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Cover Letter: In natural water settings, drowning-related mortalities account for at least ten deaths per day in the United States. From 2005-2009 there was a yearly average of 3,533 fatal unintentional drownings (non-boating related). Humboldt County accounts for seventeen victims between the years of 2004 - June 2011, which is a figure that does not include the high volume of victims this year [2012]. The type of analysis proposed here will not increase the possibility of survival for an individual who has fallen into the water, but will assist in increasing the probability of recovering their remains. The Trinity River is the largest tributary to the Klamath River and has the largest occurrence of drownings in Humboldt County. My project will create a network analysis of the Trinity River that will incorporate data from the ROMAN site on yearly averages over the past ten years for average river depth, speed, temperature, and precipitation. The Trinity River Restoration Program also provides a data inventory of Trinity River flows in cubic feet per second. The National Hydrography Dataset provides access to GIS data specific to California that includes the full breadth of the Trinity River. The availability of this data will enable the development of a model that considers all barriers, delays, or speed limits between the given location of submersion to an output of total network length and time to reemergence. Data on decomposition in aquatic settings and drowning is limited because of the lack of information immediately available. Established phases of drowning and the average time elapsed to reach the bloat stage are required for optimal discovery of remains based on river and environmental conditions. From the point of immersion to recovery, there is only a brief

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recovery window of opportunity available. This is due to the fact that upon drowning, the epiglottis fills with water and the remains subsequently sink. Shortly after remains reach the bloat stage of decomposition and resurface, they deflate and re-submerge. It is only during this brief period that remains are most likely to be collected, so the ability to determine when remains will reach this stage is necessary for an accurate predictive model for remains recovery in an aquatic setting. Ann. Bibliography:
Supplementary Studies and Studies Specifically Pertaining to Decomposition in Aquatic Settings: Data within this section relates primarily to decomposition with aquatic settings, and the studies conducted prior that current research is based upon. Prediction of decomposition rates as they relate to temperature and an aquatic setting is necessary in predicting the reemergence window of opportunity.

1. * Widya, M. , Moffatt, C. , & Simmons, T. (2012). The formation of early stage adipocere in submerged remains: A preliminary experimental study. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57(2), 328-333. Retrieved From http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/doi/10.1111/j.15564029.2011.01980.x/abstract This article describes adipocere in regard to ADD, and the ability to relate ADD to submerged decomposition, and the suggestion that more study needs to be conducted in this area. 2. Vass, A. , Barshick, S. , Sega, G. , Caton, J. , Skeen, J. , et al. (2002). Decomposition chemistry of human remains: A new methodology for determining the postmortem interval. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 47(3), 542-541. This study describes the chemical process in relation to ADD, and the range for complete decomposition and how it relates to the PMI of human remains. The relation of temperature to decomposition is a relevant theme in this article to my study. 3. Megyesi, M. , Nawrocki, S. , & Haskell, N. (2005). Using accumulated degree-days to estimate the postmortem interval from decomposed human remains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 50(3), 618-617. This article provides a point based system for visually estimating the ADD/PMI of an individual by providing a correlation between ADD and PMI. 4. Haefner, J. , Wallace, J. , & Merritt, R. (2004). Pig decomposition in lotic aquatic systems: The potential use of algal growth in establishing a postmortem submersion interval (pmsi). Journal of Forensic Sciences, 49(2), 330-329.

