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Rust is a general term for describing iron oxides. Rusting of iron takes place in the presence of water and oxygen when every trace of carbonic acid has been removed. Also, we can say that the usually accepted view has been said that iron will not rust unless carbonic acid is present. In addition, Rusting of Iron also can be viewed as formation by the reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture. Ultimately, provided iron, oxygen, and liquid water are brought together, chemical change takes place with the production of rust, even when every precaution has been taken to exclude even traces of carbonic acid. Then it suddenly can cause of corrosion of metal or iron. Corrosion is the gradual destruction of material, usually metals, by chemical reaction with its environment. Corrosion degrades the useful properties of materials and structures including strength, appearance and ability to contain a vessel's contents. Corrosion may even be brought about by carbonic acid occluded in the iron. Moreover some corrosion mechanisms are less visible and less predictable. So, the prevention of corrosion are concerned to avoid the rusting of metal or iron occur. Many ways of prevention of corrosion was introduced to improve the way how to avoid the rusting of iron will lead corrosion happen.



FUNDAMENTAL OF REDOX Redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions include chemical reaction in which atoms have the oxidation changed. This can be either a simple redox process, such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide (CO2) or the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane (CH4), or a complex process such as the oxidation of glucose (C6H12O6) in the human body through a series of complex electron processes. On the other hand, Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions are chemical reactions in which reactants experience a change in oxidation number (which means these reactants either gain or lose electrons). If an atom in a reactant gained electrons (its oxidation decreased) it was reduced. If an atom in a reactant lost electrons (its oxidation increased) it was oxidized. Since chemical reactions don't make or destroy electrons, oxidation and reduction must occur at the same time. As one reactant is oxidized, the electrons it loses are accepted by another reactant which is reduced.

Ex :

Cu2+ + Zn --> Cu + Zn2+ The Cu2+ is reduced (oxidation decreased). The Zn is oxidized (oxidation increased).

In redox processes, the reductant transfers electrons to the oxidant. Thus, in the reaction, the reductant or reducing agent loses electrons and is oxidized, and the oxidant or oxidizing agent gains electrons and is reduced. The pair of an oxidizing and reducing agent that are involved in a particular reaction is called a redox pair.


Iron is one of the widely distributed elements in the nature. One of its striking characteristics is that it undergoes rusting on combining with water, air & carbon-dioxide due to which its surface gets covered with a red brown flake coating called Rust. Rust is affected by moisture, oxygen & carbon - dioxide. rust is soft and porous and it gradually falls off from the surface of iron material. It is a continuous process and it gradually eats up iron due to which an iron object loses its strength. It is very wasteful process and should be prevented. It is very-very slow process (spontaneous reaction). Also, Rusting is the corrosion of iron and readily occurs in the alloy steel. Steel is an alloy made of iron and carbon. The carbon atoms in steel greatly increase the strength of the metal. They prevent the iron atoms in the crystal lattice from slipping over one another.

Diagram 1.1

Steel is widely used in the manufacture of cars, white goods and the construction industry because it is much stronger than iron. The carbon atoms in steel however, greatly decrease the ability of iron to resist corrosion

Diagram 1.2

In the presence of oxygen and water a series of internal galvanic cells or batteries are created. The carbon impurities become the site of reduction.

Reduction half equation: 4e- + 2H2O(l) + O2(g) ==> 4OH-(aq)

The nail is most easily oxidised at points of stress. ie the tip or the head. At these points the crystal lattice is distorted and the iron atoms are easily oxidised.

Oxidation half equation: 2Fe(s)

2Fe2+(aq) + 4e-

The overall or net equation is :

2Fe(s) + 2H2O(l) + O2(g)

2Fe2+(aq) + 4OH-(aq)

Fe2+(aq) and OH-(aq) ions migrate through the water by diffusion. Refer to the above diagram. When they meet they combine to produce the preciptate, iron(II) hydroxide, Fe(OH)2, which is further oxidised to iron (III) hydroxide, Fe(OH)3, and finally dehydrated to produce rust.

