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CARDIFF UNIVERSITY

An investigation in to Traditional Rainwater Harvesting technologies


For adaptation in the contemporary NGO sector in India
Daniel Smith, 0634319 2010 - 2011

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that:

Except where reference has clearly been made to work by others, all the work presented in this report is my own work;

It has not previously been submitted for assessment; and I have not knowingly allowed any of it to be copied by another student.

I understand that deceiving or attempting to deceive examiners by passing off the work of another as my own is plagiarism. I also understand that plagiarising the work of another or knowingly allowing another student to plagiarise from my work is against the University regulations and that doing so will result in loss of marks and possible disciplinary proceedings against me.

Signed

Date

Daniel Smith 0634319

Table of Contents
Abstract ................................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 2 Background ............................................................................................................................................. 4 1 Global water concern ...................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 2 The United Nations ................................................................................................................. 5

An introduction to India .................................................................................................................. 6 2.1 2.2 Climate .................................................................................................................................... 7 Water use in India ................................................................................................................... 8

Literature Review .................................................................................................................................. 10 3 Review of literary sources ............................................................................................................. 10 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4 5 6 Indian Non Governmental Organisations ............................................................................. 10 Online Literature ................................................................................................................... 11 Printed literature in engineering in developing countries .................................................... 12 Printed literature on engineering in general ........................................................................ 13

A short history of Traditional Rainwater harvesting in India ........................................................ 14 Water supply in the UK ................................................................................................................. 16 Traditional and contemporary techniques in India ...................................................................... 18 6.1 Accessing groundwater ......................................................................................................... 19 Baoris, Jhalaras.............................................................................................................. 19 Dug wells, Kuis/beris ..................................................................................................... 20 Drilled/bored wells........................................................................................................ 20

6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.2

Artificial groundwater recharge ............................................................................................ 22 Talabs, Nadis and Khadins............................................................................................. 22 Check dams, contour bunds and trenches.................................................................... 23

6.2.1 6.2.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

Water storage ....................................................................................................................... 24 Spring protection .................................................................................................................. 24 Fuel efficient stoves .............................................................................................................. 25 Waste management .............................................................................................................. 26 Liquid waste .................................................................................................................. 26 Solid municipal waste ................................................................................................... 26 Latrines.......................................................................................................................... 26 i

6.6.1 6.6.2 6.6.3

Daniel Smith 0634319 6.7 Watershed management approach ...................................................................................... 27

Scope of work ....................................................................................................................................... 28 7 Watershed management .............................................................................................................. 28 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 What is a watershed ............................................................................................................. 28 Engineering project management ........................................................................................ 29 Ecological Capital .................................................................................................................. 29 Rural project management ................................................................................................... 29 Hydrological cycle ................................................................................................................. 30 Objective optimisation .......................................................................................................... 32 Aims............................................................................................................................... 32 Objectives...................................................................................................................... 32

7.6.1 7.6.2

Theory ................................................................................................................................................... 34 8 Water balance model.................................................................................................................... 34 8.1 Effective rainfall .................................................................................................................... 34 Rational Method ........................................................................................................... 34 NRCS Curve method ...................................................................................................... 34

8.1.1 8.1.2 8.2 8.3

Infiltration ............................................................................................................................. 35 Precipitation and frequency.................................................................................................. 35 Intensity ........................................................................................................................ 36

8.3.1 8.4

Evapotranspiration................................................................................................................ 36 Penman-Monteith method ........................................................................................... 37 Blaney-Criddle method ................................................................................................. 38

8.4.1 8.4.2 8.5

Human water needs .............................................................................................................. 38

Case study ............................................................................................................................................. 39 9 Case study partner ........................................................................................................................ 39 9.1 10 10.1 Foundation for Ecological Security ....................................................................................... 39 Analysis of the Rawach Watershed........................................................................................... 40 Graphically representing Rawach ......................................................................................... 40 GIS mapping .................................................................................................................. 40 Computer Aided Design ................................................................................................ 41

10.1.1 10.1.2 10.2

Precipitation .......................................................................................................................... 42 Frequency analysis ........................................................................................................ 42

10.2.1 10.3 10.4

Intensity ................................................................................................................................ 43 Cross sections........................................................................................................................ 43 ii

Daniel Smith 0634319 10.5 Coefficients and Curve Numbers .......................................................................................... 44 Peak flow rate ............................................................................................................... 45

10.5.1 10.6 10.7 10.8

Effective rainfall .................................................................................................................... 46 Evapotranspiration and crop water needs ........................................................................... 47 Human water consumption .................................................................................................. 49

Discussion.............................................................................................................................................. 51 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Project proposal ........................................................................................................................ 51 Identified needs in Rawach ................................................................................................... 51 Intervention points ............................................................................................................... 51 Water requirements ............................................................................................................. 53 General approach.................................................................................................................. 53 Increase recharge and reduce erosion.......................................................................... 54 Reducing deforestation ................................................................................................. 55 Sanitation ...................................................................................................................... 55

11.4.1 11.4.2 11.4.3 11.5 12

Education and community participation .............................................................................. 56 Discussion of investigation........................................................................................................ 57

Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 60 References .............................................................................................................................................. a

Acknowledgements
It is a pleasure to thank those that have made this dissertation possible. Without my Mothers unending encouragement I would not have the opportunity to undertake this study. My supervisor, Dr Phil Vardon, has provided help, guidance and support at every stage prior to and including the investigation. I would not have been able to conduct this study without Prof Hywel Thomas initial belief in me. I thank Ms Natalia Popova for her flawless proof reading and obsession with referencing. Mr Anil Agarwal and Ms Sunita Narain deserve to be mentioned for their exhaustive research in to rainwater harvesting and for creating the Centre for Science and Environment where I learnt a huge amount about Indian environmental management prior to this thesis. I thank Dr Subodh Bishnoi for his patience whilst I was at the Indian Institute of Management and Mr Yash Shethia, of the Foundation for Ecological Security, for giving me the opportunity to work with him. Lastly I would like to thank all those at the Foundation for Ecological Security and those that conducted the in depth study of Rawach which this thesis takes as its case study.

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Daniel Smith 0634319

Abstract
This report is an investigation in to traditional methods of rainwater harvesting in India. Rainwater harvesting has been practiced all over India since antiquity but has largely been overlooked in favour of larger irrigation systems, which the Centre for Science and Environment say has led to the current water supply problems faced by the nation. It has been found that these traditional methods employ a systematic method of collecting water where it falls based on observed patterns of rainfall and that the principals that have been traditionally employed are very similar to those documented in contemporary development engineering literature. Therefore, the hypothesis of this investigation is that traditional rainwater management techniques can be applied using modern environmental and hydrological engineering principles To develop the idea a case study has been conducted of a rural area of the Aravalli Hill range in North West India, in partnership with the Foundation for Ecological Security. A three dimensional contour model of the area was created and used with land use data, supplied by FES, to analyse the potential that rainwater harvesting has in the area. Analysis of the area has shown that the water demand is approximately five hundred thousand cubic metres and that over a thirteen year period (1995 - 2008) the minimum volume of rainfall was a little over 4 million cubic metres. This rain usually falls through a three month period between July and September. Therefore to retain enough water for the community and agriculture rainwater harvesting will be needed. Suitable structures, based on traditional principles, can be designed using the hydrological analysis chosen to find peak flow from a storm of various durations.

Daniel Smith 0634319

Introduction
Water is an ever increasing issue for society due to a rapidly expanding population, industrialisation and changes in the climate system (UNESCO, 2010, P283). This relatively new increase in populace is mostly based in developing nations and it is doing something that has never happened before on a global scale; fifty percent of the worlds population now lives in urban areas and the World Bank estimates that this will increase to 60% by 2030 (World Bank, 2010). Many nations therefore face a huge challenge. They have to deliver water to their burgeoning cities they and have to deliver it in large amounts to agriculture as well as mitigating the environmental degradation that rapid industrialisation has brought. Therefore the environmental management of rural areas is essential for the sustainable development of the nation. This report will investigate water management techniques for rural areas of India. It will consider traditional technologies, their contemporary counterparts and how to implement them when considering an entire watershed. First of all the background will discuss water in a global context before introducing India in general. The literature review highlights the main sources of information for the report and gives a brief history of traditional methods of water management in India. The UKs water supply system is considered as a possible model for modern India before discussing traditional and contemporary water management techniques in more detail. A watershed must provide many things to a community and a watershed management plan will therefore have a number of objectives to meet. The investigation seeks to optimise the objectives that are defined in the scope of work section. The theory needed conduct a hydrological analysis of a watershed is then discussed before being applied to a case study in rural India. The case study for this report has been developed in partnership with the Foundation for Ecological Security (FES) in Udaipur. The study is based on data supplied by FES that has been created as part of their project in the area. This study is therefore intended to be used for comparison by FES. 2

Daniel Smith 0634319 If rainwater harvesting systems can be implemented in rural areas the outcome would be a reduction on the demand of supplied water, an increase in rural groundwater levels, an increase in local agricultural productivity and subsequently increase the local populations income; which would reduce the economic factors that drive people to migrate to cities. An increase in local groundwater would also allow the area to support further reforestation which would decrease erosion and sedimentation downstream; thus improving water quality of large rivers. It would also allow rural areas to supply water to urban areas if properly managed. Subsequent reforestation would increase the biomass content of the area which people still rely on as their primary source of fuel for cooking and would increase the local carbon sequestration. Research conducted by the Centre for Science and Environment concludes that rainwater harvesting must be considered over an entire watershed. (Agarwal et al, 1997 & 2001) The traditional Indian engineers lived closely with the natural environment so developed these technologies intuitively and there is still a large proportion of Indian society that relies on the ebb and flow of the seasons (Agarwal et al, 1997 & 2001). This local populace, therefore, must participate fully in the development and ultimate implementation of a watershed management plan. As will be discussed, if rainwater harvesting devices can be constructed at appropriate locations then the water can be sequestered to the groundwater or stored as surface water. This water can then be used to recharge wells as well as supporting agriculture and forestry. Therefore a systems approach is needed to understand the factors that are essential to the management of a watershed (Biswas, 1976; Agarwal et al, 2001). The hypothesis of this project is, therefore, that modern engineering tools can be used to develop an initial watershed management plan based on traditional Indian techniques. To explore this hypothesis the problems associated with water provision will be discussed before looking at the traditional and contemporary solutions.

Daniel Smith 0634319

Background
1 Global water concern
Water is the single most important compound in order to sustain life on our planet. At the macro scale it is a major factor in the atmosphere and global weather systems. At the micro scale it makes up a large proportion of the human body and of ice or permanent snow cover facilitates the majority of biological processes in flora and fauna. Even though 71% of the earths surface is covered in water and there is about 1.4 billion km of water on earth, only ~2.5% of total volume (35 million km3) is fresh water (box 3.1). The World Health ~ 97% of all the freshwater that is potentially available for human use. Lakes and rivers contain 0.3% of the world's freshwater. Total usable freshwater supply for ecosystems and humans is ~200 000 km3 This is only 0.01% of all the water on Earth 30.8% (8 million km3 or) is stored underground as groundwater

Box 3.1: Global water supplies (WHO, 2008, Online)


2.5% of global water is fresh water of which: 68.9% (24 million km3) is in the form

Organisation states that safe water supplies, hygienic sanitation and good water management are fundamental to global health (WHO, 2008). Their research has shown that one tenth of the global disease burden could be prevented by increasing access to safe drinking water (box 3.2) and appropriate sanitation.

