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New Design Circuit Harmonic Reduction of Single Phase Converter by Current Injecting Method

Hussein I. Zainal

Salar A. Kadir

Hilmi F. Ameen

Electrical Engineering Department, Engineering College, Salahaddin University

Erbil, IRAQ Contact Author email:hfameen@gmail.com

Abstract AC/DC controlled and uncontrolled converters are widely used in many industrial applications. The large harmonic input currents generated of such converters are well-known problems that can lead to voltage distortion and increased losses in distribution system. In order to solve the converter generated harmonic problems a number of techniques proposed by many authors, one of these is the current injection method, which is considered in this paper. The principle of this method is to modify the input current waveform by injecting every harmonic components of the rectified current, with an opposite phase, to the AC side of the converter. The current injection circuit is used for harmonic reduction of the controlled and uncontrolled single-phase bridge rectifier. Analytical study of current injection technique shows a drastic minimization of 3rd , 5th, 7th , 9th,…. harmonic components of the input current, with total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input current reduced from 48% to ~10% and power factor improved nearly to unity. Applying the technique of current injection approximately sinusoidal waveform of the input current are obtained, when the injection current effective values nearly equal to DC load current for first current configuration or equal to 0.666 of the DC load for circuit configuration. Simulation of the controlled and uncontrolled single-phase bridge rectifier current injection circuit presented by (Matlab Simulink). The obtained result showed reduction in the total harmonic distortion and the power factor closed to unity for many values of the firing angle ( α ). In addition the results showed good consistency between the theoretical analysis and simulation results.

KeywordsCurrent Injection, CC(controlled converter) Harmonic Reduction, Single Phase Converter.

I.

INTRODUCTION

T HE control of electric power with power electronic devices has become very important over the last years.

Whole new classes of motors have been enabled by power electronics, and the future offers the possibility of more effective control of the electric power grid using power electronics [1]. Power systems are designed to operate at fundamental frequencies. However, certain types of non-linear loads produce currents and voltages with frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. These higher frequencies are a form of electrical pollution known as power system harmonics [2]. Ideally, voltage and current waveforms are perfect sinusoids. However, because of the increased popularity of

electronic and other non-linear loads, these waveforms quite often become distorted. This deviation from a perfect sine wave can be represented by harmonics sinusoidal components having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency Fig. 1. Thus, a pure voltage or current sine wave has no distortion and no harmonics, and a non- sinusoidal wave has distortion and harmonics. To quantify the distortion, the term total harmonic distortion (THD) is used [2]. The term is the ratio of the harmonic components of voltage (or current) to the voltage (or current) of the fundamental alone:

n =∞ 2 ∑ V n n = 2 THDV % = 100 × V
n
=∞
2
V
n
n
= 2
THDV %
=
100
×
V
1
Where: V n
, I
n

THDI %

=

100

×

n =∞ 2 ∑ I n n = 2 I 1
n
=∞
2
∑ I n
n
= 2
I
1

(1)

r.m.s value of nth harmonic component

n

V 1 ,I 1

nth harmonic component r.m.s value of fundamental components [6].

The characteristic harmonics are based on the number of

rectifiers

determined by the following equation:

(pulse

number)

used

in

a

circuit

and

can

be

n = (k x p) ±1

Where: k = an integer (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 …)

p = number of pulses of rectifier [3].

(1, 2, 3, 4, 5 …) p = number of pulses of rectifier [3]. Fig.1Distorted waveform

Fig.1Distorted waveform composed 3 rd harmonic and fundamental

W. M. Lawrance proposed a method of reducing harmonic currents on the AC supply side of a three phase diode rectifier. The process consists of modifying the secondary current waveform by injecting a third harmonic current into the neutral point of the converter transformer. The third harmonic current is automatically generated using LC passive filters.