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This article provides information on using algal community composition in estimating PMSI in pigs. The study shows a high correlation between algal growth rates and remains submersion, and with additional information, can be used to predict decomposition rates and stages. 5. Heaton, V. , Lagden, A. , Moffatt, C. , & Simmons, T. (2010). Predicting the postmortem submersion interval for human remains recovered from U.K. waterways. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55(2), 302. Retrieved From http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/doi/10.1111/j.15564029.2009.01291.x/abstract This article specifically aims at attempting to correlate PMSI (postmortem submersion interval) with ADD (accumulated degree days) by conducting a retrospective study on 187 cases of individuals recovered from U.K. waterways. Results found that bodies decomposing in an aquatic setting were relatable to terrestrial conditions with regards to temperature. 6. Slaus M, Strinovic D, Pecina-_laus N, Brikc H, Balicevic D, Petrovecki V, et al. Identification and analysis of human remains recovered from wells from the 1991 War in Croatia. Forensic Sci Int 2007; 171:3743. Retrieved From http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/science/article/pii/S0379073806006 177 This article provides information on the analysis of taphonomic features of 61 individuals recovered from wells in Croatia. 7. O'Brien, T. , & Kuehner, A. (2007). Waxing grave about adipocere: Soft tissue change in an aquatic context. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 52(2), 294-301. Retrieved From http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/doi/10.1111/j.15564029.2006.00362.x/abstract This article provides information on the immersion of 3 human cadavers in water filled pits through a 3 month period to observe adipocere formation and the possible causes of adipocere formation (adipocere is not a guaranteed step in decomposition). 8. Cotton, G. , Aufderheide, A. , & Goldschmidt, V. (1987). Preservation of human tissue immersed for five years in fresh water of known temperature. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 32(4), 1125-1124 This article provides information on two bodies that were recovered from Minnesota and the precise calculation of immersion submersion based on adipocere formation and verified lake temperatures. 9. Barrios, M. , & Wolff, M. (2011). Initial study of arthropods succession and pig carrion decomposition in two freshwater ecosystems in the colombian andes. Forensic Science International, 212(1), 164-172. Retrieved From http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/science/article/pii/S0379073811002 763

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Article provides proposed estimation methods for post-mortem submersion interval in freshwater conditions in regards to arthropods and different stages of decomposition in pigs. 10. Evershed RP. Chemical composition of a bog body adipocere. Archaeometry 1992;2:25365. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/doi/10.1111/j.14754754.1992.tb00496.x/abstract;jsessionid=8AF7DE82EDE7D7B8110018ED1022BE53.d 01t01 This article provides information on a chemical analysis of adipocere and the possibility of sample reduction. 11. Schultz, John J. Williams, Lana J. Wheeler, Sandra M. Dupras, Tosha L., (2005). The Collection of Botanical and Entomological Evidence, Forensic Recovery of Human Remains: Archaeological Approaches, CRC Press. Retrieved From http://learn.humboldt.edu/pluginfile.php/190330/mod_resource/content/1/Week%205%20Entomology.pdf This article provides data on the process of human remains recovery in regards to forensic entomology. 12. Haglund, W. D., Reay, D. T., and Swindler, D.R., Canid Scavenging/Disarticulation Sequence of Human Remains in the Pacific Northwest, Journal of Forensic Sciences. JFSCA, Vol. 34, No. 3. May 1989, pp. 587-606. Retrieved From http://learn.humboldt.edu/pluginfile.php/194271/mod_resource/content/1/Haglund%20et %20al.%20Canid%20Sequences.pdf This article provides data on animal scavenging in aquatic settings for scavenging in the Pacific Northwest. The information provided on observed postmortem intervals and prediction are particularly important. 13. Mann, R. W., Bass, W. M., and Meadows, L., Time Since Death and Decomposition of the Human Body: Variables and Observations in Case and Experimental Field Studies, Journal of Forensic Sciences, JFSCA, Vol. 35, No. 1, Jan. 1990, pp. 103-11 This article provides data from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, on the impact of carrion insect activity, ambient temperature, rainfall, clothing, burial and depth, carnivores, bodily trauma, body weight, and bodily surface contact on the rate of decomposition. 14. Galloway, A., Birkby, W., Jones, A., Henry, T., & Parks, B. (1989). Decay Rates of Human Remains in an Arid Environment. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 34(3), 607-606. This article provides information on a retrospective study on 189 cases concerning decomposition rates within Arizona (mild winters and hot, dry summers). 15. Haglund, W., & Sorg, M. (1997). Forensic Taphonomy: the postmortem fate of human remains. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Multidisciplinary volume containing applications to forensic taphonomy; more importantly, it contains information on transport of remains in water.