But there is also economic advantage to be gained from investment to improve drinking water. Every dollar invested in sanitation, hygiene and water resource management systems leads to up to eight dollars in benefits (WHO, 2011). The WHO estimates that $84 billion a year could be regained

Daniel Smith 0634319 from the yearly investment of $11.3 billion needed to meet the water and sanitation targets under the Millennium Development Goals. (WHO, 2008)

Box 3.2: Estimates for preventable disease by clean water provision (UNEP, 2008)
1.4 million child deaths from diarrhoea; 500,000 deaths from malaria 860,000 child deaths from malnutrition

1.1 The United Nations


On the 28th of July 2010 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a resolution recognizing access to clean water and sanitation as Human Right. 122 members were in favour, none against and 41 abstained. (United Nations, 2010)

At the turn of the century the United Nations set out 8 indicative goals for the world. It is their belief that these goals are the best and most achievable course of action to reduce global poverty. Table 3.1 describes how water is a central part in all of these goals. 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger: A lack of water and sanitation leads to illness. This removes a persons capacity to work which decreases their financial security. Appropriate water management also increases agricultural yield and thus the financial and dietary income of a community. 2 Achieve universal primary education: Children often collect water, thus reducing the time at school. Inadequate water and sanitation at school reduces the amount of time children spend in class due to collection duties and/or ill health. 3Promote gender equality and empower women: Water carrying falls primarily to women thus reducing the freedom of the women and the opportunities for girls to receive an education. At puberty girls require adequate and private sanitary facilities. Washing and defecating outside makes women vulnerable to sexual abuse. 4: Reduce child mortality rates 5: Improve Clean water is required at all stages of natal and post-natal care. Babies

Daniel Smith 0634319 maternal health 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 7 Ensure environmental sustainability 8 Develop a global partnership for development require a high degree of sanitation because they are vulnerable to disease. 1.4 million people die of diarrhoea alone. Provision of clean water and proper sanitation would reduce faecal-oral transmission cycle. Water is essential for environmental sustainability.

Co-operation with other countries is essential to reduce the risk of conflict over the misuse of scarce water resources.

Table 1 How water is required for the MDGs (Mihelcic et al, 2009; Keirns, 2007)

The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme Report 2010 (Water Supply and Sanitation: Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-water) stated that:

The world was on track to meet the MDG targets for water but that the global sanitation target would be missed by a billion people - most of them in rural areas of Africa and Asia. Seven out of 10 people without improved sanitation live in rural areas. 84% of the worlds population without an Figure 3-1 Source: WHO/UNICEF JMP Report (2010) Water improved drinking-water source live in Supply and Sanitation: Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-water. rural areas

Figure 3-1 shows the serious inequity between urban and rural access to water and sanitation caused by a lack of effective rural pro-poor strategies. Many of the MDGs cannot be achieved unless rural people are involved in the planning and delivery of affordable water and sanitation services so as to provide them with adequate access.

2 An introduction to India
India is a country of extremes with mega-cities such as Delhi and Mumbai (populations of 12.5 million and 13.8 million respectively) (Instituto del Tercer Muundo, 2004, P296) at one end of the scale and villages with around 1000 people at the other (Agarwal et al, 2001). It also has long history

Daniel Smith 0634319 of environmental degradation which stretches back to the British East India Company in the 18th-19th Centuries (Agarwal and Narain, 1997). Whilst large parts of the world were reeling from the economic crisis, Indias Gross Domestic Profit (GDP) was growing by 6.1% (World Bank, 2008, online) and in the last quarter of 2010 has been reported as growing at 8.8%. But even though the World Bank positions India as the 4th largest economy in the world, it also points out that the country has one third of the worlds poor. That is, out of just over one billion people in India, about 410 million live in chronic poverty on less than $1.25 a day (World Bank, 2008, online) (adjusted for purchasing power parity). Approximately 700 million people (Gapminder.org, 2011, online) (70% of the population) live in rural areas and 196 million (World Bank, 2008, online) rural people (28% of rural populace) live below the chronic poverty line. This equates to three times the population of the UK that rely entirely on a biomass economy (Agarwal and Narain, 2001) for subsistence. Therefore at least 20% of Indias total population definitely lives directly from produce obtained from nature. Considering that the World Bank (World Bank, 2008) claims 887 million people (approximately 89% total population) in India live in moderate poverty below $2 a day, a conservative assumption would be that a further 22% of the rural populace depend directly on agriculture as their main income. That would mean that over 500 million people rely directly the natural environment.

2.1 Climate
In the North West of India on the border with Pakistan is the Thar Desert, the most densely populated desert in the world. South East of this is the oldest mountain range in the world the Aravalli Hill range, where this report will take its case study from. The Aravalli Hills spread from North East from Gujarat all the way to Delhi. They provide the Thar Desert with a rain shadow as the monsoon sweep from South to North, but in doing so they also provide protection from the spread of the desert in to the fertile Indo-Gangetic Plains, which supports nearly 1 billion people from Pakistan across India and into Bangladesh (Metoffice, 2011, online). Therefore, ensuring the

Daniel Smith 0634319 geoenvironmental sustainability of the Aravallis is not only important for the local inhabitants and microclimate it is also imperative for ensuring the sustainable development of Northern India as a whole. (Instituto del Tercer Mundo, 2004, P295). If the precipitation is not withheld in the local system for a period of time then it will be lost to rivers as surface runoff. As there are no further rains after the monsoon that water has to be replaced by the national irrigation system which ultimately draws most of its water from that provided by the summer monsoons; leading to a vicious cycle of diminishing returns (Agarwal et al, 2001).

2.2 Water use in India


According to UN statistics (gapminder.org, 2011, online) the agricultural sector is the largest consumer of supplied water, as shown in figure 2-1. From 1977 to 1991 agriculture accounted for 90% of the water withdrawal. In 1991 this percentage started to decrease to around 86% in 2002, when the latest statistics are available.
Figure 2-1Renewable water plotted against agricultural water usage (gapminder.org, 2011)

This decrease corresponds with the change in the political system in 1991 which reduced controls on industry and subsequently increased the industrial development (Instituto del Tercer Mundo, 2004, P297). Unfortunately gapminder.org does not have any comparative information for municipal or industrial water withdrawal. Even so, 86% in 2002 is still a convincing majority of the water supplied in India. Therefore any measures that could reduce agricultural demand for water would release more water for municipal consumption, hence increasing access to clean water and sanitation. As can be seen from the figure 4-2, the amount of renewable water available per person has almost halved between 1971 and 2002. There has been a corresponding increase in population from 0.8 billion to around 1 billion in this time (gapminder.org, 2011), showing an increased water demand per capita and decrease in the recharge rate of water resources.

Daniel Smith 0634319 Bobba (1997) claims the lack of national water resource and budgeting strategy leads to famine ravaging the drier areas of the country whilst the wetter areas are flooded. Bobba estimates that the maximum national food production of India could be as much as 4572 million tons but at the moment it is only 170 million tons of water. The research presumes that the only limiting factor in food production is the availability of agricultural land, but that all this land is properly irrigated. If the main influx of water could be harvested where it fell, then food production could be massively increased as well as availability of clean water. Reports claim that groundwater sources are being massively over exploited because the state run water system does not supply sufficient water for municipal, industrial and agricultural use. In 1979 Agriculture Refinance and Development Corporation estimated that in some areas, such as Rajasthan, as much as 70% of groundwater potential was used which has presumably increased since then due to population growth. (Bobba, 1997; Agarwal and Narain, 1997 and 2001) The quality of groundwater is related to physiochemical characteristics of the rocks that the water circulates in (Bobba, 1997) and much of Indias deep groundwater has naturally high levels of contaminants, such as fluoride or arsenic, at levels much higher than the WHO guidelines because of this. Athavale (2001, P282) has conducted research that shows overexploiting groundwater without ensuring sufficient recharge leads to an increased intensity of contaminants in water drawn from the ground. This is because the heavily contaminated water is found in deep tube wells of over 25m depths. At this level the wells are accessing the water from the confined aquifers which, in general, have been present for longer and are harder to recharge. Water from unconfined aquifers at shallow depths does not contain such high levels of arsenic (Athavale , 2001). This section has highlighted the problems that are present in the India and the world today due to increased populations and historic environmental mismanagement. Thus the next section will discuss solutions that are suggested from traditional and contemporary sources.

Daniel Smith 0634319

Literature Review
This section will start by discussing the available literature used for this report. It will then go on to history of Indian rainwater harvesting. The suitability of water supply model similar to that in the UK will be discussed before comparing traditional and contemporary forms of water management systems.

3 Review of literary sources


This report has three main sources of evidence and this review will discuss them in the following order; evidence by Indian Non Government Organisations; freely available literature from reputable online sources; printed literature about engineering in developing countries and printed literature about general engineering principals. This presentation has been chosen because the sources are quite different. Literature from Indian NGOs appears to be quite biased against the government whereas this report aims to be objectivity. However, in depth research in to traditional methods of rainwater harvesting has only been conducted by the Centre for Science and Environment. Printed literature on development engineering is not common so a lot of the information for this report had to come from online sources. The investigation has shown that this is quite common and that these sources are very reputable.

3.1 Indian Non Governmental Organisations


The inspiration for this investigation was Shri Anupam Mishras book Radiant Rain Drops of Rajasthan. Mishra is a highly respected environmental conservationist who argues that it is community organisation that leads to the conservation of water through rainwater harvesting. This is because rainwater harvesting requires the management of a catchment area for clean water and the captured water must be preserved throughout the dry season. Agarwal and Narains works are published by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a research centre that the former founded and the latter is now the Director of. Their argument is that India receives enough rain and has enough land per village to allow rainwater harvesting to drought 10

Daniel Smith 0634319 proof the country. Dying Wisdom is a history of Indian rainwater harvesting which appears quite biased but their later work Making Water Everybodys business is a collection of articles written by various Indian academics, scientist and engineers such as Vaidyanthan, Ramaswamy Lyer and Athavale. Unfortunately these are the only two notable sources on traditional rainwater harvesting so have been referenced heavily. Keirns (2007) writes on behalf of Gram Vikas, a secular NGO that works in the rural areas of Orrisa, who is similarly critical of the Government of Indias Accelerated Rural Water Supply Scheme. She claims that water supply is often implemented by contractors; that the serviced community is not consulted and the surrounding hydrology is not considered. This leads to water shortages due to overstressed aquifers and broken equipment because the community do not have the capacity to maintain it unaided.

3.2 Online Literature


Global statistics for this investigation have been taken from the United Nations (UN) web resources via the World Health Organisation (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The World Bank also has a wealth of information pertaining to resource usage and development indicators. Many of these statistics have been made more accessible by Hans Rosling who created Gapminder.org which allows graphs to be plotted of various indicators (figure 2-1). Brouwer and Heibloems work on irrigation has been made freely available by the Food and Agricultural Organisation. This details how to calculate crop water needs by calculating the crops evapotranspiration (Brouwer and Heibloem, 1986). The US Department for Agricultures Natural Resources Conservation Service has also uploaded manuals pertaining to environmental management such as the Engineering Field Handbook which describes various conservation approaches and their curve method for rainfall analysis (NRCS, 2009).

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Daniel Smith 0634319 The Foundation for Ecological Security (FES) has published various source books online such as the Source book for Soil and Water Conservation which is based on their extensive experience in developing rural areas based on technical expertise and local knowledge. Much of the technical aspects correlate with the NRCS (FES, 2008). FES defines the aim of watershed development as being the conservation of soil moisture and making this available to plants to maximize biomass production (FES, 2008). Whereas the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA has produced a handbook for Developing Watershed Plans to Restore and Protect our Waters which focuses on managing a watershed to ensure water quality in streams, rivers and lakes (EPA, 2008). This divergence of aims is due to the difference in priorities of the two organisations. In the USA there is an effective water supply system and the EPA works at a national level where the biggest threat to nature is pollution from industry or agriculture. Whereas FES works in rural areas of India where large industry is not such a threat and sustaining agricultural livelihoods is the priority.

