and cannot recreate in a short period of time e.g coal, natural gas, oil, uranium

TYPES OF SOURCES

reservoir

transformer

Switch room
Water passage

water

valve

turbine

Turbine room

## HYDRAULIC TURBINE & ELECTRICAL GENERATOR

Economics
some plants now in service having been built 50 to 100 years ago Operating labor cost is usually low since plants are automated sale of electricity from the dam will cover the construction costs after 5 to 7 years of full generation

Related activities provide facilities for water sports, and become tourist attractions fish farm with relatively constant water supply
boats may be used to improve transportation.

## No pollution. generates no nuclear waste nor nuclear leaks

Environmental damage
can be disruptive to surrounding aquatic ecosystems changes the downstream river environment many native and migratory birds have become increasingly endangered

Sediment build up and dam failure. enemy bombardment during wartime, sabotage and terrorism the Banqiao Dam failure in China resulted in the deaths of 171,000 people and millions homeless Population relocation relocate the people living where the reservoirs are planned historically and culturally important sites can be flooded and lost

## Process in the generation of electricity in a hydroelectric power plant

In hydroelectric schemes, they are turned by water pressure from the reservoir. The power station is constructed at the bottom of the reservoir. A water passage will connect the reservoir with the turbine room. This is where the water will run down.

The flowing (or falling) water from the reservoir will push against the turbine blades, causing the rotor to spin. (contd)

## Process in the generation of electricity in a hydroelectric power plant

Then, the turbine will turning the copper inside the generator and generating an electric current Next, the electric current will be transferred to the transformer at the switch room. The power then is pooled into the National Grid, a countrywide network cables.

## ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION

ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION

Transformers

Substations

## High voltage cables (transmission lines)

ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION

## Electricity is transmitted via high voltage cables using 3 phase supply

The voltage is stepped up or down by using transformers The use of high voltage enables a large amount of energy to be transmitted through smaller diameter cables.

ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION

## At Power Station, electric power is produced at 11-20kV.

The power is then transformed to higher voltages (132kV ,200kV or 275kV) using power transformer AND

ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION

transferred through the Transmission System to substations where voltage is lowered to 33kV or 11kV.
The Distribution System begins after this point.

## Generation, Transmission & Distributions

ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION

Transmission system is a system of high voltage network which interconnects main generating stations with major load substation The system enables bulk transfer of power between these transmission points. In Peninsular Malaysia it is known as National Grid.

The voltages at which bulk power transfer takes place in the National Grid are: i) 132kV ii) 275kV iii) 400kV

ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION

Transmission system is a system of high voltage network which interconnects main generating stations with major load substation The system enables bulk transfer of power between these transmission points

## In Peninsular Malaysia it is know as National Grid

The voltages at which bulk power transfer takes place in the National Grid are:
1. 132kV 2. 275kV 3. 400kV

## National Grid System

Power generated by large power stations are transmitted a transmission system called grid In Malaysia, the whole power transmission is through the National Grid System (refer related figure)

Benefits: i. Enable bulk transfer over long distances ii. Standardize electrical frequency and voltage to customers iii. Permitted transfer of electricity throughout the country iv. Infrastructure spin off

## National Grid System

Disadvantages Requires high capital cost for infrastructure, generating stations, substations, equipment, etc. Requires high degree of management & maintenance Requires a long time to complete the whole grid (& connection to other countries)

## National Grid System

National Grid, Malaysia is the primary electricity transmission network linking the electricity generation, transmission, distribution and consumption in Malaysia Operated and owned by TNB. More than 420 substations in Peninsular Malaysia are linked together by the extensive network of transmission lines operating at 132, 275 and 500 kilovolts (kV).

Power generated by Tenaga Nasional and independent power producers is carried by the National Grid towards customers connected to the various distribution networks.

