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ISSN 1725-4566

ISSN 1725-4566 Pocketbooks Energy, transport and environment indicators 2012 edition

Pocketbooks

Energy, transport and environment indicators

2012 edition

ISSN 1725-4566 Pocketbooks Energy, transport and environment indicators 2012 edition
                                 
  
   
  
  
  
Pocketbooks Energy, transport and environment indicators 2012 edition

Pocketbooks

Energy, transport and environment indicators

2012 edition

Pocketbooks Energy, transport and environment indicators 2012 edition

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Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2012

ISBN 978-92-79-26596-9

ISSN 1725-4566

doi:10.2785/19616

Cat. No KS-DK-12-001-EN-C

Theme: Environment and energy Collection: Pocketbooks

© European Union, 2012 Reproduction of content other than photos is authorised, provided that the source is acknowledged.

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Introduction

Introduction

The 2012 edition presents facts and figures from the Energy, Transport and Environment sectors, all in a single volume. With a view of the growing global political importance of issues such as climate change and energy security, the three sectors have become increasingly interconnected. This creates the need for a comprehensive approach, comprising reliable and comparable statistical data, necessary for the better understanding of the complexity of the issues, for sound policy-making and the setting of effective measures.

The indicators present national data for the 27 EU Member States, the EFTA and candidate countries. When available, the EU-27 aggregate is also provided. Data are generally available for the period between 2000 and 2010; transport mainly between 2005 and 2010. In the energy chapter, the main data sources are: reporting under Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on Energy Statistics and Directive 2008/92/EC concerning transparency of gas and electricity prices. In the transport chapter, the most important data sources are: reporting under the EU legal acts on transport statistics and the Eurostat/UNECE/ITF Common Questionnaire. Regarding environment, data on waste derive from reporting under Regulation 2150/2002 on waste statistics and data on water are collected in cooperation with the OECD by means of a Joint Questionnaire. Environmental accounts are collected by Eurostat and emissions data are taken from the European Environment Agency. The report ‘State of Europe’s Forests 2011’ is the source of data on forest area and wood harvest by ownership whereas imports of wood and wood products come from Eurostat. Data on bird indicators are provided by the European Bird Census Council/The Royal Society for Protection of Birds/ BirdLife International/ Statistics Netherlands.

General data offer a first macroscopic overview of the main characteristics of the EU and its position with regard to the main economies worldwide.

Energy indicators include supply, final consumption, renewable sources, and the structure of the industry; energy dependency, energy efficiency, and energy prices. The new Directive on renewable energy sources ( 1 ), integral part of the Energy Package, defines the share of these sources in gross final energy consumption. This publication presents data on certain indicators, for example biofuels, relevant for the policy on the promotion of renewable energy. Energy prices are presented in accordance with the new methodology.

Transport indicators cover equipment, volume of passengers and freight transport, modes of transport and road safety.

The Environment chapter includes indicators on climate change and greenhouse gas emissions, waste generation and treatment, water resources, abstraction and use, wastewater treatment, forestry and biodiversity and relevant financial indicators such as environmental protection expenditure and environmental taxes.

For detailed data please check:

— Free data available on the Eurostat website at http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat — European Environment Agency (EEA) website at http://eea.europa.eu

( 1 ) Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC (2009/28/EC).

subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC (2009/28/EC). Energy, transport and environment indicators 3

Energy, transport and environment indicators

3

Acknowledgements

Project management:

Roeland Mertens, Eurostat

For further information:

Energy indicators:

Roeland Mertens

Transport indicators:

Hans Strelow

Hubertus Cloodt

Environment indicators:

Evangelia Ford-Alexandraki: coordinator Waste — Lene Bochaton, Christian Heidorn Forestry and biodiversity — Marilise Wolf-Crowther, Csaba Mozes Water — Jürgen Förster

Environmental accounts and climate change:

Annamaria Szirony: coordinator Greenhouse gas emissions —David Biddle, Stephan Moll Material flow accounts — Cristina Popescu, Stephan Moll Environmental taxes — Stela Stamatova Environmental protection expenditure — Annamaria Szirony

Publication management:

Stavroula Papagianni and Philip Siakkis, Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Saving

Original language:

English

Translations:

European Commission Translation Service

4

Energy, transport and environment indicators

language: English Translations: European Commission Translation Service 4 Energy, transport and environment indicators