3.3 Printed literature in engineering in developing countries


Water resource and environmental management literature which is specifically targeted at the needs of developing nations is scarce. Only two books have been referenced for this investigation, which have about twenty years between them. Mihelcic et al (2009) encompasses aspects of environmental engineering project work and takes a practical approach with construction guidelines and simple calculations suitable for the field. They dedicate a chapter to watershed management but, like the EPA, consider it in terms of flood risk management. Whereas Dangerfields (1983) work gives a more detailed mathematical appraisal of water supply. These works provide a good comparison due to their age difference. The older work by Dangerfield takes a top down approach which is similar to other literature from developed nations. The work

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Daniel Smith 0634319 does mention that communities need to be involved in the projects but relies on engineering techniques for solutions. Whereas the newer work by Mihelcic et al (2009) focuses more on community involvement and social aspects which is similar to the Indian literature. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation has published the report Engineering, issues, challenges and opportunities for development (UNESCO, 2010) which attempts to define the disparity in engineering approaches between developed and developing nations. It cuts across all sectors of engineering to look at where the short falls are and concludes that engineering is an integral part of development that is not normally included in strategic policy.

3.4 Printed literature on engineering in general


There is a lot of work about water supply and catchment or watershed management, but it focuses on flood risk management rather than rainwater harvesting. However, the principals that are presented are mathematical and physical relationships, so can be applied to suit. Haan et al (1994) present various methods for statistical hydrological analysis such as the Rational Method and the NRCS curve number approach, as well as probabilistic analysis of future rainfall pattern. They also describe other methods of predicting runoff such as the Hortonian method and describes vertical water flow through soil based on Darcys equation. Haan (1977) is also referenced by Dangerfield (1983). Haan et al states that the NRCS curve number method is appropriate to calculate effective runoff but that if it is used in reverse to calculate abstraction then errors may occur. Many books on geoenvironmental engineering focus on contaminant transport and groundwater pollution which is not relevant to this investigation. But Aswathanarayana (1994) takes a more general view of the subject and brings in aspects relevant to a developing country such as soil chemistry and the relevance of environmental management to agriculture. He advocates a systems approach whilst giving an overview of the environment of soils, water, air and the geoenvironment,

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Daniel Smith 0634319 even comparing the cycles of the natural environment with those worshipped in Hindu or Buddhist religions. Biswas (1976) describes systems analysis as an analytical study that helps a decision maker to identify and select a preferred course of action. He describes five stages of on the analysis of water resources; identification of objectives; translation into measurable criteria; identification of alternative courses of action; determination of criteria and finally comparative evaluation. He also describes models as programming or descriptive. The first has the aim to optimise an objective and the latter attempts to predict future outcomes based on exogenous variables and policy alternatives. Biswas also states that natural resource management will always be a multi-objective process because humans require nature to provide resources for economic, environmental and social aspects of society.

4 A short history of Traditional Rainwater harvesting in India


The first written record of water management in India comes from the Arthasastra of Kautilya who was a mentor and minister of Indias first Emperor Chandragupta Maurya (321-297BC). This was a treatise of government and economics which outlines classifications of rainfall, soil types, crop mixes and irrigation techniques (Agarwal and Narain, 1997 P15). This systematic approach to water management led to the construction of various rainwater management and agricultural systems which are still evident today (Agarwal and Narain, 1997, P238). Historians have argued that the per capita output of an Indian farmer was higher in 1700AD than in 1900AD even though their methods were technologically inferior (Agarwal and Narain, 1997, P271). It is this high yield combined with Indias ability to trade and a hierarchical administration that is believed to have created large revenue for Indias rulers. This is said to have been far in advance of Europe at the time (Agarwal and Narain, 1997, P272). Therefore when the British arrived in the 18th Century they found a rich land ruled by enlightened despots who encouraged efficient and

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Daniel Smith 0634319 sustainable production so as not to kill the goose that laid the golden egg (Braudel, from Agarwal and Narain, 1997, P270). Under British Colonial rule land was seen as a commodity and produce from the land was taxed heavily; forests were seen as capital goods and harvested as such; the cotton industry based on individual weavers was overtaken by large factories using technology from the British Industrial revolution. The agricultural sector was rearranged to provide exports to Europe. The land which had previously been demarked sacred was now classified as waste land and categorised for its economic value. (Agarwal and Narain, 1997; Instituto del Tercer Mundo, 2004) The deterioration of traditional rainwater harvesting systems is often laid at the foot of the Government of India and as a consequence of the British Colonialists misunderstanding of the Indian ecology (Agarwal and Narain, 1997). The large increase in population, however, has led to encroachment on to marginalised lands and catchment areas. A large population demands large amounts of water and food which has put added pressure on the agricultural sector. As new technologies have been developed, such as deep well borers and diesel pumps, farmers have been quick to adopt them because they increase control over their irrigation

Box 4.1 Panchayati Raj


On the 24th of April 1993 the Panchayati Raj was officially written in to the constitution as part of the Constitutional 73rd Amendment Act, 1992. (GoI, 2011) It is split in to three levels:

(Vaidyanathan, from Agarwal and Narain, 2001, P296). Rainwater harvesting has been neglected (Agarwal and Narain, 1997 & 2001; Mishra, 1997) and because of this its capacity has stagnated whilst the population has

District - Zilla Parishad (District Council) Development Block - Panchayat samiti Village Gram Panchayat

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Daniel Smith 0634319 increased. The emphasis has instead been put on the development of large irrigation canals and new technologies have been incentivised without considering the long term costs to the local environment or water resources (Agarwal and Narain, 1997 & 2001). Rainwater harvesting systems were managed by traditional hierarchal institutions (Agarwal and Narain, 1997) which have been weakened by urbanisation and increased central bureaucratic governance (Vaidyanathan, from Agarwal and Narain, 2001, P297). Modern management practices are geared towards large scale technology driven system (R Ramaswamy ler, 2001) rather than community based approaches but it is the opinion of many in India that modern technology can be used to redevelop traditional systems (Athavale, from Agarwal and Narain, 2001, P282) To change this direction Agarwal et al (2001) argue that rainwater harvesting must be reconsidered in a modern context. The power should be taken out of the hands of the public works department and put in those of the Panchayati Raj (Vaidyanathan, 2001)(see box 4.1) who should elect their own institutions to manage local resources based on community needs. To do this successfully the community needs to have a stake in the project so that they feel ownership of it (Kierns, 2007, P45; Vaidyanathan, 2001; Orr and Annis, 2009) and will maintain it, therefore reducing their reliance on centralised governance and increasing their capacity.

5 Water supply in the UK


In the UK, sophisticated reservoirs and groundwater pumping stations have been developed with the aid of powerful computer models using extensive hydrological and hydrogeological data supplied by governmental organisation. This water is then supplied to demand areas via a grid distribution system, either being treated at source or closer to the demand centre which has required substantial investment (box 5.1).

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Daniel Smith 0634319 The UK has a temperate climate with regular precipitation and an annual rainfall of around 1130mm per annum (1971-2000) (Metoffice, 2011) spread relatively evenly across the year which negates the use of irrigation on the scale that is needed in India due to its monsoon based climate. The majority of the investment needed to maintain this system comes from revenue generated from water bills. The UK unified its environmental protection strategy in 1990 with the Environmental Protection Act, which has since been developed to meet more developed EU legislation (Bell and McGillivray, 2006. P25). The Centre for Science and Environment argues that Annual turnover of 9.7 billion 668,000 km of water mains and sewers Supplies 55 million consumers At a rate of 150 litres of water per person per day Requiring 45,000 assets 22 companies

Box 5.1 OFWAT statistics


In their most recent report the UKs Water Services Regulation Authority estimated that national water

supply sector has (OFWAT, online):

without strict regulatory legislation the construction of dams or reservoirs has a very detrimental impact on local communities and the environment in general (Agarwal and Narain, 2001). There is also the need for investment and as 92% of the population do not work in the formal economy this cannot come from the populace as these informally employed people dont pay tax (Agarwal et al, 2001). Furthermore, the disparity of wealth in the country ensures most people cannot afford to pay bills that reflect the real cost of piped water investment, as is the model in the UK. So the end result is a system that does not have the capacity to consistently supply water, meet demand or treat the intense urban sewage before releasing it in to the rivers; which only serves to compound the problem (Kierns, 2007; Agarwal et al 2001).

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6 Traditional and contemporary techniques in India


Indias traditional system of environmental management is based on village level institutions that manage and control their own water supply (Agarwal and Narain, 1997 & 2001). When the caste system was still prevalent this was a based on a hierarchical model (Vaidynathan, 2001) but today is based on elected institutions called the Gram Panchayat (Box 4.1). A project management approach where the community participates in full is particularly appropriate for small engineering projects and should be used by engineers when working in developing countries (Orr and Annis, 2009; Kierns2007). But traditional engineering education is based on the Humboldtian model which focuses on mathematical analyse of problems due to it being an educational model that was developed in the 1808 (UNESCO, 2010). This leads to engineers creating technically correct solutions for problems which may not be appropriate for the area which they are applied because the community has not been included in the design of the project (Ramaswamy, 2001; Keirns 2007). Evidence shows that many projects in rural areas of India fail because the engineers use technologies which are technically correct solutions for isolated problems that they are presented, but do not consider all aspects of the problem (Keirns, 2007; Agarwal et al, 2001). Gram Vikas claims that many pumps, pipe systems and water tanks fall in to disrepair because the community that they are meant to serve are not involved in their construction, feel no ownership for the systems and have not been educated in how to maintain them (Keirns, 2007). To ensure that a community based project addresses the needs that the community identifies the identified needs can be considered as objectives (Margoulis and Salafsky cited by Orr and Annis, 2009) which should be: Impact oriented to move a community toward a goal Measurable so the community can measure when the objective has been achieved

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Daniel Smith 0634319 Time-limited so the community knows when it should be finished Specific this specificity should be explained and agreed upon by all members of the village Practical the community must agree that it can be accomplished

This is true for any water supply project which could include pumped water, gravity fed water supply systems, protected springs or rooftop rainwater harvesting.

6.1 Accessing groundwater


During the dry season Indian farmers are heavily reliant on groundwater because many surface water bodies have evaporated or been used up (Agarwal, 2001, Pxviii) Methods that involve identifying where a suitable aquifer is so as to dig a well are common place and have been developed over time. Before pumps were available water had to be lifted by hand or accessed by steps (Agarwal and Narain, 1997) but today water can either be accessed via a hand or mechanised pump, the amount of water that can be drawn is proportional to the transmissivity of that portion of the aquifer. It is recommended that the well head is protected by using a concrete slab with a raised edge and a diversion channel for excess water (Gierke, 2009). 6.1.1 Baoris, Jhalaras Found in Rajsthan and Gujarat Baoris are step wells with steps on one side which will always access groundwater. Whereas Jhalaras have steps on only one side, may access groundwater but may have their own catchments (Agarwal and Narain, 1997, P104-152). Step wells are located near a talab, lake or river and were most often constructed by rich philanthropists. They are large structures which would require a lot of construction so would be unsuitable for community based water projects. But the principal of accessing a water source via seepage is still relevant and could be implemented using smaller wells (Agarwal and Narain, 1997, P104-152).

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Daniel Smith 0634319 6.1.2 Dug wells, Kuis/beris This involves hand digging to reach the water table. The first metre of excavation can be accomplished using shovels and picks but changes drastically after this when a method of removing soil via a bucket will need to be implemented. The sides of the well need to be lined to prevent collape. Possible linings could be perforated concrete rings or a dry wall of mortar-less bricks (Gierke, 2009). The mouth of a kuis is very narrow and the diameter increases with depth to maximise the seepage area whilst minimising losses from evaporation. The wells are hand dug and lined with a mortar-less brick construction to ensure that the walls do not collapse (Mishra, 1997, P16 &P31). Inflow can be increased by increasing the open area but this relationship is not directly proportional because the openings experience less hydraulic gradient due to their position above the well bottom (Gierke, 2009). Therefore widening the well base would increase the seepage due to the inclined sides and increase the hydraulic gradient by moving the well side marginally closer to the source. To dig a well such as a kuis traditionally involved a man lowered down an unstable shaft (Mishra, 1997, P16). But the safety of this could be increased by excavating a larger hole, constructing the well lining and back filling the hole. It is recommended that excavated material be used for backfilling below the water table if large rocks are removed to ensure proper compaction of sand and soil grains. But clay or concrete should be used to cap the hole to ensure that surface contaminants do not percolate down (Gierke, 2009). 6.1.3 Drilled/bored wells This is a modern process similar to the dug method but the soil is broken up and removed by systematic process of hitting if using a percussion drill or grinding if using an auger. Mihelcic et al (2009) and Dangerfield (1983) detail construction methods which can be implemented either with diesel or hand power and specify that drilled wells do not need reinforcement like dug wells due to their narrower diameter.

