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# Heat Transfer

## THE VIEW FACTOR or SHAPE FACTOR (F)

The concept of radiation shape factor is useful in the analysis of radiation heat exchange between two surfaces. Radiation heat transfer between surfaces depends on the orientation of the surfaces relative to each other as well as their radiation properties and temperatures, as illustrated in Figure 1.

FIGURE 1 Radiation heat exchange between surfaces depends on the orientation of the surfaces relative to each other, and this dependence on orientation is accounted for by the view factor.

For example, a camper will make the most use of a campfire on a cold night by standing as close to the fire as possible and by blocking as much of the radiation coming from the fire by turning her front to the fire instead of her side. Likewise, a person will maximize the amount of solar radiation incident on him and take a sunbath by lying down on his back instead of standing up on his feet.

To account for the effects of orientation on radiation heat transfer between two surfaces, we define a new parameter called the view factor, which is a purely geometric quantity and is independent of the surface properties and temperature. It is also called the shape factor, configuration factor, and angle factor. It is the fraction of the radiation energy that is emitted from one surface and intercepted by the other surface directly without intervening reflections. It is represented by the symbol Fmn which means the shape factor from a surface Am to the other surface An. Consider two black surfaces A1 and A2 at uniform temperature T1 and T2 respectively between which there is a net interchange of thermal radiation. The energy leaving the surface 1 and arriving at surface 2, is Eb1 A1 F12 and that between 2 and 1 is Eb2 A2 F21 The net energy exchange between A1 and A2 is

Consider a case of enclosure in which one surface is exchanging radiation with all other Surfaces in the enclosure including itself , if it happen to be a concave surface. This is due to the fact that the it can view another part of it. On contrary, a convex or flat surface cannot see any part of it. The shape factor of a convex surface with its enclosure is always unity as all the heat radiated by a convex surface will be intercepted by its enclosure and not vice versa. If n surfaces form an enclosure, than the energy radiated from one surface is always intercepted by the other (n-1) surfaces, and the surface it self if it is concave one. F11 + F12 + F13F1n = 1

F21 + F22 + F23F2n = 1 Fn1 + Fn2 + Fn3Fnn = 1 F11 , F22 , Fnn are the shape factor with respect to itself, shape factor with respect to itself is the faction of incident energy emitted by the surface that gets interpreted by itself .

FIGURE 2 The view factor from a surface to itself is zero for plane or convex surfaces and nonzero for concave surfaces.

When the surface is concave it has shape factor with respect to itself but for plane convex surfaces, shape factor with respect to itself is zero. Therefore and Fnn = 0 for convex or flat surface Fnn = 0 for concave surface

## This relationship can be applied to any two surfaces

Problem
Two parallel black plates 1 by 2.0 m are spaced 2 m apart, plate 1 is maintained at 1273 K (1000 C) and plate 2 is maintained at 773 K (500 C). What is the net radiant heat exchange between the plates?

## View factor between identical, parallel, directly opposed rectangles

Q March 14

Two parallel gray plates 1 by 2.0 m are spaced 1 m apart, plate 1 (1=0.8) is maintained at 1273 K (1000 C) and plate 2 (2=0.7) is maintained at 773 K (500 C). Determine the net radiant heat exchange between the plates?

## Electrical network analogy for thermal radiation systems

The electrical network analogy is an alternate approach for analyzing thermal radiation between gray or black surfaces in which case a radiation problem is transferred to an equivalent electrical problem. The terms used in the electrical analogy approach are irradiation and radiosity. This method gives a simpler formula for estimating the rate of flow by comparison with Ohms law. equivalent potential difference between surfaces equivalent thermal resistance of the system

Q=

Radiosity (J) : It is the total radiation leaving a surface (i.e. the total amount of energy leaving a surface) per unit time per unit area. It is the sum of energy emitted and energy reflected by the surface. Irradiation (G) It is the total amount of radiatioan incident upon a surface per unit time per unit area. Let us consider an elementary gray surface A1 at T having emissivity e1. Let Eb be the eniissive power of the surface. Let G be the total radiation incident upon the surface. Let J be the radiosity which is the sum of the energy emitted and energy reflected when no energy is transmitted. Then, the net energy leaving a surface is the difference between the radiosity and the irradiation.

Hence, the two surfaces which exchange heat may each be considered as having a surface resistance of (1-1/eA) and a shape resistance of 1/A1 F12 between their radiosity potential. To construct a network for the radiation heat transfer between the surfaces, we only need to connect a surface resistance (1-1/eA) to each surface and a shape resistance 1/AmFmn) between the radiosity potentials. For example, in case of two surfaces which exchange heat with each other, the radiation network is as shown in Fig. 4 In this case, the net heat transfer/exchange would be the ratio of the overall potential difference to the sum of resistances.

## Radiation Heat Transfer in Three-Surface Enclosures

We now consider an enclosure consisting of three opaque, diffuse, gray surfaces, as shown in Figure 1226. Surfaces 1, 2, and 3 have surface areas A1, A2, and A3; emissivities e1,e2, and e 3; and uniform temperatures T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The radiation network of this geometry is constructed by following the standard procedure: draw a surface resistance associated with each of the three surfaces and connect these surface resistances with space resistances, as shown in the figure. Relations for the surface and space resistances are known. The three endpoint potentials Eb1, Eb2, and Eb3 are considered known, since the surface temperatures are specified. Then all we need to find are the radiosities J1, J2, and J3. The three equations for the determination of these three unknowns are obtained from the requirement that the algebraic sum of the currents (net radiation heat transfer) at each node must equal zero. That is,

Once the radiosities J1, J2, and J3 are available, the net rate of radiation heat transfers at each surface can be determined.

Schematic of a three-surface enclosure and the radiation network associated with it.

Ref: JP.Holman, 8.6: Heat Exchange Between Nonblackbodies Example 8-6 & 8-7

## Radiation Effect on Temperature Measurements

A temperature measuring device indicates the temperature of its sensor, which is supposed to be, but is not necessarily, the temperature of the medium that the sensor is in.
When a thermometer (or any other temperature measuring device such as a thermocouple) is placed in a medium, heat transfer takes place between the sensor of the thermometer and the medium by convection until the sensor reaches the temperature of the medium. But when the sensor is surrounded by surfaces that are at a different temperature than the fluid, radiation exchange will take place between the sensor and the surrounding surfaces.

When the heat transfers by convection and radiation balance each other, the sensor will indicate a temperature that falls between the fluid and surface temperatures.
Below we develop a procedure to account for the radiation effect and to determine the actual fluid temperature. Consider a thermometer that is used to measure the temperature of a fluid flowing through a large channel whose walls are at a lower temperature than the fluid (Fig. 1). Equilibrium will be established and the reading of the thermometer will stabilize when heat gain by convection, as measured by the sensor, equals heat loss by radiation (or vice versa). That is, on a unit area basis,

where Tf = actual temperature of the fluid, K Tth = temperature value measured by the thermometer, K Tw = temperature of the surrounding surfaces, K h = convection heat transfer coefficient, W/m2 K e = emissivity of the sensor of the thermometer The last term in Eq. is due to the radiation effect and represents the radiation correction. Note that the radiation correction term is most significant when the convection heat transfer coefficient is small and the emissivity of the surface of the sensor is large. Therefore, the sensor should be coated with a material of high reflectivity (low emissivity) to reduce the radiation effect.

Q March 19
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