Table of contents

Table of contents

Introduction

3

1

General Data

1.1

Basic figures

1.1.1

Area and population worldwide

20

1.1.2

GDP, GDP share in the world, GDP per head in PPP worldwide

22

1.1.3

Trade in goods worldwide

24

2

Energy indicators

2.1

Energy dependency

2.1.1

Energy dependency — all products

28

2.1.2

Energy dependency — hard coal and derivatives

30

2.1.3

Energy dependency — oil

32

2.1.4

Energy dependency — natural gas

34

2.2

Energy intensity

2.2.1

Energy intensity

36

2.3

Energy supply

2.3.1

Primary energy production, by fuel

38

2.3.2

Gross inland consumption, by fuel

40

2.3.3

Imports of energy products, by country of origin

42

2.3.4

Net imports of solid fuels and oil

44

2.3.5

Net imports of natural gas

46

2.3.6

Net imports of electricity

48

2.4

Final energy consumption

2.4.1

Final energy consumption, by sector

50

2.4.2

Final energy consumption, by industrial sector

52

2.4.3

Final energy consumption in industry, by fuel

54

2.4.4

Final energy consumption by mode of transpor

56

2.4.5

Final energy consumption in transport, by fuel

58

2.4.6

Final energy consumption in households, by fuel

60

2.5

Energy industry

2.5.1

Installed capacity of electricity generation plants, by type

62

2.5.2

Power station generation, by type

64

2.5.3

Thermal efficiency of power stations

66

2.5.4

Combined heat and power generation

68

2.5.5

Market share of the largest generator in the electricity market

70

2.6

Renewable energy sources

2.6.1

Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption

72

2.6.2

Installed capacity for electricity generation from renewables

74

2.6.3

Electricity from renewables in total electricity consumption

76

2.6.4

Biofuels production capacity

78

2.6.5

Primary production of biofuels

80

2.6.6

Share of biofuels in fuel consumption of transport

82

2.7

Energy efficiency

2.7.1

Gross inland consumption per capita

84

2.7.2

Final electricity consumption per capita

86

2.8

Energy prices

2.8.1

Electricity prices in households and industry

88

2.8.2

Natural gas prices in households and industry

90

88 2.8.2 Natural gas prices in households and industry 90 Energy, transport and environment indicators 5

Energy, transport and environment indicators

5

Table of contents

 

3

Transport indicators

 

3.1

Transport equipment

3.1.1

Motorisation rate of passenger cars

94

3.1.2

Passenger cars, by fuel type

96

3.1.3

Renewal rate of passenger cars

98

3.1.4

Motorisation rate of lorries and road tractors

100

3.1.5

Renewal rate of lorries and road tractors

102

3.1.6

Airfleet by operator country

104

3.2

Vehicle-kilometres

3.2.1

Road traffic volumes on national territory, by type of vehicle

106

3.3

Freight transport

 

3.3.1

Index of inland freight transport volume relative to GDP

108

3.3.2

Index of inland freight transport growth

110

3.3.3

Modal split of inland freight transport

112

3.3.4

Goods freight transport by rail

114

3.3.5

Goods freight transport by road

116

3.3.6

Goods freight transport by inland waterways

118

3.3.7

Goods freight transport by sea

120

3.3.8

Goods freight transport by air

122

3.3.9

Goods freight transport by oil pipelines

124

3.4

Passenger transport

3.4.1

Passenger transport by rail

126

3.4.2

Passenger transport by passenger cars

128

3.4.3

Passenger transport by buses and coaches

130

3.4.4

Passenger transport by air

132

3.4.5

Passenger transport by sea

134

3.5

Transport safety

3.5.1

Persons killed in road accidents

136

4

Environment indicators

4.1

Greenhouse gas emissions

4.1.1

Greenhouse gas emissions and agreed reduction targets

140

4.1.2

Greenhouse gas emissions, breakdown by inventory sector

142

4.1.3

Carbon (CO 2 ) intensity of energy use

144

4.1.4

Greenhouse gas emissions ‘from a consumption perspective’ per capita

146

4.2.

Material flow accounts

 

4.2.1

Domestic material consumption by material

148

4.2.2

Total imports and exports of materials in the EU-27

150

4.2.3

Total imports and exports, by stage of manufacturing

152

4.2.4

Domestic material input and domestic material consumption per capita

154

4.2.5

Raw material input and raw material consumption per capita

156

4.3

Waste

4.3.1

Total waste generated (hazardous, non-hazardous)

158

6

Energy, transport and environment indicators

6 Energy, transport and environment indicators

Table of contents

4.3.2

Waste generation by economic activity

160

4.3.3

Total non-mineral waste generation

162

4.3.4

Waste management

164

4.3.5

Municipal waste generated per inhabitant

166

4.3.6

Energy production from municipal waste incineration

168

4.3.7

Greenhouse gas emissions from waste treatment

170

4.3.8

Recovery and recycling rate of packaging waste

172

4.3.9

Recovery and recycling rate for end-of-life vehicles

174

4.3.10

Waste shipment – hazardous waste

176

4.3.11

Production of environmentally harmful chemicals

178

4.3.12

Production of toxic chemicals, by toxicity class

180

4.4.

Forestry and biodiversity

4.4.1

Forest area by ownership and average size of holdings

182

4.4.2

Wood harvest by ownership

184

4.4.3

Imports of FLEGT-licensed wood products to the EU-27

186

4.4.4

EU common bird indicators

188

4.4.5

National and EU farmland bird indicators

190

4.5

Water

4.5.1

Total abstraction of fresh water

192

4.5.2

Total abstraction of fresh water per capita, by source

194

4.5.3

Use of water from public and self supply by the domestic sector (households and services) per capita

196

4.5.4

Self supply water use for energy production (cooling water only)