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Daniel Smith 0634319 6.1.3.1 Driven wells A length of pipe can be driven by hammer blows in to unconsolidated ground. The depth of the pump is dependent on the nature of the ground hard ground will only allow shallow depths whereas soft ground will allow deeper wells. Additional lengths of pipe can be attached using a coupling and a sacrificial length of pipe should be used to ensure thread integrity (Gierke, 2009). 6.1.3.2 Well development All well types can be enhanced by well development which is the pumping out of the initial water at a rate that exceeds the normal rate of withdrawal. This is to remove suspended sediment that may have been left from well construction. Disinfectants such as chlorine can be added if it is deemed economically and environmentally appropriate (Gierke, 2009). Previous correspondence with Dr Subodh Bishnoi, of the Indian Institute of Management Ahmadabad, also revealed that some wells in India are improved by lateral boring to improve the flow in to the well by increasing the surface area exposed to seepage. 6.1.3.3 Hand pumps There are a variety of hand pumps which are used for drawing water for washing, cooking, drinking and irrigation. The water that is drawn is normally used directly rather than kept in a storage tank (Gierke, 2009). 6.1.3.4 Reciprocating pump These work by suction. A sealed piston with a check valve is pushed down on to a weighted check valve. As the piston is drawn back up the valve piston closes and the lower check valve opens to draw liquid up. The problem with this type of pump is that water is needed to prime the pump which may be of a questionable potable nature and it can only pump water from 6-7m depth due to maximum suction lift limitations (Gierke, 2009). 6.1.3.5 Downhole positive displacement pumps A very common and simply improvement is to move the reciprocating pump mechanism down the shaft to the water level. The water is then pushed up the shaft rather than sucked from the top so the maximum suction lift limitation is removed and deeper water can be accessed (Gierke, 2009). 21

Daniel Smith 0634319 6.1.3.6 Other pumps Mono pumps: use an Archimedes screw at the base of the shaft to pump water up. Diaphragm pump: works in the same way as a heart. As the diaphragm opens it sucks water up which is then expelled as the diaphragm is compressed (Gierke, 2009). Rope and washer pump: is a very simple positive displacement pump. Washers are attached to a loop of rope which then thread over a wheel, through a pipe and lowered in to the well. The wheel at the top is turned which moves the washers up the pipe bringing water with them (Gierke, 2009). 6.1.3.7 Mechanical pumps There are a variety of automated pumps from the diesel powered pump to wind or solar pumps and even those powered by animals which are semi-automated. Their selection and design depends on the availability of the energy sources and head of water that is needed to be drawn. These are normally used to draw water in to a storage tank for future rather than direct use. Diesel pumps are normally available with manufacturers pump characteristic curves and organisations such as Practical Action have developed design guides for wind and solar pumps. (Gierke, 2009)

6.2 Artificial groundwater recharge


Groundwater recharge is defined by Dangerfield as augmenting the natural infiltration of infiltration of precipitation or surface water into groundwater formations by some method of construction, spreading or a change in natural conditions (Dangerfield, 1983, P118). It serves four main purposes; to replenish over used resources; to mitigate salt intrusion at coastal regions; to supplement surface water storage and to dispose of effluents (Dangerfield, 1983, P118). 6.2.1 Talabs, Nadis and Khadins Talabs are larger than Nadis and are often built closer to the population centre. The water is accessed from wells that are built around the talab to ensure that the water is filtered before consumption. Washing clothes and bathing is not allowed unless the water can be removed from the talab and the grey water disposed of elsewhere (Agarwal and Narain, 1997).

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Daniel Smith 0634319 Nadis are smaller than talabs and are used for animals or washing. The catchment area does not need the same treatment and they are often built to take the overflow from a talab. Sometimes they are built in a sequence that allows runoff, flood or river water to enter a sedimentation tank before reaching the talab and then over flow to smaller nadis. This has been documented in Jodhpur, Chittor and Sringaverapura (Agarwal and Narain, 1997 P112, P156 and P15) Khadins are long bunds that are built on the almost flat plains of Rajasthan. They are designed to collect runoff at the lowest point in an area and increase the infiltration to soil moisture. The area behind the bund is used for agriculture and a well is constructed in front of the khadin. Due to the local water table being raised in front of the khadin salts are drawn up from deeper regions by capillary actions. This increases the salinity of the area between the khadin and the well which reduces plant growth and discourages animals that may contaminate the water in the well. (Agarwal and Narain, 1997, P135) 6.2.2 Check dams, contour bunds and trenches The Foundation for Ecological Security advocates the use of check dams and contour structures for catchment area management. Check dams are small dams built across small drainage lines to increase water depth behind the dam thus increase retention time, local hydraulic head and infiltration. When they are built from rocks it is recommend that they should not be higher than one metre (FES, 2008, P94). Contour bunds are built along the steep slopes where the elevation is constant. The principal is to slow the runoff on steep slopes, increase the time of concentration which increases infiltration and possibly divert the water to a channel so as to reduce slope erosion. They are soil structures so if the slope is steep and peak runoff flow found to be high, it is important to allow a waste weir lined with rocks to reduce overtopping and subsequent structural degradation (FES, 2008, P86).

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Daniel Smith 0634319 Contour trenches are constructed to allow more water to infiltrate the ground by retaining some water in the trench. It is advised to stagger their excavation to increase the chances that water that misses one trench will be collected by the next (FES, 2008, P81)

6.3 Water storage


Water can be stored in surface water structures such as ponds (Talabs, Nadis) or behind earthen bunds but these leave the water open to contamination. If water is to be stored in this manner the use of it should be considered (Orr and Annis, 2009, P39). If it is to be used for irrigation, animals or washing then lower water quality is sufficient but if it is to be used for human consumption the catchment area must be managed properly and the water filtered or treated before consumption (Orr and Annis, P39). This is a principal that is common to all traditional rainwater harvesting systems in India (Agarwal and Narain, 1997). Water can also be stored in ground tanks such as kundis or tankas. Both of these traditional methods harvest rainwater from a hard standing constructed catchment area. Found in Rajasthan, a kundis catchment area is at ground level, whereas the Gujarati tanka is constructed under the house and harvests rooftop rainwater. Both are constructing using a lime mortar which ensures that the exposed kundi does not crack in the Rajasthani highs of +40oC (Metoffice, 2011) and the stored water is somewhat purified. Before the monsoon the catchment area is cleaned and the inlets are blocked so that any contaminants are washed away with the first rainfall. Subsequent rainfall is then kept. (Agarwal and Narain, 1997, P131-133 & P106) Rooftop rainwater harvesting is also well recommended by contemporary development professionals and documented by Mihelcic et al (Cowden and JeanCharles, 2009, Chapter 17).

6.4 Spring protection


A spring occurs when the water table meets the ground level and, theoretically, provides clean water due to the filtering that has occurred as the water passed through the soil pores (Mihelcic et al, 2009, P276). Water may become contaminated by runoff from around the spring or as people 24

Daniel Smith 0634319 stand in the water when accessing a spring. To mitigate this a spring box can be constructed to protect the spring (Mihelcic et al, 2009, P278). To do this the spring is excavated until an impermeable layer is found. A box or concrete wall is constructed in front of the spring and coarse filter material (gravel/cobbles) packed behind it with an outlet at the point higher than the spring inlet. In front of this another box or wall with fine filter material (sand) packed between the walls and an outlet at the base of the wall. This then feeds a reservoir with an outlet at a higher level than the inlet (Mihelcic et al, 2009, P278). The secondary filtration stage is intended to remove sediment and not as a slow sand filter. But, the necessary plan area could be enlarged to enable slow filtration and the development of a Schmutzdecke which would provide some biological treatment as well. The extra cost and maintenance that this would require may not be worthwhile unless there is a definite source of biological pollution such as a pit latrine nearby because the water has already passed through a natural filtration process (Mihelcic et al, 2009, P278).

6.5 Fuel efficient stoves


Fuel efficient stoves can be constructed from bricks, metal with an insulating liner or a mud and straw mix known as cob in the UK. The principal is to create horizontal L shaped tube then to light the fire at the crux of the L. The air is drawn in through the L and flow up out of the chimney. As the stove is constructed from material that has natural insulating properties and the inflow of oxygen is high the temperature of the fire increases to a level that is higher than an open fire. This produces a more efficient burn which uses more of the energy stored in the wood and reduces smoke production. Thus reducing the amount of fuel needed to cook with and increasing local air quality. (Mihelcic et al, 2009)

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6.6 Waste management


All communities produce waste of municipal and faecal forms which has to be dealt with to minimise water source pollution. Waste management is not the aim of investigation but it is the opinion of the author that it should be considered when developing a watershed management plan. 6.6.1 Liquid waste Waste water contains suspended solids, organic matter, chemicals and nutrients which can deplete oxygen in receiving water bodies. Shiklomanov (cited in Mihelcic et al, 2009, P376) estimated that every cubic meter of untreated wastewater discharged to the surface results in 8-10m3 of unusable water. Therefore waste water should be discharged to a filter system such as a graded sand filter or through a natural filter such as a reed bed to reduce its biological oxygen demand, before being released in to the natural environment. 6.6.2 Solid municipal waste It is assumed that a rural community may not produce a large amount of waste that cannot be naturally decomposed. Solid waste from natural sources, such as food, can be composted and used in agriculture. Waste that cannot be composted must be disposed of in a sanitary manner. Mihelcic et al (2009, P466) suggest constructing an incinerator to burn the waste to reduce its volume and minimise the risk of bacterial contaminants. The residue must be disposed of in some manner which, if the funds and training is available, can be in a landfill. This would be of a much smaller scale than those constructed in the UK but follow the same basic principles of lining a pit with clay or other bioliners, creating a drain for leachate and ensuring that methane is ventilated. 6.6.3 Latrines Latrine construction and use must be decided upon by the entire community (Keirns, 2007). The location of community latrines must allow women appropriate levels of privacy; have access to a form of water supply for hand washing and must not be constructed where the water table is shallow otherwise the water table may become contaminated (Mihelcic et al, 2009; Dangerfield, 1983). Latrines can be constructed to produce compost for agriculture.

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Daniel Smith 0634319 It is the belief of Gram Vikas that dry latrines are more appropriate for a rural Indian community than the more expensive bucket flush latrines due to their simple design, low construction and operation that does not require a large amount of scarce water.

6.7 Watershed management approach


The Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS, 2001), the Foundation for Ecological Security (FES, 2008), Mihelcic et al (2009) and the Centre for Science and Environment (Agarwal et al, 2001) all advocate managing an entire watershed to ensure that sufficient water is retained for ecological and community well being. The NRCS (2009, Chapter 18) suggest soil bioengineering which is engineering that combines mechanical, biological and ecological concepts. This can be broken in to two types living and nonliving. The living approach can either be accomplished by planting or by using live plant parts to provide reinforcement or provide natural protection. When live cuttings, stalks or branches are placed in soil structures, roots will be formed which will increase the strength of the structure. The non-living approach is using natural material such as rocks, soil or wood to construct structures to support slopes and soil. This confers with the advice from the Foundation for Ecological Security (FES, 2008) and the research that has been conducted by the Centre for Science and Environment (Agarwal et al, 2001 &1997) into the policies and mechanisms that were traditionally used. There are many aspects of environmental management that must be considered to create a successful plan from community involvement to the sourcing and protecting water from contamination. Therefore a logical approach must be taken to developing a project plan which will be discussed in the following section.

