finite element basics

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finite element basics

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Sankara J. Subramanian

Department of Engineering Design

Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

December 11, 2009

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

1 What is FEM?

2 Basic Formulation: Theory

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

3 Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

4 Conclusion

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The Finite Element Method is a numerical method

used for solving eld problems

Origins in structural mechanics

Has strong mathematical foundation

Widely used by researchers structural and solid mechanics,

uid ow, heat transfer, electricity and magnetism and various

coupled problems

Routinely used in the industry design of buildings, airframes,

electric motors, automobiles, materials

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The Finite Element Method is a numerical method

used for solving eld problems

Origins in structural mechanics

Has strong mathematical foundation

Widely used by researchers structural and solid mechanics,

uid ow, heat transfer, electricity and magnetism and various

coupled problems

Routinely used in the industry design of buildings, airframes,

electric motors, automobiles, materials

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The Finite Element Method is a numerical method

used for solving eld problems

Origins in structural mechanics

Has strong mathematical foundation

Widely used by researchers structural and solid mechanics,

uid ow, heat transfer, electricity and magnetism and various

coupled problems

Routinely used in the industry design of buildings, airframes,

electric motors, automobiles, materials

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The Finite Element Method is a numerical method

used for solving eld problems

Origins in structural mechanics

Has strong mathematical foundation

Widely used by researchers structural and solid mechanics,

uid ow, heat transfer, electricity and magnetism and various

coupled problems

Routinely used in the industry design of buildings, airframes,

electric motors, automobiles, materials

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Most problems of interest to engineers and

scientists cannot be solved analytically

From Projectile Impact on a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plate, Abaqus

Technology Brief, Simulia Corporation, 2007

Plate is heterogeneous

Contact areas between steel ball and plate not known a priori

Failure criteria are complex

Analytical solution is out of the question!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Most problems of interest to engineers and

scientists cannot be solved analytically

From Projectile Impact on a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plate, Abaqus

Technology Brief, Simulia Corporation, 2007

Plate is heterogeneous

Contact areas between steel ball and plate not known a priori

Failure criteria are complex

Analytical solution is out of the question!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Most problems of interest to engineers and

scientists cannot be solved analytically

From Projectile Impact on a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plate, Abaqus

Technology Brief, Simulia Corporation, 2007

Plate is heterogeneous

Contact areas between steel ball and plate not known a priori

Failure criteria are complex

Analytical solution is out of the question!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Most problems of interest to engineers and

scientists cannot be solved analytically

From Projectile Impact on a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plate, Abaqus

Technology Brief, Simulia Corporation, 2007

Plate is heterogeneous

Contact areas between steel ball and plate not known a priori

Failure criteria are complex

Analytical solution is out of the question!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Most problems of interest to engineers and

scientists cannot be solved analytically

From Projectile Impact on a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plate, Abaqus

Technology Brief, Simulia Corporation, 2007

Plate is heterogeneous

Contact areas between steel ball and plate not known a priori

Failure criteria are complex

Analytical solution is out of the question!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Governing dierential equations are converted to

algebraic equations

FEM is used to solve governing dierential equations

approximately

ODEs or PDEs are converted to a (large) system of algebraic

equations, solved on computers

Unknown quantities are eld variables (e.g. displacement,

temperature) at nodes

Quality of solution improves with increasing number of elements

100 unknowns large in 1960s, now 10

6

unknowns routine!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Governing dierential equations are converted to

algebraic equations

FEM is used to solve governing dierential equations

approximately

ODEs or PDEs are converted to a (large) system of algebraic

equations, solved on computers

Unknown quantities are eld variables (e.g. displacement,

temperature) at nodes

Quality of solution improves with increasing number of elements

100 unknowns large in 1960s, now 10

6

unknowns routine!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Governing dierential equations are converted to

algebraic equations

FEM is used to solve governing dierential equations

approximately

ODEs or PDEs are converted to a (large) system of algebraic

equations, solved on computers

Unknown quantities are eld variables (e.g. displacement,

temperature) at nodes

Quality of solution improves with increasing number of elements

100 unknowns large in 1960s, now 10

6

unknowns routine!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Governing dierential equations are converted to

algebraic equations

FEM is used to solve governing dierential equations

approximately

ODEs or PDEs are converted to a (large) system of algebraic

equations, solved on computers

Unknown quantities are eld variables (e.g. displacement,

temperature) at nodes

Quality of solution improves with increasing number of elements

100 unknowns large in 1960s, now 10

6

unknowns routine!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Governing dierential equations are converted to