198

4.5.5

Population connected to at least secondary wastewater treatment

200

4.6

Environmental taxes

4.6.1

Environmental tax revenue by type as % of GDP

202

4.6.2

Environmental tax revenue by type as % of taxes and social contributions

204

4.6.3

Energy taxes by economic activity

206

4.6.4

Transport taxes by economic activity

208

4.6.5

Implicit tax rate on energy

210

4.7

Environmental protection expenditure

4.7.1

Environmental protection expenditure in the European Union

212

4.7.2

Environmental protection expenditure by environmental domain

214

4.7.3

Environmental protection expenditure by sector

216

4.7.4

Environmental protection investment and current expenditure by sector

218

4.7.5

Environmental protection expenditure by industry sub-sector

220

 

222

Annex A: Glossary of terms used in the energy section Annex B: Terms and methodology used in the transport section

225

Annex C: Glossary of terms used in the environment section

226

Annex D: Calorific values and conversion factors

233

section 226 Annex D: Calorific values and conversion factors 233 Energy, transport and environment indicators 7

Energy, transport and environment indicators

7

Table des matières

Table des matières

 

Introduction

 

3

1

Données générales

1.1

Chiffres de base

1.1.1

Superficie et population, au niveau mondial

20

1.1.2

PIB, part du PIB mondial, PIB par habitant en PPA, au niveau mondial 22

1.1.3

Commerce de biens, au niveau mondial

24

2

Indicateurs de l'énergie

2.1

Dépendance énergétique

2.1.1

Dépendance énergétique — tous produits

28

2.1.2

Dépendance énergétique — houille et dérivés

30

2.1.3

Dépendance énergétique — pétrole

32

2.1.4

Dépendance énergétique — gaz naturel

34

2.2

Intensité énergétique

2.2.1

Intensité énergétique

36

2.3

Approvisionnement énergétique

2.3.1

Production d'énergie primaire, par combustible

38

2.3.2

Consommation intérieure brute, par combustible

40

2.3.3

Importations de produits énergétiques, par pays d'origine

42

2.3.4

Importations nettes de combustibles solides et de pétrole

44

2.3.5

Importations nettes de gaz naturel

46

2.3.6

Importations nettes d'électricité

48

2.4

Consommation énergétique finale

2.4.1

Consommation énergétique finale, par secteur

50

2.4.2

Consommation énergétique finale, par secteur industriel

52

2.4.3

Consommation énergétique finale dans l'industrie, par combustible

54

2.4.4

Consommation énergétique finale, par mode de transport

56

2.4.5

Consommation énergétique finale dans les transports, par combustible

58

2.4.6

Consommation énergétique finale des ménages, par combustible

60

2.5

Industrie énergétique

2.5.1

Capacité installée de production d'électricité, par type

62

2.5.2

Production des centrales électriques, par type

64

2.5.3

Rendement thermique des centrales électriques

66

2.5.4

Production combinée de chaleur et d'électricité

68

2.5.5

Part de marché du plus grand producteur d'électricité

70

2.6

Sources d'énergie renouvelables

2.6.1

Part de l'énergie produite à partir de sources renouvelables dans la consommation finale brute d'énergie

72

2.6.2

Capacité installée de production d'électricité à partir de sources d'énergie renouvelables

74

2.6.3

Part de l'électricité produite à partir de sources renouvelables dans la consommation totale d'électricité

76

2.6.4

Capacité de production de biocarburants

78

2.6.5

Production primaire de biocarburants

80

2.6.6

Part des biocarburants dans la consommation de carburant des transports

82

2.7

Efficacité énergétique

2.7.1

Consommation intérieure brute par habitant

84

2.7.2

Consommation finale d'électricité par habitant

86

8

Energy, transport and environment indicators

8 Energy, transport and environment indicators

Table des matières

2.8

Prix de l'énergie

2.8.1

Prix de l'électricité pour les ménages et l'industrie

2.8.2

Prix du gaz naturel pour les ménages et l'industrie

3

Indicateurs des transports

3.1

Matériels de transport

3.1.1

Taux de motorisation en véhicules particuliers

3.1.2

Véhicules particuliers, par type de carburant

3.1.3

Taux de renouvellement des véhicules particuliers

3.1.4

Taux de motorisation en camions et tracteurs routiers

3.1.5

Taux de renouvellement des camions et tracteurs routiers

3.1.6

Flotte aérienne, par pays opérateur

3.2

Véhicules-kilomètres

3.2.1

Volume de trafic routier sur le territoire national, par type de véhicule

3.3

Transport de marchandises

3.3.1

Indice de volume du transport intérieur de marchandises par rapport au PIB

3.3.2

Indice de croissance du transport intérieur de marchandises

3.3.3

Répartition modale du transport intérieur de marchandises

3.3.4

Transport de marchandises par rail

3.3.5

Transport de marchandises par route

3.3.6

Transport de marchandises par voies navigables intérieures

3.3.7

Transport de marchandises par voie maritime

3.3.8

Transport de marchandises par voie aérienne

3.3.9

Transport de marchandises par oléoducs

3.4

Transport de passagers

3.4.1

Transport de passagers par rail

3.4.2

Transport de passagers en véhicules particuliers

3.4.3

Transport de passagers par autobus et autocars

3.4.4

Transport aérien de passagers

3.4.5

Transport maritime de passagers

3.5

Sécurité des transports

3.5.1

Nombre de personnes tuées dans des accidents de la route

4

Indicateurs de l'environnement

4.1

4.1.1

4.1.2

4.1.3

4.1.4

4.2.

