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The 'PIPING GUIDE'

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Discusses in detail the design and drafting of piping systems Describes pipe, piping components most commonly used, valves, and equipment Presents charts, tables, and examples for daily reference

Provides a design reference for companies and consultants Supplements existing company standards, information, and methods Serves a s an instructional aid

PART I -TEXT: explains..

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Techniques of piping design Assembling of piping from components, and methods for connecting to equipment Office organization, and methods to translate concepts into finished designs from which plants are built Terms and abbreviations concerned with piping

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PART II-TABLES: provide......

Frequently needed data and information, arranged for quick reference

Factors for establishing widths of pipeways Spacing between pipes, with and without flanges, and for 'jumpovers' and 'rununders' Principal dimensrons and welghts for plpe fittings, flanges, valves, structural steel, etc. Conversion for customary and metric units Direct-reading metric qonverslon tables for dimensions

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A metric supplement with prrncipal dimensional data in millimeters

David R. Sherwood
Msmbsr, Arnencan Soaety of Machanlcal Eng~neers Member, lnstiluiion of Prcduction Engineers (UK)

Dennis J. Whistance BS,MS

Capyr~ght 1973,David R. Sherwmd and Denn~s J. Whistanca Second Edition. Capyrlght 1991,Syentek Books Company. Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this bmk may b e reprcduced or transmitted by anv means whatsoever

Printed in the United States of America

Published and distributed by: Syentek Inc. PO Box 26588 San Francisco, CA 94126 USA

ISBN 0-914-08219-1

Distributed oumde the USA and Canada by: E. & F.N. Spon Chapman and Hall 216 Boundary Row London SE1 8HN. UK ISBN 0419-16860-5

The contribution of the companies, designers and engineers who assisted in the development of the Piping Guide 1s gratefully acknowledged. Apart from source material and assistance with production, acknowledged elsewhere, individual acknowledgments are not made, because neither contributors nor the authors or publisher assume liability or responsibilityfor designs using information presented herein. The user is responsible for complying with the various codes, standards and regulations, National, Federal, State and Municipal, and other legal obligations which may pertain to the construction and safe operation of plants. industrial installations, etc., including modifications t o existing facilities. Due t o economic conditions, demand, manufdcturing philosophy, business mergers and acquisitions, the availability of items from manufacturers may change, and components obtained from domestic suppliers may not be of domestic origin. Discussion of products does not necessarily imply endorsement.

Chapter

. . .... . ... . . . . . .. .. . . ... . . .. . . ..... . .. .... . ... . ... ..I PIPE, FITTINGS, FLANGES, REINFORCEMENTS: In-line Equipment and Support Equipment . .. . . .2 VALVES, PUMPS, COMPRESSORS, and Types of Process Equipment.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..3 ORGANIZATION OF WORK: Job Responsibilities, Drawingoffice Equipmentand Procedures.. . . . .. .4
PIPING: Uses, and Plant Construction DRAFTING: PROCESS AND PIPING DRAWINGS including Drawing Symbols, Showing Dimensions, Showing Instrumentation, and Bills of Material

........ .... .... . .. .5

DESIGN OF PIPING SYSTEMS: Including Arrangement, Supporting, Insulation, Heating, Venting and Draining of Piping, Vessels and Equipment.

........... . . .. . . . . .. . .6

STANDARDS AND CODES: for Piping Systems, Pipe, Pipe Supports, Flanges. Gaskets. Fining,,Valves, Traps, pumps, Vessels, Heat Exchangers, Symbols and Screwthreads .. . . . . . . . . .. . .

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ABBREVIATIONS: for Piping Drawings and Industrial Chemicals..

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INDEX/GLOSSARY/ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Sections, figures, charts and tables in Part I are referred to numerically, and are located by the margin index. Charts and tables in Part II are identified by letter. The text refers to standards and codes, using designations such as ANSI 831.1, ASTM A-53, ISA S5.1, etc. Full titles of these standards and codes will be found in tables 7.3 thru 7.14.

FOR TERMS NOT EXPLAINED I N THE TEXT, REFER TO THE INDEX. ABBREVIATIONS ARE GIVEN I N CHAPTER 8.

USESOF PIPING

1.1

In either procedure, the manutacturer supplies Intormation concerning the : buildings, processes, productm rates, design criteria tor specific purposes o requirements, details ot existing plant, and site surveys, if any Chart 1.1 shows the pr~ncipalsinvolved, end the flow at intormation and material.
SCHEMATIC FOR PLANT CONSTRUCTION

Piping is used tor industrial (process), marme, transportation, civil engineering, and tor 'commercial' (plumbing) purposes. This book IS primarily concerned with industrial piplng tor processing and service systems. Processpiping is used to transport fluids between storage tanks and processing units. Service piping IS used to convey steam, air, water, etc., tor processing. Piping here defined as 'service' piping IS sometimes reterred to as 'utility' piping, but, in the Guide, the term 'utility piplng' is reserved tor major lines supplying water, tuel gases, and tuel oil [that IS, tor commodities usually purchased trom utilities companies and bulk suppliers). Marme pipmg tor ships IS otten extenswe. Much ot it is tabricated trom welded and screwed carbon-steel piping, using pipe and fittings described in this book.
m p i n g is normally large-diameter piping used to convey Transportation p liquids, slurries and gases, sometimes over hundreds ot miles. Crude oils, petroleum products, water, and solid materials such as coal (carried by water) are transported thru pipelines. Different liquids can be transported consecutively in the same pipeline, and branching arrangements are used to divert flows to different destinations.