algebraic equations

FEM is used to solve governing dierential equations

approximately

ODEs or PDEs are converted to a (large) system of algebraic

equations, solved on computers

Unknown quantities are eld variables (e.g. displacement,

temperature) at nodes

Quality of solution improves with increasing number of elements

100 unknowns large in 1960s, now 10

6

unknowns routine!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Governing dierential equations are converted to

algebraic equations

FEM is used to solve governing dierential equations

approximately

ODEs or PDEs are converted to a (large) system of algebraic

equations, solved on computers

Unknown quantities are eld variables (e.g. displacement,

temperature) at nodes

Quality of solution improves with increasing number of elements

100 unknowns large in 1960s, now 10

6

unknowns routine!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

We are interested in calculating the displacements

and stresses everywhere in a deforming elastic body

Elastic deformation is reversible = body returns to original

conguration when loads are removed

We know the forces and displacements imposed on the body

Force F applied to a bar of cross-section A, stress = F/A

For arbitrary 3-D solids, how do we compute the

displacements and stresses everywhere in the body?

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

We are interested in calculating the displacements

and stresses everywhere in a deforming elastic body

Elastic deformation is reversible = body returns to original

conguration when loads are removed

We know the forces and displacements imposed on the body

Force F applied to a bar of cross-section A, stress = F/A

For arbitrary 3-D solids, how do we compute the

displacements and stresses everywhere in the body?

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

We are interested in calculating the displacements

and stresses everywhere in a deforming elastic body

Elastic deformation is reversible = body returns to original

conguration when loads are removed

We know the forces and displacements imposed on the body

Force F applied to a bar of cross-section A, stress = F/A

For arbitrary 3-D solids, how do we compute the

displacements and stresses everywhere in the body?

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

We are interested in calculating the displacements

and stresses everywhere in a deforming elastic body

Elastic deformation is reversible = body returns to original

conguration when loads are removed

We know the forces and displacements imposed on the body

Force F applied to a bar of cross-section A, stress = F/A

For arbitrary 3-D solids, how do we compute the

displacements and stresses everywhere in the body?

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

We are interested in calculating the displacements

and stresses everywhere in a deforming elastic body

Elastic deformation is reversible = body returns to original

conguration when loads are removed

We know the forces and displacements imposed on the body

Force F applied to a bar of cross-section A, stress = F/A

For arbitrary 3-D solids, how do we compute the

displacements and stresses everywhere in the body?

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The elasticity boundary value problem is specied

by the governing equation 1 , ...

The governing equation (no body forces, quasi-static case) is the

linear momentum balance equation:

The stress tensor quanties intensity of force (force/unit area) at

a point.

11

x

1

+

12

x

2

+

13

x

3

= 0

21

x

1

+

22

x

2

+

23

x

3

= 0 1

31

x

1

+

32

x

2

+

33

x

3

= 0

ij

- stress tensor components,

a system of 3 coupled PDEs for 6 unknown stress components

(

ij

=

ji

)

ij ,j

= 0, i = 1, 3

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The elasticity boundary value problem is specied

by the governing equation 1 , ...

The governing equation (no body forces, quasi-static case) is the

linear momentum balance equation:

The stress tensor quanties intensity of force (force/unit area) at

a point.

11

x

1

+

12

x

2

+

13

x

3

= 0

21

x

1

+

22

x

2

+

23

x

3

= 0 1

31

x

1

+

32

x

2

+

33

x

3

= 0

ij

- stress tensor components,

a system of 3 coupled PDEs for 6 unknown stress components

(

ij

=

ji

)

ij ,j

= 0, i = 1, 3

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The elasticity boundary value problem is specied

by the governing equation 1 , ...

The governing equation (no body forces, quasi-static case) is the

linear momentum balance equation:

The stress tensor quanties intensity of force (force/unit area) at

a point.

11

x

1

+

12

x

2

+

13

x

3

= 0

21

x

1

+

22

x

2

+

23

x

3

= 0 1

31

x

1

+

32

x

2

+

33

x

3

= 0

ij

- stress tensor components,

a system of 3 coupled PDEs for 6 unknown stress components

(

ij

=

ji

)

ij ,j

= 0, i = 1, 3

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The elasticity boundary value problem is specied

by the governing equation 1 , ...

