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Mula sa Kinaroroonan: Kapwa, Kapatiran and Bayan in Philippine Social Science1

Clemen C. Aquino Department of Sociology University of the Philippines


From the pioneering works of Enriquez, Covar and Salazar, which paved the way for the production of social science knowledge that is particularly meaningful and sensitive to Philippine culture and society, this paper explores the social signi cations of kapwa, kapatiran and bayan. In the context of the dominant in uence of Western perspectives in Philippine social science, the understanding, appreciation and evaluation of their contributions continue to be an important undertaking. As a preliminary attempt to contribute to this discourse, a panlipunang pagbabanghay is oVered as an approach or an outline for the analysis of Philippine social organization.

It was in the 1970s that the academic paths of Professor Virgilio G. Enriquez of the Department of Psychology, Professor Prospero R. Covar of the Department of Anthropology, and Professor Zeus A. Salazar of the Department of History social science scholars at the University of the Philippines converged. Through training in their respective elds, these three professors collectively cultivated scholarship on Philippine culture, diwa (spirit) and society. In the context of the pervasive in uence of Western education in the country, and on social science in particular, they set out to formulate perspectives that are rooted in and signi cant to their own society. During that particular period, a crucial factor was the imposition of martial law in the country, especially in the task of confronting questions and problems that may be unique to Philippine political and social life. The professors provided one another academic support, and the 1970s saw the institution of the course Sikolohiyang Pilipino (Filipino Psychology) in the Department of Psychology and the establishment of the Pambansang Samahan sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino (National Confederation on Filipino Psychology), as well as the strengthening of the Pantayong Pananaw (Pantayo perspective) in the Department of History. Moreover, in the latter part of the 1980s, Pilipinolohiya (Filipinology) was established in the graduate programme of the College of Social Sciences and Philosophy. Now that almost three decades have passed since they crossed academic paths, it may be said that, in various ways, their intellectual endeavours have been developed and advanced. Even though there is no formal institution or academic organization that nurtures their common cause, there continues the assiduous cultivation of perspectives, concepts, and
A.J.S.S. 32:1 (105139) 2004 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden also available online see www.brill.nl

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methods of research that are relevant and meaningful to Philippine society. Many students and junior faculty members have contributed substantially to their eld and through ongoing clari cation and debate, they have added vibrancy and meaning to their cause. Over the years, these studies collectively serve to further explore, understand and articulate the multidimensional character of Philippine culture and society. It is equally signi cant to note that from conventional reactions to Western ideas, the co-sojourners have been able to transcend the habitual responses to and struggles with what are perceived to be colonial perspectives and foreign in uences. The aim of this paper is to provide an exploratory analysis of selected concepts cultivated by Enriquez, Covar, and Salazar that have particular relevance to the study of Philippine social organization. Written from the perspective of sociology that looks at the individual in society and the individuals linkages with the broader social structure, this paper focuses on three concepts: kapwa , one of the concepts rst examined by Enriquez in his time; kapatiran, which sums up the broad eld of studies cultivated by Covar; and bayan, a concept that Salazar considers integral to the understanding of Philippine history and cultural life.

Kapwa in Sikolohiyang Pilipino


Integral to the work of Enriquez is the concept of kapwa. In 1978, in the article Kapwa: A Core Concept in Filipino Social Psychology one of the rst seminal presentations of the concept Enriquez recognized the centrality of kapwa to the study of social interaction among Filipinos.2 Corollary attention was also given to Filipino societys deep regard for pakikipagkapwa or pakikipagkapwa-tao , or having good and sincere relations with ones brethren. It is important to note that Enriquezs study of the concept of kapwa is inextricably linked with the Sikolohiyang Pilipinos cultivation of methods of data collection that are meaningful in the Philippine context. In fact, one of the initial research activities of Sikolohiyang Pilipino that was prioritized and instituted by Enriquez in the early 1970s focused on the study of makaPilipinong pamamaraan ng pananaliksik (Filipino methods of research) which involves pakapa-kapa (groping), pagtatanong-tanong (querying), and pakikipagkuwentuhan (sharing stories) (Santiago and Enriquez, 1982; Santiago, 1982). These methods of collecting data were considered integral to the understanding and articulation of social science knowledge that is sensitive to the nuances and dynamics of Philippine society. Enriquezs examination of the concept of kapwa is based on Santiagos earlier study about various kinds and levels of interaction in a Tagalog village. Santiago had looked at the social interaction related to the oVering of food to ibang-tao (outsider) and hindi-ibang-tao (one of us) in a Bulacan municipality (1976:135). It is this study that, in turn, became the basis for Santiago

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and Enriquez (1982) in their formulation of a scale of pagtutunguhan (interaction) between the researcher and the participant in the study. Santiago and Enriquez (1982) developed eight categories of pagtutunguhan (interaction) between the researcher and the participant, and Enriquez used these same categories in his exploration of the concept of kapwa . It is important to emphasize that the authors also considered these categories of interaction as methods of data gathering that the researcher may very well use to discover and understand participants kalooban (inner self/inner feelings). The following are the categories, structured according to the closeness of kalooban of the researcher and the participant: pakikitungo (transaction/civility with)3 pakikisalamuha (interaction with) pakikilahok ( joining/participating with) pakikibagay (in conformity with/in accord with) pakikisama (being along with) pakikipagpalagayan/pakikipagpalagayang-loob (being in rapport/understanding/ acceptance of ) pakikisangkot (getting involved with) pakikiisa (being one with) Santiago and Enriquez assume that the level of pagtutunguhan (interaction) between the researcher and the participant is also an indication of the level or depth of the information that may be gathered. That is why the authors suggest that the pagtutunguhan be brought to the level of pakikipagpalagayangloob (being in rapport/understanding/acceptance with) because it is only at this level that the true kalooban of the participant may be understood.4 At this level, each one is at ease with ones kapwa. There is no more shyness and the trust is almost absolute and unconditional (Enriquez and Santiago, 1982:158, 159). For Enriquez, the conceptual richness of the pagtutunguhan between the researcher and the participant, which has diVerent kinds and levels of categories of pag-uugnayan that may be applied, only mirrors the richness and value of pakikipag-ugnay or social interaction in Philippine society. That is why although Santiago in her earlier study considered pakikipagkapwa an ideal in the eld of pagtutunguhan (1976:133), Enriquez viewed pakikipagkapwa not as an ideal as such, but as a fundamental core concept that is actually the basis of any kind or level of pakikipag-ugnay in the Filipino context (1978:103). In Enriquezs conception, the eight categories or kinds of pagtutunguhan mentioned above are subsumed within the sense of kapwa and/or pakikipagkapwa. For example, pakikitungo is considered obedience to the precepts of mabuting asal (good behaviour) according to the kaugalian (custom) of pakikipagkapwa while pakikiisa is seen as the acts, will, and speech of a person that intimate a complete and absolute love, understanding, and

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acceptance of what is aspired for as ones own aspiration (p. 159).5 As implied here and as will be further explained below, viewing the self and others as one is the fundamental essence integral to kapwa. The categories of interaction associated with the one of us or not others (hindi iba) or not other people (hindi-ibang-tao ) (that is, pakikipagpalagayang-loob [being in rapport/understanding/acceptance with] and pakikiisa [being one with]) and the categories associated with the outsiders or others (ibang-tao ) (that is, pakikitungo, pakikibagay , and pakikisama) are components of the general concept of kapwa.6 Hence, every level of pagtutunguhan (interaction) between the researcher and the participant is either an indication of or subsumed within the spirit of pakikipagkapwa (Enriquez, 1978:103). Similarly, every method of data gathering used in the research is an indication of the pakikipagkapwa of the researcher with the participant. This implies that the conduct of genuine Filipino research needs to be sensitive to the sense of pakikipagkapwa. From this perspective, pakikipagkapwa is the guiding spirit of truly Filipino research. The implication of such a view is important to social research in the country especially in the eld of ethics for relations between the researcher and the participant, and even to the overall objectives and orientation of the research undertaking.

Kapwa and Pakikipagkapwa as Social SigniWcation


The common translations of kapwa into English are both (Panganiban, 1972:253), fellow being (Panganiban, 1972:253; Vicassan, 1978:316), or others (Enriquez, 1978:103). However, as has been articulated earlier, for Enriquez, the social signi cation or meaning of kapwa is actually the unity of the self and others. The English term others is commonly used in opposition to self, which implies their separate identities, while kapwa means the uni ed identity of the self and others. If an individual supposes the self to be other than the kapwa , it will mean the loss of the treatment of others as kapwa. It is, therefore, recognized that at the root of the concept of kapwa is the uni ed single identity of the self, of the not other (hindi-ibang-tao ) and even of the other (ibang-tao) (Enriquez, 1978:104; 1997:46).7 As has been mentioned, for Enriquez, pakikipagkapwa is the embodying spirit that encompasses various kinds or categories of pagtutunguhan in society. In this view, pakikisama (being along with) is seen not as a social value per se but as one of the levels or kinds of pagtutunguhan that normally takes place between an individual and an other. Thus, pakikisama (being along with) and even pakikibaka (to struggle with) are inherent parts of the embodying spirit of pakikipagkapwa (1978:106). As noted earlier, for Santiago, pakikipagkapwa or pakikipagkapwa-tao means

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humaneness at its highest level (1976:133). In relation to the scale of social interaction in Philippine society, and as noted earlier, she considers pakikipagkapwa or pakikipagkapwa-tao as a primary value, that is, the loftiest aspiration of pagtutunguhan in society. Enriquezs view of pakikipagkapwa as an overarching primary value may be seen in the supposition that it is still possible for Filipinos to understand a person who is without pakikisama , or one who is walanghiya (shameless) or walang utang na loob (no sense of gratitude), while the same may be diYcult to say of an individual who has no kapwa tao (1978:106). As a paninindigan or a conviction, the concept of pakikipagkapwa consists of the recognition of the humanity and dignity of the kapwa as an equal. Even in one of Enriquezs last works before he passed on in 1994, PagbabagongDangal: Indigenous Psychology and Cultural Empowerment, there is still the appreciation for the kind of pakikitungo (interaction) of the Filipino toward his or her kapwa, whatever the gender or social status may be (1994:75). The collective orientation of Philippine culture in which there is a high valuation of pakikipag-ugnay (interacting with), pakikitungo (relating with), and pakikipagkapwa (relating with kapwa) may be implied from the preceding discussion. It seems that there is a close link, or perhaps a unity, between the social signi cation of pakikipagkapwa (relating with kapwa) on the one hand, and pagpapakatao (aspiring for humaneness) on the other.

