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Learning Theories

is different than is related to is rooted in can be related to is related to

is similar to

is

Behaviourism
developed by is has

incorporates Educational Implications

Social Cognitive Theory


Connectionnistic Model
developed by influenced by

Cognitive Information Processing Theory


involves

Assimilation Learning Theory


involves

Developmental Approaches to Learning


determines

differ from Piaget on age dependency


closely related to

Social Learning Theories

Levels-of-Processing
developed by which are

Problem Solving A Cognitive Theory


also described as

closely related to
closely related to often classed as

Miller and Dollard's publication of Social Learning and Imitation (1941)from which came different versions Bandura
talked about like the one from

Pavlov, Watson and Skinner

an historical approach to understanding learning


are implemented by

Rumelhart and McClelland (1986) Cognitive Modeling

Gestalt Theory
whcih applied to

Verbal Learning Model

Stages Model of Information Processing

perception, attention, labeling, and meaning.

David Ausubel
whom distinguished between

quantity and quality


has

More Inclusive Concepts


is supposed to have which can occured in two ways

Jean Piaget
stated that children pass through discussed thoughts that knwoledge consists of

Four invariant stages of development 1. Sensorimotor (birth to age 2) 2. Preoperational (2 to 7 years) 3. Concrete operational (7 to 11 years) 4. Formal operational (11 yrs and onward) Physical Logico-mathematical

Vygostsky

Constructivism

A Social Constructivist Theory of Learning All new ideas


are based on

Jerome Bruner
asserted that identified

Jean Lave

developed by

Situated Cognition
refers to

Distributed Cognition
should be described developed by

Activity Theory
is associated with how it works between Intra-Individuallyis described hstudies as

Human Behavior
based on assumed that

Cognitive Skill Learning

Perception
That uncousciensciously affects

Learning Sensory Memory (STSS)


affect

Cognitive Structure Short-Term Memory (STM)


also called

both

1. Techniques like contracts, consequences, reinforcement, extinction, and behiavior modification.

Internal Mental Process Self-instruction

Long-Term Memory (LTM)


also called

Reception Learning
may be is considered to be

Derivative Meaningful Learning


is considered to be

Correlative

Cognitive Structures

is a

Types of Knowledge
whre

is

Organization
which includes

and

Pavlov's Theory of classical conditionning


was influenced by

desired responses must be rewarded

observed measured

and can be

predictable responses to stimulus can be observed quantitatively


can produce

Modeling Processes

theories of imitation (ancient Greek = mimesis)


of

2. Modeling , Shaping, and Cueing. 3. Behavior Modification.

directed by stimuli
that are that can be

the role of personal factors

actions of others abstracts models


is

pay attention to a stimulus (known pattern) present will bring Lenghh of Time an orienting response Meaningfulness Organisation
divided in which are

Similarity

Figure-Ground Proximity Similarity limited by development Piaget (1962)

"Working Memory" (conscious Memory)


has

"Preconscious and Unconscious"


has

Assimilation

Accomodation

discussedDevelopmental

Ideal Objects are the source

Thinking in action developed Anticipation discussed Perform true operations ans solve problems Generate and Work with believed that A Sociocultural Approach large spaces of possibilities Zone of Proximal Development
where he discussed

means that or

Cognitive Processes
is

Vygotsky, Leont'ev and Luria Object in the Soviet Union (1920s and 30s)

Spiral Curriculum

and

Categorizations of Concepts What is Learned


is specific to

Prior Knowledge readiness Structure Three Modes of Representation


believed in

Edwin Hutchins (1980s)

Subject A Conceptual Framework


influenced by to understand

=and

Expository Instruction Rote Learning Discovery Learning


is considered to be is considered to be

Egocentrism
pointed out

Context or Situation

Situated Action
focus on

not limited to the mind of individual people


refers to but spread over

Operations
and

functions of Modeling
where

Imitation

Organizing Meaningful Information

is

an instinct conditioned

two major concepts two processes Elaboration

a balance or equilibrium between Children's Acquisition of Knowledge

Sequence

Motives
of

People are the source

Social Child in Activity in Cultural Context


where

Private Speech and Inner Speech Intersubjectivity

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Individual's Actions Enactive Iconic


learning through

the nature of human consciousness and thought


which refers to

Artefacts

of learners Symbolic Discovery Learning

such as

People

Tools

Artifacts

John B. Watson B. F. Skinner

basic stimulus-responses
can become can become

can be used for

operant conditioning

can evolve

is
to understand uses

beliefs, attitudes , expectations, and memory.

Response Facilitation Observational Learning


comprises

instrumental behavior Inhibition / Disinhibition

Proximity Outweighing Similarity Common Direction

Verbatim Memorization
through was interested in

four types are similar to


which are

Repetition
or

think differently than adults receive feedback from their own actions Internalization of Motor Actions or Physical Objects

stressed

means is an event that involes learning through help getting a

Distributed Practice organized using structures like

Inefficient Approach Six Basic Principles


which are

Learned Habits
can be that can be

Encouragement Positive Reinforcer evolves


to

how learning occurs Inactive and Vicarious Learning


involve evolve

Miller and Dollard (1941) Simplicity Closure General Principles

Meaningful Learning Theory


means

includes builts

Subsumption

their actions on objects in an environement

satisfying responses

unsatisfying responses

people could learn new actions


by

four processes
which are

correspond to for

Unlearned

can be

Observation
that occurs

attention, retention, production, and motivation.

matched-dependant behavior

component, sequential, relevance, and transitional.