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Scope of work
The previous sections of this report introduced the challenges of supplying clean water around the world. The following section will discuss the factors that affect sustainable management of a rural watershed in India. As a watershed has many factors the function will require multiple objectives (Biswas, 1976). These will need to be specific, measurable, appropriate, realistic and time bound.

7 Watershed management
Watershed management is the rational utilisation of land and water resources to optimise production and minimise hazards to natural resources (FES, 2008). There are many physical factors that affect the development of a watershed but, as has been discussed, there are also socioeconomic factors that must be considered when developing a project in a developing country.

7.1 What is a watershed


A watershed is defined as an area that drains to a common point (FES, 2008). In the UK these are commonly termed as catchment areas and the high ground that separates these is referred to as the watershed. But in India and North America these are referred to as watersheds (FES, 2008; EPA, 2008). Therefore, as this project is in collaboration with an Indian NGO these topographic regions will be referred to as Watersheds (Figure 7-1). By Indian environmental terminology the country is divisible into (FES, 2008): 6 regions Consisting of 35 river basins Further subdivided into 112 catchments 500 sub-catchments 3,237 watersheds.
Figure 7-1 A conceptual model of a watershed (FES, 2008)

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Daniel Smith 0634319 Each watershed can be divided into sub-watersheds (10,000 to 50,000 ha.), milli-watersheds (1,000 to 10,000 ha.) and micro watersheds (up to 1,000 ha.). (FES, 2008)

7.2 Engineering project management


Engineers have, traditionally, considered cost, time and efficiency as general objectives that need to be optimised in order for any project to be successful. John Boyd (President of the FIDIC 2007-09) states that engineers must broaden their design brief beyond the traditional objectives of schedule, cost and conventional scope. (UNESCO, 2010, P8) Therefore the general aim of an engineering project could be to reduce constraints on economic growth. E.F. Schumacher (1973) argues, however, that unlimited growth is not sustainable because it is based on increased and unending finite resource consumption. Therefore this aim should be to reduce constraints on sustainable development.

7.3 Ecological Capital


Watkins (2009) states that the aim of developing a watershed is to increase the ecological capital of an area, this is the capacity of an area to sustain itself and provides the first step in economic empowerment of the rural poor. This is because the ecology of the watershed must provide the basic services that would be supplied by infrastructure in an urban. Therefore the socio-economic development of a watershed is directly linked to the environmental development of a watershed. This in turn is dependent upon the water flow through the watershed originates in the hydrological cycle (Mihelcic et al, 2009, P176-177).

7.4 Rural project management


In a rural area of a developing country where this little or no centralised service provision the watershed itself has to provide all the goods and services that a community needs (Watkins, 2009). The area must: Provide water for agriculture and filter clean water for human consumption Treat waste products solid, liquid and faecal 29

Daniel Smith 0634319 Provide food and biomass Be a source of raw materials for construction Provide capital for economic exchange

Therefore the aims of a watershed management programme must seek to optimise the production of goods and services needed by a community whilst still have sufficient excess to allow the natural development of an area. To do this community institutions and a system of education must be developed to ensure sustainable operation of the interventions (Kierns, 2007, P42). The users of the resources, goods and services must be identified so that they can be consulted and included accordingly and all levels of society must be involved (Mihelcic et al 2009; Keirns 2007).

7.5 Hydrological cycle


Water evaporates and condenses to clouds which are then transported overland by currents of wind. As the clouds increase in water volume and height the water vapour flocculates and falls to the earth as precipitation either snow or rain. If the water falls to an area where the temperature is low then it will be stored as snow or ice until such time that the temperature rises and the snow melts. If it falls to an area with a higher temperature then some of it will seep into the ground depending on the saturation of the soil some will evaporate instantly and some will runoff to streams and rivers. Evaporation rate is controlled by the difference between the water vapour pressure at the evaporating surface and that of the surrounding atmosphere. During a storm the losses due to evaporation will be highest at the beginning of the rainfall when the surface is hottest but will not be very significant. Over an infinite period of time evaporative losses will become more significant (Brouwer and Heibloem, 1986).

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Daniel Smith 0634319 Some water will seep downwards to the saturated zone and some water will be held at root zone where it will either evaporate or be taken up by plants (Figure 7-2). The plant will only use a small percentage of it; the rest of it will be lost via transpiration which is evaporation via the stomata of the plants. This is the water needs of the plants (Brouwer and Heibloeam, 1986).

Figure 7-2 Flow chart of water flow through a watershed (EPA, 2008; Mihelcic et al, 2009; Biswas, 1976)

Once the surface layer of soil has become saturated, subsequent rainfall will run-off the surface (Figure 7-2) from high to low elevations until it reaches a drain such as a river (Haan et al, 1994). In general the volume of rainfall that reaches a drain depends on the infiltration of the soil and the topography of the land. Steeper gradients will increase the velocity of the water and reduce the time it has to infiltrate a static area of soil (FES, 2008).

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7.6 Objective optimisation


Based on the above investigation it is proposed that a watershed management plan must seek to optimise the following objectives to ensure sustainability: 7.6.1 Aims Reduce constraints on sustainable development Optimise production of goods and service from dilute natural resources in a sustainable manner 7.6.2 Objectives

Ensure environmental sustainability


Ensure that the only hydrological input is precipitation - This is a function of the amount of precipitation available and the water required by the watershed. Therefore:
Equation 7-1

Capture sufficient water for agriculture - As evapotranspiration is a function of water vapour pressure gradient, reducing the wind speed and direct solar radiation that crops receive can reduce their water consumption (Brouwer and Heibloem, 1986).
Equation 7-2

Reduce erosion - Erosion is a function of the kinetic energy of the rainwater, velocity of runoff and the cohesiveness of soil particles (Awathanarayana, 1995). The kinetic energy of the rainwater can be decreased by increasing canopy cover to decrease size and velocity of raindrops that hit the ground. Runoff velocity can be reduced by ridge area treatment (FES, 2008) and bioengineering (NRCS, 2009) can increase the strength of soils.

Ensure sufficient amounts of potable drinking water - Clean water can be maximised by reducing contamination and increasing protected sources.

Equation 7-3

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Daniel Smith 0634319 Ensure water supply and sanitation at schools to reduce the risk of children becoming ill from contaminated water supply and of contaminating water sources (Mihelcic et al, 2009). Include all levels of the community to harvest enough water during short intense rainfall requires the co-operation of all levels of the community (Argawal et al, 2001). Empower vulnerable sectors of society as women collect the majority of water they must be involved in planning and maintaining water resources otherwise they may not use them due to being unsuitable (Keirns, 2007; Mihelcic et al, 2009) Ensure ownership of the system a community must maintain their water supply system and, therefore, must have ownership of it. This can be accomplished through village institutions and ensuring that the community pays for the system (Keirns, 2007). Make appropriate sanitation available this is essential to ensure that clean water is not contaminated and maintain the health of the population (Mihelcic et al, 2009) Ensure capital investment is appropriate and affordable the cost must be appropriate to the location (Mihelcic et al, 2009; Keirns, 2007).

Equation 7-4

Implement measures to reduce deforestation wood is a common fuel source for cooking electricity or gas is not supplied. Therefore, if fuel efficient cooking stoves are implemented there will be less demand for fuel wood.

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Theory
8 Water balance model
Continuity dictates that the input to a system must equal the output minus losses. In a watershed this can be used to calculate the balance of water using equation 8-1 (Figure 80-1). (Biswas, 1967; Haan et al, 1994; Watkins, 2009; FES, 2010) Therefore each factor in this equation needs to be estimated. Equation 8-1 Where S is change in surface storage, P is precipitation, I in infiltration, ET is evapotranspiration and R is runoff Figure 8-0-1 Water Balance

8.1 Effective rainfall


Effective rainfall is the total depth of rainfall minus abstractions due to infiltration. The quantity and rate at which effective rainfall is generated is related to soil type, land use and gradient (Haan, et al, 1994). 8.1.1 Rational Method The simplest method to calculate runoff rate is the Rational Method (Figure 8-2), as advocated by FES and suggested by Watkins (2009), Dangerfield (1983) and Haan (1994). The method assumes that the critical duration of a storm is equal to the time of concentration that is the time it takes for water to travel from the hydrological most remote point to the drain. This is a function of the land slope, use and distance the water has to travel. If an area does not have constant gradient or land type velocities need to be calculated for each area and summed. 8.1.2 NRCS Curve method The Rational Method presumes constant runoff through the duration of a storm but the runoff will change relative to the soil moisture content. The United States Department of Agricultures Natural 34 Figure 8-2 Rational Method Equation 8-2 Where Q is volume flow rate (m3/s), i is infiltration, A is area and C is a coefficient of runoff

Daniel Smith 0634319 Resource Conservation Service has developed a method of calculating runoff which considers this (Figure 8-3). The curve number, CN, is related to the hydrological soil type (A, B, C or D) and land cover. It ranges from 30-100 (low-high runoff) and is applied based on the 24-hr distribution of rainfall that is represented by 4 S shaped type curves (IA, I, II and III) (figure 11-5). Equation 8-3 Figure 8-3 NRSC Curve Number formula

8.2 Infiltration
Infiltration is the major abstraction from a storm (Haan, et al, 1994). During a storm the rain will wet the surface layer of soil which will have a certain water holding

Where Q is accumulated runoff (mm), Ia is the initial abstraction and P is accumulated precipitation (mm)

capacity. Some of this water will seep downwards but as the layers of soil below the surface increase in compaction with depth, this seepage will reduce. Therefore lighter rains will be absorbed but heavier rains will saturate the soil. Once the soil has reached its water holding capacity, any subsequent rainfall will run off along the surface. Bare soils and heavy rain tends to reduce infiltration rates. As the rain drops hit the soil surface the energy of the falling drops breaks up aggregate and transports it into soil pores. Large rain drops increase this tendency (Haan, et al, 1994; Aswathanarayana, 1995). Figure 8-4 Time of Concentration, Tc

8.3 Precipitation and frequency


The depth of rainfall can be measured using a rain gauge but to design interventions for a site the probable frequency of future rainfall must be estimated. Equation 8-4 Where, V is flow velocity, Li distance travelled, Ki is a constant depending on the ground type and Si is slope of the land.

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Daniel Smith 0634319 Haan, et al, (1994) describes a T-year event as an event of such magnitude that over a long period of time (much longer than T years), the average time Equation 8-5 between events having a magnitude greater than the T-year event is T years. He suggests four types of probability plotting based on the general relationship where P is the plotting position, m is the rank and n is number of years of data. Where F is the frequency in years and K,b, n & x are constants. Figure 8-5 Intensity

In other words, an event of this magnitude can be expected every T years. Therefore the expected number of occurrences of an event in N years is N/T. Thus the probability that a T year event will happen in any year (when N=1) is 1/T. 8.3.1 Intensity Runoff increases with intensity for two reasons. First of all an intense storm will saturate the ground quickly so any further rainfall will form runoff. Secondly, an intense storm generally has larger rain drops which have more energy. When this energy is transferred to the soil aggregate it breaks them down and washes them in to the soil pores, which reduces infiltration and increases runoff. The constants K, b, n and x in Equation 8-5 (Figure 8-5) are site specific and can be taken from tables supplied by Government meteorological departments. They are estimated by using IntensityDuration-Frequency (IDF) or Depth-Duration-Frequency (DDF) data based on historic rainfall. To use this equation, then, requires reliable meteorological data that has operated for a significant amount of time and an organisation that has the capacity to analyse it.

8.4 Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the combination of evaporation of and transpiration. Evaporation is the vaporisation of water from a surface such as soil, river or lake.