4.2.1

4.2.2

4.2.3

4.2.4

4.2.5

4.3

4.3.1

4.3.2

Émissions de gaz à effet de serre

Émissions de gaz à effet de serre et objectifs de réduction adoptés

Émissions de gaz à effet de serre, ventilées par secteur d'inventaire

Intensité en carbone (CO

Émissions de gaz à effet de serre ‘du point de vue

de la consommation’, par habitant

Comptes des flux de matières

Consommation intérieure de matières, par matière Importations et exportations totales de matières dans l’UE-27 Importations et exportations totales, par stade de transformation

Apport intérieur de matières et consommation intérieure de matières, par habitant

Apport de matières premières et consommation de matières premières, par habitant

Déchets

Production totale de déchets (dangereux, non dangereux) Production de déchets, par activité économique

2

) de la consommation énergétique

88

90

94

96

98

100

102

104

106

108

110

112

114

116

118

120

122

124

126

128

130

132

134

136

140

142

144

146

148

150

152

154

156

158

160

122 124 126 128 130 132 134 136 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 154

Energy, transport and environment indicators

9

Table des matières

 

4.3.3

Production totale de déchets non minéraux

162

4.3.4

Gestion des déchets

164

4.3.5

Production de déchets municipaux, par habitant

166

4.3.6

Production d’énergie à partir de l’incinération des déchets municipaux

168

4.3.7

Émissions de gaz à effet de serre provenant du traitement des déchets

170

4.3.8

Taux de valorisation et de recyclage des déchets d’emballage

172

4.3.9

Taux de valorisation et de recyclage des véhicules hors d’usage

174

4.3.10

Transfert de déchets – déchets dangereux

176

4.3.11

Production de substances chimiques nocives pour l’environnement

178

4.3.12

Production de substances chimiques toxiques, par classe de toxicité

180

4.4

Sylviculture et biodiversité

4.4.1

Zones forestières, par type de propriétaire et taille moyenne de l’exploitation

182

4.4.2

Récolte des bois, par type de propriétaire

184

4.4.3

Importations dans l’UE-27 de produits dérivés du bois couverts par une autorisation FLEGT

186

4.4.4

Indicateurs européens des espèces d’oiseaux communs

188

4.4.5

Indicateurs nationaux et européens des espèces d’oiseaux des milieux agricoles

190

4.5

Eau

4.5.1

Prélèvements totaux d’eau douce

192

4.5.2

Prélèvements totaux d'eau douce, par habitant et par source

194

4.5.3

Utilisation d'eau d'approvisionnement public et d'auto- approvisionnement par le secteur domestique (ménages et services), par habitant

196

4.5.4

Utilisation d'eau (auto approvisionnement) pour la production d'énergie (eau de refroidissement uniquement)

198

4.5.5

Population raccordée à des systèmes de traitement au moins secondaire des eaux résiduaires

200

4.6

Écotaxes

4.6.1

Revenu des écotaxes par type, en % du PIB

202

4.6.2

Revenu des écotaxes par type, en % du total des impôts et cotisations sociales

204

4.6.3

Taxes sur l’énergie, par activité économique

206

4.6.4

Taxes sur les transports, par activité économique

208

4.6.5

Taux d'imposition implicite de l'énergie

210

4.7

Dépenses de protection de l'environnement

4.7.1

Dépenses de protection de l’environnement dans l’Union européenne 212

4.7.2

Dépenses de protection de l'environnement, par domaine

 
 

environnemental

214

 

4.7.3

Dépenses de protection de l’environnement, par secteur

216

4.7.4

Investissements et dépenses courantes pour la protection de l’environnement, par secteur

218

4.7.5

Dépenses de protection de l’environnement, par sous-secteur industriel

Annex A: Glossaire des termes utilises dans la section énergie Annex B: Section Transport – termes et méthodologie Annex C: Glossaire des termes utilises dans la section environnement Annex D: Valeurs calorifiques et facteurs de conversion