Rote Rehearsal Declarative Procedural Semantic Memory


includes

Cultural Origins of Physical Objects are different from

Learning Activity Shared Understanding


is

Conceptual Development
by engaging in

where

learning through can be represented in these

Apprenticenship
in

Cognition

is situated in

a complex sociocultural world Collection of Roles and Responsibilities


in

Activity

Imagery

Superordinate Learning Retention of Meaningful Verbal Information


for

is

when new constructed concetps are pull together and integrate large domains of knowledge that were not previously recognized as intimately related
is

Children and Environment are Interrelated Enculturation different than Beyond Current Level of Functionning

Collaborative Problem Solving


could be

learning is done progressively


as an

Actions

Images

Symbols

Real Life Situations


using using using

understood as

taken on by created in a

Different Individuals or Groups of Individuals

Verbal or Non-verbal responses Undesired Behavior


decreased by using

consequences
affects which inform people on

people's cognitions
towards

Progressive Differentiation

will generate Punishment


positive negative
something is added something is removed

in a social environment
to acquire

Learning and Performance


is

Motivation accuracy of appropriateness of behavior which affects

Triadic Reciprocality Tdman and Honzik (1930)


knowledge, rules, skills, strategies, beliefs, and attitudes.

Observation of Models
brings demonstration of

which concured in

latent learning
which means

reciprocal interactions among behaviors, environmental variables , and personal factor (e.g. cognitions).
perceived

Conditional Knowledge Declarative knowledge

assumption of a limited capacity of the mentalsystem, control mechanism is required to oversee the encoding, transformation, processing, storage, retrieval and utilization of information, two-way flow of information, and genetically prepared to process and organize information in specific ways.

the refinement of concept meanings in cognitive structure


happens

Internalization of Social Interaction

Problem Solving Interaction manipulatives diagrams, maps and illustrations Any domain of knowledge language
in

a distributed phenomenon
which is meaningful only in the in

Procedural Memory is related Knowledge Stored in the Mind


and

Information Processing Capability

Integrative Reconciliation

Cognitive Approaches to Learning


Integration of New and Old Knowledge
requires

when new interrelationships are seen between concepts in cognitive structure is

Peers of different ability levels should be brought toghether

between

Broader Context
like in

because of

Genetic Predisposition

better understanding
can brought

Constructivist Conditions for Learning


Obliterative Subsumption
results in

Constructivist Goals

Constructivist Methods of Instruction


like
collaborative learning and problem scaffolding, goal-based scenarios and problem-based learning, and software shells and course management tools.

Communities of Practice

and

some modification of the stored information


embed complex and relevant learning environments, provide social negotiaion, support multiple perspectives and multiple modes of learning, encourage ownership in learning, and self-awareness of knowledge construction. ability to solve ill-structured problems, acquire content knowledge and critical thinking and collaboration skills develo ability to identify and use ways of knowing

Experience
with

Guidance

two reguirements

must meet

Advance Organizers

is related to

knowlede from prior instruction which can help at making connection with new knowledge

and

Questioning

means

absence of a goal or reinforcement

Procedural Knowledge

is related to is related to

using tools such as

in

Concept Map Learner's Specific Relevant Conceptual and Propositional Knowledge must be Identified Appropriate Organization and Sequencing of New Knowledge to be Learned must be Planned
encouraged by

Reflexivity

Self-efficacy

if respected will generate

is integrating

"Teacher" Meaningful Material is used in includes must supervised means

provides the environment for

selected by

Primary Learning Theories


englobes and

Online Learning
might be necessary in may use Constructivist Instructional Design Theory
based on

from which comes

Emergent Theories
like

Connectivism Educational Interaction

Heutagogy are

is divided in six types

value is key to

Effective Learning
is

Student-Student Student-Content Student-Teacher Teacher-Content Teacher-Teacher Content-Content

Interaction Capability
is hapening by using means

Social Cognition (Vygotsky)

includes

Community-Centred Knowledge-Centred
means using

value another person's perspective


means

Automacy
which increases

Communication

is

Conceptual Map of Learning Theories Communication Efficacy Johanne Brochu enhanced University of British Colombia ETEC 512 Submitted to Danielle Law for Dr. Clifford Falk December 7, 2011
by can be involves

Learner-Centred Affordance of the Web Assessment-Centred


provide coherent explanation, generate plansfor problem solutions, implement solution strategies, and monitor and adjust activities.
which are to by using

A key learning component in Constructivist Learning Theories peer-to-peer interaction


to investigate and develop

limited
because of should measured

Appropriate Use of Tools

Bandwidth Constraints

Multiple Perspective

Communities of Learning
developed byusing

which means

Four Sets of Student's Competencies Asynchronous and Synchronous Communications Working Collaboratively to Create Knowledge