The governing equation (no body forces, quasi-static case) is the

linear momentum balance equation:

The stress tensor quanties intensity of force (force/unit area) at

a point.

11

x

1

+

12

x

2

+

13

x

3

= 0

21

x

1

+

22

x

2

+

23

x

3

= 0 1

31

x

1

+

32

x

2

+

33

x

3

= 0

- stress tensor components,

a system of 3 coupled PDEs for 6 unknown stress components

(

ij

=

ji

)

= 0, i = 1, 3

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The elasticity boundary value problem is specied

by the governing equation 1 , ...

The governing equation (no body forces, quasi-static case) is the

linear momentum balance equation:

The stress tensor quanties intensity of force (force/unit area) at

a point.

11

x

1

+

12

x

2

+

13

x

3

= 0

21

x

1

+

22

x

2

+

23

x

3

= 0 1

31

x

1

+

32

x

2

+

33

x

3

= 0

- stress tensor components,

a system of 3 coupled PDEs for 6 unknown stress components

(

ij

=

ji

)

ij ,j

= 0, i = 1, 3

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

... boundary conditions 2 , ...

ij

n

j

= T

i

= T

sp

i

on S

T

u

i

= u

sp

i

on S

u

2

S

T

and S

u

are the portions of external surface S on which forces and

displacements are specied respectively.

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

... constitutive equations 3 ...

Constitutive Equation - Hookes Law for isotropic, linear elasticity:

ij

=

E

1 +

_

ij

+

1 2

kk

ij

_

3

E - Youngs modulus, - Poissons ratio,

ij

- strain tensor

components,

ij

- Kronecker delta

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

... and kinematic relations 4 ...

Strain-displacement relations:

ij

=

1

2

_

u

i

x

j

+

u

j

x

i

_

4

11

=

u

1

x

1

reduces to the familiar denition of = l /l for the 1-D case.

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

... and kinematic relations 4 ...

Strain-displacement relations:

ij

=

1

2

_

u

i

x

j

+

u

j

x

i

_

4

11

=

u

1

x

1

reduces to the familiar denition of = l /l for the 1-D case.

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

... and kinematic relations 4 ...

Strain-displacement relations:

ij

=

1

2

_

u

i

x

j

+

u

j

x

i

_

4

11

=

u

1

x

1

reduces to the familiar denition of = l /l for the 1-D case.

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The principle of virtual work is the basis of FEM

The requirement of satisfying the governing PDE pointwise is

relaxed: we seek to satisfy it in a weak or integrated form.

Instead of satisfying point-wise the equilibrium equations

ij ,j

= 0, i = 1, 3 ,

we solve

_

V

u

i

ij ,j

dV = 0

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The principle of virtual work is the basis of FEM

The requirement of satisfying the governing PDE pointwise is

relaxed: we seek to satisfy it in a weak or integrated form.

Instead of satisfying point-wise the equilibrium equations

ij ,j

= 0, i = 1, 3 ,

we solve

_

V

u

i

ij ,j

dV = 0

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The principle of virtual work is the basis of FEM

The requirement of satisfying the governing PDE pointwise is

relaxed: we seek to satisfy it in a weak or integrated form.

Instead of satisfying point-wise the equilibrium equations

ij ,j

= 0, i = 1, 3 ,

we solve

_

V

u

i

ij ,j

dV = 0

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

The principle of virtual work is the basis of FEM

The requirement of satisfying the governing PDE pointwise is

relaxed: we seek to satisfy it in a weak or integrated form.

Instead of satisfying point-wise the equilibrium equations

ij ,j

= 0, i = 1, 3 ,

we solve

_

V

u

i

ij ,j

dV = 0

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Finite element equations follow from PVW

Using the divergence theorem and the strain-displacement

relations, we can restate the integral as

_

V

ij

ij

dV =

_

S

F

i

u

j

dS

where F

i

are components of the applied loads on the boundary

This is not an energy balance, it is merely a restatement of

equilibrium!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Finite element equations follow from PVW

Using the divergence theorem and the strain-displacement

relations, we can restate the integral as

_

V

ij

ij

dV =

_

S

F

i

u

j

dS

where F

i

are components of the applied loads on the boundary

This is not an energy balance, it is merely a restatement of

equilibrium!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Finite element equations follow from PVW

Using the divergence theorem and the strain-displacement

relations, we can restate the integral as

_

V

ij

ij

dV =

_

S

F

i

u

j

dS

where F

i

are components of the applied loads on the boundary

This is not an energy balance, it is merely a restatement of

equilibrium!