Kapatiran in Pilipinolohiya
Known as the foremost advocate of Pilipinolohiya (Filipinology), Covar has developed anthropological studies that are based on concerns integral to his roots in Laguna. Among these studies are the cultures of rice planting, the organization of messianic communities or kapatiran, in particular, the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi as well as groups worshipping Mount Banahaw. From these rst studies, it may be seen in his book Larangan (1998a) a collection of seminal essays on Philippine culture that Covar has woven together four signi cant interrelated concepts: pagkatao (personhood/humaneness), kapatiran (sodality), paniniwala (belief ), and wika (language), the last being a primary basis for examining the rst three (cf. Covar, 1998b). In this paper, the focus will be on the concept of kapatiran in the context of Covars studies on paniniwala (belief ) and of the perspective of Pilipinolohiya he developed. Covar presented the scope of his eld of study in Balangkas ng Pambansang Kaisipan, Kultura at Lipunang Pilipino, (An outline of national thought, culture and society) in the article Pilipinolohiya8 (1991:42) (Figure 1). The concept of pagkatao was what he developed in relation to the national kaisipan (thought) where Covar used the metaphor of the banga (earthen jar) to illustrate the externality, interiority, and depth of Filipino personhood.

110 Clemen C. Aquino Figure 1: Outline of National Thought, Culture and Society Tao
Person

Pagkatao Personhood/Being Humane

Externality Body Face Chest Stomach Gut

Labas Katawan Mukha Dibdib Tiyan Sikmura

Loob Interiority Kaluluwa/Budhi Isip Puso Bituka Atay


Soul/Conscience Mind Heart Intestines Liver

Personhood Pagkatao

Pagkatao Personhood
Relating with kapwa

Pakikipagkapwa Pag-anib sa lipunan


Social Participation

Pagtuturo at paniniwala
Education and Beliefs

Pangkabuhayan
Livelihood

Pampulitika
Politics

Istrukturang Panlipunan
Social Structure

Kamag-anakan/Angkan/Sambahayan
Kingship/Lineage/Household

(Kinship)

Samahan/Kapisanan/Simulain
Association/Organization/Cause

(Interest)

Pamayanan (Territoriality) Sambayanan (Citizenship)


Pilipinolohiya, P.R. Covar Pilipinolohiya: Kasaysayan, Pilosopiya at Pananaliksik Bautista and Pe-Pua (editors), 1991, p. 42
People/Nation Community

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In his view, corollary to the concept of pagkatao (personhood) is the concept of pakikipagkapwa (relating with kapwa ) where, as had been shared by Enriquez, the treatment of others as kapwa is considered integral to pagpapakatao (aspiring for humaneness). For the Filipinos, all of humanity is kapwa, and pakikitungo (interaction) with anyone is guided by the consciousness of pakikipagkapwa (1998:24). Furthermore, Covar also emphasized the elements of soul and conscience that are at the heart of Filipino personhood and are the fundamental bases of an individuals view of his/her own life and of his/her pakikitungo with kapwa (1998a:23). Regarding the concept of social structure as the third and last dimension of Pilipinolohiya, in accordance with Balangkas (1991), Covar views it at four institutional levels or categories found in Philippine society: kamaganakan (kinship)/angkan (lineage)/sambahayan (household); samahan (association)/kapisanan (organization)/simulain (cause); pamayanan (community); and sambayanan (people/nation; see Figure 1). Guided by the structural-functionalist perspective in sociology, Covar believes that the role of these institutions is geared towards the recruitment of members, enculturation, distribution of goods and services, and the allocation of power and authority (1998a:23). Yet in the Filipino context, Covar in analyzing social structure emphasized not only the structure and its attendant activities but also, and more importantly, the prevalent and intense pag-uugnayan (interrelationships) of the people. In the area of social organization, we classify our relationships with other people (1998a:68). For Covar and other specialists in Philippine society, the family is the foundation of that society (1998a:22). Viewing the family as a group living in a house or a household, he presupposes that the stability of the entire sambayanan (people/nation/citizenship) is based on the stability of families in Philippine society. It may be worth noting that in the use of the sambahayan (household) as family, Covar implies that all who live in one house, that is, the sambahayan (household), are ordinarily considered also as members of a family, although not all who live there are bound by kinship ties. In accordance with the aforementioned, in the Philippine context, there is signi cant appreciation for the nature of relations between and among the members of what is considered a family. In the Tagalog family, for instance, these relations are presented according to the various levels of a mag-anak : spouse, siblings, parents, and children 9 (cf. Salazar, 1999:78). Moreover, another concept that is included in the structure of the Filipino family is the extended family, which broadens and makes richer said relations at the level of the family (1991:39). In this context, Covar emphasized the important position of multiple in-law relations: magbalae or abalayan (in-laws, at the level of parents), manugang (son/daughter-in-law), biyenan (father/mother-in-law), bayaw (brother-in-law), hipag (sister-in-law),

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and bilas (wife/husband of sister/brother-in-law). In comparison with the American family system, these are all subsumed under in-laws. In the Tagalog context, there is a particular term for every category or level of familial relations that indicates the various categories and levels of relating. As will be discussed towards the end of this paper, even though not all of these relations are commonly linked to the category of the mag-anak (nuclear family), these are usually considered part of the category of the pamilya (extended family) and, therefore, not others. It is still an indication of the rich and broad relations of relatives that there are, moreover, diVerences in references according to generation: pinsang buo ( rst cousin), ikalawa (second cousin), ikatlo (third cousin), and at iba pa (and others). Also prevalent are categories according to relations by blood, baptism, marriage, and other rituals. Therefore, even those who are not members of the same blood-family or nuclear family are granted titles that make them part of the family (1991:39). For example, it may be said that those who are magkumpare (co-godparents) through baptism or marriage may also consider their kumpares (co-godparents) siblings their own kumare (co-godparent) or kumpare (co-godparent). Even the siblings of the kumare or kumpare are also considered hindi iba (not others/one-of-us). The same may be said of relations with close friends; We are already like siblings. As for the elders, They are already like my own parents. These do not only prove the Filipino cultures rich appreciation for social relationships but also imply the unique and high regard for familial relations, especially of parents and siblings as the primary kind of relationship. In studying communities as one of the vital aspects of Filipino social structure, Covar used the ethnographic approach in his study of farmers in Coralan, a rural village in the province of Laguna (1998:79) and in the city, Panulukan ng Quezon Avenue AR West 4th (Corner of Quezon Avenue and West 4th) (1998a:39). It may be said that in studying communities in the countryside and in the city, Covar is looking for the overarching culture that links the various groups in the archipelago. Moreover, in considering the physical relation of the household to the community, Covar recognized not only the ethnic communities in the country but also the ancient communities that existed before the arrival of the foreign colonizers. These inquiries on Philippine communities may be considered contributions to the ongoing discovery and understanding of the breadth of Filipinohood:
Our experience is the formulation of a Filipino culture from the various ows and streams that possess a characteristic order. We shall call this national culture of the Pilipino not the sum total of all the ows and streams but the likeness and form of an enriched philosophy, culture, and society thus, civilization (Covar, 1998a:32).

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At this point, focus will be directed to Covars views on kapatiran, a concept he developed and which has signi cant bearing on Filipino social organization. Ostensibly, corollary to the study of kapatiran is Covars analysis of belief systems, so it is proper to use as an introduction to Covars writings on kapatiran his views on the Filipinos mode of knowing, which he presented in the article Indigenization of an Ideational System (1998a). According to Covar, this mode of knowing consists of three dimensions: divine knowing, human knowing, and arti cial knowing. For him, the various traditions of belief and faith in the Philippines are based on the Filipinos recognition of the absolute supremacy of divine knowing (1998a:119). Divine knowing remains a mystery, although it is sometimes expressed through healers, mediums, baglan and others. Human knowing is considered a natural knowing that may be acquired by studying nature and ones physical environment. Finally, what is called arti cial knowing is the human creation of various forms of knowledge, especially technological ones that can alter the ow of nature. Covar cited the production of miracle rice or of nuclear arms as examples of this kind of knowing (1998a:119). According to Covar, the rst two traditions of searching for wisdom in the Philippines are widespread, that is, the search for the mysterious divine knowing that is freely bestowed and the search for the natural knowing that may be gleaned from nature. From this viewpoint, it may be said that the activities and goals of the many kapatiran and of the worshippers in Mount Banahaw form part of the tradition of searching for divine wisdom. Corollary to these beliefs is the understanding of human wisdom about nature.

The Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi


Written at the outset of the 1960s, Covars masters thesis on the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi was guided by the standards current at the time in the eld of sociology in the Philippines. He examined the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi of Calamba, Laguna as a social organization and as a social movement, focusing on the concept of messianic social movement considered as collective enterprises designed to establish a new social order (1961:152). He discussed the organizations history, structure, and leadership, as well as events such as the Japanese Occupation, which furthered the cause of the organizations sodality. In the collective quest for meaning in everyday life and in the continuous eVorts to understand divine wisdom, the thesis found the role of the bayani (heroes) of the country important, in particular, Dr. Jose P. Rizal. Revered by members of the organization as the new Christ, Dr. Rizal had views and aspirations that contributed much to the formation of the character and goal of the organization.