CHART 1.1

FINISHED PLAN1

ORDER FOR PLANT. 5 DATA FOR PLANT

DESIGN
DESIGN ENGINEERS

Civil pip~ng IS used to distribute public utilities (water, tuel gases), and to collect rainwater, sewage, and industrial waste waters. Most piping ot this type i s placed underground. Plumbing (commercial piping) is piping Installed in commercial buildings, schools, hospitals, residences, etc., tor distributing water and fuel gases, tor collecting waste water, and tor other purposes.

.A

REQUESTS FOR EQUIPMENT. HARDWARE 5 MATERIALS

COMMISSIONING. DESIGNING, &BUILDING A PLANT


When a manutacturer decides to build a new plani, or to expand an existlno one,the manutacturerwill either employ an engineering company to undertake design and construction, or, if the company's own engineering department is large enough, they will do the design work, manage the project, and employ one or more contractors to do the construction work

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CONSULTANTS

u
SUPPLIERS

.sluejd 104 sufiisap Buidid 40 luaudolanap aql u! pafiefiua slenpin!pu! 40 saimp a q l 01 a3ualata1 leuads q 1 1 '6u11aauiBua ~ u61sap 40 sail!l!q!suodsa~ pue uo~~ezluefilo aql ~ ' bU I s a q p s a p ap!n3 a q l

PROCESS PlPE
PIPE & TUBE

Pipe in the various sizes is made in several wall thicknesses tor each size, which have bean established by three different sources:(1) (2) The American National Standards Institute, thru 'schedule numbers' The American Society ot Mechanical Engineers and the American Society tor Testing and Materials, thru the designations 'STO' (standard), 'XS' (extra-strong), and 'XXS' (double-extra-strong),drawn trom dimensions established by manutacturers. In the Guide, these designat~onsare termed 'manufacturers' we~gbts' The American Petroleum Institute, through its standard 5L, tor 'Line pipe'. Dimensions in this standard have no references tor individual sizesand wall thicknesses

Tubular products are termed 'tuba' or 'pipe'. Tube is customarily specified by its outside diameter and wall thickness, expressed either in BWG (Birmingham wire gage) or in thousandths ot an inch. Pipe is customarily identified by 'nominal pipe size', with wall thickness defined by 'schedule number', 'API designation', or 'weight', as explained in 2.1.3. Non-standard pipe i s specified by nominal size with wall thickness stated. The principal uses tor tube are in heat exchangers, instrument lines, and small interconnections on equipment such as compressors, boilers, and retrigerators.
SIZES & LENGTHS COMMONLY USED FOR STEEL PlPE

(3)

ANSl standard B36.10M establishes wall thicknesses tor pipe ranging trom 118 to 80-inch nominal diameter('nominal pipe size'). Pipe sizes normally stocked include: 1/2,3/4, 1, 1~,1%,2,2%,3,3%.4,5.6,8,10,12,14, 16. 18, 20 and 24. Sizes 1%. 2%. 3%. and 5 inch are seldom used (unusual sizes are sometimes required tor connecting to equipment, but piping is normally run in the next larger stock size atter connection has been made). 118. 114. 318 and 112-inch pipe i s usually restricted to instrument lines or to service and other lines which have to mate with equipment. 112-inch pipe i s extensively used for steam tracing and tor auxiliary piping at pumps, etc. Straight pipe is supplied in 'random' h g t h s (17 to 25 it), and sometimes 'double random' lengths (38 to 48 it), if preterred. The ends ot these lengths are normally either plain (PE), beveled tor welding (BE), or threaded and supplied with one coupling per length ('threaded and coupled', or 'T&C'). If pipe is ordered 'T&C', the rating ot the coupling isspecified-see chart 2.3. Other types ot ends, such as grooved tor special couplings, can be obtained to order.
DIAMETERS & WALL THICKNESSES OF PIPE
2.1.3

'Manutacturers' weights' (second source) were intended, as long ago as 1939, to be superseded by schedule numbers. However, demand tor these wall thicknesses has caused the~rmanutacture to continue. Certain fittings are available only in manufacturers' weights. Pipe dimensions trom the second and third sources are incorporated in American National Standard B36.10M. Tables P-i list dimensions tor welded and seamless steel pipe in this standard, and give derived data.
IRON PIPE SIZES were initially established torwrought-iron pipe,with wall thicknesses designated by the terms 'standard (weight)'. 'extra-strong', and 'double-extrastrong' Betore the schedule number scheme tor steel pipe was first published by the Amerrcan Standards Arsociation in 1935, the iron pipe sizes were modified for steel pipe by slightly decreasing the wall thicknesses (leaving the outside diameters constant) so that the weights per toot (Iblft) equalled the iron pipe weights.