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Daniel Smith 0634319 Transpiration is the vaporisation of water from with a plant leaf mainly through the stomata. It is equal to the water needs of the plant. The energy required to vaporise water is provided by direct solar radiation and the process is driven by the water vapour pressure gradient between the evaporating surface and the surrounding air. Factors that influence the level of evapotranspiration are solar radiation; wind speed, air humidity and temperature. The ability that the soil has to conduct water to the roots or the surface will also affect the level of ET. Throughout the year the amount of water that evaporates or tranpirates will change. When a crop is young the main loss will be through evaporation, but as the crop grows and the leaf area increases the tranpiration rate will increase. Figure 8-7 Blaney-Criddle method

Figure 8-6 Evapotranspiration ET0 = Climate + grass reference crop ET0 x Kc = ETc ETc x Ks = ETadj

Equation 8-6

Tmean is monthly mean temperature, p is mean daily percentage of annual daytime hours

8.4.1 Penman-Monteith method The Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (Allen et al, 1998) recommend using the Penman-Monteith equation to calculate ET0. The idea is to calculate the rate of ET for an area based on an idealised crop, such as grass, that is excellently managed and irrigated, ET0. The equation requires parameters such as aerodynamic resistance, soil heat flux, humidity and wind speed. This is then altered based on a cropping factor, Kc, to give an ET under standard conditions, ETc. This is then adjusted for local conditions to give ETadj. The Allen (et al, 1998) states that to obtain sensible field data for the initial calculation requires expensive equipment used by experienced researchers. The Allen does provide an example of how to use the Penman-Monteith equation but not a resource of country specific data. It is possible that

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Daniel Smith 0634319 this could be obtained from them or from the Indian Governments Department of Agriculture and Co-operation but it was not available for this investigation. 8.4.2 Blaney-Criddle method Brouwer and Heibloem (1986) suggest two other methods of calculating ET0 by measurement from pan evaporation or using the Blaney-Cridle (Box 10.7, Eq 10.7) method if no data is available. It should be noted that this will only provide an estimate within an order of magnitude in hot windy conditions the estimate may be 60% low and in cool calm conditions it may be 40% high. To calculate a crops water needs the crop factors at each stage of growth cycle need to be considered, see Table 8-1. Initial Barley/Oats/Wheat Kc Days Lentils/pulses Kc Days Small grains Kc Growth 0.35 15 0.45 20 0.35 20 Dev 0.75 30 0.75 30 0.75 30 Mid 1.15 65 1.1 60 1.1 60 Late 0.45 40 0.5 40 0.65 40

Table 8-1 Crop factors per growing stage (Brouwer and Heibloem, 1986)

8.5 Human water needs


The World Health Organisation states that to ensure health the quantities of water described in table 8-1 should be assured. This is based on a person using water for consumption, hygiene, productivity (gardening, construction, brewing, etc) and amenities (cleaning the household, etc). Service level Water quantity 5 l/c/d 20 l/c/d Collection measure Distance Time 1000m+ 100-1000m 30 min 5 30 min 5 min On demand Needs met Consumption Cannot be assured Should be assured Assured All needs met Level of health concern Very high High

Hygiene Not possible Hand washing and some basic food All basic personal and food All needs should be met

No access Basic

Intermediate 50 l/c/d Optimal 100 l/c/d

1 tap on plot Multiple taps in house

Low Very low

Table 8-2 Service levels of water access (Howard and Bartram, 2003)

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Case study
9 Case study partner
Total area Villages Khakhra K Kya Ka K Munda Ka Rawach Milli W/S 7-1 7-2 7-8 1300 Ha 4 146 Ha 81Ha 308 Ha 715 Ha 3 367 Ha 487 Ha 447Ha To develop the proposals discussed in section 7.6 a case study of the Rawach Watershed has been chosen. The Foundation for Ecological Security is currently developing a watershed management plan for the area. A previous visit to the office of FES Udaipur culminated in the invitation to develop a plan for their comparison. The local data for this case study has, therefore, been supplied by the FES Udaipur office and analysed in the UK.

Table 9-0-1 Rawach watershed statistics calculated using GIS data supplied by FES

9.1 Foundation for Ecological Security


FES is an Indian NGO that manages and develops rural natural resources through conservation and local self governance. They aim to protect natural environments and improve the standard of living of the rural poor. They take a systematic approach and have produced handbooks based on scientific methodology. Their work includes 1,646 village institutions in 27 districts across six States, and assists village communities in protecting 1,08,594 hectares of revenue wastelands, degraded forestlands and Panchayat grazing lands (Charagah lands). The governance of natural resources is developed by supporting Panchayats and their subcommittees, Village Forest Committees, Gramya Jungle Committees, Water Users Associations and Watershed Committees in order to. FES states that they strive for universal membership and an equal access of women and poor in decision making. (FES, 2010)

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10 Analysis of the Rawach Watershed


The Rawach Watershed is located around 24o 50 00 North, 73o 20 00 East in the Aravalli Hill range, is semi-arid and has an area of approximately 1300 Hectares. This has been delineated in to three milli-watersheds 7-1, 7-2 and 7-8 and the entire area is covered by 4 villages (Table 9-0-1). The area is very hilly and topographic analysis has shown that the steepest slope gradients are around 1:9 to 1:2. The soil is predominantly silty loam and FES has observed moderate erosion (where 25%-75% of the topsoil is removed) across 50% of the area (Table 10-1).

Erosion e1 slight e2 moderate e3 severe e4 very severe U n/a

Topsoil loss 0% to 25% 25% to 75% 75% to 100% Shallow gullies n/a

Area (Ha) 409.3 603.6 219.4 0.1 17.8

% ~33 ~48 ~18 ~0.005 ~1

Soil type Clay Loam Sandy Loam Silty Loam Rock/Unclassified

Area (Ha) 7.3 136.2 36.6 1045.7 6.6/17.8

% ~0.6 ~11 ~3 ~84 ~0.5/1.4

Table 10-1 Extent of erosion and soil developed from Water & Soil Conservation source book and GIS data, both supplied by FES

10.1 Graphically representing Rawach


The two methods that were chosen for graphically representing the Rawach watershed for analyse were two dimensional GIS mapping and three dimensional modelling in a computer aided design package. 10.1.1 GIS mapping A Geographic Information System is a system that stores, manages and represents spatial data. This is data that has a location associated with it, so a GIS system can be used to analyse the connection between many pieces of spatial data and present them on a map. (Heywood et al, 2007) It was proposed that Open Source software would be most appropriate because it is free and easily available to anybody with an internet connect thus suitable for an NGO with low funds. The Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo.org) supports various projects such as Quantum GIS (QGIS.org), GRASS (grass.fbk.eu) and gvSIG (gvsig.org). Of these it was found that QGIS is the most

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Daniel Smith 0634319 user friendly but appeared to have a bug when georeferencing raster images such as scanned topographic maps if using it on the Microsoft Windows operating system. Therefore ArcGIS (ESRI.com, 2011) and MapInfo (Mapinfo.co.uk, 2011) were investigated. These are both proprietary software which cost around 1500. It was found that ArcGIS was appropriate for this case study (Figure 10-10) as it is widely used (Watkins, 2009) and is universally available on the Cardiff University system. Thus ArcGIS was used to create and analyse the maps for this case study. It was discovered, however, that licenses for three dimensional analysis extensions were not available. 10.1.2 Computer Aided Design A three dimensional (3D) contour model (Figure 10-7) was created using Autodesks AutoCAD software (autodesk.co.uk). This was accomplished by tracing contour lines from an appropriately scaled scanned topographic map provided by FES and sourced from the Government of India circa 1969. The official reference of the map is: 1:50,000, Sheet 45H/5, First Edition. The contour lines were given x, y and z ordinates which allowed cross sections to be taken as shown in Figure 10-8 . The cross sections created from the 3D contour map allowed the general incline to be calculated at specific areas and were combined with the land use data supplied by FES. This allowed the time of concentration, run-off coefficient, curve number, effective rainfall and peak flow to be estimated using the methods previously discussed as outlined by Haan et al (1994).

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10.2 Precipitation
Supplied rainfall data was measured at the Gogunda meteorological station which is approximately 23km south east of Rawach and 13 years of data was made available via FES. These were plotted as shown in Figure 10-1 and Figure 10-2. This shows the total rainfall per annum between 1995 and 2008. Apart from 2006 there appears a trend where there is high rainfall every 2 to 3 years. The most rain falls in July, August and September as would be expected for in a monsoon based climate. 10.2.1 Frequency analysis As was discussed Haan et al (1994) suggests four types of probability plotting from the
Depth in mm

Total rainfall per annum 1995 to 2008


1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Figure 10-1 Total rainfall per annum
Average Monthly Rainfall 1995 to 2008
250.00 200.00 Depth in mm 150.00 100.00 50.00 0.00
May Apr Jul Nov Aug Sep Dec Feb Jan Mar Jun Oct

Figure 10-2 Average rainfall per month

Californian State Department, The Hazen relationship, the Natural Environmental Research Council of the United Kingdom and the Weibull relationship. These have been plotted for the rainfall data supplied in Figure 10-3 and show that all of the relationships show the same general trend giving return periods as shown in Table 10-2.

T=1 T=2 T=10 T=25

Annum Year Depth 2002 1997 2005 2006

Wettest month Wettest day Year Depth Year Depth 324 1999 77 2002 594 1996 207 2007 724 2005 362 2005 1670 2006 1006 2006

30 51 149 205

Table 10-2 Return periods for Gogunda rainfall

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Depth of rainfall (mm) per annum

1000

100 3.00 30.00 Probability of event per annum California State Dept Hazen UK Natural Environmental Research Council Weibull

.
Figure 10-3 Probability plot of total rainfall per annum

10.3 Intensity
To plot intensity duration graphs requires four geographically specific constant (Figure 8-5) which have been developed by meteorological services who analyse historic meteorological data. Figure 10-4 has been plotted using constants provided in the Water and Soil Conservation source book (FES, 2008) for the Northern Zone of India. Tables were also plotted using constants for Jaipur and Jodhpur but the Northern Zone constants were used for calculations because it is believed that the Aravalli Hills experience a different intensity of rainfall than the Thar Desert as the hills provide a rain shadow to the desert, as was discussed in the climate section.

10.4 Cross sections


Slope angle and peak flow velocity is required for the design of slope and drainage line treatments. Cross sections using the 3D contour model were taken (Figure 10-7, Figure 10-8) where FES has proposed the construction of rainwater harvesting structures. These proposals have been developed with the community therefore these are the areas where site investigation and consultation has specified the need for intervention. 43

Daniel Smith 0634319

10.5 Coefficients and Curve Numbers


As was discussed the Rational Method and NRCS Curve Number approach requires land use coefficients. FES have developed their own classification system for land use, soil type and slope (Table 10-5). This was used to classify the delineated areas for runoff coefficient and NRCS curve number. Which, in turn, was used to generate a modified coefficient for each area investigated (Figure 10-5, Equation 10-1).