The chemistry of the reaction resulting in the formation of rust can be summarized as follows. The chemical equations for rust formation 1. 2Fe(s) + 2H2O(l) + O2(g) 2. Fe2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) 2Fe2+(aq) + 4OH-(aq) Fe(OH)2(s)

3. Fe(OH)2(s) =O2=> Fe(OH)3(s) 4. Fe(OH)3(s) =dehydrates=> Fe2O3.nH2O(s) or rust The chemical formula for rust is Fe2O3.nH2O The overall chemical equation for the formation of rust is Iron + water + oxygen 4 Fe(s) + 6 H2O(l) + 3 O2(g) rust 4 Fe(OH)3(s)

Iron(III) hydroxide,Fe(OH)3 then dehydrates to produce Fe2O3.nH2O(s) or rust



Corrosion of metals can be prevented if the contact between metal and air is cut off. This is done in a number of ways. Some of the methods are given below: 1. Corrosion can be prevented if the metal is coated with something which does not allow moisture and oxygen to react with it. 2. Coating of metals with paint, oil, grease or varnish prevents the corrosion of metals. 3. Coating of corrosive metals with non-corrosive metals also prevents corrosion. Some of the methods by which metals can be coated with non-corrosive metals are: 4. Galvanizing: It is process of giving a thin coating of zinc on iron or steel to protect them from corrosion. Iron is galvanized by dipping it in molten zinc. It is then taken out and allowed to cool. Galvanizing is an effective methods of protecting steel because even if the surface is scratched, the zinc still protects the underlying layer.

5. Tinning: It is the process of giving a coating of tin, i.e., molten tin. Cooking vessels, made of copper and brass get a greenish coating due to corrosion. This greenish coating is poisonous. Therefore they are given a coating of tin to prevent corrosion. This is also are widely used in industry to prevent corrosion.

6. Electroplating: In this method of a metal is covered with another metal using electrolysis. Silver-plated spoons, gold-plated jewelry, etc, are electroplated. But electroplating are costly process and not a very suitable used in industry

7. Anodizing: In this method metals like copper and aluminum are electrically coated with a thin strong film of their oxides. This film protects the metals from corrosion. But is only for the metal like copper and aluminum can occurred for anodizing

8. Alloying: Corrosion can be also prevented by alloying some metals with other metals. The resultant metals called alloys do not corrode easily, e.g. stainless steel.


Chemical Inhibitor.

1.1 Background

Methods of combating corrosion which are widely used in New Zealand are chemical inhibitors. This methods depend on controlling the charge on the metal surface, and this can be monitored by measuring the potential of the metal. The conditions needed to stop corrosion can then be predicted from an electrochemical phase diagram.There is a class of chemical inhibitors which work by removing electrons from the metal, thereby pushing the potential into a positive region where an oxide film spontaneously forms. This results in a stable, passive surface with a very low corrosion rate. Industries apply this technology in processes where the inhibitor can be conveniently added without causing environmental or health problems.

1.2 Literature It is well known in surface chemistry that surface reactions are strongly affected by thepresence of foreign molecules. Corrosion processes, being surface reactions, can be controlled by compounds known as inhibitors which adsorb on the reacting metal surface. The term adsorption refers to molecules attached directly to the surface, normally only one molecular layer thick, and not penetrating into the bulk of the metal itself. The technique of adding inhibitors to the environment of a metal is a well known method of controlling corrosion in many branches of technology. A corrosion inhibitor may act in a number of ways: it may restrict the rate of the anodic process or the cathodic process by simply blocking active sites on the metal surface. Alternatively it may act by increasing the potential of the metal surface so that the metal enters the passivation region where a natural oxide film forms. A further mode of action of some inhibitors is that the inhibiting compound contributes to the formation of a thin layer on the surface which stifles the corrosion process.

1.3 Finding The class of inhibitors are those which cause the potential of the metals to rise intothe passivation region. They are all oxidising agents, containing elements in their higher oxidation states. For example nitrite, which is used as an additive in cooling fluid circuits for the control of corrosion of steel, is a mild oxidising agent which can raise the potential of steel into the passivation region. A traditional pigment used in paints is red lead, Pb3O4, containing lead in the tetravalent stale, and the formula can be written as plumbous plumbate Pb(II)2Pb(IV)O4. The plumbate ion is an active oxidising agent and serves to promote passivation of the underlying metal. The modern pigment calcium plumbate, oftenused in paint formulations, contains the same plumbate ion PbO4 4- in a different compound.Likewise zinc chromate ZnCrO4 is also widely used in corrosion control as a passivating inhibitor. The passivating inhibitors all share the common property of conferring protection on a metal by using its own natural oxide film

1.4 CONCLUSION Corrosion can be controlled effectively by cathodic protection or inhibitors, provided the chemical and electrical conditions are monitored in a scientific manner. The costs of stopping corrosion can be quite high, but these costs must be faced by many industries if they wish to achieve a high level of performance. The key factor is the scientific knowledge on whichthe technologies are based.