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For his doctoral dissertation in the allied eld of anthropology, Covar re-examined the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi. This time, the study focused on the structural development of the organization, that is, its evolution from being a cause at the outset in the mid-1930s, through becoming a sodality when the Samahang Watawat ng Lahi was established circa 193940, to its change in title from Samahan to Iglesia (Church) Watawat ng Lahi in 1944. The latter was brought about by the need to protect the organization in the face of danger at the hands of the Japanese forces (1975:109). In relation to the process of the organizations development, the study also showed three important forces attendant to the various changes herein: traditional beliefs, Christianity, and Protestantism. It is assumed that there is a signi cant link between the traditional faith in Bathala and in nature spirits, and the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahis unique relationship to the spirit of Dr. Rizal, which they consider their mentor and guide. The dissertation showed how the sodality accepted and advocated the causes of their bayani not only as a specialist in the study of society, but more importantly, as the new Christ. On the other hand, the in uence of Protestantism may be seen in the structure of the leadership and general organization of the sodality; for instance, in the use of phrases and positions like presiding elder and second presiding elder, and in the conduct of the ceremonies and rituals of the mass, baptisms, and weddings that were similar to the conventions of what Covar referred to as Orthodox Christianity (1975:110). From these primary in uences arose the three golden causes of the sodality: the aspiration to become maka-Dios (godly), maka-tao (humane), and makabayan (patriotic) (1975:95). In accordance with this, the three causes served as the regulatory ethics in the daily life of the members and as the basis of ones own salvation. It seems that the concept of simulain (cause), from the point of the view of the members themselves, is a key to the understanding of the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi. As Covar had said,
Epistemologically, the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi imputes two usages to the term simulain (cause). On the one hand, it refers to a set of objectives, aims, or purposes. On the other hand, it refers to a voluntary organization (sodality) with a special mission or cause (1975:48).10

It is important to note that although Covar had noted the reference to kapatid (brother/sister/brethren) in his masters thesis in sociology (1961:156), it was in his later study of the groups worshipping in Mount Banahaw that he became deeply interested in exploring the spirit of kapatiran. It may be said that it was the perspective set by Pilipinolohiya that intensi ed this particular view of his subject matter.

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The Devotee Kapatiran in Mount Banahaw


Through the ethnographic approach, Covar closely examined the groups worshipping in Mount Banahaw since the 1970s. In particular, this may be seen in such works as Liham ng Isang Antropologista sa Kanyang Kaibigang Kristyano (An anthropologists letter to a Christian friend) (1998a:83) and Prayer in Mt. Banahaw Context (1998a:89). In his view, even though there are divergences in the beliefs of the various worshipping groups, they all accept the mystical transfer of the holy sites from Ancient Palestine to Mount Banahaw. In the article Kapahayagan ng Ibat Ibang Paniniwalang Pilipino (Manifestations of diVerent Philippine beliefs), Covar supposed that this belief was actually based on what he referred to as isang alamat (a legend) (1998a:97). Now home to many worshippers, Mount Banahaw is believed to have been rst inhabited by Hermano Pule and his companions as early as 1849. Given that the worship is centred on sacred sites, it is believed that there are about 100 such sites in Mount Banahaw, 20 of which are considered traditional sites (1998a:89). To Covar, the beliefs in Mount Banahaw are eclectic, where three intertwined dimensions of belief may be observed. Highly signi cant are the role of animism, the Christian element, and the acceptance of the role of their bayani, especially of Dr. Rizal. Covar shares the view of Isabelo de los Reyes that the primordial belief of the Filipinos is animism, the term originating from the word anima. Covar calls them nature spirits that are to be found in natural sites such as rivers, rocks, anthill and caves (1998a:95). In Mount Banahaw, one may observe, through candles and icons, the regard and relationship of the worshipper to such forms of nature as rocks, waterfalls, rivers, caves, and peaks. According to Covar,
The animist tradition is based on the belief that the world is full of spirits. These spirits possess power, knowledge, or amulets about various things. These are bestowed on select people. Mountains, caves, swamps, rivers, waterfalls, plants, animals, even humans have their very own powers. The power may be obtained through the cultivation of a clean heart, conscience, and spirit and through the meticulous adherence to ritual, such as fervent praying (1980:77).

Apparently, sites in nature are also named according to Christian tradition: Tubig ng Jordan (Water of Jordan), Kuweba ni San Pedro (Cave of St. Peter), San Pablo (St. Paul), Santisima Trinidad (Holy Trinity), Kuweba ng Diyos Ama (Cave of God the Father), and others (1998:97). On the other hand, while Christianity eschews belief in anting-anting (amulets) and potensiya at bisa (mystical powers) as superstition, the worshippers of Mount Banahaw as well as of many other places throughout the archipelago openly accept such beliefs. Covar added:

116 Clemen C. Aquino Many sacri ces, vows, missions, spirit-worship, and prayers are performed in nurturing and testing the amulet. Every Lent, there are people who carry the cross. This is solidarity with Christ in his suVering. They do not perform the sacri ce for the forgiveness of their sin. Their aim is to nurture their amulet in life. In like manner, agellation is not an exorcism of evil spirits. It is done to cleanse the body so that it becomes a temple worthy of the amulet. The Filipinos attendance at mass seems like the enactment of ritual in the cave to nurture ones native powers (1980:78).

What may also be seen is the connection of Christianity with the traditional belief in the acceptance of the Holy Trinity in Mount Banahaw. However, the Holy Trinity the mystery of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit is a fundamental aspect of Roman Catholic belief that is accepted and appropriated in Mount Banahaw as the Holy Family that consists of God the Father, God the Mother, and God the Son. Apparently, God the Mother descended to earth, became incarnate, and assumed the form of such blessed women as Maria Bernarda Balitaan, Victoria Piedad, and Jose na Lopez, who played signi cant roles in the various kapatiran in Mount Banahaw (1998a:101). For Covar,
Although the doctrine of the Holy Trinity remains, the retablos text is linked to the concept of the holy family so as to quell the anxiety about why there are God the Son and God the Father without a God the Mother. The role of the Holy Spirit has just become a part of the three as soul. Moreover, the mat of the retablo is adorned with ornamental stories from Sacred Scripture and other streams of belief and Filipino imagination, thus creating a new order as a fruit of traditional experience (1998a:101).

Apparent here is the high regard for women and for the family. In Pesigans study (1992) of the Ciudad Mistica de Dios presided over by Suprema Isabel Suarez, it is evident that such a tradition remains up to the present in Mount Banahaw. The importance placed on relationships within a model family is markedly re ected in the general reference to sodalities worshipping Mount Banahaw as kapatiran (Pesigan, 1992:171; Alaras, 1988). A vital support to what Covar had already expressed, the spirit of pakikipagkapatiran (promoting sodality) is what guides worship activities and everyday life in Mount Banahaw. As has been said, in Covars study of the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi and the millenarian groups in Mount Banahaw, it is evident that Dr. Jose Rizal is revered. According to these groups beliefs, there is a poignant parallelism or analogy between the lives of Jesus Christ and Dr. Rizal: from their birth, name, ministry, and death; to their foundation of a new kingdom. For the Rizalists, it follows from this that, indeed, Dr. Rizal is the new Christ. The regard that these kapatiran have for their bayani and the role that these are performing or will perform in Philippine society is an indi-

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cation that their faith or spiritual world includes a broad and marked political dimension (Covar, 1989). In relation to this, Covars clari cation about kasarinlan (independence/self-reliance) and kalayaan (freedom) as the primary aspiration of every kapatiran and every social movement is important. Looking back into history, Covar examined the Katipunan and the dovetailing of its goals according to independence and freedom. Covar considered the aspiration to freedom as a part of the political sphere (which could bene t only a few people), while the aspiration to independence/self-reliance is part of the cultural sphere, which has more meaning and relevance to the people (1992:9). Many millenarian kapatiran, like the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi, actually aspired for absolute independence/self-reliance. For Covar, the quest for independence/self-reliance remains current among the worshipping kapatiran in Mount Banahaw. At a gathering at the University of the Philippines during the early 1990s, Suprema Isabel Suarez of Ciudad Mistica de Dios reiterated: we abide by the teachings of our ancestors (1992:10). As has been mentioned, the belief of all the kapatiran is not only oriented to the advancement of spirituality on the level of the self and of the kapatiran. It is also geared towards the well-being of society in general, as in the aspiration for independence. In connection with this, in his Ang Pananaw sa Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas ng mga Kapatiran at Kilusang Milinaryan (The Kapatiran and millenarian movements views on Philippine history), Covar emphasized on viewing these organizations as organisms, that is, as movements that have life as well as a broad cause. Covar supposed that such groups are the ones that truly make history (1989:2). In said article, Covar presented the interrelated concepts that he used in his study of the worship groups, from the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi to Mount Banahaw: cause, sodality, kapatiran, and movement. Covar assumes that each of these has its respective structure, that is, leadership, membership, ideology, code of ethics, and rituals. He added: the development and prospering of a cause to the status of a movement depends on the meshing together of the said structure (1989:2). At the personal level in Filipino society, cleansing of the kalooban (inner self ) in the context of belief is inextricably linked to pagpapakatao (aspiring for humaneness). For Covar, Filipino spirituality is a result of the melding of ones beliefs and personhood. The rituals performed by the kapatiran, however, are not only a sign of personal faith but also a way of achieving the fullness of ones potential. For Covar, this is geared toward being not only a noble person but also a true Filipino (1998a:100). As in the causes of the Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi, it is not enough to become God-fearing and humane; it is just as important to be patriotic. In Covars presentation, it is clear that the tradition of the search for divine wisdom, which is assumed to be the foundation of the quest for knowledge in Philippine society, is inextricably linked with the spirit of the kapatiran and with aspirations for the greater good of Philippine society.