220

222

225

226

233

10

Energy, transport and environment indicators

Energy, transport and environment indicators

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Einführung

3

1

Allgemeine Daten

1.1

Eckdaten

1.1.1

Fläche und Bevölkerung weltweit

20

1.1.2

BIP, BIP-Anteil am globalen BIP, BIP pro Kopf in KKP weltweit

22

1.1.3

Weltweiter Warenverkehr

24

2

Energieindikatoren

2.1

Energieabhängigkeit

2.1.1

Energieabhängigkeit – alle Erzeugnisse

28

2.1.2

2.1.3

Energieabhängigkeit – Steinkohle und Nebenprodukte

Energieabhängigkeit – Öl

30

32

2.1.4

Energieabhängigkeit – Erdgas

34

2.2

Energieintensität

2.2.1

Energieintensität

36

2.3

Energieversorgung

2.3.1

Primärenergieerzeugung nach Brennstoff

38

2.3.2

Bruttoinlandsverbrauch nach Brennstoff

40

2.3.3

2.3.4

Einfuhren von Energieprodukten nach Ursprungsland

Nettoeinfuhren von Festbrennstoffen und Öl

42

44

2.3.5

Nettoeinfuhren von Erdgas

46

2.3.6

Nettoeinfuhren von Strom

48

2.4

Endenergieverbrauch

2.4.1

Endenergieverbrauch nach Sektor

50

2.4.2

Endenergieverbrauch nach Industriesektor

52

2.4.3

Endenergieverbrauch der Industrie nach Brennstoff

54

2.4.4

Endenergieverbrauch nach Verkehrszweig

56

2.4.5

Endenergieverbrauch des Verkehrs nach Brennstoff

58

2.4.6

Endenergieverbrauch von privaten Haushalten nach Brennstoff

60

2.5

Energieindustrie

2.5.1

Installierte Leistung von Stromerzeugungsanlagen nach Anlageart

62

2.5.2

Erzeugung von Kraftwerken nach Anlageart

64

2.5.3

Thermischer Wirkungsgrad von Kraftwerken

66

2.5.4

Kraft-Wärme-Kopplung

68

2.5.5

Anteil des größten Erzeugers am Strommarkt

70

2.6

Erneuerbare Energiequellen

2.6.1

Anteil erneuerbarer Energie am Bruttoendenergieverbrauch

72

2.6.2

Installierte Leistung für Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen

74

2.6.3

Strom aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen – Gesamtstromverbrauch

76

2.6.4

Kapazität der Biokraftstofferzeugung

78

2.6.5

Primärerzeugung von Biokraftstoffen

80

2.6.6

Anteil von Biokraftstoffen am Kraftstoffbrauch im Verkehr

82

2.7

Energieeffizienz

2.7.1

Bruttoinlandsverbrauch pro Kopf

84

2.7.2

Stromendverbrauch pro Kopf

86

2.8

Energiepreise

2.8.1

Strompreise für Haushalte und Industrie

88

2.8.2

Erdgaspreise für Haushalte und Industrie

90

Industrie 88 2.8.2 Erdgaspreise für Haushalte und Industrie 90 Energy, transport and environment indicators 11

Energy, transport and environment indicators

11

Inhaltsverzeichnis

 

3

Verkehrsindikatoren

 

3.1

Fahrzeuge

3.1.1

Motorisierungsgrad bei Personenkraftfahrzeugen

94

3.1.2

Personenkraftfahrzeuge nach Kraftstoffart

96

3.1.3

Erneuerungsrate bei Personenkraftfahrzeugen

98

3.1.4

Motorisierungsgrad bei Lastkraftwagen und Straßenzugmaschinen 100

3.1.5

Erneuerungsrate bei Lastkraftwagen und Straßenzugmaschinen

102

3.1.6

Flugzeugflotte nach Betreiberland

104

3.2

Fahrzeugkilometer

3.2.1

Straßenverkehrsaufkommen im Hoheitsgebiet eines Staates nach Fahrzeugart

106

3.3

Güterverkehr

3.3.1

Index des innerstaatlichen Güterverkehrsvolumens im Verhältnis zum BIP

108

3.3.2

Index der Zunahme des innerstaatlichen Güterverkehrs

110

3.3.3

Aufteilung des innerstaatlichen Güterverkehrs auf die Verkehrszweige

112

3.3.4

Schienengüterverkehr

114

3.3.5

Straßengüterverkehr

116

3.3.6

Güterverkehr der Binnenschifffahrt

118

3.3.7

Seegüterverkehr

120

3.3.8

Güterluftverkehr

122

3.3.9

Güterverkehr mittels Erdölfernleitungen

124

3.4

Personenverkehr

3.4.1

Schienenpersonenverkehr

126

3.4.2

Personenverkehr mit Personenkraftfahrzeugen

128

3.4.3

Personenverkehr mit Linien- und Reisebussen

130

3.4.4

Personenluftverkehr

132

3.4.5

Personenseeverkehr

134

3.5

Verkehrssicherheit

3.5.1

Straßenverkehrstote

136

4

Umweltindikatoren

4.1

Treibhausgasemissionen

4.1.1

Treibhausgasemissionen und vereinbarte Reduzierungsziele

140

4.1.2

Treibhausgasemissionen, Untergliederung nach Inventarbereich

142

4.1.3

CO 2 -Intensität des Energieverbrauchs

144

4.1.4

Treibhausgasemissionen ‘aus der Perspektive des Verbrauchs’ pro Kopf

146

4.2.

Materialflussrechnungen

 

4.2.1

Inlandsmaterialverbrauch nach Material

148

4.2.2

Gesamtein- und ausfuhren von Material der EU-27

150

4.2.3

Gesamtein- und ausfuhren nach Verarbeitungsgrad

152

4.2.4

Inlandsmaterialeinsatz und Inlandsmaterialverbrauch pro Kopf

154

4.2.5

Rohstoffinput und Rohstoffverbrauch pro Kopf

156

4.3

Abfall

4.3.1

Abfallaufkommen insgesamt (gefährlich/nicht gefährlich)