The size ot all pipe is identified by the nominal pipe size, abbreviated 'NPS', which i s seldom equal to the true bore (internal diameter) of the pipe-the difference in some instances is large. NPS 14 and larger pipe has outside diameter equal to the nominal pipe size.
131

Wrought-iron pipe (no longer made) has been completely supplanted by steel pipe, but schedule numbers, Intended to supplant iron pipe designations did not. Users continued to specify pipe in iron pipe terms, and as the mills responded, these terms are included in ANSl standard B36.10M tor steel pipe. Schedule numbers were introduced to establish pipe wall thicknesses hy tormula, but as wall thicknesses in common use continued t o depart trom those proposed by the scheme, schedule numbers now identify wall thicknesses ot pipe in the different nominal sizes a s ANSl B36.10M states "as a convenient designation system tor use in ordering"

STAINLESS-STEEL SIZES American National Standard 835 19 established ran5 h~n-w ;izes ~nles ppe, tifiel hedu' 5S and 10s MATERIALS FOR PIPE
2.1.4

PLASTICS ripe maoe trom plastics may tie used to convey activeiy corrosive

STEEL PIPE Normally reters to carbon-steel ptpe. Seam-welded steel pipe is

made trom plate. Seamless pipe is made using dies. Common finishes are 'black' ('pla~n'or 'mill' finish) and galvan~zed. Correctly selected steel plpe offers the strength and durability required tor the application, and the ductility and machinability requ~redto loin it and torm it into piplng ('spools' -see 5.2.9). The selected pipe must withstand the conditions ot use. especially pressure, temperature and corrosion conditions. These requirements are met by selecting pipe made to an appropriate standard; in almost ell instances en ASTM or API standard bee 2.1.3 and table 7.5).

:ially tor ng cr 3 or I 3us g ~d and I dilute mineral acids. Plastics are employed in three ways: as all-plastic plpe, as 'filled' plastic materials iglesfiber-reinforced, carbon-filled, etc.1 and as lining or coating materiels. Plastic pipe is made from polypropylene, polyethylene IPE), polyburylene (PB), polyvinyl chloride IPVC), acrylonitrile butadiene-styrene (ABS). cellulose a c e r a i e b ~ t ~ r a t(CAB), e polyolefins, end polyesters. Pipe made trom polyester and epoxy reslns is trequently glassfiber-re~ntorcedI'FRP') and commerc~al products ot this type have good resistance to wear and chemical attack.

65 3601

The most-used steel pipe tor process lines, end tor welding, bending, and coiling. IS made to ASTM A-53 or ASTM A-106, principally i n wall thicknesses defined by schedules 40, 80, and manutacturers' weights, STD and XS. Both ASTM A-53 and ASTM A-106 pipe IS tabricated seamless or seamed, by electrical resistance welding, in Grades A and B. Grades B have the higher and C, in tensilestrength. Three grades ot A-306 areevaileble-Grades4 8, order ot increasing tensile strength. The most widely stocked pipe is to ASTM A-120 which covers welded and seamless pipe tor normal use in steam, water, and gas (including air) service. ASTM A-120 is not intended tor bending, coiling or high temperaturesewice. I t is not specified tor hydrocarbon process lines. In the oil and natural gas tndustries, steel pipe used t o convey oil and gas is menutactured to the American Petroleum lnstitute'sstandard API 5L, which applies tighter control a t composition end more testlng then ASTM-120. Steel specifications in other countries may correspond with USA specifications. Some corresponding european standards tor carbon steels and sta~nlesssteels are listed in table 2.1. IRON pipe is made from cast-iron and ductileiron. The principal uses are for water, gas, and sewage lines, OTHER METALS & ALLOYS Pipe or tube made tr0m copper, lead, nickel, brass, elum~numand varlous sta~nlesssteels can be readily obtained. These materials are relatively expensive and are selected usually either because ot their particular corrosion resistance to the process chemical, their good heat transter, or tor their tensile strength at high temperatures. Copper and tor instrument lines, toad processing, end heat copper alloys are tradit~onal transter equipment, but stainless steels are increasingly being used tor these purposes.

HFS 22 HFS 27

CDS 22

COS?I

653601
ERW22 GRR27

6S3601
SW22

6s 35m
HFS13 WFS27

HFS35

65 3601

EFW 65 3601
IRW22 IRW2I

6 s 3661
E F B 22 EFW7I

65 3662

EW2B
EFW2BS

6%3601 SF522 & C02 22


HE527 L CD521

6S3501
ERW2Z

ERW27

Tho

4mer1~9" hiatlonpl q w d a r d ~ in~tltute b-r e-,rodur-.' ".'veral ?"h"4+s bur pipe maoe irom vdrlous plasrics. These ANbI standardsand orners for plastic pipe are listed in table 7.5.
GLASS All-glass piplng is used tor its chemical resistance, clanlines and transparency. Glass pipe is not subject to 'crazing' otten tound in glass-lined pipe and vessels subiect t o repeated thermal stresses. Pipe, fittings, and hardware are available both tor process piping and for drainage. Corning Glass Works offers a Pyrex 'Conical' system tor process lines in 1, I%, 2. 3, 4 and &inch sizes (ID) with 450 F as the maximum operating temperature. and pressure ranges 0-65 PSlA (1 in. thru 3 in.), 0-50 PSlA 14 in.) and 0-35 PSIA (6 in.). Glass cocks, strainers and thermowellsareavailable. Pipe fittings and equipment are lolned by flange assemblies which bear on the thickened conical ends ot pipe lengths and fittings. Corning also offers a Pyrex Acid-Waste Drainline system in 1%' 2, 3, 4 and 6-inch sizes (10) with beaded ends loined by Teflon-gasketed nylon compression couplings. Both Corning systems are made trom the same borosilicate glass.