118 Clemen C. Aquino

Bayan from the Pantayo Perspective


Salazars analysis of the dalumat (social signi cation) of bayan and its importance to Filipino society has broad and deep roots. It needs to be contextualized within Salazars view (1993a) of the history of the Philippines since many thousands of years ago in the Austronesian world, and its forms not only in the Philippines but also in Southeast Asia. For Salazar (1997a; 1998b), the Austronesians who rst arrived in the archipelago, circa 7000/5000 BC, possessed the three important community ( pamayanan) concepts: banua, ili, and bayan.11 These are considered to be the most important elements in the traditional social structure of the archipelago from the initial arrival of the Austronesians to circa 300 AD. In the context of Austronesian civilization, Salazar examines the history of the archipelago according to three broad dimensions: the sociopolitical organization, concerned with concepts pertaining to leadership and state; the integration of society as a whole, with focus on community-related concepts; and culture, which encompasses belief systems, burial practices, ethno-linguistic concerns, and others (Figure 2). From a broad perspective, for example, from a sociological one, it may be said that the three dimensions are closely interrelated and may be viewed within an overarching framework of social organization. In any case, in relation to the outline and purpose of this study, this section of the paper will be devoted to the conception of society according to Salazars views. In his study of history, Salazar examined the two diVering traditions of looking at the past: the tradition of historia, which expresses the Spaniards perspective on the events during their stay in the country; and the tradition of kasaysayan as a narrative that has sense, meaning, signi cance, and relevance to the people who are the very subject of the narrative (Navarro et al., 1997:7071). That is why it is the pantayo perspective that is used in studying the history of the Filipino people, that is, from our own point of view.12 As noted earlier, integral to the pantayo perspective is the analysis of the dalumat of bayan in Philippine history and society (cf. Salazar in Veneracion (1986:xvi); Alaras, 1988:xii). For Navarro et al., local constructs related to the pamayanan (community), bayan, and bansa (nation) are what gave substance to the alternative outline of history that is laid out by the pantayo perspective (1997:129). Table 1 (Salazar, 1998b) gives a summary of the forms assumed by the bayan from the Austronesian period and various other eras in history: from the primordial banua /ili/bayan, the bayan; the ethnic state to which the kingdom, rajahood and sultanate (circa 300 AD1588) belonged; the revolutionary bayan (15881892); and the building up of a single, uni ed bayan on the level of the entire archipelago (18921913). It is important to note that one of the aims of examining bayan is to establish the links between the nacon of the elite and the bayan of the people

Figure 2: State, Society and Culture in the History of the Archipelago


III 1588
BAYAN-STATE VS. COLONIAL STATE Latino-ilustrado (nacidin) Kilusang MASA PAGBUBUO NG BAYAN (Himagsik, Paghihimagsik, HIMAGSIKAN) Haring Bayan ??? HARING BAYANG KATAGALUGAN (Inang Bayan) Kilusang mosyeriko (militarista) (mula sa labas/iba) Nacin/Patria sa Kastila Buong Kapuluan bilang BAYAN: INANG BAYAN (mula sa loob/Sarili)
( Nation) sa ingles (patuloy na ang panghihimagsik) mga sekta/kilusang milnarista

hk 7000 5000 BK IV 1892


TOWARDS AN ARCHIPELAGIC BAYAN-STATE Republica Filipina (Patria)
(sa huwarang Amerikano)

I 1913
TOWARDS A NATIONAL STATE Philippine Republic
(batay sa kasaysayang unibersal ng Kanluran)

hk 1500 1300 BK V 1998 VI


BAYAN-STATE
sultan raha hari datu raha muda??? bayani

II

hk 300 MK

ANCIENT SOCIOPOLITICAL ORGANIZATION

*balian

*ha(n)d panday
NA KAAYUSANG SOSYO-PULITIKAL } TAAL } (ESTADO)

hari datu

*bayani

balian

bagani

pandita??? baylan

*dat

panday

*panday

S O C I O P O L I T I C A L

O R G A N I Z A T I O N

(* ha(n)di) *datu

? ILI

SULTANATO KARAHAAN (Karadyahan)

BANGSA MORO

(Kilusang Pang-etnisidad) KILUSANG LUMAD/KATUTUBO (Kordilyera, Mindanao, atbp.)

*Ili (ilihan)

< KAHARIAN > < KADATUAN > > < ILI (Hilagang Pilipinas) >
vs. balei balen bongto lungsod, dalepa, atbp. BANUA PAGLAWAK NG SAKLAW NG BAYAN

NASYON

VAHAYAN

*balay

*yumah

(Gitnang Pilipinas)

< BAYAN > > >

B a n s a
BAYAN sa P/Filino (bilang paglawak/pagkabuklod ng ili, Bayan at Banua ) KULTURANG NASYONAL SA WIKANG INGLES
KALINANGANG BAYAN sa Tagalog o P/Filipino na nakaugat sa mga kalinangang ili, bayan at banua (bangsa)

B
?

S O C I I N A T L E G R A T I O N

*luk *Banu(v)

> < BANUA (Timog Pilipinas)

C U L T U R E

K A L I N A N G A N

AUSTRONESYANO

PILIPINOINDONESYANO

(Paglilibing sa Tapayan sa Yungib)

Mga Kalinangang etnolingguwistikong PILIPINO sa DUNIA MELAYU

KULTURA NG LADINO-ILUSTRADO Namumuong SA KASTILA KALINANGANG BAYAN sa Kalinangan ng loog ng ESTADONG BAYAN at ng mga KOLONYAL, mga bayan, ili, banua SULTANATO at mga (bangsa) sa Kapuluan KABUUANG LUMAD

AUSTRONESIAN CIVILIZATION
1588 1892 1913 1998
Salazar, 1998 (Karapatang-ari)

Mula sa Kinaroroonan 119

hk 7000 5000 BK

hk 1500 1300 BK

hk 300 MK

Estado, Lipunan at Kultura sa Kasaysayan: Ang Wika sa Pamanang Pangkalinangan ng Pilipino Z.A. Salazar Centennial Lecture, University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies September 28, 1998, Balay Kalinaw, UP Diliman, Quezon City

120 Clemen C. Aquino

towards the formation of one bansa (nation) for all Filipinos (Salazar, 1998b).

Bayan in a Historical Context


In Rodriguezs ongoing study for her masters thesis in History, she demonstrated the widespread usage of ili, bayan, banua , and other allied concepts throughout the archipelago (Salazar, 1997a:4).13 It is claimed that in places where bayan and its allied concepts are used, the dominant feature of a community as bayan is in the prevalence of permanent housing structures that is, communities in a speci c territory (Salazar, 1997a:6). However, the basic de nitions of bayan in Tagalog are not only inhabited place or territory but also the people living there. It is analogous to the balei in Panggasinense and balen in Pampanggo (Salazar, 1997a:67).14 According to Salazars study, the banua is the most important concept in Bicol, the Visayas, and Mindanao (1997a:6). The banua is part of the original Austronesian vocabulary; banu[v]a means earth/land, house/residence. That is why in Indo-Malaysia, there is the term benua (Malay), which means lupalop; and in Oceania may be found the Paci c state of Vanuatu. In the context of its origins, the banua is assumed to be the oldest concept of community in the Philippines. It could also be said that it was the most prevalent community in the archipelago before the appearance of the bayan that was characterized by more permanent housing and communities. (Salazar 1997a:67). As a pamayanan (community), the ili in turn may be found in places where hostilities are prevalent. Since survival must be ensured, the ili is often transferred. In these places, agriculture is based only on the slashand-burn technique, so there is no real need to stay in a place permanently. Although the ili is widespread in northern Luzon, it may also be found in the regions of the bayan and the banua, which is why the ili is considered the most prevalent form of the pamayanan concepts (Salazar 1997a:7, 8). Salazar recognizes the signi cant links of the ili to the concepts of kuta and real, especially during the Himagsikan (peoples uprising) (1997a). As had been mentioned and as the Filipinos know, the concept of bayan refers not only to the physical or geographical aspect or territory of the community. Bayan also refers to the inhabitants in that territory. As Salazar had said, in all regions, the meaning of bayan is not only place (that is, land of ones birth) but also people (that is, citizens or taumbayan [people of the bayan]) (Navarro et al., 1997:117). Based on Salazars analysis, in summary, the breadth of territory that Filipinos refer to in relation to bayan are the following:

Mula sa Kinaroroonan 121 from a (1) gathering of people, with a center (i.e. poblacion or the bayan itself, such as we are going to the bayan) and with surrounding areas (i.e., village) to (2) the broader whole that has wide-ranging political power (as in Bayang Pilipino or Florantes within and without my unfortunate bayan which means a state, in Western conception), after (3) the ethno-linguistic whole itself (i.e., communities such as Tagalog, Ibanag, Maranaw: for example, if you are Sugbuhanon or Bisaya or also another Filipino, especially if you are in another country) (in Navarro et al., 1997:117).