The limitation of this method is the additional power losses by the resistors present in the passive network [4]. S. kim, P. Enjeti proposed a new approach to improve power factor and reduce current harmonics of a three-phase diode rectifier using the technique of the line injection.The proposed approach is passive and consists of a novel interconnection of a star-delta transformer between the AC and DC sides of the diode rectifier. A circulating third harmonic current is automatically generated, and injected to the AC side lines of the rectifier. The resulting input current is near sinusoidal in shape with a significant reduction in supply current harmonics. The disadvantage of this approach is the additional cost of the star-delta transformer which is rated about 43% of the rectifier output power [5]. X.Dai, Y.Xu, D.He Proposed a novel solution to the problem of harmonic pollution caused by an AC/DC single-phase bridge rectifier by adding an additional passive resonant net between the AC and DC sides of the rectifier. The passive resonant network, which consists of an inductance and three capacitances, will generate a second harmonic current and this current injected to the AC supply line of the rectifier. Simulation results show that the total harmonic distortion THD of the supply current can be reduced from 50% to 10% [6]. J. Carlos and A.H. Samra discussed a novel approach of zigzag transformer connected between AC and DC sides of UCC. They showed by simulation using Electro-Magnetic Transient Program, that the generated circulating current drastically reduces the supply current harmonics. No practical results are presented [7]. P. Pejovic and Z. Janda analyzed the diode rectifier applying passive current injection networks proposed in [4] and [5]. The result of their analysis showed that the minimum THD of the input current is obtained when the phase displacement between the third harmonic voltage and current equal to zero, and the amplitude of the current injected to each phase of the rectifier equal to one half of the load current [8]. P. Pejovic and Z. Janda proposed a low harmonic three phase diode rectifier that applies near optimal current injectionthree resistors and three nondissipative filters. The injection network consists of thirteen elements [9]. P. Bozovic and P. Pejovic proposed a novel passive current injection for three phase full bridge Thyristor rectifier. The rectifier utilizes current injection network consists of a transformer with the turn ratio 1:1, an inductor, two capacitors and one pair of antiparallel connected thyristors. The result show that obtained the minimizing input current THD, while preserving high efficiency of the rectifier [10]. Basil. M. S and Hussein.I.Z proposed a new concept and a novel passive resonant network, which is connected between the AC and DC sides of the Three-phase rectifier, analyses and simulated by PSPICE program. The result show that the shape of line current becomes nearly sinusoidal and the THD of the AC supply current can be reduced from 32% to 5% [11]. The aim of this Paper is to reduce current harmonics and improve power factor of input current in a single-phase controlled and uncontrolled rectifier based on harmonic current injection

technique in order to get input current waveform near to sinusoidal waveform. For this purpose the current injection circuit have been used and proposed. Therefore the broad objectives of this paper ; Analyzing the current injection technique for single-phase CC rectifier in order to minimize harmonic distortion and improve power factor of the input current, mathematical analysis of the passive current injection network in order to get the equations of elements to design current injection network and simulating the circuit configuration of CC rectifier with and without current injection, using (Matlab Simulink) program, and comparing the waveforms results. The circuit arrangement of a single- phase full converter is shown in Fig. 2 with a highly inductive load. During the positive half-cycle, thyristor and are forward biased; and when these two thyristor are fired simultaneously at , the load is connected to the input supply through and . During the negative half-cycle, thyristor and are forward biased; and firing of thyristors and will apply the supply voltage across thyristor and as reverse blocking voltage [20].

across thyristor and as reverse blocking voltage [20]. Fig.2 single phase bridge converter II-Harmonic Analysis of

Fig.2 single phase bridge converter II-Harmonic Analysis of the Input Current The input current of a controlled-bridge rectifier is a square waveform when the load is high inductive load. In addition, the input current is shifted by the firing angle with respect to the input voltage , as shown in Fig.3 The Fourier Series analysis of input current waveform in Fig. 3

i

s

= I

d

α

[1.273sin(ω

t

α)

+

0.424sin 3(ω

t

α)

+

0.254sin 5(ω

+ 0.181sin 7(ωt α) + 0.141sin 9(ωt α) +

]

….(2)

t

It is clear from Eq. 2 that the harmonic orders of input current are only the odd harmonics such as 3,5,7,9.

