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PT 2012

Module Code: ACD2507

M.SRAMAIAHSCHOOLOFADVANCEDSTUDIESBengaluru
Postgraduate Engineering and Management Programme [PEMP]

Department Course Batch Module Code Module Title Module Leader

Automotive and Aeronautical Engineering Aircraft Design PT 12 ACD 2507 Aircraft Structures I Vinod K. Banthia Assignment

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES: 1. This assignment has three parts 2. The weightage of the three parts are Part A (30), Part B (40) and Part C (30) 3. The assignment should be word processed confirming to the format prescribed in the template provided by the ARO 4. The length of the assignment report should be limited to 35 pages in your writing 5. The assignment should be submitted to the AROs office on or before 25-May-13 6. Finite element preprocessing and analysis software Hypermesh ad ANSYS should be used for the simulation based problems. Other software may be used with the permission of the module leader. 7. All the units of measurement wherever applicable should be SI Units only 8. Method of evaluation is as described in Marking Scheme table at the end of the document. 9. Group discussion of the problems is permitted but the problem solving and report writing should be individual effort. 10. IMPORTANT: It is essential that all the sources used in preparation of the assignment are suitably referenced in the text.

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Form 43

Ver: 2

Date: 14-03-2011

PT 2012

Module Code: ACD2507

Introduction:
Considering the amount of energy required to just keep a body afloat, weight becomes a major consideration in the design of aircraft structures. In addition to use of lightest material possible, designers need to ensure that the design calculations are as detailed and accurate, and weight is as low as possible. To achieve this, designers have to work with very low safety margins and depend on CAE tools to analyse complex geometry. But before analysis models can be created, design calculations are carried out for details to size the components. This assignment problems aim to assess students capability in dealing with these processes.

Problem statement

Part-A
Weight of things, that have to be flown, has always been of concern. Any additional weight requires not only more fuel but also stronger structure which then adds to the overall weight. For commercial reasons, reduced weight of structure also means ability to carry more payload. Hence, there has been a constant endeavour to reduce weight of aircraft structures. With limitations of traditional metallic materials, designers have explored the use of composites. These can be designed and fabricated to suit the functional requirements resulting in lighter structures. However, use of composites has its own drawbacks. Till very recently, manufacturing and long term durability aspects have limited their application in relatively small number of non-critical structural applications. Boeings Dreamliner, in which substantial amount of composite has been used, has ushered in a new era in aircraft structural design. With this change, not only new manufacturing (fabricating and joining) processes but also new design approaches will have to be used. Review the available information on use of composites in aircraft structures, problems related to these applications. Based on your understanding of composites, identify the structural systems and components in aircraft structure where composites can be used without much risk and where their use will jeopardize safety. Back up your arguments with basis and examples. Briefly describe how these problems have been addressed by Boeing in their Dreamliner design. Limit the length of your report, written in your own words in proper English, to 3 A4 pages. Marking will be based on extent of research, organisation of material, technical content and clarity of writing. (6+8+10+6) marks

Part-B
Fuselage forms the backbone of an aircraft, connecting the various control structures. It also serves the purpose of holding crew, passengers and cargo. The structure is a typical shell structure, appropriately reinforced to withstand the operation loads. Cross section of fuselage of Airbus 380, and typical reinforcement used in the fuselage of Boeing 747 are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Typical structural details for fuselage

Form 43

Ver: 2

Date: 14-03-2011

PT 2012

Module Code: ACD2507

During aircraft operation, fuselage, as it forms the main body of the aircraft structure, is subjected to various types of loading. One of these originates from the need to maintain atmospheric pressure inside the cabin during flight. Another, a torsional loading, comes into play during turning maneuver. For the structural layout provided, create a geometrical model for the fuselage. 5 marks B (ii) From this geometrical model, develop a finite element model for the stress analysis of the fuselage under radial pressure and torsional loading. Provide proper justification, through use of a simple example, for the type and size of the elements used in the model.. 10 marks B (iii) To simplify the model, use beam offset method and show through a small problem how it works in the finite element model 10 marks B (iv) Carry out stress analysis of the fuselage when the aircraft is flying at an altitude of approximately 10 km. Present and discuss relevant results. 7.5 marks B (v) Carry out stress analysis of the fuselage under a unit torque. Present and discuss relevant results. 7.5 marks B (i)

Part-C

Figure 2 Rings under compressive loading


C (i). For the circular ring shown on the left in Figure 2, derive the expressions for distribution of stress in the ring. Explain the principle, methodology and steps (4+6) marks

C (ii). Using the same approach as in C (i), find the stresses in a ring subjected to uniformly distributed load (5+5) marks C (iii). Write your assessment of how well the theory and laboratory classes and the assessment helped to meet the requirements of Learning Outcomes of the module. 5+5 marks

Guidelines for Submission 1. The assignment report will be assessed based on demonstration of comprehension of the subject matter and skill of the student (60%), Effort (20%) and Presentation of the work carried out (20%). 2. Only results identified as relevant should be presented and their significance should be discussed. 3. Assessment of comprehension will be based on the critical review and discussion of the results, with conclusions and suggestions based on the results. 4. Effort will be assessed based on the breadth of study carried out, as demonstrated by the presentation in the report. 5. Presentation will be assessed based on the consistency and adherence to the prescribed requirements and format, accuracy of language and conveying of ideas.

Form 43

Ver: 2

Date: 14-03-2011

PT 2012

Module Code: ACD2507

Marking Scheme
Section A(i) A(ii) A(iii) A(iv) B(i) B(ii) B(iii) B(iv) B(v) C(i) C(ii) C(iii) Description Extent of Research Organisation Technical Content Clarity Total (Part A) Geometric Model FE Model Beam offset model Analysis at 10 km Analysis under torque Total (Part B) Stresses in ring under point load Stress in ring under UDL Comments on Learning Outcomes and Formatting Total (Part C) Total (Assignment) Marks 6 8 10 6 30 5 10 10 7.5 7.5 40 4+6 5+5 5+5 30 100

Recommended searches 1. http://web.mscsoftware.com/support/online_ex/previous_Nastran/Nas101/lesson_03.p df 2. http://courses.washington.edu/me354a/Energy%20methods.pdf

Form 43

Ver: 2

Date: 14-03-2011