New Design Circuit Harmonic Reduction of Single Phase Converter by Current Injecting Method
Hussein I. Zainal
Salar A. Kadir
Hilmi F. Ameen
Electrical Engineering Department, Engineering College, Salahaddin University
Erbil, IRAQ Contact Author email:hfameen@gmail.com
_{A}_{b}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t} _{—} AC/DC controlled and uncontrolled converters are widely used in many industrial applications. The large harmonic input currents generated of such converters are wellknown problems that can lead to voltage distortion and increased losses in distribution system. In order to solve the converter generated harmonic problems a number of techniques proposed by many authors, one of these is the current injection method, which is considered in this paper. The principle of this method is to modify the input current waveform by injecting every harmonic components of the rectified current, with an opposite phase, to the AC side of the converter. The current injection circuit is used for harmonic reduction of the controlled and uncontrolled singlephase bridge rectifier. Analytical study of current injection technique shows a drastic minimization of 3rd , 5th, 7th , 9th,…. harmonic components of the input current, with total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input current reduced from 48% to ~10% and power factor improved nearly to unity. Applying the technique of current injection approximately sinusoidal waveform of the input current are obtained, when the injection current effective values nearly equal to DC load current for first current configuration or equal to 0.666 of the DC load for circuit configuration. Simulation of the controlled and uncontrolled singlephase bridge rectifier current injection circuit presented by (Matlab Simulink). The obtained result showed reduction in the total harmonic distortion and the power factor closed to unity for many values of the firing angle ( α ). In addition the results showed good consistency between the theoretical analysis and simulation results.
Keywords— Current Injection, CC(controlled converter) Harmonic Reduction, Single Phase Converter.
I.
INTRODUCTION
T HE control of electric power with power electronic devices has become very important over the last years.
Whole new classes of motors have been enabled by power electronics, and the future offers the possibility of more effective control of the electric power grid using power electronics [1]. Power systems are designed to operate at fundamental frequencies. However, certain types of nonlinear loads produce currents and voltages with frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. These higher frequencies are a form of electrical pollution known as power system harmonics [2]. Ideally, voltage and current waveforms are perfect sinusoids. However, because of the increased popularity of
electronic and other nonlinear loads, these waveforms quite often become distorted. This deviation from a perfect sine wave can be represented by harmonics sinusoidal components having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency Fig. 1. Thus, a pure voltage or current sine wave has no distortion and no harmonics, and a non sinusoidal wave has distortion and harmonics. To quantify the distortion, the term total harmonic distortion (THD) is used [2]. The term is the ratio of the harmonic components of voltage (or current) to the voltage (or current) of the fundamental alone:
THDI %
=
100
×
…
(1)
r.m.s value of nth harmonic component
n
V _{1} ,I _{1}
nth harmonic component r.m.s value of fundamental components [6].
The characteristic harmonics are based on the number of
rectifiers
determined by the following equation:
(pulse
number)
used
in
a
circuit
and
can
be
n = (k x p) ±1
Where: k = an integer (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 …)
p = number of pulses of rectifier [3].
Fig.1Distorted waveform composed 3 ^{r}^{d} harmonic and fundamental
W. M. Lawrance proposed a method of reducing harmonic currents on the AC supply side of a three phase diode rectifier. The process consists of modifying the secondary current waveform by injecting a third harmonic current into the neutral point of the converter transformer. The third harmonic current is automatically generated using LC passive filters.
The limitation of this method is the additional power losses by the resistors present in the passive network [4]. S. kim, P. Enjeti proposed a new approach to improve power factor and reduce current harmonics of a threephase diode rectifier using the technique of the line injection.The proposed approach is passive and consists of a novel interconnection of a stardelta transformer between the AC and DC sides of the diode rectifier. A circulating third harmonic current is automatically generated, and injected to the AC side lines of the rectifier. The resulting input current is near sinusoidal in shape with a significant reduction in supply current harmonics. The disadvantage of this approach is the additional cost of the stardelta transformer which is rated about 43% of the rectifier output power [5]. X.Dai, Y.Xu, D.He Proposed a novel solution to the problem of harmonic pollution caused by an AC/DC singlephase bridge rectifier by adding an additional passive resonant net between the AC and DC sides of the rectifier. The passive resonant network, which consists of an inductance and three capacitances, will generate a second harmonic current and this current injected to the AC supply line of the rectifier. Simulation results show that the total harmonic distortion THD of the supply current can be reduced from 50% to 10% [6]. J. Carlos and A.H. Samra discussed a novel approach of zigzag transformer connected between AC and DC sides of UCC. They showed by simulation using ElectroMagnetic Transient Program, that the generated circulating current drastically reduces the supply current harmonics. No practical results are presented [7]. P. Pejovic and Z. Janda analyzed the diode rectifier applying passive current injection networks proposed in [4] and [5]. The result of their analysis showed that the minimum THD of the input current is obtained when the phase displacement between the third harmonic voltage and current equal to zero, and the amplitude of the current injected to each phase of the rectifier equal to one half of the load current [8]. P. Pejovic and Z. Janda proposed a low harmonic three phase diode rectifier that applies near optimal current injectionthree resistors and three nondissipative filters. The injection network consists of thirteen elements [9]. P. Bozovic and P. Pejovic proposed a novel passive current injection for three phase full bridge Thyristor rectifier. The rectifier utilizes current injection network consists of a transformer with the turn ratio 1:1, an inductor, two capacitors and one pair of antiparallel connected thyristors. The result show that obtained the minimizing input current THD, while preserving high efficiency of the rectifier [10]. Basil. M. S and Hussein.I.Z proposed a new concept and a novel passive resonant network, which is connected between the AC and DC sides of the Threephase rectifier, analyses and simulated by PSPICE program. The result show that the shape of line current becomes nearly sinusoidal and the THD of the AC supply current can be reduced from 32% to 5% [11]. The aim of this Paper is to reduce current harmonics and improve power factor of input current in a singlephase controlled and uncontrolled rectifier based on harmonic current injection