The r.m.s value of the fundamental component current

is

I

s 1

=

1 . 273 I d α 2
1 . 273
I
d
α
2

=

0 .9

I

d

α

…(3)

α)

The total harmonic distortion (THD) of the input current is

given by

THDI

=

2 2 I − I s s 1 2 I s 1
2
2
I
I
s
s 1
2
I
s 1

……(4)

By substituting Eq.2 in to Eq.4, the THDI equal to 48.43% [12];

substituting Eq.2 in to Eq.4, the THDI equal to 48.43% [12]; Fig. 3 Waveform of input

Fig. 3 Waveform of input current and voltage of the single-phase controlled rectifier with high inductive load.

The harmonic series of the waveform given in Fig. 2.3(b) is:

i

inj

= − I

d

α

[0.424sin3(ω

t

α)

+

+ 0.141sin 9(ωt α ) +

0.254sin5(ω

t

α)

+

0.181sin7(ω

t

……

(5)

α)

Where i inj is all harmonic components of the ideal injection current. If the harmonic current components given by Eq.5 are injected to the input current of the converter (adding the two waveform given in Fig.4(a) and Fig.4(b), then the waveform in Fig.4(c) is obtained. This waveform has a fundamental frequency only, which is the first term of Eq. 2. This means that by injecting a current which has a waveform given in Fig. 4(b) to the input current of the converter, all the harmonic components of the input current are eliminated. When injecting any current waveform to the AC side of the converter, there will be switching affect on this waveform. The ideal harmonic current waveform after switching is shown in Fig.4(b).

current waveform after switching is shown in Fig.4(b). Fig. 4 Principle of current injection technique (a)

Fig. 4 Principle of current injection technique

(a)

Input current without harmonic current injection

(b)

Ideal current waveform of all harmonic components of (a) with

opposite phase (c) Ideal current waveform after injection (fundamental component)

Fig.5 shows a single phase thyristor bridge converter with a passive current injection network. The passive current injection network is connected between the AC and DC sides of the thyristor bridge converter. The passive current injection network consists of current injection network, and current injection device. The current injection network consists of adjusting coil element, and this coil is used to adjust the magnitude and phase of the second harmonic current. The current injection device is applied to divide current in three equal parts, and each parts can be realized as current injection capacitors (C j ) in series with current injection inductors (L j ). The current injection device used for power factor correction and the reactance of the current injection capacitors must be equal to the reactance current injection inductors at second harmonic frequency.

current injection inductors at second harmonic frequency. Fig.(5) Thyristor bridge converter with passive current

Fig.(5) Thyristor bridge converter with passive current injection circuit.

bridge converter with passive current injection circuit. Fig.6 Current direction of thyristor bridge converter with

Fig.6

Current direction of thyristor bridge converter with current

injection(a) (T 1 ,T 2 ) conducting.(b) (T 3 , T 4 ) conducting

Fig.6 shows that the input current after current injection equal

2 ) .The current of the thyristors (T 1 ,T 3 ) equal to

to (

I d

α

+

2 i

3

(

( I d

greater than the current passing in thyristors (T 2 ,T 4 ), therefore the converter is unbalanced. The positive peak value of must coincide with the positive pulse center of the input current before harmonic current injection. Therefore from Fig. 2.6(b) the second harmonic current is to be given in the following equation

2 ) but the current of the thyristors (T 2 ,T 4 ) equal to

), the current passing in thyristors (T 1 ,T 3 ) is

I

d

α

+ i

α

+

i

2

3

i

2

=

I

m

cos

2 (

ω t

α

)

=

I

m

sin(

2

ω t

2

α

+

π

2

)

…(6)

Where I m

is the max. value of second harmonic current.