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

How is a nite-element solution implemented?

First, the solid is discretized into a number of elements

(meshing)

Nodes are typically points on the element boundaries

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

How is a nite-element solution implemented?

First, the solid is discretized into a number of elements

(meshing)

Nodes are typically points on the element boundaries

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

How is a nite-element solution implemented?

First, the solid is discretized into a number of elements

(meshing)

Nodes are typically points on the element boundaries

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Displacement at any point in the solid is expressed

in terms of nodal displacements

The actual displacement components at any point inside an

element are interpolated from the (unknown) actual nodal values

u

i

The virtual displacements are also interpolated in the same way

u(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) =

3

i =1

N

i

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

)u

i

N

i

are shape functions

For full 3D analysis, (3 # of nodes) unknowns

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Displacement at any point in the solid is expressed

in terms of nodal displacements

The actual displacement components at any point inside an

element are interpolated from the (unknown) actual nodal values

u

i

The virtual displacements are also interpolated in the same way

u(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) =

3

i =1

N

i

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

)u

i

N

i

are shape functions

For full 3D analysis, (3 # of nodes) unknowns

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Displacement at any point in the solid is expressed

in terms of nodal displacements

The actual displacement components at any point inside an

element are interpolated from the (unknown) actual nodal values

u

i

The virtual displacements are also interpolated in the same way

u(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

) =

3

i =1

N

i

(x

1

, x

2

, x

3

)u

i

N

i

are shape functions

For full 3D analysis, (3 # of nodes) unknowns

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Linear shape functions are the simplest

u

1

(x

1

, x

2

) =

4

i =1

N

i

(x

1

, x

2

)u

2i 1

u

2

(x

1

, x

2

) =

4

i =1

N

i

(x

1

, x

2

)u

2i

N

1

=

(ax

1

)(bx

2

)

4ab

N

2

=

(a+x

1

)(bx

2

)

4ab

N

3

=

(a+x

1

)(b+x

2

)

4ab

N

4

=

(ax

1

)(b+x

2

)

4ab

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Linear shape functions are the simplest

u

1

(x

1

, x

2

) =

4

i =1

N

i

(x

1

, x

2

)u

2i 1

u

2

(x

1

, x

2

) =

4

i =1

N

i

(x

1

, x

2

)u

2i

N

1

=

(ax

1

)(bx

2

)

4ab

N

2

=

(a+x

1

)(bx

2

)

4ab

N

3

=

(a+x

1

)(b+x

2

)

4ab

N

4

=

(ax

1

)(b+x

2

)

4ab

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Linear shape functions are the simplest

u

1

(x

1

, x

2

) =

4

i =1

N

i

(x

1

, x

2

)u

2i 1

u

2

(x

1

, x

2

) =

4

i =1

N

i

(x

1

, x

2

)u

2i

N

1

=

(ax

1

)(bx

2

)

4ab

N

2

=

(a+x

1

)(bx

2

)

4ab

N

3

=

(a+x

1

)(b+x

2

)

4ab

N

4

=

(ax

1

)(b+x

2

)

4ab

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Displacements are written in vector form

_

u

1

u

2

_

=

_

N

1

0 N

2

0 N

3

0 N

4

0

0 N

1

0 N

2

0 N

3

0 N

4

_

_

_

u

1

u

2

u

3

u

4

u

5

u

6

u

7

u

8

_

_

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Derivatives of shape functions relate strains to

displacements

Recall strain-displacement relations:

ij

=

1

2

_

u

i

x

j

+

u

j

x

i

_

In vector form,

=

_

_

_

11

22

12

_

_

_

= [B]{u

i

}

where

[B] =

_

_

/x

1

0

0 /x

2

(1/2) /x

1

(1/2) /x

2

_

_

[N]

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Matrix of elastic constants relates stress

components to strain components

Recall Hookes law:

ij

=

E

1 +

_

ij

+

1 2

kk

ij

_

In matrix form, we can write this as

{} = [D]{} = [D][B]{u

i

}

where [D] is a matrix of elastic constants

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Substitution into PVW gives element equilibrium

equations

Recall the PVW:

_

V

ij

ij

dV =

_

S

F

i

u

j

dS

In matrix form,

_

V

{

}

T

{}dV =

_

S

{u

}

T

{F}dS

[K]{u

i

} = {R}

where

[K] =

_

V

[B]