technique in order to get input current waveform near to sinusoidal waveform. For this purpose the current injection circuit have been used and proposed. Therefore the broad objectives of this paper ; Analyzing the current injection technique for singlephase CC rectifier in order to minimize harmonic distortion and improve power factor of the input current, mathematical analysis of the passive current injection network in order to get the equations of elements to design current injection network and simulating the circuit configuration of CC rectifier with and without current injection, using (Matlab Simulink) program, and comparing the waveforms results. The circuit arrangement of a single phase full converter is shown in Fig. 2 with a highly inductive load. During the positive halfcycle, thyristor and are forward biased; and when these two thyristor are fired simultaneously at , the load is connected to the input supply through and . During the negative halfcycle, thyristor and are forward biased; and firing of thyristors and will apply the supply voltage across thyristor and as reverse blocking voltage [20].
Fig.2 single phase bridge converter IIHarmonic Analysis of the Input Current The input current of a controlledbridge rectifier is a square waveform when the load is high inductive load. In addition, the input current is shifted by the firing angle with respect to the input voltage , as shown in Fig.3 The Fourier Series analysis of input current waveform in Fig. 3
i
s
= I
d
α
[1.273sin(ω
t −
α)
+
0.424sin 3(ω
t −
α)
+
0.254sin 5(ω
+ 0.181sin 7(ωt − α) + 0.141sin 9(ωt − α) +
]
….(2)
t −
It is clear from Eq. 2 that the harmonic orders of input current are only the odd harmonics such as 3,5,7,9.
The r.m.s value of the fundamental component current
is
I
s _{1}
=
=
0 .9
I
d
α
……(3)
α)
The total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input current is
given by
THDI
=
……(4)
By substituting Eq.2 in to Eq.4, the THDI equal to 48.43% [12];
Fig. 3 Waveform of input current and voltage of the singlephase controlled rectifier with high inductive load.
The harmonic series of the waveform given in Fig. 2.3(b) is:
i
inj
= − I
d
α
[0.424sin3(ω
t −
α)
+
+ 0.141sin 9(ωt − α ) +
0.254sin5(ω
t −
α)
+
0.181sin7(ω
t −
……
(5)
α)
Where i _{i}_{n}_{j} is all harmonic components of the ideal injection current. If the harmonic current components given by Eq.5 are injected to the input current of the converter (adding the two waveform given in Fig.4(a) and Fig.4(b), then the waveform in Fig.4(c) is obtained. This waveform has a fundamental frequency only, which is the first term of Eq. 2. This means that by injecting a current which has a waveform given in Fig. 4(b) to the input current of the converter, all the harmonic components of the input current are eliminated. When injecting any current waveform to the AC side of the converter, there will be switching affect on this waveform. The ideal harmonic current waveform after switching is shown in Fig.4(b).
Fig. 4 Principle of current injection technique
(a) 
Input current without harmonic current injection 
(b) 
Ideal current waveform of all harmonic components of (a) with 
opposite phase (c) Ideal current waveform after injection (fundamental component)
Fig.5 shows a single phase thyristor bridge converter with a passive current injection network. The passive current injection network is connected between the AC and DC sides of the thyristor bridge converter. The passive current injection network consists of current injection network, and current injection device. The current injection network consists of adjusting coil element, and this coil is used to adjust the magnitude and phase of the second harmonic current. The current injection device is applied to divide current in three equal parts, and each parts can be realized as current injection capacitors (C _{j} ) in series with current injection inductors (L _{j} ). The current injection device used for power factor correction and the reactance of the current injection capacitors must be equal to the reactance current injection inductors at second harmonic frequency.
Fig.(5) Thyristor bridge converter with passive current injection circuit.
Fig.6
Current direction of thyristor bridge converter with current
injection(a) (T _{1} ,T _{2} ) conducting.(b) (T _{3} , T _{4} ) conducting
Fig.6 shows that the input current after current injection equal
2 ) .The current of the thyristors (T _{1} ,T _{3} ) equal to
to (
I d
α
+
2 i
3
(
( I d
greater than the current passing in thyristors (T _{2} ,T _{4} ), therefore the converter is unbalanced. The positive peak value of must coincide with the positive pulse center of the input current before harmonic current injection. Therefore from Fig. 2.6(b) the second harmonic current is to be given in the following equation
2 ) but the current of the thyristors (T _{2} ,T _{4} ) equal to
), the current passing in thyristors (T _{1} ,T _{3} ) is
I
d
α
+ i
α
+
i
2
3
i
2
=
− I
m
cos
2 (
ω t
− α
)
=
− I
m
sin(
2
ω t
−
2
α
+
π
2
)
…(6)
Where I _{m}
is the max. value of second harmonic current.
Since the converter operation is divided into two periods, in each period a pair of thyristors are conducting. Therefore the converter input current after current injection can be expressed as:
'
i s
=
I
d
−
α +
( I
d
α
α
) π
≤
+
t
ω
≤
π
α
≤
t
ω
+
≤
α
2
π
+
α
….(7)
the
reduction. Defining the injecting factor
Where
i
'
s
is
input
current
after
as:
ρ
=
I
m
I
d
α
harmonic
current
….(8)
Where
I d α
is the DC load current. The injection current
during a complete period
can be expressed as:
'
i inj
=
2
3
i
2
=
−
2
3
2
3
ρ
ρ
∗
∗
I
d
I
α
d
α
∗
∗
cos
cos
2 (
2 (
ω
ω
t
t
−
−
α
α
)
)
α
π
≤
+
ω
α
t
≤
≤
π
ω
t
+
≤
α
2
π
+
α
……(9)
in Fig. 7(c) during a complete
period _{α} _{≤} _{ω} _{t} _{≤} _{2}_{π} _{+} _{α} can be obtained by the switching function (SF ). Then the harmonic components of the injection current can be expressed by Fourier series as follow:
'
The injection current _{i} _{i}_{n}_{j}
i
'
inj
= SF
×
2
3
i
2
….(10)
Eq.
injection current becomes as follow:
Substituting SF ,Eq.6
and
'
i inj
=
ρ
I
d
α
*
8
in to Eq.10, then the
0.283sin(ωt −α) − 0.508sin3(ωt −α) − 0.202sin5(ωt −α) − 0.132 sin 7(ω t − _{α} ) − 0.098 sin 9(ω t − _{α} ) −
( 11)
The input current
after harmonic current reduction
can be obtained by adding Eq. 2 and Eq.11 as:
i
'
s
=
I
d
α
*
(1.273+0.283ρ)sin(ωt −α) +(0.424−0.508ρ)sin3(ωt −α)
+ (0.254− 0.202ρ)sin5(ωt −α) + (0.181− 0.132ρ)sin7(ωt −α)
+ (0.141 − 0.098 ) sin 9(ω t − α ) −
( 12 )
Eq.12 shows that the harmonic component amplitudes of
depend on the injection factor
which is
)
and load current ( I ). Fig. 7(d) shows the waveform of the
dependant on the max. value of second harmonic current(
input current
ρ
I
m
dα
input current after harmonic current reduction at _{ρ} _{=}_{1} .
Fig.7 a Switching function or input current without current injection b Second harmonic current c The injection current after switching d Input current with current injection.
_{I}_{I}_{I}_{.}_{O}_{P}_{T}_{I}_{M}_{U}_{M} INJECTION FACTOR FOR CIRCUIT
It is clear from Eq.12 that each harmonic component of the input current can be attenuated to zero by an appropriate selection of injecting factor. By substituting harmonic
component current from Eq. 12 in to Eq.4, and considering the harmonic order up to 17th, therefore the total harmonic
distortion THD for
input current
THD
=
( 
1 
) 
0 .347 
ρ 
2 
− 
0 .6691 
ρ 
+ 
0 .34 