WELnC" 9 SCpClOt"D JOl%lTC

2,-

'

Lines NPS 2 and larger are usually butt-welded, this being the most economic leakproot way ot joining larger-diameter piping. Usually such lines are subcontracted to a piping tebricator tor prefabrlcatlon in sections termed 'spools', then.transported to the site. Lines NPS 1% and smaller are usually elther screwed or socket-welded, and are normally field-run by the piping contractor trom drawings. Field-run and shop-tabricatad piping are discussed in 5.2.9.
SOCKET-WELDED JOINTS 2.2.2

Like screwed piping, socket welding IS used tor lines ot smaller sizes, but has the advantage that absence ot leaking is assured: this is avaluable tactor when flammable, toxic, or radioactive fluids are bemg conveyed-the use ot socket-welded toints is not restr~cted t o such fluids, however.
BOLTED-FLANGE JOINTS 2.2.3

Lining or coating carbon-steel pipe with a material able to withstand chemical attack permits its use to carry corrosive fluids. Lengths of lined pipeand fittings are ioined by flanges, and elbows, tees, etc., are available already flanged. Linings (rubber, tor example) can be applied atter fabricating the piping, but pipe is otten prelined, and manutacturers glve instructionsfor making pints. Linings ot various rubbers, plastics, metals and vitreous(g1assy) materialsareavailable. Polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene and copolymers are the most common coating materials. Carbon-steel pipe zinc-coated by immersion into molten zinc (hot-dip galvanized) is used tor conveying drinking water, instrument air and various other fluids. Rubber lining is often used to handle abrasive fluids.
LININGS & COATINGS
TEMPERATURE & PRESSURE LIMITS 2.1.5

Flanges are expensive and tor the most pan are used to mate with flanged vessels, equipment, valves, and tor process lines which may require periodic cleaning. Flanged iointsaremade by bolting together two flanges with a gasket between them to provide a seal. ReFEr to 2.6 for standard torged-steel flanges and gaskets.
FITTINGS
2.2.4

Fittings permit a change in direction of plping, a change in diameter of pipe, or a branch t o be made from the main run ot pipe. They are tormed trom plate or pipe, machined trom torged blanks, cast, or molded trom plastlcs Chart 2.1 shows the ratlngs o f butt-welding fittings used with pipe ot various schedule numbers and manutacturers' weights. For dimensions of buttwelding fittings and flanges, see tables 0-1 thru 0-6, and tables F-1 thru F-7. Dratting symbols are given in chams 5.3 thru 5.5. Threaded fittings have Pressure Class designations of: 2000, 3000 and 6000. Socket-welding fittings have Pressure Class designations ot: 3000, 6000 and 9000. How these Pressure Class designations relate t o schedule numbers and manutacturers' weights tor pipe isshown in table 2.2.
CORRELATION OF CLASS OF THREADED & SOCKET-LYELOING FITTINGS LVITH SCHEOULESII'.EIGHTS OF PlPE
TABLE 2.2

Carbon steels lose strength at high temperatures. Electr~c-resistance-welded pipe is not considered satisfactory tor service above750 F, and turnace-buttwelded pipe above about 650 F For higher temperatures, pipe made from stainless steels or other alloys should be considered. Pressure ratings tor steel pipe at different temperatures are calculated according to the ANSI 831 Code tor Pressure Piping (detailed i n table 7.2). ANSI 031 glves strass/tamperature values t o r the varlous steels trom which pipe is fabricated.
M E T H O D S F O R J O I N I N G PIPE

2.2

The ioints used tor most carbonsteel and stainless-steel pipe are:
BUTT"NELOE0 SOCKET.WELOE0 SCREWED