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16. Catts, E.P., and N. Haskell 1990. Entomology and Death: A Procedural Guide. Joyces Print Shop, Clemson, SC: Contains a compilation of information collected from experts in Forensic Entomology on collection, analysis, and implications on human remains. 17. Lane, R. (1975). An investigation into blowfly (diptera: Calliphoridae) succession on corpses. Journal of Natural History, 9(5), 581-588. This article contains information on the life-cycle of blowflies in regards to human remains and decomposition. 18. Lord, W. , & Burger, J. (1983). Collection and preservation of forensically important entomological materials. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 28(4), 936-935. Article provides detailed information on collection and preservation of insects in human remains recovery. 19. SHEAN, B. (1993). Observations of differential decomposition on sun exposed vs. shaded pig carrion in coastal washington state. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 38(4), 938. This article provides information rates on decomposition in relation to coastal regions, which is particularly relevant in a Humboldt County drowning. 20. Dix, J. (1987). Missouri's lakes and the disposal of homicide victims. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 32(3), 806-805. Article providing decomposition results of individuals who were submerged for a known range of time (3 weeks to 10 months), and the relation of time to adipocere formation. 21. Lawler, W. (1992). Bodies recovered from water: A personal approach and consideration of difficulties. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 45(8), 654-659. Retrieved from http://jcp.bmj.com/content/45/8/654 This article examines the mechanisms of death after submersion in water and the results of immersion in water in relation to post-pre-and peri-mortem injuries. 22. Kahana, T. , Almog, J. , Levy, J. , Shmeltzer, E. , Spier, Y. , et al. (1999). Marine taphonomy: Adipocere formation in a series of bodies recovered from a single shipwreck. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 44(5), 897-901. This article provides information on a adipocere and the use of adipocere to determine decomposition rates within an aquatic setting with respect to 15 different case studies. 23. Lucas, J. , Goldfeder, L. , & Gill, J. (2002). Bodies found in the waterways of new york city. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 47(1), 137-141. This article provides the epidemiological profile, circumstances, toxicology findings, putrefactorive changes, date of recovery, length of immersion, and injuries of 123 deaths from 1997-2000 of bodies found within New York City waterways.

Kimble |6 Studies and Supplementary Information That Involve Research into Drowning Related Incidences: Understanding the physiology of drowning is important in order to recognize when submersion will initially occur. Water hazards are important to understand because they can complicate and interfere with remains recovery.

1. Hockings, L., & Hooper, A. (2011). Drowning and immersion injury. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, 399-402. Retrieved from http://ac.elscdn.com/S1472029911001433/1-s2.0-S1472029911001433-main.pdf?_tid=1cec57ec4359-11e2-bdb000000aacb35e&acdnat=1355206259_10267e1d75e89374fe20ecf176e5ce42 This article provides information on the specific definition of a drowning related incident, and the physiological parameters. 2. Dean, R. , & Mulligan, J. (2009). Management of water incidents: Drowning and hypothermia. Nursing Standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987), 24(7), 35-39. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=f5f6c25 d-b03d-46ff-9453-282a59eeda89%40sessionmgr112&vid=2&hid=112 This article provides information on water hazards and prevention, as well as the pathophysiology of drowning and hypothermia. 3. Pounder, DJ. (1992) Bodies from Water Lecture Notes.www.dundee.ac.uk/forensicmedicine/notes/water.pdf (Last accessed: October 6 2009.) This source provides lecture notes on the pathological signs of drowning, as well as the effects of immersion on remains. 4. Driscoll, T. R., Harrison, J. A., & Steenkamp, M. (2004). Review of the role of alcohol in drowning associated with recreational aquatic activity. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1730083/pdf/v010p00107.pdf This article provides information on the significant increase of drowning upon consumption of alcohol, as well as the affects alcohol as on remains post-drowning. 5. Gruenthal, A. (2012, November 19). Interview by M Kimble [Web Based Recording]. Humboldt county questions!., Email. This is an interview that provides information on drowning within Humboldt County, and the type of data available through the Coroners Office. 6. ACA. (2010). Level 3: River safety and rescue (sample skills course). American Canoe Association, 1-5. Retrieved from http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.americancanoe.org/resource/resmgr/seicourses/l3_rsr_skills.pdf This source is a course overview from the ACA that describes common river hazards and hazards that create greater risks in drowning.