158

4.3.2

Abfallaufkommen nach Wirtschaftszweig

160

12

Energy, transport and environment indicators

12 Energy, transport and environment indicators

Inhaltsverzeichnis

4.3.3

Gesamterzeugung nichtmineralischer Abfälle

162

4.3.4

Abfallbehandlung

164

4.3.5

Siedlungsabfälle in kg je Einwohner

166

4.3.6

Energieerzeugung aus der Verbrennung von Siedlungsabfällen

168

4.3.7

Treibhausgasemissionen aus der Abfallbehandlung

170

4.3.8

Recycling- und Wiederverwertungsrate bei Verpackungsabfällen172

4.3.9

Recycling- und Wiederverwertungsrate bei Altfahrzeugen

174

4.3.10

Verbringung gefährlicher Abfälle

176

4.3.11

Herstellung umweltschädlicher Chemikalien

178

4.3.12

Produktion toxischer Chemikalien nach Toxizitätsklasse

180

4.4

Forstwirtschaft und Artenvielfalt

4.4.1

Waldflächen nach Besitzverhältnis und durchschnittlicher Besitzgröße

182

4.4.2

Holzernte nach Besitzverhältnis

184

4.4.3

Einfuhren von Holzprodukten mit FLEGT-Genehmigung in die EU-27

186

4.4.4

Indikatoren weit verbreiteter Vogelarten in der EU

188

4.4.5

Nationale und EU-weite Feldvogelindikatoren

190

4.5

Wasser

4.5.1

Süßwasserentnahme insgesamt

192

4.5.2

Süßwasserentnahme pro Kopf nach Quelle

194

4.5.3

Verwendung von Wasser in privaten Haushalten (Haushalte und Dienstleistungsbetriebe) pro Kopf

196

4.5.4

Eigenverbrauch von Wasser zur Energieerzeugung (Kühlwasser)

198

4.5.5

Bevölkerung mit Anschluss an eine Abwasserentsorgung mit zumindest einer Zweitbehandlungsstufe

200

4.6

Umweltsteuern

4.6.1

Umweltsteuereinnahmen nach Typ in % des BIP

202

4.6.2

Umweltsteuereinnahmen nach Typ in % der Steuern und Sozialabgaben

204

4.6.3

Energiesteuern nach Wirtschaftszweig

206

4.6.4

Verkehrssteuern nach Wirtschaftszweig

208

4.6.5

Implizierter Energiesteuersatz

210

4.7

Umweltschutzausgaben

4.7.1

Umweltschutzausgaben in der Europäischen Union

212

4.7.2

Umweltschutzausgaben nach Umweltbereich

214

4.7.3

Umweltschutzausgaben nach Bereich

216

4.7.4

Umweltschutzinvestitionen und laufende Ausgaben nach Bereich

218

4.7.5

Umweltschutzausgaben nach Bereich der Industrie

220

 

222

Anhang A: Glossar der in den Energiekapiteln verwendeten Begriffe Anhang B: Verkehr: Begriffe und Methodik

225

Anhang C: Glossar der in den Umweltkapiteln verwendeten Begriffe

226

Anhang D: Heizwerte und Umrechnungsfaktoren

233

Begriffe 226 Anhang D: Heizwerte und Umrechnungsfaktoren 233 Energy, transport and environment indicators 13

Energy, transport and environment indicators

13

Symbols and abbreviations

Symbols and abbreviations

Symbols

:

No data available

0

Figure less than half of the unit used

-

‘Not applicable’ or ‘real zero’ or ‘zero by default’

%

Percentage

1234

Estimates are printed in italic

c

Confidential

14

Energy, transport and environment indicators

1234 Estimates are printed in italic c Confidential 14 Energy, transport and environment indicators

Units of measurement

Symbols and abbreviations

ECU

European currency unit, data up to 31.12.1998

EUR

Euro, data from 1.1.1999 on

GJ

Giga Joule

GW

Giga Watt

GWh

Gigawatt hour

ha

Hectare

kg

Kilogram

kgoe

Kilograms of oil equivalent

km

Kilometre

km 2

Square kilometre

ktoe

Thousand tonnes of oil equivalent

kWh

Kilo Watt hour

m 3

Cubic metre

mio

Μillion

(10 6 )

Mt

Million tonnes

Mtoe

Μillion tonnes of oil equivalent

MW

Mega Watt

PJ

Peta Joule

pkm

Passenger-kilometre

tkm

Tonne-kilometre

t

Tonne

toe

Tonne of oil equivalent

TWh

Terawatt hour

vkm

Vehicle-kilometre

of oil equivalent TWh Terawatt hour vkm Vehicle-kilometre Energy, transport and environment indicators 15

Energy, transport and environment indicators

15

1

Symbols and abbreviations

16

Abbreviations

CARE CH 4 CHP CMR CO 2 DEU DMC DMI EBCC ECE EEA EPE FAWS FEC FLEGT GDP GHG GIC GNI GVA GWP IEA IPCC ITF NACE N 2 O OECD OJ OPEC OWL PPP RES RMC RME RMI RSPB UIC UN UNECE

UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

VPA

Community Road Accident Database Methane Combined heat and power Carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic Carbon dioxide Domestic Extraction Used Domestic Material Consumption Direct Material Input European Bird Census Council United Nations Economic Commission for Europe European Environment Agency Environmental protection expenditure Forests available for wood supply Final Energy Consumption Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade Gross Domestic Product Greenhouse gases Gross Inland Consumption Gross National Income Gross Value Added Global warming potential International Energy Agency Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change International Transport Forum