0 .283 
ρ 
+ 
1 .273 
( 13 )
Differentiating Eq.13 with respect to shows that THD has
a minimum value at . Fig.8 shows the THD versus the injection factor . The minimum THD (10%) can be obtained when is nearly equal to 1. This is called optimum. Therefore the optimum minimization of input current distortion is obtained when and Eq.12 is reduced to:
i
^{'}
s
=
I dα
1.556sin(ωt −α) + 0.084sin3(ωt −α) + 0.052sin5(ωt −α)
+
0 .048 sin
7 (ω t − α ) + 0 .042
sin 9 (ω t − α )
(
14 )
It is clear from Eq.14 that the fundamental component of input
and
current
Significant reduction in input current harmonics compared
is
increased
from
(
1 .273 I
d α
)
to
(
1 .556 I
d α
)
with
for uncontrolled
converter.
The of single phase converter can be represented as the product of a distortion factor and displacement factor. The distortion factor is the ratio of the r.m.s of the fundamental component to the total r.m.s of input current. The displacement factor is the cosine of the input displacement angle which is the angular displacement between the fundamental component of the ac input current and the supply voltage. The fundamental component is either in phase or lags behind the voltage by an angle which depends upon the firing angle [22]. PF = distortion factor × displacement factor
Fig.8 THD% variation with injection factor
_{ρ}
PF
=
Is
1
Is
×
cos
θ
1
(
15
)
Is
is the r.m.s value of the fundamental component of
1
input current , _{I}_{s} is the total r.m.s value of the input current
and
input current and the supply voltage. VDesign Circuit
θ
1
is the angle between the fundamental component of the
The capacitor & inductor injection value as a function of for PF compensation and with harmonic current injection can be expressed as:
X
j
=
V
m
1
. 556
I
d α
sin
α
(
Simplifying the above equation at resonance
( α=0).
9 
× 1 .556 
I 
do cos 
α 
sin 
α 