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7. CDC. (2012). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website: http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/water-safety/waterinjuries-factsheet.html This source provides statistics based on drowning-related mortalities and deaths/day in the USA. Facts on unintentional drowning related incidents. 8. CDC. (2012, June 13). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/Features/dsDrowningRisks/ Article explaining that Humboldt County accounts for seventeen victums between the years of 2004 June 2011. This source provides rates of drowning in natural water sites (including boating) by age group and race/ethnicity in the USA from 1999-2007 and rates of in relation to gender. 9. Dahlberg, C. P. (2011, June 30). Swift, cold and deadly. The Journal. Retrieved from http://www.northcoastjournal.com/news/2011/06/30/swift-cold-and-deadly/ This source is a news story published by the North Coast Journal, and describes drowning within Humboldt County (non-boating related).
Information Relating to Network Analyses and Supplementary Geospatial Information: Few Network Analyses have been conducted on bodies of water, so information on the fundamental process of building a network analysis (primarily used for road-ways; e.g. google maps) will provide an understanding of the process and the viability of creating a stream network analysis.

1. Bolstad, P. (2012). Gis fundamentals: A first text on geographic information systems. (4 ed., pp. 390-398). White Bear Lake, MN: Eider Press. This source is a textbook source that provides geospatial information in relation to GIS In particular, hydrography, network analyses, and watershed analyses. 2. Barnes, J. (2012, December 2). Interview by M Kimble [Web Based Recording]. Pm's and hydrology., Email. This is an interview that provides information on predictive models, hydrography, and network analyses as they pertain to waterways within Humboldt County. 3. ESRI. (1995-2010). Network analyst tutorial. In ArcGIS Sv10 Tutorial Data (pp. 1-119). ESRI. This is a tutorial that provides detailed information on the capabilities of a Network Analysis through ArcGIS and how to incorporate statistical data. 4. USGS. (2012). National hydrography dataset. Retrieved from http://nhd.usgs.gov/ This dataset provides watershed information on Humboldt County (particularly within the Trinity/Klamath Rivers). 5. US Dept of Commerce, (2012). Past weather data. Retrieved from National Weather Service website: http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/wrh/faq/pastdata.php This dataset provides information from the National Weather service on past weather data (humidity, precipitation, temperature, etc.) in relation to Humboldt County (every day for the past ten years).

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6. Giertsen, J. , & Morild, I. (1989). Seafaring bodies. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 10(1), 25-27. Description of two individuals and their respective ~500km drift in high seas. 7. AARP. (2012). Coping with death. Retrieved from http://lifetuner.org/family/copingwith-death/ This article provides information on insurance policies in regards to determining death in the absence of remains. 8. Jiang, Y. (2011). Gis stream network analysis for huaihe river basin of china. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 10, 1553-1558. Retrieved From http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.humboldt.edu/science/article/pii/S1878029611004 427 This article contains prevalent information in regards to conducting a Network Analysis of a river, and the possible set-backs/data necessary for completing a reasonably accurate model for predicting water-related transport. 9. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, USGS. Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium (MRLC). National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Website: http://www.mrlc.gov/ This website is a database that offers geospatial information on Humboldt County, particularly information from GLOVIS/Earth Explorer (DEM Information / Remote Sensing Imagery) 10. NOAA Coastal Services Center. 2009-2011 CA Coastal Conservancy Coastal Lidar Project. Website: http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar This website is a database that offers geospatial information (specifically LiDAR) on Humboldt County. LiDAR information provides detailed elevation information which is necessary in determining segment capacity in a network analysis of a river.