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RFP Guidelines

QoS Description

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Comments Version 0.1

Date 27/6/2006

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RFP Guidelines

Table of Content

QoS Frame work .......................................................................................................... 3

QoS Framework Reference Architecture in WiMAX .................................................................................. 4

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RFP Guidelines


QoS Framework
In order to achieve Quality of Services, the whole network entities need to support the QoS requirements - CPE/MS/SS, wireless access network, the core network and the application. All network layers are required to conceder the QoS requirements and perform the policy according to the QoS. If one element in the network will ignore QoS requirements this can lead to result where the whole network will no support the required SLA The following mechanizes need to be implemented in order to achieve the required QoS: Admission control , Packet Classification Packet Prioritization according to Packet Classification Packet scheduling, shaping and Queuing and dropping SLA measurements and feedbacks

The core issue of providing applications over a mobile wireless network is the QoS support in the presence of changing network connectivity due to user mobility and shared, noisy, highly variable and limited wireless communication links. QoS Framework provides capabilities to define, enforce, monitor and report SLA for the mobile device and services it launches in the WiMAX access network according to the standard-available toolset. To maintain a specified QoS level, when the wireless link fluctuates or degrades, a wireless system has to adapt to varying conditions. Adaptability of wireless multimedia networks can also be made at different layers. At the application layer, most recent real-time applications are made to be able to adapt to changing networking conditions. At the network layer, routing methods should adapt to mobility. At the data link layer, error correction mechanisms can be adaptive to protect against higher and varying error rates of wireless links. Adaptability at the physical layer is possible by choosing appropriate channel and power control techniques. Generally, QoS support in wireless networks is considered at two abstraction levels: connection-level QoS and Application-level (or packet-level) QoS. Connection-level QoS is often measured by two parameters the new call blocking probability, which measures service connectivity, and the handoff dropping probability, which measures service continuity during handoff (for a mobile user, dropping an on-going call is generally more unbearable than blocking a new call request). Management of connection-level QoS requires a solution for radio resource allocation, call admission and resource reservation for new and handover high priority calls.
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RFP Guidelines

Application-level (or packet-level) QoS is related to perceived quality by end users, whose service requests are connected and continued through connection- level QoS support. There is a set of parameters describing packet-level QoS, such as rate, delay, jitter, packet loss. The two QoS levels are related to each other in the sense of resource allocation, which considers allocation among connection flows and among new and handoff calls, through proper call admission control and resource reservation schemes. The ability to provide the appropriate level of QoS for the specific Service Flow may be decoupled to the following processes: Ability to signal QoS requirements and recognize the corresponding Service Flow; Ability to evaluate, reserve and allocate the required resources; Reporting capabilities for the provided QoS level (charging).

QoS aspects in ASN network may be discussed in the context of Managed and Unmanaged IP Services:

1.1. QoS Framework Reference Architecture in WiMAX

Deployment of mobile networks requires implementation of tunneling technology for subscriber traffic from Traffic Anchor Point in CSN or ASN through out intermediate traffic anchor points (e.g. in ASN) to the actual point of MS attachment in ASN (i.e. BS). Tunneling is required to handle IP traffic of a subscriber moving its physical point of attachment across different IP nodes in access network without modifying its own IP address. Another reason for tunneling is to support roaming subscribers allow different subscribers from different IP domains to co-exist in the same IP realm of the access network. The tunnels for subscriber service flow in ASN is called Data Path. The QoS Framework is responsible to handle subscriber service flow establishment, deletion and modification and its association with data path. Data Path management consists in GRE Keys negotiation on each GRE interval along data path upon data path establishment WiMAX NWG reference architecture related to QoS framework in Rel.1 is presented on the figure below:

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RFP Guidelines

Figure 1-1: WiMAX NWG reference architecture related to QoS The QoS Framework reference architecture is presented on the figure below:

Ho me NS P
Serving ASN GW

Home AAA server/ Policy Function

Not changed during HO


S ubs cribe r Da ta


Via R3 & R5


Loca l Re s ource Info Loca l P olicy S FA Co ntro l Fn Da ta R4
S e rving Data Path Fn Anc ho r Data Path Fn

Authenticator is updated who is the traffic anchor point as a part of HO



Admis s ion Co ntro l Data Path Fn


S FA Re lay Fn Data Path Fn

S FA Re lay Fn

Traffic Anchor / Anchor ASN GW (FA)