## National Grid System

A steel mills take power directly from the transmission grid. It was founded on 1959. The first line on the national grid was the transmission line from Tanjung Kling in Melaka to the city of Melaka. Tenaga Nasional - with 11,296 MW installed capacity. Malakoff - with 4,393 MW installed capacity. Powertek - with 1,490 MW installed capacity. YTL Power - with 1,212 MW installed capacity

## National Grid System

IPPs in Malaysia generate and sell electricity in bulk to the 3 dominant utilities. The IPPs, which are in operation, are as follows:

Peninsular Malaysia
IPP YTL Power Generation LOCATION Paka, Terengganu Pasir Gudang, Johor Lumut, Perak Alor Gajah, Melaka Tanjung Gemuk, Port Dickson Tanjung Keling, Melaka Kuala Langat, Selangor CAPACITY (MW) 808 404

## DATE OF ISSUE OF LICENSE 7 April 1993

Segari Energy Ventures Sdn. Bhd. Powertek Sdn Bhd. Port Dickson Sdn. Bhd.

## Pahlawan Power Sdn. Bhd

Genting Sanyen Power Sdn Bhd

334
720

26 May 1999
1 July 1993

## National Grid System

(17,258)
890 6,199 9,998 171

## Alor Setar Butterworth

Kota Bharu

Ipoh

Length (circuit-km)
500kV 275kV 132kV 66kV

CABLE
Length (circuit-km)
275kV 132kV 66kV

(723)
49 674 -

## Kuantan Kuala Lumpur Seremban Melaka Kluang Johor Baru

TRANSFORMERS
Transformation Capacity (MVA)
500kV 275kV 132kV 66kV

(69,381)
4,500 26,213 38,258 410

SUBSTATIONS
Number of Substations (TNB)
500kV 275kV 132kV 66kV

(375)
4 67 299 5

## Transmission Maintenance Offices

Transmission System

TURBINE
Water, steam etc

GENERATING STATIONS

11 kV 22 kV 33 kV

## Pylon/tower STEP UP TRANSFORMERS

132 kV 275 kV 400 kV

TRANSMISSION

## THE TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

AROUND TOWN & RESIDENTIAL AREA Underground distribution to individual premises is at 415 volts and 240 volts.

distribution to individual houses is at 240 volts.

## LIGHT INDUSTRY HEAVY INDUSTRY - Some have

direct connections to the transmission at 132,000 volts. Most small factories receive their electricity at 11,000 volts

## POWER STATION- Generator

output at 11,000/20,000 volts is stepped up by transformer to 132,000 275,000 and 500,000 volts for transmission.

## TRANSMISSION - Transmission is mainly at 132,000 275,000 and 500,000 volts

TRANSMISSION COMPONENTS

1. PYLON
2. TRANSFORMER 3. TRANSMISSION LINES 4. SUBSTATIONS

## PYLON / TOWER LINE

A pylon is a lattice steel structure used to support overhead electricity conductors for power lines. Pylons at which sections of conductor start, finish or change direction are called strainer pylons. They may need anchor wires to counterbalance the weight of the conductors on the opposite side or be designed to deal with the forces imposed on them. The conductors are supported by horizontal strings of conductors.

## TOWER LINE / PYLON

crossarm Horizontal element that protrudes on each side of the pylon; it supports the bundles by means of suspension insulator strings.
suspension insulator string Insulators that are assembled in a vertical or oblique chain; the overhead line conductors hang from it. bundle Conductor cables that are kept a constant distance apart by spacers; they are used to transport current. K-frame Part of the pylon that rests on the waist; it has two branches that end at the beam gantry. node Point at which several legs and bars come together. panel Part of the pylon between two horizontal members. horizontal member Horizontal bar that connects the main legs to strengthen them. main leg The main tower legs of the pylon body; they support mainly vertical weights. base width Space between the foundation axes of the main legs. pylon foot Lower part of the pylon that is usually underground; the legs are anchored to it. pylon body Part of the pylon support between the top and the foot.

diagonal Diagonal bar that connects two main legs or a horizontal member and a main leg.
waist Demarcation bar between the pylon top and body that is held tightly between them. pylon window Space bounded by the inner side of the arms of the K-frame and the beam gantry. pylon top Upper portion of the pylon where the insulator strings and bundles are attached.