Statistical Classification of economic activities in the European Community Nitrous oxide Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Official Journal of the European Union Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries Other wooded land Purchasing Power Parity Renewable Energy Sources Raw Material Consumption Raw Material Equivalents

Raw Material Input

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Union International des Chemins de fer United Nations United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Voluntary Partnership Agreements

Energy, transport and environment indicators

Nations Economic Commission for Europe Voluntary Partnership Agreements Energy, transport and environment indicators

Abbreviations of countries

Abbreviations of countries

EU-27

The 27 Member States of the European Union from 1 January 2007 (BE, BG, CZ, DK, DE, EE, IE, EL, ES, FR, IT, CY, LV, LT, LU, HU, MT, NL, AT, PL, PT, RO, SI, SK, FI, SE, UK)

EU-15

The 15 Member States of the European Union from 1 January 1995 to 30 April 2004 (BE, DK, DE, IE, EL, ES, FR, IT, LU, NL, AT, PT, FI, SE, UK)

EFTA

European Free Trade Association

BE

Belgium

BG

Bulgaria

CZ

Czech Republic

DK

Denmark

DE

Germany

EE

Estonia

IE

Ireland

EL

Greece

ES

Spain

FR

France

IT

Italy

CY

Cyprus

LV

Latvia

LT

Lithuania

LU

Luxembourg

HU

Hungary

MT

Malta

NL

Netherlands

AT

Austria

PL

Poland

PT

Portugal

RO

Romania

SI

Slovenia

SK

Slovakia

FI

Finland

SE

Sweden

UK

United Kingdom

IS (1)

Iceland

LI

Liechtenstein

NO

Norway

CH

Switzerland

ME

Montenegro

HR

Croatia

MK (2)

The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia

RS

Serbia

TR

Turkey

( 1 ) Also a candidate country. ( 2 ) Provisional code which does not prejudge in any way the definitive nomenclature for this country, which will be agreed following the conclusion of negotiations currently taking place on this subject at the United Nations.

negotiations currently taking place on this subject at the United Nations. Energy, transport and environment indicators

Energy, transport and environment indicators

17

General Data

1

General Data

Table 1.1.1: Area and population worldwide, 2010

 

Land area (1 000 km 2 )

Population

Population density (inhabitants/km 2 )

(thousand)

EU-27

4 304

501 104

116

China

9 597

1 341 335

140

Japan

378

126 536

335

Russia

17 098

142 958

8

United States

9 629

310 384

32

World

136 127

6 895 889

51

Source: Population: World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision United Nations Population Division; EU-27: Eurostat (online data code: demo_pjan), Land area: United Nations Demographic Yearbook 2009-2010; EU-27: Eurostat The EU in the world - A statistical portrait

20

Energy, transport and environment indicators

2009-2010; EU-27: Eurostat The EU in the world - A statistical portrait 20 Energy, transport and

General Data

1

Figure 1.1.1: Population index worldwide (1995 = 100)

125

120 115 110 105 100 95 90 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009
120
115
110
105
100
95
90
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
EU-27
World
United States
China
Japan
Russian Federation

Source: EU-27: Eurostat (online data code: demo_pjan); World Population Prospects - The 2010 Revision United Nations Population Division

In 2010, the world population was 6 896 million. China was the most populous country with 1 341 million inhabitants. EU’s population reached 501 million, while the population of the United States was 310 million and Russia and Japan followed at some distance with 143 and 127 million inhabitants respectively. Compared to 1995, in 2010 the world population presented a 20 % increase. At country level, the population in the United States increased by 17 %, in China by 10 %, while in the EU-27 the increase was 5 % and in Japan 2 %. In Russia between 1995 and 2010 the population fell by 4 %.

In terms of population density, Japan presented a very high density (335 inhabitants/km 2 in 2010). High densities were also recorded in China (140) and the EU (116). World density was 51 inhabitants/km 2 . The United States and Russia presented densities below the world average (32 and 8 respectively).

presented densities below the world average (32 and 8 respectively). Energy, transport and environment indicators 21

Energy, transport and environment indicators

21

1

General Data

Table 1.1.2: GDP, GDP share in the world, GDP per head in PPP worldwide, 2011

 

GDP at current prices (million US $)

Share of world GDP (%)

GNI per capita in PPP (world = 100)

EU-27

17 552 216

25.1

283.0

China

7 298 097

10.4

72.8

Japan

5 867 154

8.4

306.8

Russia

1 857 770

2.7

173.2

United States

15 094 000

21.6

422.4

World

69 971 508

100.0

100.0

22

Source: The World Bank

Energy, transport and environment indicators

422.4 World 69 971 508 100.0 100.0 22 Source: The World Bank Energy, transport and environment

General Data

1

Figure 1.1.2: GDP (1995 = 100) 1 040 840 640 440 240 40 1995 1997
Figure 1.1.2: GDP (1995 = 100)
1 040
840
640
440
240
40
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
EU-27
China
Russian Federation
World
United States
Japan

Source: The World Bank

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the EU-27 amounted to 17 552 billion $ in 2011, a 25.1 % share of world GDP. The United States made up 21.6 % of world GDP, followed by China (10.4 %), Japan (8.4 %) and Russia (2.7 %). Compared to 1995, all major economies increased their GDPs in 2011. China presented a tenfold increase over this period and Russia followed with an almost fivefold increase.