T

[D][B]dV and {R} =

_

S

[N]

T

{F}dS

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Assembly of element contributions yields global

stiness equations

Global equations are solved for the nodal displacements in the

entire solid

Using the nite-element matrices, strains and stresses are then

computed

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Assembly of element contributions yields global

stiness equations

Global equations are solved for the nodal displacements in the

entire solid

Using the nite-element matrices, strains and stresses are then

computed

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Assembly of element contributions yields global

stiness equations

Global equations are solved for the nodal displacements in the

entire solid

Using the nite-element matrices, strains and stresses are then

computed

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

FEM is a versatile tool for studying nonlinear and

coupled phenomena

Nonlinear material behaviour: plasticity, creep

Large deformations: Geometric non-linearity

Contact: bodies come into contact as a result of load application

Coupled phenomena: e.g. Piezoelectric ceramics, hydrogen

embrittlement

Fatigue and fracture studies

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

FEM is a versatile tool for studying nonlinear and

coupled phenomena

Nonlinear material behaviour: plasticity, creep

Large deformations: Geometric non-linearity

Contact: bodies come into contact as a result of load application

Coupled phenomena: e.g. Piezoelectric ceramics, hydrogen

embrittlement

Fatigue and fracture studies

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

FEM is a versatile tool for studying nonlinear and

coupled phenomena

Nonlinear material behaviour: plasticity, creep

Large deformations: Geometric non-linearity

Contact: bodies come into contact as a result of load application

Coupled phenomena: e.g. Piezoelectric ceramics, hydrogen

embrittlement

Fatigue and fracture studies

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

FEM is a versatile tool for studying nonlinear and

coupled phenomena

Nonlinear material behaviour: plasticity, creep

Large deformations: Geometric non-linearity

Contact: bodies come into contact as a result of load application

Coupled phenomena: e.g. Piezoelectric ceramics, hydrogen

embrittlement

Fatigue and fracture studies

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

FEM is a versatile tool for studying nonlinear and

coupled phenomena

Nonlinear material behaviour: plasticity, creep

Large deformations: Geometric non-linearity

Contact: bodies come into contact as a result of load application

Coupled phenomena: e.g. Piezoelectric ceramics, hydrogen

embrittlement

Fatigue and fracture studies

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

FEM is a versatile tool for studying nonlinear and

coupled phenomena

Nonlinear material behaviour: plasticity, creep

Large deformations: Geometric non-linearity

Contact: bodies come into contact as a result of load application

Coupled phenomena: e.g. Piezoelectric ceramics, hydrogen

embrittlement

Fatigue and fracture studies

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

A nite-element formulation was used to study

hot-isostatic pressing of powders

Bulk deformation: Elasticity + power-law creep

Interparticle mass diusion

Surface diusion

Modeling the interaction between densication mechanisms in

powder compaction (2001), S. J. Subramanian and P. Sofronis, Int.

J. Sol. Struct., 38, 7899-7918

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

FEM has recently been coupled with atomistic

models

Stress-strain relations are derived from atomistic calculations

instead of traditional continuum descriptions

Can capture the physics extremely accurately, but can only

model very small volumes (100s of nm

3

)

Mainly used in nanotechnology and materials research

applications

Field of active research

http://www.qcmethod.com: a good resource

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

FEM has recently been coupled with atomistic

models

Stress-strain relations are derived from atomistic calculations

instead of traditional continuum descriptions

Can capture the physics extremely accurately, but can only

model very small volumes (100s of nm

3

)

Mainly used in nanotechnology and materials research

applications

Field of active research

http://www.qcmethod.com: a good resource

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

FEM has recently been coupled with atomistic

models

Stress-strain relations are derived from atomistic calculations

instead of traditional continuum descriptions

Can capture the physics extremely accurately, but can only

model very small volumes (100s of nm

3

)

Mainly used in nanotechnology and materials research

applications

Field of active research

http://www.qcmethod.com: a good resource

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

FEM has recently been coupled with atomistic

models

Stress-strain relations are derived from atomistic calculations

instead of traditional continuum descriptions

Can capture the physics extremely accurately, but can only

model very small volumes (100s of nm

3

)

Mainly used in nanotechnology and materials research

applications

Field of active research

http://www.qcmethod.com: a good resource

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

FEM has recently been coupled with atomistic

models

Stress-strain relations are derived from atomistic calculations

instead of traditional continuum descriptions

Can capture the physics extremely accurately, but can only

model very small volumes (100s of nm

3

)