16 
fV π 
m 
C =
16
X
)
Cj
= X
L =
2 V 
m 

f 9 π 
× 
1 . 556 
I 
d 0 
sin 
2 α 
…… (17)
Lj
at
The value of passive current injection network elements for
different firing angle which connected between the AC and
DC sides of the thyristor bridge converter based on the
equations that have been derived to select the elements value of passive current injection network, where the thyristor
bridge converter is supplied by singlephase voltage source,(100V) peak, 50 Hz, and high inductive load(1H ). Maximum converter load current is assumed 5A. Therefore
the converter output current at firing angle is α
d
α
I
= 5cos
.
From Eq. 16 and Eq. 17 the capacitance and inductance values for optimum current injection and PF compensation for different firing angle can be calculated. Table I gives the capacitance and inductance values (theoretical, simulation) at different values of the firing angle. Table I The injection capacitance and inductance value at different value of firing angle.
α 
Theoretical 
Simulation 

C 
j 
L 
j 
C 
j 
L j 

0 
0µf 
0 mH 
15µf 
169 mH 

15 
69µf 
36 mH 
69µf 
36 
mH 

30 
77.5µf 
32.7 mH 
77.5µf 
32.7 mH 

45 
139µf 
18 mH 
139µf 
18 
mH 

60 
38µf 
66 mH 
38µf 
66 
mH 
The adjusting inductance value in table.II gives the coil element inductance (theoretical, simulation) at different values of the firing angle. Table II. Adjusting inductance at different values of firing angle
Firing angle 
0 
15 
30 
4 
60 

5 

( 
L 
f 
) 
6 
mH 
8 
mH 
12 
mH 
16 
m 
24 
mH 
Theoretical 

( 
L 
f 
) 
6 
mH 
10 mH 
14 
mH 
18 
m 
26 
mH 

Simulation 
IV. SIMULATION RESUILTS
Table. III. gives simulation results of the PF and THD for different firing angles.
Firing 
Without current injection 
With current injection 