IDF Curves for 'Northern Zone'


Legend indicates return period in years
4.00

100 intensity (mm/hr) 50 25 0.40 10 8 6 4 2 0.04 1 2 duration (hrs) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1

Figure 10-4 Intensity depth frequency plot for the Northern Zone, developed using constants from the SWC source (FES, 2008, P40)

Watershed 7-1 Xsection A B C D E F G Left 27 31 44 37 77 28 27 Righ 44 34 23 11 31 n/a 32

Watershed 7-8 Left 8 10 20 14 30 77 Right n/a n/a n/a 14 22 20

Watershed 7-2 Left 41 14 Right 34 32

Table 10-3 Percentage gradients for each cross section

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Daniel Smith 0634319 Soil type CL, SltL Clay or silty loam 0.50 0.60 0.72 0.30 0.36 0.42 0.30 0.35 0.50 0.30 0.36 0.42

Cover C1R, C2R Cropped G, GT Grass F Forest W Waste

FES code Slope A-C 0-15% D 5-10% E-H 10-30% A-C 0-15% D 5-10% E-H 10-30% A-C 0-15% D 5-10% E-H 10-30% A-C 0-15% D 5-10% E-H 10-30%

SL Sandy Loam 0.30 0.40 0.52 0.10 0.16 0.22 0.10 0.25 0.30 0.10 0.16 0.22

C Stiff Clay 0.60 0.70 0.82 0.40 0.55 0.60 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.40 0.55 0.60

Figure 10-5 Modified Runoff coefficient or Curve Number

Equation 10-1

Where CT is modified coefficient, Ci is individual coefficient, Ai is individual area and AT is total area

Table 10-4 Runoff coefficients for Rational Method developed using SWC source book (2008, P43) and FES data (Shethia, 2010)

FES depth code d1 d2 d3 d4 d5

Soil depth Very shallow Shallow Moderate deep Deep Very deep

FES land class I, II III, IV V VI VII, VIII

Permeability Rapid Moderate Moderate slow Slow Very slow

Table 10-5 Developed using the SWC source book (2008, P49-50) and FES data (Shethia, 2010)

NRCS soil classification A B C D

Depth Deep Moderate to deep Shallow Very shallow

Permeability Rapid Moderate Very low very low

Runoff potential Low moderate High very high

Table 10-6 NRCS Hydrological soil classification taken from (Haan et al, 1994, P63 Table 3.15)

10.5.1 Peak flow rate Equation 8-2, as discussed in section 8.1.1 (Figure 8-2), was applied to find peak flow velocity using the cross sections, GIS land use and the IDF data. The results are shown in Table 10-7. These runoff flow rates have been calculated by using constants for Jaipur, Jodhpur and the Northern zone then taking the average because the Northern Zone constants cover a large area but the Jaipur and Jodhpur constants are for desert regions but they are the geographically closest to Gogunda.

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Watershed X-section a X-section b X-section c X-section d X-section e X-section f X-section d X-section e X-section f X-section a X-section b

T=1 1.58 0.93 4.35 1.99 0.71 2.48 3.05 1.89 2.77 2.81 1.08

Run-off (m^3/sec) T=2 T=10 T=25 1.74 2.18 2.48 1.02 1.29 1.46 4.80 6.02 6.86 2.20 2.76 3.14 0.78 0.98 1.11 2.73 3.43 3.90 3.37 4.23 4.82 2.08 2.62 2.98 3.05 3.83 4.37 3.10 3.89 4.43 1.19 1.49 1.70

7-2

7-8

7-1

Table 10-7 Peak runoff flow rate per cross section

It was decided to not calculate flow rates for cross sections 7-8A, 7-8B or 7-8C because these are along the drainage line rather than the catchment. Due to the alignment of the contour lines it was not possible to calculate a catchment gradient at these areas and only drainage line gradient was calculated.

10.6 Effective rainfall


When rain falls on an area a percentage of it will infiltrate the soil surface until it has become saturated. If the velocity of water flow from the surface to lower depths is less than the rate of intensity of rainfall then subsequent rain will become runoff (section 10.6). Rainfall data given by FES was in 24 hour intervals and through correspondence with FES it was found that they would consider a Type II curve appropriate (Shethia, 2010) and that they would advise using Curve Numbers for Antecedent Moisture Content Type II. This concurs with Haan et al (1994, P47) who states that Type II rainfall distribution curves are suitable for the majority of inland USA. Therefore a Type II rainfall distribution curve for a twenty four hour period (Figure 10-6) was used to estimate effective rainfall using the NRCS Curve Number approach (section 348.1.2).

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Daniel Smith 0634319 Each milli-watershed was treated individually to find an area weighted curve number (Equation 10-1; Figure 10-5). Using the depth of the wettest day (Table 10-2) the effective rainfall was calculated for one, two, ten and twenty five year storms, as shown in Table 10-8, for three, six and eight hour storms.

NRCS Type II curve


1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Time in hours 24 Fraction of rain that has fallen

Figure 10-6 NRCS Type II 24hr rainfall distribution ordinates from Haan et al (1994, P48)

10.7 Evapotranspiration and crop water needs


The Blaney-Criddle equation (Eqation 10.7; Box 10.7) has been used to calculate reference crop evapotranspiration for Rawach using mean daily mean daily percentage of annual daytime hours from Brouwer and Heibloem (1986, Chapter 3 section 3.1.3, table 4) and monthly temperature data from FORECA.com (table 11-12). Using the Blaney-Criddle method discussed in section 10.4.2 the evaporation transpiration per unit area of crop for barley, oats, wheat, lentils, pulses, small grains and white maize has been calculated, as shown in table 11-13. Reference crop factors were found by assuming that crops will be planted after the monsoon season in October (Table 10-9) and the crops considered have a growth cycle of 150 days except maize which has a growth cycle of 180 days (Table 10-10).

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Storm

Watershed 7-1 3hr 6hr

8hr

Watershed 7-2 Watershed 7-8 3hr 6hr 8hr 3hr 6hr Effective depth D and volume V D (mm) D (mm) D (mm) D (mm) D (mm) V (m3) V (m3) V (m3) V (m3) V (m3) V (m3)

8hr

D (mm)

D (mm)

D (mm)

D (mm) 9 10.18

V (m3)

V (m3)

7,618

2,667

1 15.97

10,62

23,93

41,59

77,81

22,35

20363

9,174

16,39

16,87

27,71

33,53

13,83

23,62

T= 10 132,205 202,321 188,556 252,200 283,497 172,261 231,208 36.03 48.83 55.14 38.70 51.76 58.19 38.53 51.71 58.19 149mm T = 25 62.28 205mm CN S Area 260,179 48 462,536 179151

228,233

299,795

334,476

318,838

414,650

461,175

319,159

415,695

81.71

91.16

65.44

85.11

94.66

65.51

85.32

76.93 76.18 3,669,208 m3

80.17 62.82 4,872,134 m3

78.40 70.00 4,470,970 m3

Table 10-8 Effective depth of rainfall and total runoff volume for Rawach watershed calculated using NRCS Type II curve, AMC II curve numbers

Mean daily percentage of annual daytime hours Mean Daily temp Reference crop ET

Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.26 29 5.55 25 4.88 21.5 4.29 20 4.13 22.5 4.77

Table 10-9 Reference crop ET (ETo) for Rawach

Barley/oats/wheat Cumulative (mm) Lentils/pulses Cumulative (mm) Small grains Cumulative (mm) White maize Cumulative Average rainfall month

Water needs mm / month / m^2 October November December January February March 95.71 140.89 153.07 103.82 53.67 n/a 95.71 236.60 389.66 493.48 547.16 n/a 95.71 128.46 146.41 108.57 35.78 n/a 95.71 224.17 370.58 479.14 514.93 n/a 84.61 128.46 146.41 116.62 46.52 n/a 84.61 213.07 359.48 476.10 522.61 n/a 68.80 68.80 20.07 117.00 185.80 0.21 133.10 318.90 1.43 147.16 466.06 2.43 133.59 122.39 599.65 722.04 10.00 0.29

94.94

51mm

28,92

T= 2 2.50

4.47

7 5.55

3.46

2 5.69

9 6.88

0 3.09

4 5.28

9 6.47

30mm

45,50

T=1 0.22 2.90 796

2 6.52

8 1.56

8.54

6 0.60

V (m3)

Daniel Smith 0634319 Cumulative mm 20.07 20.29 21.71 24.14 34.14 34.43

Table 10-10 Unit area water needs for various crops, calculated using the Blaney-Criddle method (BROUWER AND HEIBLOEM, 1986, 2011)

Using this information the crop water needs per watershed have been calculated if all areas designated as cropped were planted with only one crop (Table 10-11).

Barley Lentils Grains Maize

Watershed 7-1 Watershed 7-2 Watershed 7-8 Need Required Required Required 2 3 2 3 2 mm/yr Area m water m Area m water m Area m water m3 547.16 336,800 184,283.488 14,100 7,714.956 226,400 123,877.024 514.93 336,800 173,428.424 14,100 7,260.513 226,400 116,580.152 522.61 336,800 176,015.048 14,100 7,368.801 226,400 118,318.904 722.04 336,800 243,183.072 14,100 10,180.764 226,400 163,469.856

Table 10-11 Water requirements for various crops using the Blaney-Criddle method (Brouwer and Heibloem, 1986)

Table 10-12 shows the probability that rain will fall in any given year over the entire 1300 Ha watershed. As FES survey data has stated that White Maize will be grown on the majority of agricultural land the water needs for this crop have been compared to the total rainfall volume for each frequency. Frequency Depth Volume m3 mm 324 T=1 4,212,000 T=2 594 7,722,000 T=10 724 9,412,000 T=25 1670 21,710,000 Crop Maize Maize Maize Maize Required Excess m3 3 m 416,834 3,795,166 416,834 7,305,166 416,834 8,995,166 416,83 21,293,166

Table 10-12 Total volume of rainfall compared to total crop water needs

10.8 Human water consumption


It was estimated in 2001 that in Rajasthan there are 1039 people per village on average (Census of India 1981-1991, cited by Argawal et al, 2001). From Table 10-13 it is assumed that each person will use between 20 and 50 litres of water per day. This equates to an annual consumption of 730018250 litres per capita and 7,584,700 18,861,750 litres total annual consumption.

No. village 4

People /village 1,039

Water use L/c/d 20 50 100

Human/ 3 annum (m ) 30,339 75,847 151,694

Max crop 3 use m 3 416.8 x10 3 416.8 x10 3 416.8 x10

Total (m ) 447,172 492,681 568,528

T1 rainfall 3 m 3 4,212x10

Excess m3 3,764,828 3,719,319 3,643,472

Table 10-13 Human water consumption

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Table 10-14 Key for Figure 10-9

Figure 10-8 Examples of cross sections from milli-watershed 7-1, created using three dimensional contour map (figure 10-9)

Figure 10-7 Contour map of Rawach created using AutoCAD

Figure 10-9 Recharge potential of the Rawach watershed. Red is low, yellow moderate and green high (Provided by FES from a geohydrological survey).

Figure 10-10 GIS map data supplied by FES. Each polygon shown is associated with relevant data.

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Discussion
11 Project proposal
Based on the needs identified (section 11.1) by the Foundation for Ecological Security and the hydrological analysis discussed (section 10) it is proposed that traditional rainwater harvesting structures will increase the availability of water. To meet all of the objectives outlined (section 7.6) will require further measures will be such as an education programme and techniques based on contemporary solutions outlined in section 6; such as protecting natural springs and waste disposal.

11.1 Identified needs in Rawach


The FES Udaipur office has identified the following problems in the Rawach watershed: Environmental degradation due to post-colonial deforestation by previous Governmental departments led to: o o Increased soil erosion Reduction in streamflow

The productivity of agriculture subsequently decreased This has forced temporary economic migration to urban areas

Based on this the following needs have been identified: Increase in surface water availability and groundwater recharge Better water management for agricultural and potable requirements Increase in agricultural productivity Decrease in quantity of wood used for fuel Education about water and sanitation

11.2 Intervention points


As has been discussed in sections 6 and 7 it is necessary to understand the system that is being considered in order to understand the point where intervention measures should be constructed. Figure 11-1 shows a flow diagram developed from the hydrological cycle diagram in section 7.6 by incorporating the problems and needs identified by FES Udaipur and using the technique described by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, 2008).

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Figure 11-1 Flow diagram showing the flow from source of stress to impact on the community (based on method used by the EPA, 2008)

As shown the problem is very complex and has many problems that are circular in nature. The sources of the stresses cannot be changed because they are climatic and historic. It is proposed that interventions at the stressor level will have the biggest impact on the watershed and will be measurable as follows: Level of groundwater and useful aquifer recharge can be monitored by measuring the level of water in wells over a year. Soil quality can be measured quantitatively by laboratory analysis or can be deduced qualitatively by inspection and agricultural yield per unit area. Sedimentation will be the hardest to measure by erosion can be qualitatively assessed by inspection over one year periods. 52

Daniel Smith 0634319 Successful reforestation can be calculated by comparing the number of trees planted to the number of trees that survive.