Mainly used in nanotechnology and materials research

applications

Field of active research

http://www.qcmethod.com: a good resource

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

FEM has recently been coupled with atomistic

models

Stress-strain relations are derived from atomistic calculations

instead of traditional continuum descriptions

Can capture the physics extremely accurately, but can only

model very small volumes (100s of nm

3

)

Mainly used in nanotechnology and materials research

applications

Field of active research

http://www.qcmethod.com: a good resource

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Quasi-continuum method used to study crack

propagation in Ni

Reference: Quasicontinuum simulation of fracture at the atomic scale

(1998), R. Miller, E. B. Tadmor, R. Phillips and M. Ortiz, Modelling

and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 6, 607-638

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Conclusion and suggested references

FEM is an extremely valuable research tool that can be used on

a wide variety of problems

Hybrid FEM-atomistic computation is an active research area

that is growing rapidly

Textbooks:

Finite element procedures: K. J. Bathe

Concepts and applications of nite element analysis: R. D.

Cook, D. S. Malkus, M. E. Plesha and R. J. Witt

The nite element method set: O. C. Zienkiewicz and R. L.

Taylor

Thank you for your time

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Conclusion and suggested references

FEM is an extremely valuable research tool that can be used on

a wide variety of problems

Hybrid FEM-atomistic computation is an active research area

that is growing rapidly

Textbooks:

Finite element procedures: K. J. Bathe

Concepts and applications of nite element analysis: R. D.

Cook, D. S. Malkus, M. E. Plesha and R. J. Witt

The nite element method set: O. C. Zienkiewicz and R. L.

Taylor

Thank you for your time

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Conclusion and suggested references

FEM is an extremely valuable research tool that can be used on

a wide variety of problems

Hybrid FEM-atomistic computation is an active research area

that is growing rapidly

Textbooks:

Finite element procedures: K. J. Bathe

Concepts and applications of nite element analysis: R. D.

Cook, D. S. Malkus, M. E. Plesha and R. J. Witt

The nite element method set: O. C. Zienkiewicz and R. L.

Taylor

Thank you for your time

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Conclusion and suggested references

FEM is an extremely valuable research tool that can be used on

a wide variety of problems

Hybrid FEM-atomistic computation is an active research area

that is growing rapidly

Textbooks:

Finite element procedures: K. J. Bathe

Concepts and applications of nite element analysis: R. D.

Cook, D. S. Malkus, M. E. Plesha and R. J. Witt

The nite element method set: O. C. Zienkiewicz and R. L.

Taylor

Thank you for your time

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Conclusion and suggested references

FEM is an extremely valuable research tool that can be used on

a wide variety of problems

Hybrid FEM-atomistic computation is an active research area

that is growing rapidly

Textbooks:

Finite element procedures: K. J. Bathe

Concepts and applications of nite element analysis: R. D.

Cook, D. S. Malkus, M. E. Plesha and R. J. Witt

The nite element method set: O. C. Zienkiewicz and R. L.

Taylor

Thank you for your time

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Conclusion and suggested references

FEM is an extremely valuable research tool that can be used on

a wide variety of problems

Hybrid FEM-atomistic computation is an active research area

that is growing rapidly

Textbooks:

Finite element procedures: K. J. Bathe

Concepts and applications of nite element analysis: R. D.

Cook, D. S. Malkus, M. E. Plesha and R. J. Witt

The nite element method set: O. C. Zienkiewicz and R. L.

Taylor

Thank you for your time

Introduction to

the Finite

Element Method

Sankara J.

Subramanian

Outline

What is FEM?

Basic

Formulation:

Theory

Equilibrium

Boundary

Conditions

Constitutive

Equations

Kinematics

PVW

Basic

Formulation:

Implementation

Shape functions

FE matrices

FE equations

Advanced FEM

Nonlinearity

Quasi-continuum

Conclusion

Conclusion and suggested references

FEM is an extremely valuable research tool that can be used on

a wide variety of problems

Hybrid FEM-atomistic computation is an active research area

that is growing rapidly

Textbooks:

Finite element procedures: K. J. Bathe

Concepts and applications of nite element analysis: R. D.

Cook, D. S. Malkus, M. E. Plesha and R. J. Witt

The nite element method set: O. C. Zienkiewicz and R. L.

Taylor

Thank you for your time

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