. . . . . . . . . . . . .SEE 2.3
~ ~

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SEE 2 5
~

. . . . . . . . . . . . .
~~~

PlPE DESIGNATION SCHIMFR'S Pressure Class Threaded fittings Socketed fimings


ZOO0 8OlXS 3000 160 80lXS 6000 XXS 160 9000 XXS

SEE 2 4

BOLTED FLANGE.

,
I

SEE 2 . 3 . : . 24.1 & 2.5.1

BOLTED OUICK COUPLINGS

.SEE 28.2

ELBOWS & RETURNS

FIGURE Z Z

SWAGE IS

90 LONG-RADIUS ELBOW

90 SHORT-RADIUS ELBOW

employed t o connect butt-welded plplng to smaller screwed or . In b lded mke 3d p used I a l t ~ . a to . . reducer when greater reductions i n line size are required Regular swages i n concentric or eccentric f o r m give abrupt change o t line m e , as do reducers. The 'venturi' swage allows smoother flow. Refer t o table 2.3 for specifymg swages f o r jolnlng t o socket-welding items, and t o table 2.4 f o r specifying swages f o r loining t o screwed piping. For offset, see 'Reducer'.
SWAGES. o r SWAGED NIPPLES

TiT MI .3.1

FIGURE 2 4

CONCENTRIC

4 S ELBOW (LRI

LONG-RADIUS RETURN

ECCENTRIC

VENTURE TYPE

I
REDUCING ELBOW

3 x NPS

4
MITERED ELBOWS are fabricated as required trom plpe-they are n o t fittings. The use o t miters t o make changes i n direction is practically restricted t o low-pressure lines 10-inch and larger if the pressure drop is unimportant; for these uses regular elbows would be costlier. A 2-p~ece, 90-degree miter has-tour t o SIX tlmes the hydraulic resistance a t t h e corresponding regular long-radius elbow, and should be used with caution. A Spiece 90-degree miter has about double the resistance t o flow of the regular l o n g radius elbow-reter t o table F-10. Constructions tor 3.4.. and 5-piece miters are shown i n tables M-2.
3.PIECE &

j 2.1

SHORT-RADIUS RETURN

I ' h x NPS
(Of 1rrgcr Dlpel

2 x NPS

2-PIECE MITERS 2-PIECE MITER

FIGURE 2.5

REDUCER lor INCREASER) loins a larger plpe t o a smaller one. The t w o available types, concentric and eccentrlc, are shown. The eccentric reducer is used when it is necessary t o keep e~therthe top or the bottom o t the line level-offset equals % x llarger I D minus smaller ID).
REDUCERS
CONCENTRIC FIGURE 2 . 3

3.PIECE

MITER

I
2.1 -2.5

FIGURES

ECCENTRIC

1
171

l B TIMES NPS

THE 2.PIECE MITER HAS HIGH F L O W RESISTANCE 1SceTABLE F-10)

I ne toliowlng rive rlange types are usen ror nun-welaeo mes. s avai' ' ' Ire di d in : " "ange '

I ne oinerent

WELDING-NECK FLANGE, REGULAR & LONG Regular welding-neck

flanges are used with butt-welding f;ttmgs. Long welding-neck flanges are primarily used for vessel end equipment nozzles, rarely tor plpe. Sultable where extreme temperature, shear, Impact and vibratory stresses apply. Regw larlty of the bore IS ma~ntalned. Refer to tables F tor bore diameters of these flanges.
WELDING-NECK FLANGE FIGURE 2 6

wltaole ror cnanging line size, out snoulo not oe if ab ransit ould ! und e tur e, a s , np connections. Amilable t o order In welding-neck end eccentric types, and usually trom stock i n slip-on type. Speciiy by nominal pipe sizes, stating the size ot the larger pipe first. Example: a slip-on reduclng flange to connect ~sspecified: a NPS4 plpe t o a Class 150 NPS 6 line-s~zeflange
REDUCING FLANGE

R E 0 FLG NPS 6 x 4 Class 1% SO For a welding-neck reduclng flange, correct bore IS obtained bv givlng the pipe schedule number or manufacturers' welght ot the pipe to be welded on.
REDUCING S L I P O N FLANGE

FIGURE 2 8

SLIP-ON FLANGE is properly used t o flange plpe. Slip-on flanges can be

used with iong-tangent elbows, reducers, and swageshot usual practice). The internal weld is slightly more subject to corrosion thsn the b u n weld. The flange has poor resistance toshock and vibration. It introduces irregularity In the bore. It IS cheaper to buy then the welding-neck flange, but ~scostlier t o assemble. It is easier t o align than the welding-neck flange. Calculated strengths under internal pressure ere about one third that of the corresponding welding-neck flanges. The pipe or fitting is set back from the tace of ihe flange a distance equal t o the wall thickness - 0 + 1 / 1 6
SLIP-ON FLANGE

EXPANDER FLANGE Applicetlon as tor weldlng-neck tlange-see above.

Increases pipe size t o first or second larger size. Alternetlve to uslng reducer and welding-neck flange. Usetul for connecting t o valves, compressors and pumps. Pressure ratings and dimensions are in accord with ANSI 016.5.
FIGURE 2.9

EXPANDER lor INCREASER1 FLANGE FIGURE 2 7

LAPJOINT. or 'VAN STONE', FLANGE Frnnomicai if rnstly pine w h . i ..-..lless hi useL, d e f l a i ~ ~LOO . be 01 caiuon steel and only me lap-