Prevention of Corrosion Case Study


The Low Level Bridge Northbound in Edmonton, Canada, was originally designed for trains of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway and was the first railway bridge to cross the North Saskatchewan River at Edmonton.Constructed between 1898 and 1900, the structure is a riveted steel through-truss with four equal spans of 53 metres, When originally constructed, it carried a Grand Trunk track centered between the trusses along with a second track for the Edmonton Radial Railway streetcar offset from the centreline. The specified railway loading was CN55%2-8-0, which is approximately equivalent to the current Cooper E50 loading. The trusses are built up from structural steel angles, cover plates,2 gusset plates, and lattice members. Abutments at the banks and three concrete piersfounded on timberpiles in the river support the trusses.

The goal is to establish the structural reliability of a bridge, including evaluation of strength, stability, serviceability, and fatigue. Over the course of a bridges life, its performance depends primarily on two variables that change with time: the loads applied and the residual resistance of deteriorating structural members. In 2004 the City of Edmonton undertook a condition assessment of the Low Level Bridge Northbound along with preliminary design of the recommended rehabilitation measures. The scope of work included a detailed review of existing file information and the original design drawings, along with field inspection of the bridge. The

inspection work included deck and sidewalk concrete sampling and testing, a deck delamination survey, paint testing, a truss member condition survey, and an evaluation of the previous deck and support structure repairs. The objective was to develop and compare rehabilitation options to extend the life of the bridge for 50 years.

It has been shown that the material properties of steel, such as elastic moduli and yield strength, are not influenced by the corrosion of adjacent material . However, as a result of the formation of corrosion products over time, the thickness of structural steel members are continually reduced. Along with a reduction in thickness, a number of other geometric properties that govern structural behaviour are reduced, including area, moment of inertia, radius of gyration, and the elastic and plastic section moduli. Some of these properties do not change linearly with a change in member thickness, but are related to its square or cube. Significant eccentricities may be introduced with a change in the location of a members centroid. Both ultimate resistance and serviceability are negatively impacted by these changes. The failure mode that governs an individual member may change as a result of corrosion section loss. The build-up of corrosion products can cause a prying force between members or restrict moving parts from functioning properly. Stress concentrations introduced by local corrosion can degrade the fatigue life of a member (Fisher et al. 1998). All of these issues became evident during the condition assessment of the Low Level Bridge Northbound. The determination of the residual capacity of corroded members requires an accurate indication of the extent and types of corrosion present. The measurement of remaining member thickness is a crucial part of the assessment process. All locations of severe deterioration characterized by significant section loss must be identified and quantified. One of the way to prevent corrosion is localized corrosion reduces the net area of a member at a particular section, but does not generally reduce the gross area over an appreciable length. Stress concentrations introduced in a tension member by localized depressions have little effect on the ultimate strength of a member . Conceptually, penetrations caused by pitting corrosion are similar to bolt or rivet holes, reducing the net section over a short portion of the member. Yielding of these areas would result in an insignificant amount of member elongation, thus it is acceptable to consider rupture of the net section at pitting locations as the governing failure mode. If pitting corrosion is extensive, that is, present along a

significant length of the cross section, yielding of the net section becomes a relevant issue and must be considered. However, this is not typically the case for bridge truss members. The rehabilitation of the Low Level Bridge Northbound involved the replacement of about 40% of the main truss members, repainting the bridge, rebuilding a wider sidewalk, and resurfacing the concrete deck. Over 17,000 rivets were removed, 221 tonnes of new steel replacing existing members, and over 34,000 new bolts were installed. There is a need for accuracy and consistency when evaluating the performance reliability of deterioratingsteel bridge structures. Section loss by corrosion is usually highly variable and difficult to predict, and practical recommendations for the calculation of residual strength are vague and inconsistent in existing literature and governing bridge design standards. Based upon the information available currently, it appears that the strength of corroded tension members should be calculated using the lower of the factored yield strength on the corrosion-reduced effective gross area or the factored rupture strength on the corrosion-reduced effective net area. Research is required to provide practical guidance for design engineers in the assessment of corrosion on remaining member strength.The technically sound and cost-effective rehabilitation of the Low Level Bridge Northbound was completed in 2006 on time and on budget. A great example of sustainability, the bridge has adapted for over 100 years to the changing needs of the City of Edmonton, and it is now a totally rehabilitated structure able to serve for decades to come

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