From being seen as a residence or as a congregation of houses inhabited by families, the bayan is also a gathering of kindred relations, of a lineage (lipi ) along with all other related persons (Navarro et al., 1997:129). In connection with the foregoing discussion, in Panganibans DiksyunaryoTesauro (1972) and in the Diksyunaryong Vicassan (1978), similar to what Salazar had expressed, bayan also refers to both place and people. For Panganiban, bayan means: (1) municipality, country, hometown and (2) public, audience, and all (1972:147). For Vicassan, still in accordance with the two de nitions, the reference to bayan is divided into four categories. These are: bayan as (1) municipality, (2) country, nation, (3) motherland, homeland, and (4) public, taong-bayan, audience, citizens. In this dictionary, the rst three levels of meaning of bayan as place were distinguished from one another, that is; speci c and small places such as the municipality, the broader category as country or nation, and the peoples reference for their own bayan as their inang-bayan (motherland) (1978:150). Summing up the foregoing de nitions of bayan as place, we have: (1) centre or poblacion; (2) municipality and smaller surrounding units like the village; (3) residence or community of an ethnolinguistic group, such as the Katagalugan; (4) a greater whole with political power, such as Bayang Pilipinas; and (5) common reference of people for their wider bayan as homeland or motherland. As people, the bayan may refer to: (1) a particular ethnolinguistic group itself, such as the Tagalog and (2) all Filipino citizens, as the point of reference for the larger whole, such as the kababayan when outside the country. As noted earlier, Salazar recognizes the formation of the ancient communities, such as the bayan, as a legacy of the Austronesian civilization. For example, he showed the social integration that was shaped in an environment consolidated by seas and rivers. In the Austronesians journeys from circa 7000 to circa 800 BC, one may see the ancestors knowledge about the movement of the seas, meteorology and related to these their expertise in the building of sea-faring vessels (1993:15; 17). The establishment of the rst communities or permanent residences at the mouth of great rivers is a re ection of the Austronesians knowledge of the bays, coasts, and deltas where they rst settled. This fact is re ected in the names of many bayan throughout the archipelago: Pampanga ( pampang ng ilog, or

122 Clemen C. Aquino

river-bank), Tagalog (taga-ilog or from the river), Pangasinan (asin-ilog or salt-river), Iloko (loko or deep part), and others (1993:17). This also implies the interactions within the whole archipelago that are based on relations with rivers, seas, or places overseas (1993:37). From the Austronesians, there also came such edible tubers like gabi (taro), ube (yam), and plants such as sago (tapioca), tubo (sugarcane), and niyog (coconut) (p. 17). Knowledge about the passage of time, the clearing of the forests, agriculture, the use of organic fertilizers that yielded more crops, and eventually, the use of iron that expanded the plantations were some of the interrelated reasons for people to settle in communities at that time (1993:1718).
. . . it is likely that these balayan, or vahayan are truly widespread only in relatively peaceful areas, especially in valleys or at the mouth of great rivers, as a result of progressive agriculture (irrigation in lieu of slash-and-burn which forced people to be always on the move) and of stable trade, the bases of population growth and therefore of the building up of stronger socio-political communities (ethnic state or bayan state) (Salazar, 1997a:7).

The foregoing discussion shows the broader social organization in the archipelago based on the formation of the rst communities.
There was unity, therefore, among the Filipinos throughout the archipelago; they formed one community of civilization that could become the foundation of political unity in its modern sense (Salazar, 1993a:5).

For Salazar, an important characteristic of the ancient communities is the Austronesian religious belief in the anito, which he presumes is the basis of faith in Philippine society. Rooted in the origins of the pamayanan (community) itself, the anito is considered a native religion. It is a faith emanating from a particular bayan or closely-related bayan whose language and culture are interconnected. (Salazar, 1993b:1). Unlike Christianity and other religions that have a basis in sacred writing, this belief system has implicit knowledge or wisdom about godhood that is natural to its advocates (1993b). This faith focuses primarily on the anito , which is considered pure soul ( purong kaluluwa ), pure spirit ( purong ispiritu ), or god (diyos); on the person (tao), whose identity is based on the good relationship between the soul (kaluluwa ) and well-being ( ginhawa); and on the aswang , which is neither person (tao) nor anito and without a soul (kaluluwa ), although it keeps seeking well-being ( ginhawa ) (1993b:4). Salazar supposes that the anito religion continues to this day in the form of messianic confraternities, faith healing, and in what is referred to as folk Catholicism. The Filipinos reverence for All Souls Day may be related

Mula sa Kinaroroonan 123

to the customary cleaning of the bones of the departed in caves by the ancient believers (1993b:6). Native faith is an important element for the understanding of the social integration of early Philippine communities.

The Inangbayan of the People and the Nacin of the Elite


The advent of the 16th century played an important role in the transformation of the pamayanan (community) from bayan to ethnic state or bayan state. According to the study of Navarro et al., the latter were already a coalition of bayan as a result of trade relations and con icts with other bayan. The ethnic states are actually socio-political entities referred to as kingdom, rajahdom, or sultanate ruled by a king, rajah, or sultan, respectively (1997:130). With the coming of the Spaniards, however, a crisis developed between the bayan states and the colonial states, presaging the beginnings of what Salazar called the dambuhalang pagkakahating pangkalinangan (great cultural divide). From the bayan, the Spanish colonial enterprise concentrated on the formation of the interrelated pueblo, villa or ciudad , becoming organized bayan or colonial states that are diVerent from one another only at the level of governance or administration (1993a:42). Through reduccin or the gathering of citizens from various places, the Spaniards established the pueblos, which had a centre featuring what is called the plaza. The former bayans centre changed and it acquired a plaza, church, and municipal hall. The former authorities, known as hari, rajah, or lakan were supplanted by the gobernadorcillo or kapitan. The former datu became cabeza de barangay , and the pueblos kura paroko (parish priest) assumed a vital role (1993a:48). The aspirations of the bayan and of the pueblo-based governance remained distinct and separate. On the one hand, the struggle of the bayan state was rooted in the tradition of the bayan, for the taumbayan. Founded on the dalumat of the inangbayan (motherland), the aspirations of the bayan state are guided by such values as kapatiran, damayan (co-operation), pantay na karapatan (equal rights), and ganap na kasarinlan (absolute independence) (Navarro et al., 1997:132).
The image of the mother was used because it is in her womb that wholeness is formed a fraternity of the children of bayan. By the power of the motherland, Andres Bonifacio enshrined and developed the metaphor of the family as a symbol of the overall unity of all the bayan in the archipelago (1997:132; cf. Abrera, 1995; 1992).15

124 Clemen C. Aquino

On the other hand, the second project is rooted in nacin, emanating from the European culture and worldview, and symbolic of the socio-political aspirations of the acculturated Filipino elite (Navarro, et al., 1997:32) If the inangbayan (motherland) is rooted in bayan, the social organization that served as the foundation of the nacin project was the pueblo, a colonial state. The aspirations and foundations of the inangbayan and the nacin are distinct and separate from each other, which, as has been mentioned, signal other diVerences and divisions within Philippine society (cf. Salazar, 1998a). Implicit in the bayan concept, up to the level of the inangbayan , are hope, trust in the self, and the strength of native culture; whereas the elite who support the nacin have been assimilated into other cultures as a result of acculturation in the West (Salazar, 1998a:64). This con ict is illustrated by the diVerence between local culture and acculturation (Salazar, 1998a:65). For Salazar et al., the revolution in 1896 was signi cant in exposing, on the one hand, the genuine children of the inangbayan who supported the cause of the bayan for the promotion of well-being and independence for all and, on the other hand, the children of the inangbayan who turned their back on said aspirations (Navarro et al., 1997:133).16 In Wika ng Himagsikan, Lengguwahe ng Rebolusyon: Mga Suliranin ng Pagpapakahulugan sa Pagbubuo ng Bansa (Wika ng Himagsikan , language of the revolution: Problems in de ning nationhood), Salazar (1998a) explored the basic diVerences between the Tagalog aspiration and the Filipino project. The Tagalog aspiration is rooted in the dalumat of the inangbayan, responding through rebellion and oriented towards the broader formation of Katagalugan, which refers to the people of the entire archipelago. The Filipino project, on the other hand, is rooted in the concept of nacin, responding through revolution and oriented towards the goals of liberalism of the 19th century. What Salazar refers to as the dambuhalang pagkakahating pangkalinangan (great cultural divide) which separates the kalinangang bayan (peoples culture) from national culture is markedly evident up to now. These analyses are important to the continuous understanding of Philippine society and to addressing problems attendant to the building of a Filipino bansa (nation).
The central idea of the cultural crisis is the ongoing division between the culture of the bayan (people) and the nacin (elite). These two cultures are markedly divergent. The bayan uses and propagates the Filipino language, watches Pinoy action movies, and reads komiks. The nacin still uses English and even Spanish, watches foreign-language lms, and reads foreign-language books (1993a:88).

Mula sa Kinaroroonan 125

A Preliminary Synthesis: The Salience of Ugnayan


In the preceding discussion, the concepts of kapwa, kapatiran, and bayan local constructs that are viewed to have particular signi cance to the study of Philippine social organization were culled from the works of Enriquez, Covar, and Salazar. In this section, there will be an underscoring and clari cation of some aspects of these concepts as well as an attempt towards a preliminary synthesis or integration of their views. Notably, in each of the concepts examined by the three scholars, the theme of ugnayan (relations) in Philippine society was evident. Which kinds or forms of ugnayan (relating) were emphasized in their respective studies? How did they illustrate these? Would it be possible to integrate their views towards exploring a panlipunang pagbabanghay, an outline for the analysis of Philippine social organization? From Santiagos view of pakikipagkapwa as the ideal category of interaction, Enriquez developed Santiagos early studies to show kapwa and pakikipagkapwa as the broad basis of social interaction among Filipinos. The kapwa does not discriminate, which is why pakikipagkapwa is possible with not others (hindi ibang tao) and even with others (ibang tao). In kapwa , self-identity is part of ones perception of others, so there is a unity or integral relation of the sarili (self ) to ibang tao (others). As has been mentioned, for Enriquez, the sense of pakikipagkapwa is important to the conduct of meaningful Filipino research, in particular, in terms of the relationship between the researcher and the participant. Moreover, it is important to note what Ferriols, a scholar of Filipino philosophy, had said about the kapuwa and the pre x ka which is frequently used by Filipinos:
We are both (kapuwa) waiting for the dentist. We are both (kapuwa) waiting for the tra Yc light to turn green. From the rain we are both (kapuwa) seeking shelter. The pre x ka that is the sign of fellowship ( pakikipagkapuwa) with sibling (kapatid ), townsmate (kabayan), friend (kaibigan), lover (kasintahan), peer (katoto), companion (kasama), chilhood friend (kababata), colleague (katrabaho), drinking buddy (kainuman), enemy (kaaway) . . . (1991:240).