p i n t stub end need be of the line material. A stub end must be used in a lap joint, and the cost of the two items must be considered. If both stub and flange are ot the same material they will be more expensive than a weldingneck flange. Useful where alignment of bolt holes is difficult, as with spools t o be attached to flanged nozzles of vessels. LAPJOINT FLANGE l w i h Stub-end1
FIGURE 210

BUTT-WELDING TEES

FIGURE 2.12

STRAIGHT BUTT-WELDING TEE

REDUCING B U R - W E L D I N G TEE

BUTT-WELDING FITTINGS FOR BRANCHING FROM BUTT-WELDED SYSTEMS STUB-IN Term for a branch pipe welded directly into the side ot the main

plpe run-lt is not a fitting. This is the commonest and least expenslve method ot welding a full-size or reduclng branch for pipe 2-inch and larger. A stub-in can be reintorced by means set out in 2 11.

The next tour branching fittings are made by Bonney Forge. These fittings offer an alternate means ot connectmg into the main run, and do not requlre reinforcement. They are preshaped to the curvature ot the run pipe.

WELDOLET makes a 90-degree branch, tull-size or reduclng, on straight

plpe. Closer manifolding 1 s possible than w ~ t h tees. Flat-based weldolets are available for connecting to pipe caps and vessel heads. WELDDLET
I
FIGURE 213

BUTT-WELDING TEES, STRAIGHT or REDUCING, are employed to make 90-degree branches from the maln run ot plpe. Stra~ghttees, wlth branch the same size as the run. are readily available. Reducing tees have branch smaller than the run. Bullhead tees have branch larger than the run, andare very seldom used but can be made to special order. None of these tees requires reinforcement. Reducing tees are ordered as follows:-

UUTTWELDING ELBOLET makes a reduclng tanoent branch on longradius

BUTTJNELOING CROSS

FIGURE 217

a d sthuz I-,.dius
ELBOLET
FiGURE 2 1 4

t , ~ ~ . . ~ .
BUTT-WELDINGLATROLET

FiGURE 215

BUTT-WELDING

LATRDLET makes a 45-degree reducing branch on straight

pipe.
SWEEPOLET makes a 90-degree reduc~ng branch trom the main run of pipe.

Primarily developed for highyield pipe used in oil and gas transmission lines. Provides good flow pattern, and optimum stress distribut~on.

LATERAL, STRAIGHT or REDUCING, permlts odd-angled entry into the pipe run where low resistance to flow is important. Stralght laterals with branch bore equal to run bore are available in STD and XS weights. Reducing laterals and laterals at angles other than 45 degrees are usually available only to special order. Reinforcement is required where it IS necessary to restore the strength ot the joint to the full strength ot the plpe. Reducing laterals are ordered similarly to butt-welding tees, except that the angle between branch and run IS also stated.
LATERAL

FIGURE 2.18

MEEPOLET

FIGURE 2.16

SHAPED NIPPLE

Now rarely used, bur can be obtained trom stock in 90and 45-degree angles, and i n any size and angle, including offset, to special order. The run IS field-cut, uslng the n~pple as template. Needs reinforcement if it 1s necessary to brmg the strength ot the jomt up to the full strength of the plpe. FIGURE 2.19

SHAF'ED NIPPLE

The next three fittings are usually used for specla1 deslgns:
CROSS, STRAIGHT o r REDUCING StraightcrOSSesareusuallystock items.

Reduclno crosses mav not be readily available. For economy, availability and to minimize the number of items in inventory, it is preferred to use tees, etc., and not crosses, except where space i s restricted, as in marlne piptng or 'revamp' work. ~ & f o r & n e n t is kt needed.
[I01

CLOSURES CAP IS used t o seal the end of plpe. (See figure 2.20(a).)

2.3 3

SOCKET-WELDED P I P I N G

CHART 2 2

FLAT CLOSURES Flat plates are normally cut especially trom platestock by the tabrlcator or erector. (See figure 2.20 (bl and ic).)
T H R E E WELDED CLDSURES F I G U R E 2.20

Chart 2.2 shows the ratlngs ot pipe, fittings and valves that are commonly combined, or may be used together. The chart is a gu~deonly, and not a substitute tor a projec! specification.

JE
U

.la) B U T T - W E L D I N G CAP (b)FLAT C L O S U R E LEI F L A T C L O S U R E

- .. -. . . --- -

CARBOI-STEEL PlPE E

END PREPARATION OF PIPE. AND METHOD OF JOiNlNG TO FITTING, FLANGE. VALVE. OR EOUIPMENT

ELLIPSOIDAL, or DISHED, HEADS are used t o close plpes of large diameter, and are similar to those used for constructmg vessels.

MrZXIMUhl LINE SiZE NORbtALLY SOCKET WELDED AVAILABILITY OF FORGEO.STEEL SOCKETWELDING FITTINGS SCHEDULE NUMBER NEIGHTSOF PlPE AND PRESSURE CLASSES OF FITTINGS WHICH ARE COMPATIBLE MFRS WEIGHT FlWlNG

COMPONENTS FOR SOCKET-WELDED PIPING SYSTEMS


WHERE USED:

NPS 118 mNPS4

SCH 6 0

SCH 150

xxs
9000

For lines conveying flammable, toxlc, or expenswe material, where no leakage can be permltted. For steam: 300 to600 PSI. and sometimes 150 PSI steam. For corrosIveconditions, see Index under 'Corrosion'

XS

6000 SCH 160

30W

u .

FITTING BORED TO:

SCH 40

XXS

ADVANTAGES OF JOINT:

( I ) Easler alignment on small linesthan