TRANSFORMER
A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another purely by magnetic coupling. Relative motion of the parts of the transformer is not required for transfer of energy. Transformers are often used to convert between high and low voltages, to change impedance, and to provide electrical isolation between circuits.

TRANSFORMER 132kV/33kV

TRANSFORMER 33kV/11kV

Electrical transformers are used to "transform" voltage from one level to another, usually from a higher voltage to a lower voltage. They do this by applying the principle of magnetic induction between coils to convert voltage and/or current levels

In this way, electrical transformers are a passive device which transforms alternating current (otherwise known as "AC") electric energy from one circuit into another through electromagnetic induction.

TRANSMISSION LINES
A transmission line is the material medium or structure that forms all or part of a path from one place to another for directing the transmission of energy, such as electric currents, magnetic fields, acoustic waves, or electromagnetic waves. Examples of transmission lines include wires, optical fibers and coaxial cables.

coaxial cables.

SUBSTATION
A substation is the part of an electricity transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from low to high and vice versa using transformers.

A substation that has a step-up transformer increases the voltage whilst decreasing the current, while a stepdown transformer will decrease the voltage while increasing the current for domestic and commercial distribution.

TRANSMISSION OPERATION
TNB remains a major player in electricity generation and distribute the electric to premises and range of business activities The electricity is supplied from generator station or power station. The current of electricity from the power station will transmits to PMU through Tower Line which carried up the voltage of 132kv .

## PENCAWANG MASUK UTAMA (PMU)

From the substation, electricity will be reduced to 33kV in the transformer. Electricity will then be supplied to consumers (Factories, Businesses, Houses, etc) by Distribution through overhead lines and underground cables

Trunking

Then, from the Transformer the flow of the electricity entered into PMU through Trunking or underground cables.

## Control Panel in PMU

The current from Transformer which through the Trunking will be control by Control Panel in PMU.

## CONTROL PANEL 33kV

From the Vacuum Circuit Breaker 33kv, the current will go out to electric pole (over head) 33kV, then send to PPU near the PMU.
Pencawang Pembahagi Utama

## PENCAWANG PEMBAHAGIAN UTAMA (PPU)

In PMU, a room to place a battery needed for safety and security which the battery used to make sure the flow of the electricity in a good condition if any emergency case happen. The battery will be switch on in 24 hours non stop

OPERATION
The electricity will be transmitted directly to PPU after the electricity is distributed at PMU.
The purpose: to reduce the voltage and for the next distribution processes.

## Reduce from 33kV to 11kV.

The 33kV currents will go thought and transformed by the transformer. Controlled by Transformer Control Panel 33kV / 11kV. Transformer will reduce the 33kV current to 11kV current. The current will be transferred to VCB for distributed to the substation.

## The components at PPU :

Transformer Control Panel 33 kV & 11 kV Vacuum Circuit Breaker (VCB) Battery Charger Box

TRANSFORMER 33 kV

CONTROL PANEL

## VACUUM CIRCUIT BREAKER 11 kV

CHARGER BOX

BATTERIES

TNB SUB-STATION

OPERATION
After the distribution process in PPU completed, the current will be delivered to nearest sub- station.

## The total current from PPU is 11KV

The transformer will be reduce current again from 11KV to 415V in the substation.

## Components are used in the substation as following :

Transformer Switch Gear High Voltage Fuse Unit (HFU) Out Going Unit Feeder Pillar

## SWITCH GEAR & CONTROL HFU

TRANSFORMER

Then, the total current 415V transferred through by Out Going Unit to FeederPillar. This current will be distributed for customers.

## OUT GOING UNIT

FEEDER PILLAR

When the current have in Feeder Pillar. Amount of current will be reduce again to distributed for the costumer.
415V = 240V The method using to transfer the total current 240V for single phase system by over head. For three phase system, the current electric will be sent to the buildings from the Feeder Pillar. Normally three phase system have the big current. it is about 415V. It is always use for the building which it need more current electric.

## The current 415V also can sent by over head.

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Distribution System is the process of transmission of electricity from major load centers to consumers Power is further distributed to load centers/substations where voltages are further reduced (by using transformers) before reaching factories, homes etc. Generally, the distribution voltages in Malaysia are 33kV, 11kV and 415/240 Volts.