Gross national income (GNI) is the sum of gross primary incomes receivable by resident institutional units/sectors. Therefore, it is GDP less primary income payable to non-residents plus primary income receivable from non-residents. With the use of GNI per capita in purchasing power parity (PPP) the relative position of individual countries can be expressed through a comparison with the world value (100). The highest value among the major world economies was recorded for the United States of America (422.4 compared to world average), followed by Japan (306.8), EU-27 (283.0) and Russia (173.2); while for China it was 72.8. Real GDP growth, between 2008 and 2009, recorded declines in all major economies, except for China, which presented a 9.1 % increase.

all major economies, except for China, which presented a 9.1 % increase. Energy, transport and environment

Energy, transport and environment indicators

23

1

General Data

Table 1.1.3: Trade in goods worldwide (million EUR)

Source: Eurostat (online data code: ext_lt_introle)

24

 

2011

- 159 621

111 346

:

138 845

- 562 396

Net exports

2010

-174 160

138 790

58 248

114 204

- 520 018

2005

- 125 649

81 988

63 560

114 737

- 665 526

 

2000

- 142 955

26 103

107 802

74 937

- 517 260

 

2011

1 713 544

1 252 439

:

204 552

1 625 421

Imports

2010

1 530 844

1 051 670

522 456

187 599

1 483 365

2005

1 183 210

530 466

414 650

79 340

1 392 429

 

2000

992 695

243 710

411 112

36 682

1 362 129

 

2011

1 553 923

1 363 785

:

343 397

1 063 025

Exports

2010

1 356 684

1 190 460

580 704

301 803

963 347

2005

1 057 561

612 454

478 210

194 077

726 903

2000

849 740

269 813

518 914

111 619

844 869

 

EU-27

China

Japan

Russia

United States

Energy, transport and environment indicators

619 844 869   EU-27 China Japan Russia United States Energy, transport and environment indicators

General Data

1

Figure 1.1.3: Net exports, 2010 (billion EUR)

EU-27 China Japan Russia United States - 600 - 500 - 400 - 300 -
EU-27
China
Japan
Russia
United States
- 600
- 500
- 400
- 300
- 200
- 100
0
100
200

Source: Eurostat (online data code: ext_lt_introle)

In 2011, the EU-27 presented the highest absolute values of imports (1 714 billion EUR) and exports (1 554). As far as net exports (exports minus imports) are concerned, in 2011 the net exporting countries were Russia (139 billion EUR), China (111) and Japan (58 in 2010), while the United States and the EU-27 were net importers with 562 and 160 billion EUR respectively.

For the period between 2000 and 2011, all countries presented increased exports and imports. The highest increases in exports were recorded in China (fivefold) and Russia (threefold); while in imports the highest increase was recorded in Russia (sixfold), followed by China (fivefold).

increase was recorded in Russia (sixfold), followed by China (fivefold). Energy, transport and environment indicators 25

Energy, transport and environment indicators

25

Energy indicators

Energy indicators Energy, transport and environment indicators 27

Energy, transport and environment indicators

27

2

Energy

Table 2.1.1: Energy dependency — all products (%)

 

2000

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

EU-27

46.7

53.7

53.0

54.6

53.7

52.7

Belgium

78.1

79.7

77.1

79.9

74.3

76.8

Bulgaria

46.5

46.2

51.3

52.1

45.3

40.3

Czech Republic

23.0

27.8

25.0

27.9

27.0

25.6

Denmark

- 35.3

- 35.9

- 24.7

- 22.9

- 20.6

- 18.2

Germany

59.5

60.7

58.1

60.5

61.5

59.8

Estonia

32.0

28.5

23.8

24.0

21.2

12.9

Ireland

84.4

90.5

87.9

89.5

87.6

85.6

Greece

69.5

71.8

71.2

73.3

67.8

69.1

Spain

76.6

81.2

79.6

81.3

79.3

76.7

France

51.5

51.5

50.4

50.8

51.0

49.3

Italy

86.5

87.0

85.1

85.3

82.7

83.8

Cyprus

98.6

102.5

95.9

97.6

96.4

100.9

Latvia

59.7

65.7

61.5

57.9

58.8

41.6

Lithuania

59.8

62.4

61.3

58.2

50.2

81.9

Luxembourg

99.6

98.2

96.7

97.5

97.6

96.8

Hungary

55.2

62.7

61.3

63.4

58.7

58.3

Malta

100.3

100.0

100.0

100.0

98.3

100.8

Netherlands

38.7

37.4

38.9

34.4

36.5

30.7

Austria

65.6

72.4

68.9

68.9

65.4

61.8

Poland

10.6

20.0

25.6

30.6

31.7

31.5

Portugal

84.9

83.0

82.0

82.8

81.0

75.4

Romania

22.0

29.2

31.5

27.7

20.2

21.7

Slovenia

52.6

52.1

52.5

55.1

48.2

49.3

Slovakia

65.0

63.9

68.4

64.6

66.4

63.1

Finland

55.3

53.8

53.1

54.2

54.0

48.1

Sweden

39.2

37.8

36.3

37.9

37.1

36.5

United Kingdom

- 17.0

21.2