Since the converter operation is divided into two periods, in each period a pair of thyristors are conducting. Therefore the converter input current after current injection can be expressed as:

'

i s


 

=

I

d

α +

( I

d

α

2 i 2 3 2 + i 2 3
2
i
2
3
2
+
i
2
3

α

) π

+

t

ω

π

α

t

ω

+

α

2

π

+

α


….(7)

the

reduction. Defining the injecting factor

Where

i

'

s

is

input

current

after

as:

ρ

=

I

m

I

d

α

harmonic

current

….(8)

Where

I d α

is the DC load current. The injection current

during a complete period

can be expressed as:

'

i inj

=

2

3

i

2

=

2

3

2

3

ρ

ρ

I

d

I

α

d

α

cos

cos

2 (

2 (

ω

ω

t

t

α

α

)

)

α

π

+

ω

α

t

π

ω

t

+

α

2

π

+

α

……(9)

in Fig. 7(c) during a complete

period α ω t 2π + α can be obtained by the switching function (SF ). Then the harmonic components of the injection current can be expressed by Fourier series as follow:

'

The injection current i inj

i

'

inj

= SF

×

2

3

i

2

….(10)

Eq.

injection current becomes as follow:

Substituting SF ,Eq.6

and

'

i inj

=

ρ

I

d

α

*

8

in to Eq.10, then the

0.283sin(ωt α) 0.508sin3(ωt α) 0.202sin5(ωt α) 0.132 sin 7(ω t α ) 0.098 sin 9(ω t α )

( 11)

The input current

after harmonic current reduction

can be obtained by adding Eq. 2 and Eq.11 as:

i

'

s

=

I

d

α

*

(1.273+0.283ρ)sin(ωt α) +(0.4240.508ρ)sin3(ωt α)

+ (0.2540.202ρ)sin5(ωt α) + (0.1810.132ρ)sin7(ωt α)

+ (0.141 0.098 ) sin 9(ω t α )

( 12 )

Eq.12 shows that the harmonic component amplitudes of

depend on the injection factor

which is

)

and load current ( I ). Fig. 7(d) shows the waveform of the

dependant on the max. value of second harmonic current(

input current

ρ

I

m

dα

input current after harmonic current reduction at ρ =1 .

current after harmonic current reduction at ρ = 1 . Fig.7 a- Switching function or input

Fig.7 a- Switching function or input current without current injection b- Second harmonic current c- The injection current after switching d- Input current with current injection.

III.OPTIMUM INJECTION FACTOR FOR CIRCUIT

It is clear from Eq.12 that each harmonic component of the input current can be attenuated to zero by an appropriate selection of injecting factor. By substituting harmonic

component current from Eq. 12 in to Eq.4, and considering the harmonic order up to 17th, therefore the total harmonic

distortion THD for

input current

THD

=

(

 

1

)

)

0 .347

ρ

2

0 .6691

ρ

+

0 .34

0 .283

ρ

+

1 .273

 

( 13 )

Differentiating Eq.13 with respect to shows that THD has

a minimum value at . Fig.8 shows the THD versus the injection factor . The minimum THD (10%) can be obtained when is nearly equal to 1. This is called optimum. Therefore the optimum minimization of input current distortion is obtained when and Eq.12 is reduced to:

i

'

s

=

I dα

1.556sin(ωt α) + 0.084sin3(ωt α) + 0.052sin5(ωt α)

+

0 .048 sin

7 (ω t α ) + 0 .042

sin 9 (ω t α )

(

14 )

It is clear from Eq.14 that the fundamental component of input

and

current

Significant reduction in input current harmonics compared

is

increased

from

(

1 .273 I

d α

)

to

(

1 .556 I

d α

)

with

Eq. 2.
Eq. 2.

for uncontrolled

converter.