Data Path Fn

Figure Figure 1-2: WiMAX NWG QoS Framework Reference Architecture

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RFP Guidelines

The following functional entities are defined in the QoS Framework: Home AAA Server the entity in CSN network, which identifies the MS and holds MS Authorization profile. MS Authorization Profile in H-AAA server should include also the description of pre-provisioned service flows. PF the entity in CSN network, which communicates dynamic service flow establishment with Application Function and ASN network. PF also applies CSN network policy to the service flow establishment requests. PF is collocated to Home AAA server for a given MS. Anchor SFA - is the entity in ASN network, which communicates service flow establishment info with CSN network elements (AAA, PF) and ASN elements. From ASN perspective, it is the entity, which initiates service flow establishment in ASN and also applies ASN-level policy decisions using a local policy database and an associated local policy function. Anchor SFA provides mapping between CSN and ASN service flow identities. In Alvarion profile, Anchor SFA is colocated with Anchored Authenticator and don't move during Handoff so PDF don't have to maintain tracking of mobile movements in the ASN SFA relay entities are defined in ASN GWs acting as FA/ Traffic Anchor GW and Serving ASN GW on the bearer path towards SFM/BS SFM resides in the Serving BS and enforces connection establishment requests coming from SFA for the specific MS. This entity implements Admission Control (and AC-related) functionality and Scheduler functions. It is responsible for the admission, creation, activation, modification and deletion of service flows on the air interface (on demand from SFA) and for actual QoS enforcement in shared radio environment. MS Responds to IEEE 802.16e-defined service flow creation requests from BS. Classifies traffic according to the service flow descriptor. Performs traffic shaping in UL direction. May support client-originated (L2 and/ or L3) resource reservation mechanisms.

There are signaling defined across R6/ R4 and R3 Reference Interfaces: R6/ R4 Intra-ASN signaling for Service Requests and Service Authorization primitives; R3 CSN ASN signaling for Service Requests and Service Authorization primitives. WiMAX defines treatment of pre-defined and dynamically established (on demand from application entity) connections in the access network to serve Un-managed and Managed Applications. Un-managed (vs. managed) applications are not able to signal the application start, stop and traffic profile to access network.

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RFP Guidelines

Traffic related to Un-managed Applications will be established over un-managed (pre-provisioned) connections while traffic related to Managed Applications will use connections established on demand from the Application entity. The following text makes use of terminology: Un-managed connection and pre-provisioned connection terminology are used in a similar way having in mind Un-managed applications; Managed connection and dynamically established connection terminology are used in relation to Managed Applications.


Service Profile description in the SFM/ BS - QoS Enforcement Point

WiMAX NWG specifies that IEEE 802.16e/d-defined Service Types and Descriptors will be transferred from SFA to SFM (BS) in admission control and connection setup primitives. On top of it, NWG will consider other parameters (e.g. Flow Type, etc.) that describe traffic nature and can be useful in policy enforcement point such as BS (SFM). IEEE 802.16e/d specifies the following parameters: Service Types: UGS; VBRert VBRrt; VBRnrt; BE.

IEEE 802.16e/d specifies the following parameters available for service description per UL or DL connection: Traffic priority (values 0-7); Maximum sustained traffic rate (bps) Maximum traffic burst (bps) Minimum reserved traffic rate (bps); Maximum latency (ms); Fixed-length versus variable length SDU indicator; Tolerated jitter (ms); Unsolicited grant interval; Unsolicited poll interval Uplink grant scheduling type (BE, nrtPS, rtPS, UGS); SDU size;
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RFP Guidelines

Note: generally, there is no difference for managed and unmanaged services in description of service flow in BS. There should be appropriate policy functions accurately mapping application requests/ pre-provisioned connections into ASN service class, type and descriptor. In order not to consume unused recourses, there is a sense to define pre-provisioned connections using BE service type only. Non-802.16e parameters (NWG and partner companies): Connection profile / traffic priority? Application Type (some ID enabling BS to reserve minimum resources for the specific application type e.g. guarantee some minimum resources for voice calls) Flow Type (e.g. audio, video, etc.) parameter describing the nature of application traffic Pre-provisioned connection or dynamic (managed) connection indicator. Note, that currently, this is not a part of specifications.

Note : the BS should be able to make AC and Scheduling decisions without the parameters that are not a mandatory part of implementation profiles. The following Service Descriptors are defined for different Service Types:
Classification Max sustained rate Max traffic burst Min reserved rate Min tolerable traffic type Tolerated jitter Max latency Traffic priority Request/transmission policy Unsolicited Interval Unsolicited Interval Grant Polling + UGS UGS rtPS nrtPS BE + + + + + + + + u, d * + + + + + u, d * UGS VBRert + + + VBRrt + + VBRnrt + + BE +

+ + c, u, d *

+ (O) + c, u, d*

SDU size Vendor-specific Uplink grant scheduling type

Notes: * - c (contention request), u (unicast request), d (data transmission) opportunities; There is a specific treatment for connections with CIR in their service descriptor (mainly relevant for Managed connections), which requires periodic allocation of UL resource for the connection lifetime (unsolicited poll interval, unsolicited grant interval).