angle 

PF 
THD% 
PF 
THD% 

0 
0.91 
48 
0.99 
9.6 
15 
0.88 
47.3 
0.98 
11.7 
30 
0.8 
46.6 
0.96 
12.8 
45 
0.65 
45.6 
0.95 
13.6 
60 
0.46 
43.8 
0.85 
17.6 
It is noticed for Table. III i The THD of input current are significantly reduced after current injection. iiThe PF is significantly improved iiiThe THD of input current are slightly increased as firing angle increased. Figs. 9(a), 9(b), 9(c), and 9(d) show the simulated voltage and input current without and with interconnection of current injection network for firing angle 0 and 45 ^{o}
respectively. Figs. 10(a), 10(b), 10(c), and 10(d) show the
harmonic spectrum for input current without and with interconnection of current injection network for firing angle 0 and 45 ^{o} respectively.
Fig.9 a Input voltage and current without injection (α =0) b Input voltage and current with injection (α =0) cInput voltage and current without injection (α =45 ^{0} ) d Input voltage and current with injection (α =45 ^{0} )
Fig.10 aHarmonic spectrum for input current without injection _{(}_{α} =0), bHarmonic spectrum for input current with injection (α =0), cHarmonic spectrum for input current without injection (α =45 ^{0} ), dHarmonic spectrum for input current with injection (α =45 ^{0} ).
Table IV. Harmonic order for current injection and without current injection.
Harmonic 
Without Current 
With current 

order 
Injection 
injection 

_{3} 
rd 
42.3% 
8.6% 
_{5} 
th 
25.4% 
4.4% 
_{7} 
th 
18% 
3.8% 
_{9} 
th 
14% 
6.2% 
11 
^{t}^{h} 
11.5% 
3.2% 
13 
^{t}^{h} 
9.7% 
5.6% 
PF 
0.91 
0.99 

THD 
48% 
9.6% 
VI.CONCLUSION
In this paper using the current injection technique to reduce harmonic distortion of the input current in singlephase CC, and it’s simulated by computer using (Matlab Simulink).The shape of the input current is almost sinusoidal. The Simulation and theoretical analysis of input current after harmonic current injection show that the total harmonic distortion (THD) is reduced from (48.8%) to (10%) for zero firing angle but the total harmonic distortion increased when the firing angle increased. The injection circuit is simple and very cheap. The passive current injection network is lossless.
REFERENCES
[1] Timothy L. Skvarenina, “The Power Electronics Handbook”, Industrial Electronics Series, Published in 2002 by CRS Press LLC. [2] Prof. Mack Grady, “Understanding Power System Harmonics”, University of Texas at Austin, June 2005, www.ece.utexas.edu/~grady. [3] SQUARE D, Product Data Bulletion, “Power System Harmonics Causes and Effects of Variable Frequency Drives Related to the IEEE 5191992 Standard”, Bulleti No.8803PD9402, Raleigh, No, USA, August 1994.
W. B. Lawrance and W. Mielezarski, “Harmonic Current Reduction in
[4]
a ThreePhase Diode Bridge Rectifier”, IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, Vol. 39, No. 6, PP. 571576, Dec. 1992.
[5] S. kim, P. Enjeti. P. Packebush and I.J. Pital, “A New Approach to Improve Power Factor and Reduce Harmonic in Threephase Diode Rectifier Type Utility Interface”, IEEE Trans. On Industry Applications, Vol. 30, No. 6, PP. 15571564, November/December 1994.
[6] X.Dai. ,Y.Xu. and D.He, “Novel Passive Rectifier with Low THD
Based on Harmonics Injection and Counteracting Principle”, IEE Tran.
On Power Elect. Power Appl., Vol. 145, No. 4, July 1998.
[7]
Current Harmonics Generated by a Three phase Bridge Rectifier”, IEEE, PP.345359, 1998. [8] P.Pejovic and Z.Janda, “An Analysis of ThreePhase Low Harmonic Rectifiers Applying the ThirdHarmonic Current Injection”, IEEE Trans. On Power Electronics, Vol. 14, No. 3, PP. 397407, May 1999. [9] P.Pejovic and Z.Janda, “Low Harmonic ThreePhase Rectifier Applying Current Injection”, IEEE Proc.Electric Power Appl., Vol. 146, No. 5, PP. 545551, September 1999. [10] P.Bozovic and P.Pejovic, “A Novel ThreePhase Full Bridge Thyristor Rectifier based On the Controlled Third Harmonic Current Injection”, IEEE Bologna Power Tech Conference, June 2326, 2003, Bologna, Italy. [11] Basil M. Saied and Hussein I.Zynal, “Minimizing Current Distortion of a ThreePhase Bridge Rectifier based On Line Injection Technique”, IEEE Trans. On Power Electronics, Vol. 26, No. 6, November 2006.
Jana Carlos and Abdul H. Samra, “A New Technique to Reduce Line
[12] Muhammad H. Rashid, “Power Electronics Circuit, Devices, and Applications”, Third Edition, New Delhi (PrenticeHall of India Private limited), 2004.
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