The of single phase converter can be represented as the product of a distortion factor and displacement factor. The distortion factor is the ratio of the r.m.s of the fundamental component to the total r.m.s of input current. The displacement factor is the cosine of the input displacement angle which is the angular displacement between the fundamental component of the ac input current and the supply voltage. The fundamental component is either in phase or lags behind the voltage by an angle which depends upon the firing angle [22]. PF = distortion factor × displacement factor

Fig.8 THD% variation with injection factor

ρ

PF

=

Is

1

Is

×

cos

θ

1

(

15

)

Is

is the r.m.s value of the fundamental component of
1

input current , Is is the total r.m.s value of the input current

and

input current and the supply voltage. V-Design Circuit

θ

1

is the angle between the fundamental component of the

The capacitor & inductor injection value as a function of for PF compensation and with harmonic current injection can be expressed as:

X

j

=

V

m

1

. 556

I

d α

sin

α

(

Simplifying the above equation at resonance

( α=0).

9

× 1 .556

I

do

cos

α

sin

α

 

16

fV

π

m

C =

16

X

)

Cj

= X

L =

 

2 V

m

f

9 π

×

1 . 556

I

d 0

sin

2 α

…… (17)

Lj

at

The value of passive current injection network elements for

different firing angle which connected between the AC and

DC sides of the thyristor bridge converter based on the

equations that have been derived to select the elements value of passive current injection network, where the thyristor

bridge converter is supplied by single-phase voltage source,(100V) peak, 50 Hz, and high inductive load(1H ). Maximum converter load current is assumed 5A. Therefore

the converter output current at firing angle is α

d

α

I

= 5cos

.

From Eq. 16 and Eq. 17 the capacitance and inductance values for optimum current injection and PF compensation for different firing angle can be calculated. Table I gives the capacitance and inductance values (theoretical, simulation) at different values of the firing angle. Table I The injection capacitance and inductance value at different value of firing angle.

α

 

Theoretical

   

Simulation

 
 

C

j

L

j

C

j

 

L

j

0

0µf

0

mH

15µf

169 mH

15

69µf

36

mH

69µf

36

mH

30

77.5µf

32.7 mH

77.5µf

32.7 mH

45

139µf

18

mH

139µf

18

mH

60

38µf

66

mH

38µf

66

mH

The adjusting inductance value in table.II gives the coil element inductance (theoretical, simulation) at different values of the firing angle. Table II. Adjusting inductance at different values of firing angle

Firing angle

0

15

30

4

60

5

(

L

f

)

6

mH

8

mH

12

mH

16

m

24

mH

Theoretical

         

(

L

f

)

6

mH

10 mH

14

mH

18

m

26

mH

Simulation

       

IV. SIMULATION RESUILTS

Table. III. gives simulation results of the PF and THD for different firing angles.

Firing

Without current injection

With current injection

angle

PF

THD%

PF

THD%

0

0.91

48

0.99

9.6

15

0.88

47.3

0.98

11.7

30

0.8

46.6

0.96

12.8

45

0.65

45.6

0.95

13.6

60

0.46

43.8

0.85

17.6

It is noticed for Table. III i- The THD of input current are significantly reduced after current injection. ii-The PF is significantly improved iii-The THD of input current are slightly increased as firing angle increased. Figs. 9(a), 9(b), 9(c), and 9(d) show the simulated voltage and input current without and with interconnection of current injection network for firing angle 0 and 45 o

respectively. Figs. 10(a), 10(b), 10(c), and 10(d) show the

harmonic spectrum for input current without and with interconnection of current injection network for firing angle 0 and 45 o respectively.

network for firing angle 0 and 45 o respectively. Fig.9 a- Input voltage and current without

Fig.9 a- Input voltage and current without injection (α =0) b- Input voltage and current with injection (α =0) c-Input voltage and current without injection (α =45 0 ) d- Input voltage and current with injection (α =45 0 )

Fig.10 a-Harmonic spectrum for input current without injection ( α =0), b-Harmonic spectrum for input

Fig.10 a-Harmonic spectrum for input current without injection (α =0), b-Harmonic spectrum for input current with injection (α =0), c-Harmonic spectrum for input current without injection (α =45 0 ), d-Harmonic spectrum for input current with injection (α =45 0 ).