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RFP Guidelines


Managed IP Services
Managed Services (Applications) are characterized by the correlation of Application session control with Resources Allocation process, which takes care of the required resource allocation (at least in the access network). Admission Control process is performed just after application setup is initiated and the results of it are delivered to an Application Server/ Client before the application setup is confirmed. The Application makes the decision to accept or deny application setup based on the results of Admission Control process: It will proceed with application setup only upon positive Admission Control response. In the case, Admission Control results indicate there are no resources available (answering the application demand), the specific application session will be gracefully shut down by the Application (application session setup signaling in coordination with DQoS AC process).

The standard driving Managed Services in wireless environment currently is 3GPP/2 IMS (future TiSPAN may be considered also). The WiMAX architecture will adopt itself to IMS reference model:

Application Client


IP BS Manager




Translation/ Mapping

R6/ R4 Data Path Control

QoS profile Translation/ Mapping

WiMAX SFM (WiMAX PEP) R1 802.16e (DSx)


WiMAX BS Manager

WiMAX BS Manager





Figure 1-3: QoS enforcement in IMS-WiMAX - Reference Model There are two stages in Admission Control process: Application Authorization stage Application Server/ Policy Decision Function should authorize application request. It is done by an AS/PDF in ASP/CSN network and is correlated to the second stage;

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RFP Guidelines

Actual QoS Admission Control stage. It may be started by an application agent in a Client or in a Server (Server-originated Admission Control is currently preferred mode) and is proceeded through out the specific functional entities in ASP/CSN and ASN networks called Policy Decision Functions (Service Flow Authorization function);

Admission Control process results in the requested Resources Reservation. Actual Resource Allocation is conducted when Application traffic flow MS node is responsible for traffic classification in UL direction. It will classify packets coming from Application Client in SS and direct them to the appropriate CID. It is also responsible for traffic shaping in UL direction.


Unmanaged IP Services
There is no Resource Reservation process originated by Application Agents (client or server) for unmanaged IP Services. Application session will be defined as active upon detection of the stream of packets and end of session will be a time-out interval after last packet of the stream. WiMAX access network will support unmanaged IP Services based on the subscriber service profile (part of subscriber SLA). This subscriber service profile is a set of Traffic Descriptors and Traffic Classifiers and is pre-provisioned in the Home AAA server. Upon successful accomplishment of the subscriber authentication process, the subscriber profile will be transferred to the ASN GW acting as Anchored Authenticator/ SFA and it will originate data path(s) establishment according to this profile. Application session will start without BS Admission control function decision. In the case radio resources are BW-limited, BS will regulate traffic load by: Dropping packets in DL direction (DSCP field in original IP header may be taken into account); Regulating UL map allocation in UL direction (MS will drop packets in UL direction under some conditions. May be done taking into account DSCP field in IP header.

BS is responsible to provide appropriate Accounting Record per service flow reflecting radio resource utilization The proposal for Service Differentiation based on traffic prioritization according to pre-provisioned subscriber or service privileges/ policy: The target is: Enable subscriber traffic differentiation dependent on: o Subscriber pre-provisioned profile (e.g. Gold/ Silver/ Bronze/ ..) or Traffic Priority parameter set per pre-provisioned connection

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o Subscriber pre-provisioned Maximum Sustained Rate can be used to provide voice for unmanaged services Use pre-provisioned common service behavior in access define BE service class with minimum committed rate per such service class but not preventing BW usage if there is no demand from other services Prevent usage of pre-provisioned guaranteed rate for the specific Service Flow in Mobile environment


Service Description parameters in PF/ H-AAA server

The following MS context and service description parameters are planned to be supported by Policy Function and SFA-PF communications at the time frame as defined by WiMAX NWG Stage 2: MS Context: MS ID (or MS NAI); SFA ID (IP Address or FQDN)

Service Description parameters: Flow ID; Application ID; Direction; Flow Status (provisioned, active, admitted, etc.); Resource Description; Flow Description/ Packet Classifiers; Flow Type; Priority; Etc.

Policy Function should be responsible for proper managing of Transaction ID per action requested from SFA.

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