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

The electricity distributed to varies power plant from the main power plant with the step-down volts before it will be supplied System commonly used are grid system.

## Step-down transformers Figure 7: Distribution system

Supplier

SUPPLY SYSTEM

SUPPLY SYSTEM
TNB Supply System
Voltage 3 phase (50Hz) Main transmission network: 275kV, 132kV, 66kV Distribution network: 33kV, 22kV (for limited area), 11kV, 6.6kV(limited area), 415V, 240V(single phase) Low voltage system (415/240V): 3 phase 4 lines (415V) / single phase 2 lines (240V) This system is a combination of overhead lines and underground cables
Distribution Transmission

Power Plant

Step-up Transformers

Supply

Step-down Transformers

Consumer

SUPPLY SYSTEM

## Power stations generate electricity at 25kV alternating current (AC), 50 Hertz

The high current produced enables the voltage to be transformed up to 132, 240, 400 and 500kV.

SUPPLY SYSTEM
Diagrammatic Installation of Single Phase For Single Unit Dwelling Supply to domestic buildings can be of 2 form: -Overhead cables -Underground (about 0.5m below ground) Domestic buildings are supplied with the single phase supply - contains a live phase and a neutral in one cable and terminating at the meter board

Substation

## Cut out board/ sealing chamber

External

Power circuit
Internal Meter Distribution Board (DB)

## - Consumer control board - Consumer control unit

SUPPLY SYSTEM

Distributor will step-down the voltage of the power to be supplied to the consumer, and it is transmitted with overhead and underground lines

Step-down transformers

## Supplier Lines : Overhead/ underground

Service cable

consumer consumer

## Figure 8: Supply system

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING
CONSUMER SUPPLY SYSTEM

## Standard reduced voltage

400 kV 240 kV 132 kV Generation and distribution

33 kV
11 kV 400 V

## Large / heavy industries, cities, towns and railways

Light industries, hospitals, towns and villages Small industries, offices, farms

AC, 3-phase supply with 4-wire cable AC, 3-phase supply with 3-wire cable DC or AC, single-phase supply with 2-wire cable

240V

## Types of electricity supply

a)

normal supply from the supply authority such as TNB - May be taken at high voltage (11kV) or low voltage(415v) - Depending on the maximum demand of the installation and/or technical requirement standby supply provided by diesel generator set - required by Jabatan Bomba to provide the necessary power to certain equipment in the building i.e lifts, fire fighting system, emergency lighting etc. in the event of normal supply failure

b)

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING
CONSUMER SUPPLY SYSTEM

3-phase supply system provides 73% more power than single-phase, for additional of wire

## 3 PHASE WIRING SYSTEM

Some newer housing come 3 phase wiring ready. Note the same 3 phase wiring (red, blue and yellow) but only 1 fuse is installed.

3 phase wiring. Note the 3 wires (red, yellow and blue) and the 3 fuses.

METERING

Watt-hour meter a meter for measuring recording the quantity of electrical power consumed with respect to time Meter circuit consists of 2 coils:

## b) The voltage coil across the phase and neutral

METERING

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING
3 types of distribution for large & high-rise buildings

ii) Ring-main distribution

## iii) Rising main distribution

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING

## The electrical supply radiates from the main intake panel.

The main panel consists of a main switch connected to fused switches through a bus-bar chamber Several separate cables are run from the main intake panel to sub-subsidiary distribution panels which may be situated in separate buildings or strategic points in one building. Example of radial distribution are factories and resort complexes.