11.3 Water requirements


The analysis conducted (section 10) shows that the average monthly rainfall level is not sufficient to feed any crop through its growing stages if the crop were planted after the monsoon (Table 10-10). The figures in Table 10-12, however, show that the most water intensive crop analysed (Maize) will only require 10% of the total volume provided to the watershed by the most likely total annual precipitation (depth of 394mm). It is not expected that every person in Rawach will have a tap stand on their property because at present there is no piped water infrastructure of any kind. This will hopefully be a reality in the future. Therefore if the cropped area remains constant this additional consumption (at 100L/c/d) will increase total consumption to 11% of a T1 rainfall. Animal water consumptions have not been analysed, but it is assumed that if rainfall structures are constructed that could capture 20% of a T1 annual rainfall that would meet all water needs and any additional water consumption due to population, per capita consumption and additional cropped land increases.

11.4 General approach


Figure 11-1 shows that the three most important areas of focus are: Increase aquifer recharge Reduce erosion Reduce deforestation

In addition to this sanitation, education, community participation and financial sustainability must also be included.

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Daniel Smith 0634319 11.4.1 Increase recharge and reduce erosion In section 10.6 it was shown that the effective rainfall depth is normally less than a third of total rainfall depth and only reaches half the total rainfall depth during a 25 year storm. Therefore it can be assumed the around two thirds of the rain infiltrates the soil. But Figure 10-9 shows that milliwatershed 7-1 has a medium recharge potential, 7-2 a medium to high recharge potential and 7-8 a low recharge potential. Therefore, due to the steep topography of the area this would suggest that a significant proportion of the water that is infiltrated during a storm moves through the ground and exits to a drainage channel at a lower point rather than entering the aquifer directly. The velocity that water flows through the ground is much lower than that which it travels over ground due to attenuation through soil pores. Therefore treatment of the steep slopes to increase infiltration will increase the amount of time that water is retained in the system. This can be accomplished by constructing contour bunds or trenches and by planting grasses or shrubs along the bunds or in front of the trenches. It can also be accomplished by constructing check dams along smaller streams at high elevations. It is believed that if the water table at high elevations is increased then the probability that natural springs will form will also increase. Due to the low velocities of groundwater movement it is not believed that this will happen within the first or even second year of the project. But it is proposed that a spring protection (section 6.4) programme is included in the final project plan and that the community is educated in how to construct additional spring protection facilities. Increasing the infiltration at higher elevations will also increase the period of time that water flows in to lower water harvesting structures. The velocity and volume of water flow over a year has not been modelled but as there is enough water entering the watershed system it is proposed that reducing the flow through the system in this way will provide enough water for the community. Drainage line treatment can also extend to bioengineering as suggested by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS, 2009). If drainage lines are planted with grasses or larger shrubs, along 54

Daniel Smith 0634319 larger drainage paths, then the mannings roughness of the channel will increase. This will decrease the flow rate along the channel and increase the depth of flow. It will also increase the strength of the soil and reduce erosion. 11.4.2 Reducing deforestation There are two main elements to increase the forest cover of an area plant more trees and stop people cutting them down. People cut trees for fuel to cook with, therefore if a programme to provide education about fuel efficient stoves is developed then less tress will need to be cut. A programme about sustainable forestry could also be considered and trees that are capable of being coppiced (where the tree re-grows if it is only half cut) could be planted. Also it is believed that, all things being equal, a person will be less inclined to destroy something that provides an obvious benefit. Allen et al (1998) state that crop evapotranspiration (thus crop water needs) increases with wind speed and solar radiation. This is because the water vapour pressure gradient between the evaporating surface and the surrounding air increases as the wind removes the water vapour from around the plants. Therefore if fruit or nut trees were planted as a wind break around cropped areas they would: Reduce direct solar radiation and reduce wind speed (thus maintain the vapour pressure gradient) which would reduce evapotranspiration. Provide a rain cover which would reduce the size and velocity of rain drops thus reducing erosion. Provide food and/or cash crops for the farmer

11.4.3 Sanitation A sanitation programme must be inclusive of all people. The facilities provided must be of good quality and provide dignity to those that intend to use them. A low quality solution will not be used for long and people will return to defecating outside (Keirns, 2007). Therefore the whole community

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Daniel Smith 0634319 must be in agreement that a sanitation programme is necessary and educated about the importance of sanitation. The location of sanitary facilities is also important. If pit latrines are dug where the water table is high then the pit will contaminate the aquifer. Equally, sanitation facilities or washing facilities must not be located above catchment areas for clean water supply and drainage channels should be constructed to dispose of any brown (faecal) or grey (washing) water in an appropriate manner. Read beds or filtration systems can be constructed that host a microbial layer to attenuate contamination and allow dirty water to return to the watershed system without contaminating it. Sanitation can also provide an opportunity for agriculture and energy. If faeces (human or animal) are treated in an appropriate manner they can be biologically digested to produce compost, liquid fertilizer or methane which can be burned for cooking, lighting or power generation (Mihelcic et al, 2008, P478). Waste material needs to be considered as well. Indiscriminate dumping for waste material can produce leachate that, if left untreated, could contaminate clean water sources. Municipal was should be sorted, incinerated and disposed of in a sanitary manner. Whereas solid human or animal waste can decomposed to reduce their biological oxygen demand and returned to the system as fertilizer.

11.5 Education and community participation


The first step in achieving a successful rural project is to have every head of house (male and female) in agreement that it is needed and that they will participate (Mihelcic et al, 2009; Keirns, 2007). Gram Vikas has found that creating a community fund where each household contributes one thousand Indian rupees creates a feeling of ownership of the project and responsibility to maintain it (Keirns, 2007). It must be noted, however, that it is only rural people that are forced to pay for investment in essential services (Keirns, 2007, P33) so the services provided must be of a high quality. 56

Daniel Smith 0634319 It is proposed that rainwater harvesting facilities that either uses the rooftop or a hard standing ground level area as the catchment are constructed at schools and centres of community. Sanitary facilities should also be constructed here. These areas can then be used to facilitate a programme of education about water, sanitation and the programme in general. In line with the Gram Panchayati system it is proposed that committees be elected to manage the operation of different aspects of the project that must be made up of at least 50% women. If this is not culturally suitable it is suggested that separate committees be formed with only women and facilitated by FES to ensure that the womens opinions carry equal weight to the men. However, it is proposed that a condition of the programme should be that women are involved equally as men in general and specifically in areas that they are responsible for such as the design and maintenance of clean water sources.

12 Discussion of investigation
This investigation would not have been possible without the assistance of the Foundation for Ecological security because, in general, geographic information about India is quite limited. If the investigation had been of watershed management in the United States then a large amount of geospatial data would have been freely available to download from the United States Geographic Survey. Investigation of online sources suggest that this information is being dealt with by various organisation in Indian and governmental departments. NASA has also made a large amount of remote sensing data available for download and Google provides 3D maps via Google Earth of anywhere on the planet. The level of detail required to implement the hydrological analysis was only possible due to the survey that the Foundation for Ecological Security conducted. They provided two thousand three hundred and sixty seven pieces of land use information in a GIS map that included, amongst other things, data on depth of soil, observed erosion, soil type, land cover, ownership and land slope. It is

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Daniel Smith 0634319 not known what the cost of the survey was or how it was conducted. But this is a cost that would need to be considered if this approach were to be taken by another organisation. Following a lengthy investigation it was decided that commercial software was more suitable for this investigation than open source software. The two pieces of software used retail at around fifteen hundred pounds each which is an additional cost that an organisation would need to consider. The open source software is of a high standard and given more time it is believed that it could be applied to a similar investigation. That being said, however, no alternative to AutoCAD was found that could be used for three dimensional modelling needed for to create cross sections. The NRCS curve method could be further developed to provide unit hydrographs and flow rates for each watershed. It would require each milli-watershed to be broken down in to additional catchment areas in a similar manner to that used for the Rational Method. Isochoric areas would need to be established across the catchment area. Then the time of concentration between each area and the point under analysis could be calculated. The Rational Method (or furthering the NRCS curve method) gives peak flow rates which are used in the design of retention structures and flood routing along drainage channels. As there are no dimensions or indications of channel construction (to assume roughness coefficients from) this analysis was not conducted. Such information would either require a field visit or additional surveying by the partner organisation at additional cost. Rainfall data is also quite sparse and streamflow data at any location was not available. Literature used gave examples that used point data for rainfall that was recorded over periods of hours or minutes. Again this may be something that is available from government bodies in India and it could be surveyed over time. Streamflow data could be used to indicate the time that the watershed would take to react to rainfall and, with channel dimensions, the volume of water that leaves the system at any point.

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Daniel Smith 0634319 FES provided a geohydrological study of Rawach which indicated the recharge potential of the area (Figure 10-9) and included pumping tests which could be used to estimate the velocity of groundwater flow. It is believed that further investigation to estimate information, such as general soil permeability coefficient, could be used to model groundwater flow in the area. The Food and Agricultural Organisation advise the use of the Penman-Monteith equation because it will give more accurate results than the Blaney-Criddle equation used; Brouwer and Heibloem (1986) state that the Blaney-Criddle equation will only give results to within an order of magnitude. The Penman-Monteith equation is complicated though and requires meteorological coefficients and additional local information. They gave an example with these coefficients and stated that they are available for various locations. It was believed, though, that the Blaney-Criddle method was accurate enough for this analysis as exact quantities of water for irrigation were not being calculated. If a large area were to be irrigated automatically then more accurate results would be needed but this investigation only sought to identify if enough water was available for further development of the area. It is the opinion of the author that an investigation should be pragmatic. Further surveys and ever more data could be obtained which would increase the accuracy of predictions. But the time and cost may make this prohibitive. As has been discussed these technologies are not new and the engineers that originally developed them did not have a computer or satellite imagery. Therefore a desk based investigation will never be sufficient to fully plan a project of this type and should only be used as an indicative appraisal of what could be possible. However, throughout the investigation no other examples that used hydrological analysis to estimate rainwater harvesting in arid or semi-arid regions were found. This investigation has shown that models usually used for flood risk analysis can be used to analyse rainwater harvesting potential and it is believed that further study could develop a general approach which would be applicable at any region of the world. 59

Daniel Smith 0634319

Conclusion
This report has investigated the use of modern engineering tools and principals to create a watershed management plan for a rural area of India. The concepts used have been based on traditional Indian rainwater harvesting technologies that have been in use on the sub-continent since at least 300BC but have lately been neglected in favour of large scale irrigation and water supply systems similar to those used in Europe. The report has reviewed the available literature pertaining to traditional Indian rainwater harvesting, environmental engineering in developing countries and hydrological analysis for flood risk management. It was found that the principals described are similar, therefore a mathematical procedure used to analyse flooding can also be used to analyse water retention if the objective of the function is altered. The hypothesis of the project has been explored by analysing a rural watershed in North-West India. Thirteen years of rainfall data have been analysed and compared to water consumption estimates. The total volume of rainfall per annum was found to be at least 4.2 million cubic metres which far exceeds the estimated water consumption of five hundred thousand cubic metres. Due to monsoon conditions rainwater harvesting structures are need and these can be designed using peak flow rates determined. This case study has been used to develop a project proposal for the area which includes sanitation, economic and social factors. It was found that evapotranspiration is the major source of water demand for arable areas. This is related to wind speed and direct solar radiation. Therefore it has been propose that creating wind breaks using fruit trees will reduce the arable water demand and provide extra food for the populace. The study did not find similar examples of analysis for rainwater harvesting and it is believed that this approach could be developed for any region of the world if sufficient data is available. 60

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