butt welding. Tack welding IS unnecessary (2) No weld metal can enter bore (3) Jolnt will not leak, when properly made
MOST CDMMON COPIIBINATION: CHOICE OF MATERIALOR HEAYIERWEIGHT PlPE AND FITTING WILL DEPEND ON PRESSURE. TEMPERATURE AND/OR CORROSTON ALLOW. ANCE REOUIRED. PlPE NPS Ih AND SMALLER IS USUALLY ORDERED TO ASTM SPECIFICATION A-106 Grrdc8. REFER 1 0 2 1 . 4 . UNOER 'STEELS

DISADVANTAGES OF JOINT:

The 1116-inch recess In lO1nt (see chart 2.2) pockets liquid (2) Use not permltted by ANSI 031.1 1989 if severe vibration or crevlce

(1)

VALVES
h1lNMUh5 PRESSURE IRATINGI CLASS CONTROL VALVES (USUALLY FLANGED) VALVES OTHER THAN CONTROL VALVES USUALLY 3~ (SEE 3.1.101

corrosion IS

antmpated

HOW JOINT IS MADE:

The end of the pipe IS finlshed flat, as shown in chart 2.2. It IS located In the fittmg, valve, flange, etc., and a continuous fillet weld i s made around the clrcumterence

G W IAN811
BW IAPII

T soc~et-ended t l l t l n g s r r e now only m a d e m clrrrcs 3 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 and 9 0 0 0 (ANSI

816.11)

SOCKET-WELDED SYSTEMS

Dimensions of fittings and flanges are given in tables 0-8 and F-1 t h r u F-6

FULLCOUPLING {termed 'COUPLINGI joins plpe t o pipe, or t o a nlpple,

sd l o jlgner ise h cket1 p ~ p ,.terns. -.explanation i n 2.5.1 of uses given under 'threaded union'. Union should b e screwed tight beiore the ends are welded.to mlnlmlze warping of the seat.
SOCKETYUELD1NG UNION FIGURE 2.24

- .- . - --- ,.,.

.-,

az~r~azrririv~n vutpux*

I tub ! : , d

swage, etc.
FULLGOUPLING

FIGURE 2.21

REDUCER joinstwo different diameters o i plpe.


REDUCER
FIGURE 2.22

According t o type, these allow joining: (1) Socketended items o t different sizes-this type o i swaged nipple has both ends plain IPBE) i o r insertion into socket ends. (2) A socket-ended item t o a larger buttiwelding pipe or fitting-thistype of swaged nipple has the larger end beveled (BLE) and the smaller end plain (PSE) f o r insertion Into asocket-ended item. A swaged nipple is also referred t o as a 'swage' (pronounced 'wedge') abbreviated on draw~ngsas 'SWG' or 'SWG NIPP' When ordering a swage. state the weight designations of the pipes t o be ~omed.For example, NPS 2 (SCH 40) x NPS 1 (SCH 80). Examples o t the different end termmations that may be specified are as tallows:SWAGED NIPPLES
SPECIFYING SIZE & END FlNlSH OF S0CKET.WELDING SWAGES TABLE 2.3

A reduclng fittmg used for connecting a small pipe t o a larger fittlng. Socket-ended reducer inserts can be made in any reduet~on by borlng standard forged blanks.
REDUCER INSERT
SOCKET-WELDING REDUCING INSERTS FIGURE 2 2 3

SWAGE FOR JOININGLARGER to SMALLER

EXAMPLE NOTE ON DRAWING

SWG 1% x l

PEE

ASBREI~IATIONS:
SOCKET-ENDED FITTING, FLANGE, OR EQUIPMENT

SWAGE

(PEE)

FIGURE 2.25

THREE FORMS OF REDUCER INSERT.


,CO"ETLIIL.Pll"ELIYIAN",

ELBOWS make YU- or 4s-oegree cnanges or olrecrlurl


SOCKETYVELDING ELSOWS

!TI trm

lul>. u~ pap=.

FIGURE 2 2 6

SOCKET-WELDING

FLANGE Regular type IS available from stock. Reduc-

LATERAL makes full-size 45-degree branch from the maln run of plpe.
SOCKET-WELDING LATERAL
FIGURE 229

Ing type a available t o order. For example, a reduc~ng flange t o connect a NPS 1 plpe t o a Class 150 NPS 1% line-s~ze flange ~sspecified: RED FLG NPS 1 % 1~C I ~ S S ~ ~ O S W
SOCKET-WELDING FLANGE

FIGURE 2.27

CROSS

Remarks f o r bun-welding cross apply-see 2.3.2. Reducing crosses are custorn-fabricated b y boring standard forged blanks.
FIGURE 2.30

SOCKETJNELOING CROSS

F l l T l N G S FOR BRANCHING FROM SOCKET-WELDED SYSTEMS BRANCH FROM SOCKET-WELDED RUN TEE. STRAIGHT or REDUCING, makes 90-degree branch f r o m the main r u n o t ptpe. Reduc~ng tees are custom-fabricated b y bormg standard forged blanks.
SPECIFYING SIZE OF SOCKET-WELDING TEES

ual

The full-coupling 1 s not used for branching orforves. HALF-COUPLING sel connections, as the half-coupling is the same length and is stronger. The half-coupling permits 90-degree entry Into a larger pipe or vessel wall. The sockolet is more pract~cableas shaping 1 s necessary with the coupling.
SOCKET-WELDING HALF-COUPLING

SOCKET-WELDING U T R O L E T

FIGURE 2.34

FIGURE 231

NIPOLET A variant of the sockolet, having ~ntegral plaln n~pple. Primarily developed for small valved connections-see figure 6.47.

The next tour fitlings aremade by Bonney Forge and offer an alternate method ot enterlng the main plpe run. They have the advantage that the beveled welding ends are shaped to the cuwature of the run pipe. Remforcement tor the hurt-welded ptping or vessel is not required. SOCKOLET makes a 90-degree branch, full-slze or reducing, on straight pipe. Flat-based sockolets are available for branch connections on pipe caps and and vessel hbads.
SOCKOLET

FIGURE 2 . 3 2