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING
RING Main system

In the case of a large development scheme having several buildings around the perimeter of site , a ring main circuit is provided. The ring main circuit would be taken around the site into each building The ring main distribution system has the following advantages : i) Each building and individual sections may be isolated without switching off the entire installation ii) The current flow in either direction can reduce voltage drop

## SUPPLY TO A BUILDING RING Main System

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING

## Rising main distribution

For buildings five storey and above, it is normally preferable to pass conductors vertically through the building The supply to each floor is connected to the rising mains by means of tap-off subsidiary units

Rising main

distribution

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING
DOMESTIC BUILDINGS

Domestic supply is AC, single-phase, 240 volts, i.e. each house tapped-off the 3-phase street supply in rotation Consumer board serve individual circuits for e.g. cooker, ring circuits for general power, and lighting Fuse inserted to protect each stage in distribution hierarchy, deliberate weak link. Always on live side of circuit, sometimes on neutral also. Earth ensures circuit fuses e.g. if appliance casing becomes live. Switches at least on live side, or on neutral also, i.e. double-pole.

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING
DOMESTIC BUILDINGS

a) 3-phase supply along street from neighbourhood transformer, with single-phase tap-off to houses

b) Consumer unit

## Consumer unit (intake point for domestic building)

The consumer's power supply control unit, conveniently summarised as a consumer unit, is a rationalisation of several circuit boxes containing a switch and fuse for isolation of individual circuits.
The unit is located as close as possible to the meter, but on the inside of the building for convenient access. A two-pole main switch usually rated at 100 A controls the supply to several outgoing circuits or 'ways'. Each way is rated in amperes, the value depending on the circuit purpose.

Consumer unit

## (intake point for domestic building)

Circuit protection is by semi-enclosed rewirable fuse, cartridge fuse or miniature circuit breaker (MCB). Up to 16 ways are available for domestic use and a typical example is shown in the following figure. Within the unit are a phase or live bar between fuses and isolator and an unfused neutral bar connected to the isolator.
An unswitched earthing terminal is also provided.

Consumer unit

A panel for distributing power to other panels or to motors and other heavy power consuming loads

## Consumer unit/Distribution Board/Distribution Panel

Intake - domestic

Most domestic supplies are buried underground and contain a phase and neutral in one cable, terminating at the meter cupboard. In more remote areas the supply may be overhead. The termination and metering services cables to buildings is determined by the electricity authoritys supply arrangements.

## Figure : service cable supply to external supply cupboard

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING
DOMESTIC BUILDINGS

## Figure 10: Typical domestic electrical distribution system

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING
LARGER BUILDINGS

11kV possibly maintained to large buildings own transformer; thence, 415/240 volts to meters and main distribution board 3-phase busbars in distribution board; 3-phase individual supplies tapped-off to plant; 3-phase rising busbars to local distribution boards for power and lighting

Single-phase power and light circuit tapped-off boards; typically conduited under floors or over ceilings, with tap-offs to sockets and lights respectively Fluorescent light circuits sometimes continued at 3phase, in which case cables well separated to avoid 415-volt shock danger

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING

LARGER BUILDINGS

## 1 Served by underground 11kV ring main

direct from the substation

## Figure 11: Electrical distribution sequence in multi-storey office building

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING
LARGER BUILDINGS - BUSBARS
Busbar in electrical power distribution refers to thick strips of copper or aluminium that conduct electricity within a switchboard, distribution board, substation, or other electrical apparatus.

The size of the busbar is important in determining the maximum amount of current that can be safely carried.
Busbars can have a cross-sectional area of as little as 10 mm but electrical substations may use metal tubes of 50 mm in diameter (1,000 mm) or more as busbars.

## Figure 12: 3-phase busbars

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING
LARGER BUILDINGS - BUSBARS
Bus conductors of rectangular cross section Assembled in a sheetmetal trough

Consists 4 metal strips, live240V (R, W and B) and neutral line Used for separating the 3phase supply into singleline / lower current Found in main switchboard to connect the main switch to fused switches

## Figure 12: 3-phase busbars

SUPPLY TO A BUILDING
LARGER BUILDINGS RISING BUSBARS
Used in high-rise building

Used to distribute 415V 3-phase electricity from main distribution board to all floors
Copper vertical busbars which run up in electricity cable riser Vertical duct / trunking to the height of the building

To prevent the spread of fire and smoke, fire barriers are incorporated with the busbar chamber at each compartment floor level.
Figure 12: 3-phase busbars riser