In Covars analysis of personhood, he stressed pakikipagkapwa not only as the basis of relations but as the corollary basis of pagpapakatao in Philippine society as well. In the eld of social organization, Covar showed that categories herein are primarily in accordance with relations among people. Therefore, in his view of the perspectives and culture of the Filipinos, whether it is on the level of the person (individual), pakikipagkapwa (culture), or the broader social structure (social organization), pakikipag-ugnayan or social interaction is highly signi cant.17

126 Clemen C. Aquino Figure 3: Imaging the Bayan through Time (towards the bayan as the entire archipelago)
IMAGING THE BAYAN Note: At this time, some of those residing in the archipelago were new arrivals to the colonial state (cf., Maguinadanao and Sulu; other groups such as the ones in the Cordilleras) or were not yet assimilated (cf., Mangyan, Manobo of the Maguindanao interior, etc.) Himagsikan/Revolucon 2. The Nasyon of del Pilar/Jaena/Rizal/Aguinaldo (Filipinas; republic). Building by borrowing. 1. The New Bayan of Bonifacio (Inang Bayan; Haring Bayang Katagalugan). Building that is pure and rooted in indigenous culture. D. Building on the level of the entire archipelago as a unique, uni ed BAYAN (18921913) TOWARDS A NEW AND BROADER INTEGRATED BAYAN Digma/Himagsik/Paghihimagsik 3. Building the New/Broadening (Malang, Silang, Hermano Pule, Balagtas) 2. Returning to the Old but in a slightly diVerent form (Ladia, Sumuroy, Malong, Dagohoy) 1. Muslim state: ghting (Kudarat, other sultans and datus) with the Spaniards, state versus states; struggle of free indigenous peoples. C. Preservation and Rebuilding/Re-establishment of the Old or Building the New (15881892) CONTINUING CRISIS OF FILIPINO COMMUNITY King/Rajah/Sultan 3. Sultanate (from 1450) 2. Rajahood (before 900 AD) 1. Kingdom (before circa 300 AD) B. Ethnic State (circa 300 AD or even before that 1588) ANCIENT FILIPINO KABIHASNAN ( from circa 800 BC) Datu/King BAYAN (permanent community and residential territory) ILI/ILIHAN (mobile community) BANUA (as territory, land, space) A. Ancient BANUA/ILI/BAYAN (circa 7000 BCcirca 300 AD) AUSTRONESIAN PERIOD (until circa 800 BC) Salazar, 1997 copyright Estado, Lipunan at Kultura sa Kasaysayan: Ang Wika sa Pamanang Pangkalinangan ng Pilipino Dr. Zeus A. Salazar, Centennial Lecture, UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies September 29, 1998, 36 pm, Balay Kalinaw, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City.

Mula sa Kinaroroonan 127

The concepts of the family and household as well as of the kapatiran that Covar examined may be explored further. Even though Covar initially studied the concept of messianic groups, these associations were actually seen in the light of the kapatiran, an indication of the signi cance of common familial origin. The Roman Catholic belief in the Holy Trinity was assimilated by the worshippers of Mount Banahaw into the belief in the Holy Family, composed of God the Father, God the Mother, and God the Child. In these associations references to themselves as a kapatiran and in their appropriation of the Holy Family, it is evident that the family plays a prominent role in their belief system. In relation to this, the kapatirans adoption of the category of God the Mother re ects the status of women in their belief system and in their cultural life. It may also be said that the women leaders of the kapatiran carry on the important tradition of the katalonan (healers/spiritual guide) in Philippine society. The sense of family is pronounced even in the Katipunan. The Katipunan is considered a kapatiran, comprised by anak ng bayan (children of bayan) as siblings (Abrera, 1995; 1992). In this context, the primary aspiration of the anak ng bayan is for the inangbayan (motherland), which again reveals the importance of the family and of the role of women in society during that time. As a manifestation of the spirit of kapatiran, in acceptance of those who are not ones blood-kin as members of the kapatiran, and in the context of aspirations towards a bagong bayan (a new bayan), the ritual performed is known as the sandugo (blood compact).
The blood compact (sandugo) is an ancient practice. The most profound pakikipagkapwa of the Filipinos of old, the sandugo is a sacred and strong bond for the greater good of those who have become united by blood. In the old culture, two individuals may have a blood compact in order to become siblings i.e., cut from the same umbilical cord. It may also be a union among many, to carry out one objective as siblings. The most prevalent kind is the blood compact that seeks to receive a stranger or an outsider into ones own group (Abrera, 1995:np; 1992).

The sandugo is poignant proof of the importance of belonging to a family. This indicates the high regard the people have for kindred relations, especially relations within a family. Even in contemporary times, close friends are said to have relations like siblings. A friends mother here in Metro Manila is now commonly called mommy or tita (auntie). Ate (a common reference to older sister) or kuya (a common reference to older brother) is what household helpers usually call their employers. Ate is also used by younger vendors in addressing female customers and by street children begging alms from passing women. Among labourers in the countryside, those who are in charge of hired workers claim that they are at

128 Clemen C. Aquino

ease with the work groups because they actually come from just one pisa (family) (Aquino, 1990). Like the sandugo , the rituals of baptism, con rmation and marriage, where the participants are not usually related by blood, may be referred to as ways towards membership in a family or kinship network. It appears that in the Philippine context, familial relations are looked upon with much greater regard than friendships and other social relationships. In fact, in his analysis of Philippine psychology and traditional culture, Salazar emphasized the centrality of the anak (child) as the primary reason for and purpose of the mag-anak (nuclear family) (1999:78). One of Salazars contributions to Philippine social science is the grounding of Filipino culture in the Austronesian civilization that serves as an essential basis of the countrys history. He laid down the physical, geographical and cultural foundation of the ancient pamayanan, such as the bayan the rst permanent domiciles or housing by the river and their initial interrelations based on communication and trade across rivers and seas. As noted earlier, up to the present, bayan has deep signi cance in Philippine society. That the bayan refers not only to diVerent levels of place but also to the people and their relations with one another is evidence of the profound meaning of bayan to Filipinos. Their regard for a kababayan comes from their recognition of their common origin in a small bayan or, if in another country, the recognition of their common origin in the wider bayan that is the Philippines (cf. Salazar, 1999). Salazar also emphasized the spiritual world that guided the relations among the ancient Filipinos an aspect of the Philippine culture that both he and Covar cultivated. From the traditional religion that is based on the anito, albeit in divergent ways, central to the conceptualizations of Covar and Salazar is the kaluluwa (soul), ginhawa (well-being), and budhi (conscience), and their roles in relation to pagpapakatao (aspirations for humaneness). This belief may be viewed as integral to the various social organizations in which the quest for the spiritual world may be seen in the families, the kapatiran on Mount Banahaw, the Katipunan and other social movements, and even in the various aspirations of the bayan, at both its micro and macro levels. Many have remarked on the dramatic expression of spirituality among the Filipinos at EDSA in 1986. Even the Filipinos veneration of the departed during All Souls Day is an indication of their deep relations with their forebearers. From the foregoing discussion, it is clear that the views of Enriquez, Covar, and Salazar revolve around the multiple meanings and the various forms of ugnayan (relations). This seems to suggest that integral to the analysis of Philippine social organization ( panlipunang pagbabanghay) is the concept of ugnayan: to the kapwa, to the sarili (self ), to the hindi ibang tao (not others), to ibang tao (others) to samahan (associations) and the kapatiran, to the various levels and meanings of bayan, to the ninuno (forebearers), to Bathala, or sa Dios (to God).

Mula sa Kinaroroonan 129

At this point, it is important to relate what Ferriols has said:


It seems that the ancients who had fashioned our various languages could discern that the horizon of truth is replete with relations (ugnayan). Relation of event to event, of clan to clan, of self to self. They understood that each persons being is open to have, receive, and create this relation. They regarded relations as sacred . . . (1991:238)

To re-emphasize, among groups that are the common type of organization in conventional sociology, it is assumed that great regard for the family is central in the Philippine context. In the preceding discussion, this has been demonstrated in the Mount Banahaw worshippers appropriation of the Holy Family, in the view of the Katipunan and other social movements or their associations as kapatiran, and the importance of the sandugo (blood compact) in making the iba (others) part of ones own. It is also in the context of the family that women are held in esteem God the Mother is venerated, women become leaders of worshipping kapatiran and that the anak ng bayan, such as the Katipunan, aspire for the good of the inangbayan . Moreover, in the dalumat of bayan, it may be seen that the concept refers not only to diVerent levels of place but also to people and the signi cant relations among them. It is communities such as the bayan that rst cradled relations involving the family, blood kin, among others. Rooted in traditional faith, the rst communities were naturally predisposed to venerating their ancestors as well as their Dios or their Bathala. The concept of kapwa , which focuses on the relation of the sarili (self ) to the broader ibang tao (others), expresses the high regard for relating not only to hindi ibang tao (not others) but also to ibang tao (others). In this context, the scope of kapwa and pakikipagkapwa in Filipino relations is very comprehensive. The relation to the kapwa is the basis of personhood and well-being in Philippine society. On the level of the broader bayan, according to the association made by Salazar between Emilio Jacintos Kartilya and the Filipino diwa (spirit), it is important to note here that the Kartilya has a strong regard for love for the kapua as the basis of the uni cation of the bayan (1999:73). According to Salazar, this means that, in the task of building bayan and eventually, the bansa (nation), the kapwa that is referred to here as kapwa-Pilipino is not other people (hindi ibang tao).18