Table IV. Harmonic order for current injection and without current injection.

Harmonic

Without Current

With current

order

Injection

injection

3

rd

42.3%

8.6%

5

th

25.4%

4.4%

7

th

18%

3.8%

9

th

14%

6.2%

11

th

11.5%

3.2%

13

th

9.7%

5.6%

PF

0.91

0.99

THD

48%

9.6%

VI.CONCLUSION

In this paper using the current injection technique to reduce harmonic distortion of the input current in single-phase CC, and it’s simulated by computer using (Matlab Simulink).The shape of the input current is almost sinusoidal. The Simulation and theoretical analysis of input current after harmonic current injection show that the total harmonic distortion (THD) is reduced from (48.8%) to (10%) for zero firing angle but the total harmonic distortion increased when the firing angle increased. The injection circuit is simple and very cheap. The passive current injection network is lossless.

REFERENCES

[1] Timothy L. Skvarenina, “The Power Electronics Handbook”, Industrial Electronics Series, Published in 2002 by CRS Press LLC. [2] Prof. Mack Grady, “Understanding Power System Harmonics”, University of Texas at Austin, June 2005, www.ece.utexas.edu/~grady. [3] SQUARE D, Product Data Bulletion, “Power System Harmonics Causes and Effects of Variable Frequency Drives Related to the IEEE 519-1992 Standard”, Bulleti No.8803PD9402, Raleigh, No, USA, August 1994.

W. B. Lawrance and W. Mielezarski, “Harmonic Current Reduction in

[4]

a Three-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier”, IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, Vol. 39, No. 6, PP. 571-576, Dec. 1992.

[5] S. kim, P. Enjeti. P. Packebush and I.J. Pital, “A New Approach to Improve Power Factor and Reduce Harmonic in Three-phase Diode Rectifier Type Utility Interface”, IEEE Trans. On Industry Applications, Vol. 30, No. 6, PP. 1557-1564, November/December 1994.

[6] X.Dai. ,Y.Xu. and D.He, “Novel Passive Rectifier with Low THD

Based on Harmonics Injection and Counteracting Principle”, IEE Tran.

On Power Elect. Power Appl., Vol. 145, No. 4, July 1998.

[7]

Current Harmonics Generated by a Three phase Bridge Rectifier”, IEEE, PP.345-359, 1998. [8] P.Pejovic and Z.Janda, “An Analysis of Three-Phase Low Harmonic Rectifiers Applying the Third-Harmonic Current Injection”, IEEE Trans. On Power Electronics, Vol. 14, No. 3, PP. 397-407, May 1999. [9] P.Pejovic and Z.Janda, “Low- Harmonic Three-Phase Rectifier Applying Current Injection”, IEEE Proc.-Electric Power Appl., Vol. 146, No. 5, PP. 545-551, September 1999. [10] P.Bozovic and P.Pejovic, “A Novel Three-Phase Full Bridge Thyristor Rectifier based On the Controlled Third Harmonic Current Injection”, IEEE Bologna Power Tech Conference, June 23-26, 2003, Bologna, Italy. [11] Basil M. Saied and Hussein I.Zynal, “Minimizing Current Distortion of a Three-Phase Bridge Rectifier based On Line Injection Technique”, IEEE Trans. On Power Electronics, Vol. 26, No. 6, November 2006.

Jana Carlos and Abdul H. Samra, “A New Technique to Reduce Line

[12] Muhammad H. Rashid, “Power Electronics Circuit, Devices, and Applications”, Third Edition, New Delhi (Prentice-Hall of India Private limited), 2004.