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Aerodynamics of the HPV


From Fluid Mechanics to a Practical Design

Jochem De Vriendt, Karel de Grote-Hogeschool, Belgium

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme

Contents

Introduction The Need of an Aerodynamic Body Shape



Equation of Motion Aerodynamic Drag Properties of Air Basic Equations

Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Conclusions


Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828 2

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Introduction

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

Fluid Mechanics
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The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Equation of Motion

dv Ft D R m mg sin dt
Tractive Force Climbing Resistance Acceleration Resistance Rolling Resistance

Aerodynamic Drag

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme

The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Aerodynamic Drag

D vCDA 2

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Properties of Air


1.4607 10 5 m s

1.7894 10 5 Ns m

1.2250

kg Ns m 4 m

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Basic Equations

Inviscid Incompressible Flow: Bernoullis Equation Effects of Viscosity: Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layer Development

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Basic Equations Inviscid Flow


Bernoullis Equation:

Pt P

v Const. 2
Dynamic Pressure Static pressure

Total Pressure
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The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Basic Equations Effects of a Viscous Flow


Laminar & Turbulent Boundary Layer Development: Reynolds number External Internal

Re l V.l 10 4

Inertial Forces Viscous Forces

Re

Vm.d

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Basic Equations Effects of a Viscous Flow


Separation

Flow Separation of the Boundary Layer in Point A and Reverse Flow


Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828 10

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The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Basic Equations Effects of a Viscous Flow


Friction Drag

Determination of the Drag of a Body (two-dimensional flow)


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The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Basic Equations Effects of a Viscous Flow


Pressure Drag

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Basic Equations Effects of a Viscous Flow


Overall Forces and Moments

Lift, Drag, Side Force, Pitching Moment, Rolling Moment, Yawing Moment

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme

The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Basic Equations Effects of a Viscous Flow


Overall Forces and Moments

Lift & Pitching Moment


Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Basic Equations Effects of a Viscous Flow


Overall Forces and Moments

Front Lift & Drag

Rear Lift & Drag

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme

The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Basic Equations Effects of a Viscous Flow


Aerodynamic Noise

Periodic Flow Separation Downstream Regular Pattern of Vortices =von Krmn Vortex Street

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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The Need of an Aerodynamical Shape Basic Equations Effects of a Viscous Flow


Transport of Solids

Particle Motion in a Flow Field attacking a Windshield: a) velocity vectors b) acting forces
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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Flow Field around a car

Tangential force T() under side wind Main airflow separations around a car (front & back)
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Flow Field around a car

Airflow patterns on a fastback with different slant angles

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Front End


Influence of front end body contour on drag

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Windshield & ~wipers

Reduction of Drag with hood inclination angle and windshield inclination angle

Flow separation point S and reattachment point R as a function of the windshield inclination angle
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Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Roof & Convertibles

Effect of roof camber on Cd and absolute drag

Flow regime around the passenger compartment of a convertible, top down


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Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Rear End Boat-Tailing

Drag reduction by Boat-tailing on Record Vehicles

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Rear End Fastback


Boat-tailing on a Fastback: 1. = 25 2. = 25), underbody raised by = 10 3. Idem with side boat-tailing of = 10 4. Idem with chamfered top edge

Influence of slant angle and rear length lo on drag

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Rear End Fastback


Effect of rear-end height z on drag coefficient CD for a car with rounded rear

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Plan View & Side Panels

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Underbody & Ground Clearance

Air flow under a car in a nozzle-type space results in low pressure and negative lift = drag

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Wheels & Wheel Housings, reducing Splash & Spray

Increase in the drag and lift of a low-drag vehicle body by adding the wheels

Flow pattern of a wheel rolling on the ground


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Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

Erasmus LLP Intensive Programme

Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Wheels & Wheel Housings, reducing Splash & Spray

Drag and lift on an isolated wheel with and without rotation

Effect of wheel housing VH on the drag and lift of an enclosed wheel


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Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Outside Mirrors

Attachments (mirrors & antennas) create drag Small frontal area (wind noise & dirt deposition)
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828 30

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Shape Optimization

Starting from a Basic Body, the development process progressively transforms into a car

Comparison of different fundamental bodies

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Drag Fractions and their Local Origins Importance of Surface Quality, Water & Dirt Accumulation
Effect of surface roughness on laminar; a)No effect b)Transition due to roughness Critical Roughness:

Permissible Roughness:

kcrit 2 .4 4 Re x kperm 100 x Re x

and turbulent boundary layers; c)Hydraulically smooth d)Increased drag due to roughness

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Conclusions
1. Formulate your concept 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Design Calculate Redesign Recalculate Re-redesign Re-recalculate

8. Consider your thoughts 9. Start all over again 10. And again
Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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Thanks for your attention


Fundamentals of Sailplane Design, Fred Thomas, ISBN 0-9669553-0-7 Design, Leistung und Dynamik von Segelflugmodellen, Helmut Quabecq, HQ Modellflugliteratur, Finkenweg 39, D-64832 Babenhausen Aerodynamics of Road Vehicles, Wolf-Heinrich Hucho, ISBN 0-7680-0029-7

Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Bradford, UK, 2012 Project code: 2011-1-GR1-ERA10-06828

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