Toward Panlipunang Pagbabanghay: Questions and Propositions


From the studies developed by Enriquez, Covar, and Salazar, this paper attempts to present and integrate their ideas towards exploring a panlipunang pagbabanghay , an outline for the analysis of social organization in the context

130 Clemen C. Aquino

of Philippine social science (Figure 4). It is also a challenge to those engaged in the analysis of their views to carry on with the further examination and development of the earlier works. In the context of the notion of ugnayan (relations) that overarches the preceding discussion, some points regarding the concepts of kapwa and the mag-anak (family/nuclear family) may be further clari ed and developed. It is important to focus on and clarify the scope and the signi cance of the two concepts. In accordance with social signi cation, do the members of a mag-anak look upon each other as hindi iba (not others), one of the two dimensions of kapwa according to Enriquez? Is the mag-anak subsumed under hindi ibang tao (not other people)? It is possible that hindi iba (not others) refers to a close friend, kumare/kumpare (co-godparent), neighbour or housemate rather than to ones child, parent, spouse, or sibling. It is possible that the mag-anak has an identity that is more integral than the entity implied by hindi iba (not others). What could be the speci c social signi cation of hindi iba (not others) and iba (others)? It may be that the hindi iba (not others) refers to those who are not members of the mag-anak but, as has been said, have close relations with one or some of the mag-anak . Is the relative, whether by blood or by ritual, part of the hindi iba (not others)? Could the malapit na kamag-anak (close relative) be hindi iba (not others) or simply a kamag-anak (relative)? It is possible that the malayong kamag-anak (distant relative) is part of hindi iba (not others), which also implies the integral diVerence of the kamag-anak (relative), not only from the mag-anak but also from hindi iba (not others). Moreover, the cousins to the second and third degrees, for example, are commonly considered as kamag-anak (relatives) and not quite part of hindi iba (not others). The regard for the kamag-anak (relative) as relative per se or hindi iba (not others) may actually be in accordance with the kind of relations between them (blood or ritual ties) or the intimacy of the relationship. As the rst proposition oVered for subsequent study, Figure 4, in consonance with the prior studies and observations of the author, presents the integral position of the mag-anak as a social signi cation that is not within the scope of kapwa (cf. Aquino, 1990, 1999). It is posited that the mag-anak composed of parents and their children is conceptually diVerent from the hindi iba (not others); that is, the mag-anak does not fall within the category of hindi iba (not others).19 In addition to what has been mentioned earlier as constituting hindi iba (not others), for example, kumare/kumpare (co-godparenthood); neighbour, or friend); depending on the context. For instance, when in another country, all the kababayan (compatriots) there are viewed as hindi ibang tao (not other people). More importantly, and in consonance with what Jacinto had implied, the basis of the bayans unity is love for the kapwa, who are regarded as hindi ibang tao (not other people; Salazar, 1999:73).

Figure 4: Towards Panlipunang Pagbabanghay


Association State Nacion

other people

Kapwa: ibang tao Asosasyon Estado Nasyon

Sarili Pamayanan (Community)


nayon (village) pamayanang etniko (ethnic community) bayan (small bayan)

Self

Mag-anak

Sambahayan

siyudad (city) bayan (sentro/poblacion) (center)

Bansa
Nation

Nuclear family

Household

Kapwa: hindi ibang tao

Kapatiran

not other people

Malawakang Bayan
Broader Bayan

Inang Bayan
Motherland

Mula sa Kinaroroonan 131

132 Clemen C. Aquino

On the other hand, strangers or foreigners are commonly viewed as ibang tao (other people), as in Ibang tao sila; Those are other people. Domestic helpers are often cautioned against letting ibang tao (other people) into the house. Then, according to diVerences in class position, ideology, or the beliefs of an individual, the household help, gardener, or driver may be regarded as either hindi iba (not others) or ibang tao (other people). As a second proposition, the diVerence between mag-anak and pamilya is posited here. As discussed previously, the mag-anak is generally viewed to consist of the father, mother and children, while the pamilya is generally composed of the mother, the father, their children as well as in-laws, grandchildren, great-grandchildren, and other relatives. However, since the maganak tends to have an exclusive signi cation, it is usually referred to only in the presence of its members and not in the presence of an extended family or household.20 What is illustrated here also is how the concept of the family is actually used and understood in the Philippine context. [For example, in comparison with the Western notion of the family, mag-anak may refer to the nuclear family while the pamilya may be more closely associated with the extended family.] In Figure 4, the sambahayan (household) is considered as a domicile for one or more mag-anak, pamilya, relatives, other household members, or just one individual. According to diVerences in class position, ideology or beliefs of the members of a household, the regard for the residents of a single household may also be according to mag-anak, pamilya, kamag-anak (relative), hindi ibang tao (not others) or iba (others). The discourse on ugnayan and social integration is complex and dynamic. That is why Figure 4 uses the dambuhalang pagkakahating pangkalinangan (great cultural divide), which Salazar is developing, as a heuristic device. In conceptualizing the divisions that are prevalent in Philippine society, Salazar takes into consideration the integral role, for instance, of the language that is used by the elite, on the one hand, and by the people, on the other; the varying attitude towards other countries and foreign in uences; and the diVerence between the kulturang nasyunal (national, that is, elite culture) and the kalinangang bayan (peoples culture) (Salazar, 1998a; 1997b). Yet, in using the concept of dambuhalang pagkakahating pangkalinangan in Figure 4, it does not imply that there are no relations between the not others and the others, between nayon and siyudad, and others. The division in Figure 4 is used to primarily illustrate and elucidate the concepts developed by the three scholars. In the context of ones culture and society, that is, mula sa kinaroroonan, an attempt was made to show and develop the interrelationships among kapwa, kapatiran, and bayan, and to explore their place in exploring a panlipunang pagbabanghay an outline of Philippine social organization.21 With regard to the pamayanan (community), it is apparent that both sides of the divide have bayan. As explained earlier, bayan has deep meanings in Philippine culture. Since the taganayon (people from the nayon)

Mula sa Kinaroroonan 133

perceive the tagabayan (people from the bayan) as those who live in the town centre or the poblacion, it may be said that at this level, there is a diVerence, distance, or divide between the taganayon and the tagabayan (Aquino, 1998; cf. Ileto, 1998; Rodriguez, 1996:23). For instance, even though a farmer lives in a nayon (village) within the municipality of Pila, he says Im going to the bayan or Im going to Pila, where bayan or Pila herein refers only to the centre or poblacion of Pila (although administratively, the nayon actually belongs to the bayan of Pila). In the study of people-land relations of the Mangyan Alangan of Oriental Mindoro, Quiaoit-Bae (1999) illustrated their understanding of their environment and the occasions when the highlanders go down to the bayan, referring to the centre (although administratively, their villages also belong to the bayan). Especially because the economic standing of the tagabayan is usually high and the centre of formal political power is often based there, a third proposition is oVered: there is still a need to understand and explore the meanings of the social signi cation of the more numerous taganayon in relation to their connection to the bayan as the centre as well as to those who reside there as tagabayan. On a general level, the bayan may reveal various kinds of distance and division, as well as bases of relatedness and unity. This suggests that there is a level where there is diVerence or division in the social signi cation (for instance, between nayon and bayan); but there is also a level where the nayon (or province, perhaps) and its inhabitants are considered to be part of a larger bayan, thus, signifying a broader form of unity. As has been said, Filipinos overseas regard each other as magkababayan. These social signi cations conveyed by bayan re ect deeper cultural meanings, clearly transcending divisions imposed through administrative and political decisions. In the context of panlipunang pagbabanghay and in light of aspirations towards pagiging isang bansa (becoming one nation), it is also important to see the relations among and the bases of unity of the various kapatiran that are oriented towards natural belief systems on the one hand, and formal associations such as religious groups and civic organizations on the other. According to Covars analysis, the kapatiran has an integral ugnayan (relations) to the simulain (cause), samahan (associations) and kilusan (social movements) rooted in and focused on ones resources, culture and needs. It is, likewise, important to see the role of the state and of formal institutions such as those to do with government, education, media and the military vis-a-vis the aspirations of the larger bayan. It is also at this level that it would be possible to explore the arena of international forces and of the corollary relations of Philippine institutions with other societies and cultures. On the other hand, do the present militant movements genuinely embody the aspirations of the larger bayan? May it also be said that struggles for the inangbayan are carried out not only by social movements but also by

134 Clemen C. Aquino

unorganized people in their everyday lives? From the lessons in history, as shown by the experience of the Katipunan, which aspired for the inangbayan , on the one hand, and of the elite which focused on the goals of the nacin, on the other, it is important to further examine the various forces that hinder the uni cation of the Filipino nation ( pagiging isang bansa) (cf. Salazar 1997b). In connection with the dambuhalang pagkakahating pangkalinangan presented by Salazar, it is also important to examine the dynamic relations of the social classes, ethnic groups, and various kinds of beliefs and/or ideologies such as religion, feminism, social movements, and others, towards aspirations for pagiging isang bansa (building a nation). There may be associations, organizations, or non-government organizations that have genuine aspirations for the bayan. There may also be religious groups that are simply pretending to be kapatiran. It also cannot be denied that in the advocacy and practice of a belief or ideology, powerful forces such as those embodied by social class or political power may be transcended or overcome. The theme of paniniwala (belief ) that both Covar and Salazar developed is evident in the preliminary synthesis of their views. Could paniniwala (belief ) be the basis of pakikipag-ugnay (interacting), pakikipagkapwa (relating with kapwa) and pagpapakatao (aspiring for humaneness)? If so, pakikipagkapwa , as based on local belief systems which are integral to the work of the three scholars may be considered a shared goal or a social value in the Philippine context. Pakikipagkapwa may be referred to as embodying a set of cultural standards or an ethical imperative to treat ibang tao (others) as sarili (self ). It is not only the mag-anak, pamilya, kamag-anak (relatives), and hindi ibang tao (not others) who are worthy of respect and deserve to be regarded like the sarili (self ). Pakikipagkapwa is the cultural standard in the broad arena of social interaction. On the other hand, pakikipagkapwa is also a standard for pagpapakatao (aspirations for humaneness) in the Philippine context. It is also important to further clarify the distinctions between pakikipagkapwa and pagpapakatao. In the context of the continuing project of panlipunang pagbabanghay , part of what still needs to be done is the collection of additional empirical bases that would show the views of the various sectors in Philippine society. For example, it is evident that the works of the three scholars were con ned to local or non-formal groups and associations prevalent in Philippine society. In the context of the study of Philippine culture and of pagiging bansa (building a nation), it is also important to examine formal institutions such as schools, churces, media, factories, the government, and other more established organizations. How do aspects of Philippine culture relate with the concrete needs and standards of formal institutions? It is, likewise, important to carry this out using approaches that are comprehensible to the participants and in the context of research topics that are pertinent to their daily lives. Here is where local histories may be used, as well as the study of epics and folklore. The collection of kuwen-

Mula sa Kinaroroonan 135

tong bayan (peoples stories) and kuwentong buhay (life stories) can facilitate the understanding of cultural meanings and signi cation. Corollary to this is the depositing of research materials in aklatang bayan (peoples libraries) for the bene t of the participants in the study and for their own bayan. It will be observed that although Enriquez, Covar, and Salazar trained in particular disciplines of social science, they did not limit themselves to those disciplinal perspectives. That is why Covars words will continue to be an intellectual challenge to social science researchers:
In the beginning, I was convinced that the academic discipline shed light on our culture. But in my re ections, I realized that our academic disciplines encourage us to contribute to theory, method, and content of the disciplines and not to uncover the F/Pilipino thought, culture, and society. Thought, culture, and society in the context of the disciplines is only tinder for the fuller aming of the discipline but not the development of F/Pilipino thought, culture, and society. In Pilipinolohiya , the academic disciplines are the very tools to liberate F/Pilipino thought, culture, and society and not its opposite (1988:30).

In the midst of tremendous changes that Filipinos confront in their everyday lives, it is important to continue recognizing and cultivating our social signi cations. These provide one of the bases for understanding where we are and where we are rooted; a guide for charting a common future.

Notes
1. This is a translation by Randolf M. Bustamante of Mula sa Kinaroroonan: Kapwa, Kapatiran at Bayan sa Agham Panlipunan (in Pilipino), Professorial Chair Paper Series of 1999, College of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of the Philippines. Mula sa Kinaroroonan is roughly translated as From Where We Are, a way of saying that the key concepts explored here kapwa, kapatiran and bayan are particularly meaningful in the Filipino cultural context. This paper was undertaken through a grant from the Philippine National Oil Company Professorial Chair in Sociology. The author wishes to thank Professor Prospero R. Covar, Professor Zeus A. Salazar and Professor Grace AguilingDalisay for their comments and suggestions on an earlier version of this paper. Students of Sociology 102 (Social Organization), First Semester 19992000 also participated in the discussion of selected themes explored in the paper. 2. For a review of said paper, see also Enriquez, Virgilio (1992) Kapwa and the Struggle for Justice, Freedom and Dignity in From Colonial Liberation to Liberation Psychology: The Philippine Experience. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press and Obusan, Teresita and Angelina Enriquez (1994) Pamamaraan: Indigenous Knowledge and Evolving Research Paradigms. Quezon City: Asian Center, University of the Philippines, Quezon City (cf. Enriquez, 1991). 3. The translations used herein are those found in Enriquez, Virgilio, Kapwa: A Core Concept in Filipino Social Psychology (1978:102).

136 Clemen C. Aquino 4. See also the recent study by Rivera, Ma. Kristina (1996), Iskala ng Pagtutunguhan ng Mananaliksik at Kalahok: Isang Pagbabalik-aral, Masters thesis in Psychology, University of the Philippines, Quezon City. 5. In Riveras study (1996), she analyzed each level of relating between researcher and participant (as developed by Enriquez and Santiago) and proposed that it should be seen not only as a scale but also as a dynamic and complicated process of interaction between researcher and participant. From the eight categories or levels of interaction, it is assumed that because the diVerences between some categories are minimal, it will become clearer if pakikitungo, pakikibagay, pakikipagpalagayang-loob, and pakikiisa are seen as the four primary dimensions of interaction between researcher and participant. 6. As indicated earlier, Santiago referred to ibang-tao as outsider, but other people, others or other will also be used in this paper. Similarly, while she refers to hindi-ibang-tao as one of us, the terms not other people, not others or not other will also be used. 7. As Aguiling-Dalisay had shared in her comment on this paper, it may be said that the sarili (self ) becomes more meaningful or poignant in relation to iba (others). (Personal communication, November, 1999). 8. In connection with the Outline, see also Covar, Prospero (1998a) Unburdening Philippine Society of Colonialism and Pilipinolohiya in Larangan. In sociology, sambahayan is now commonly translated as household, and kamag-anakan as kinship ties. It is important to mention that in an earlier study by Covar, he used sodality for samahan (The Iglesia Watawat ng Lahi An Anthropological Study of a Social Movement in the Philippines, doctoral dissertation in anthropology, University of Arizona, 1975). 9. The parallelisms between mag-anak and the nuclear family will be posited later in the paper. 10. A brief discussion of the interrelated concepts of aspiration, sodality, kapatiran, and movement follows in the next section. 11. It is important to mention that for this discussion, the following sources were used: Salazar, Zeus, with Castillo-Pimentel, Lapar, Pimentel, Jr. and Rodriguez (1993) Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas: Isang Balangkas; Navarro, Rodriquez and Villan (1997) Pantayong Pananaw: Ugat at Kabuluhan; Salazar, Zeus (1997a), Ang Real ni Bonifacio Bilang Teknikang Militar sa Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas; Salazar, Zeus (1998), Estado, Lipunan at Kultura sa Kasaysayan: Ang Wika sa Pamanang Pangkalinangan ng Pilipinas. As Salazar continues to develop these concepts in history and social science, there is a slight change in the presentation of some concepts. For example, in Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas (1993), the presentation is divided into three periods, Pamayanan (ca. 250,000 BC1565), Bayan (1565 1913), and Bansa (19131992) which also became the basis of the summation by Navarro et al., in Pantayong Pananaw (1997). In Ang Real ni Bonifacio Bilang Teknikang Militar sa Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas (1997a) and in Estado, Lipunan at Kultura sa Kasaysayan: Ang Wika sa Pamanang Pangkalinangan ng Pilipinas (1998), Salazar identi ed bayan as one of three pamayanan (community) concepts, the other two being banua and ili. In this paper, an attempt will be made to present Salazars views about the concept of bayan based on his latest works. 12. In recent years, Salazar has also been using the term Bagong Kasaysayan (new history). For details on this, see Kasaysayan at Talastasang Bayan sa Wikang

Mula sa Kinaroroonan 137 Filipino: Sa Duyan ng Pagbubuo ng Inang Bayan, Bansa at Sambayanan by Navarro, Atoy (1999) in Adhika, Tomo 1. In relation to Kasaysayang Bayan, see also Llanes, Ferdinand Kasaysayang Bayan: Pagsulat ng Kasaysayan ng Bayan (Isang Panimula Tungo sa Paglilinang) (1999) in Adhika, Tomo 1 (cf. Llanes, Ferdinand 1993; Veneracion, Jaime 1986). Also see the paper by Rodriguez, M.J., Ang Dalumat ng Bayan sa Kamalayang Pilipino, paper submitted for Anthropology 270, Summer, Academic Year, 199596. According to Salazar, what unites the three concepts is a common etymology: bahay or balay (cf. Tagalog balayan, where the intervocalic has disappeared, such as the Tagalog daan from the Proto-Filipino and even Austronesian dalan; the twin-vowel e [=ay] in balen is the phonemic result of the original -aya-); it appears that the -n- has disappeared from balei (1997a, p. 4). At this point, it is important to pay attention to the centrality of the use of the mag-anak as a symbol for the aspirations of the bayan throughout the archipelago. According to Salazar, within the mag-anak, the child is central as the reason for and purpose of the mag-anak towards the survival of ones group as a whole (kamag-anakan, angkan, balangay, bayan or even larger) on earth (1999:78). In the preceding section, Covar demonstrated that there is also a high regard for the Holy Family among the kapatiran in Mount Banahaw. This will be discussed further in the next section of this paper. It will be noted that this point is relevant to the clari cation made by Covar (1992) in relation to the concepts of freedom and sovereignty. This seems to imply that, in accordance with what Ferriols has shared, even relating with the enemy falls within the scope of pakikipagkapwa. According to his comment on this paper (August, 1999). This is also supported in some discussions among students in Sociology 102 (Social Organization/Panlipunang Pagbabanghay), First Semester, 19992000. Also according to the reports of some students in Sociology 102 (Social Organization/Panlipunang Pagbabanghay), First Semester, 19992000. As this study is based on the writings of the three authorities, most of which are in Pilipino, and on the authors perspectives within the Tagalog context, it is imperative to relate analogous signi cations from other ethnolinguistic groups in Philippine society in subsequent studies.

13.

14.

15.

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

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