STUB-IN See comments in 2.32 .Not preferred for lines under 2-inch due to risk of weld metal entering line and restricting flow. CLOSURE
I

2.4.4

SOCKET.WELDING ELBOLET makes a reducing tangent branch on longradius and short.radius elbows.
SOCKET-WELDING ELBOLET FIGURE 233

SOCKET-WELDING CAP seals plain-ended pipe


SDCKETYVELD~NG CAP

FIGURE 236

COMPONENTS FOR SCREWED JGS' MS

2.5

SCRFWED PIPING

CHAPT 9 e

WHERE USED:
ADVANTAGES:

For lines conveying services, and for smaller process p w g (1) Easily made from pipe and fittings on site (2) Minimizes fire hazard when installing piping in areas where flammable gases or liquids are
present

Chart 2.3 show the ratings of plpe, fittings and valves that are commonly combined, or may be used together The chart is a gutde only, and not a substitute tor a prolect specificat~on.

'ORGED-STEEL FITTINGS
THREAD ENGAGEMENT
TCL

DISADVANTAGES:

(I)' Use not permitted by ANSI 831.i-1989, if severe erosion, crevice corrosion, shock, or vibration is anticipated, nor at temperatures over 925 F. (Also see footnote table F-9) (2) Possible leakage of joint (3)' Seal welding may be required-see tootnote to chart 2.3 14) Strength o t the pipe is reduced, as torming the screwthread reduces the wall thickness
*~nesc remarks a p p l y to systems using f o r g e d - r m e ~flttingi.

P END PREPARATION OF PIPE. AND METHOD OF JOINING TO FITTING. FLANGE. VALVE OR EQUIPMENT
ITEhl SUCH

A S YUYE. COUPLING. EWIPLIENT. ETC.

s
MAXlhlUhl LINE SIZE NORMALLY THREADED AVAILABILITY OF FORGEOSTEEL THREADED FlTliNGS SCHEDULE WEIGHTS OF PlPE A N 0 PRESSURE CLASSES OF FITTINGS WHICH ARE COMPATiBLE

NPS 1%

FITTINGS & FLANGES FOR SCREWED SYSTEMS

NP5 118 mNPS 4

Screwed pipmg is piping assembled from threaded pipeand fittmgs.

SCH 40

SCH 80

CHART

Threaded malleableiron and cast-iron f i t t t n g s a r e extensively used for plumbling in buildings. In industrial applications, Class 150 and 300 galvanized malleableiron fittings and similarly rated valves are used for drinking water and alr lines. Dimensions ot malleable-iron fittings are given in table D-11. In process piplng, forged-steel fittings are preferred over cast-iron and malleableiron fittings (although their pressureltemperature ratings may be suitable),for their greater mechanical strength.To simplify material specificatlons, drafting, checking, purchasing and warehousing, the overall economics are in favor of utilizing as tew different types of threaded fittings as possible. Dimens~ons of forged-steel threaded fittings are glven in table D-9.

MFR? WEIGHT FITTING CLASS

2OW

3WO

60W

MOST COMMON COMBINATION: THE MINIMUM CLASS FOR FITTINGS PREFERRED IN h10ST INSTANCES FOR MECHANICAL STRENGTH 16 30W. CHOICE OF MATERIAL OR HEAVIER-WEIGHT PlPE & FITTING WILL DEPEND ON PRESSURE. TEMPERATURE AND /OR CORROSION ALLOWANCE REQUIRED. PIPE NPS I % AND SMALLER IS USUALLY ORDERED TO ASTM SPECIFICATION 11-106 GrrdeB. REFER TO 2.1.4, UNDER 'STEELS'

FULL-COUPLING (termed 'COUPLING'I loins plpe or items with threaded

VALVES
MIN'h'UM PRESSURE IRATINGI CLASS

ends.
FULL-COUPLING F I G U R E 2.37

CONTROL VALVES IUSUALLY FLANGED1 VALVES OTHER THAN CONTROL VALVES

USUALLY 300 ISEE 31.101

GW IANS1i GW IAPII

A N S l 831.1.0 nuts that real welding shall nor be conridcred %a contribute to the ~lrenglh,ol the lo#", SEAL WELDING WPLICATIONI On-pbt: On all mewed connecf8onlwithin bvicew iimlu, wirh the exreprion ot p ~ p ~ carrywg ng air o r mher men gar. and water dangerous. toac. ronolive 01f.piiot: O n amwed liner for hydrocarbon rervlce and for !in- convcy~ng o r vrlvablc fluid%

1151

..-

-."". -.,.-,".

,YII.ll

LIII*YY-Y

vl)lra

Yi

~ , , ~ r u r i a t

sizes. Can h~ made in any rerh~rt6nn by h n r ~ n g and t=nnSng st~A-?"iog"~ ",anks.


REDUCING COUPLING

FIGURE

2.38

ruwt N H L ~ p O ~ . r t m raby ~> i~iua~ia~iu remuvai ri. ur repiacemen1 qths " 3, val vess ' screv ping : s. E es: to remove a valve it nust have at least one ediacent union, and t o remove piping trom a vessel with threaded connections, each outlet trom the vessel should have one union between valve and vessel. Ground-taced jolnts are ureterred. althouoh other tacinas are available.
v s r w a v rrmnc3 o

_'
I".

THREADED UNION

FIGURE 2.40

NIPPLES loin unions, valves, strainers, fitt~ngs,etc. Basically a short length

ot pipe either tully threaded lclose n~pple) or threaded both ends (TEE), or plan oneend and threaded one end (POE-TOE). Available i n vartous lengths -refer to table 0-11. Nipples can be obtained with a Victaulic groove at one end.
NIPPLES FOR THREADED ITEMS
la] CLOSE NIPPLE

FIGURE 2.39
I C I

ra)

LONG or SHORT NIPPLE ITBE]

NIPPLE

IPOE-TOE)

PIPE-?O.TUBE CONNECTOR For loining threaded plpe to tube. Figure 2.41 shows a connector fitted to specially-flaied tube. Other types are available

PIPE-TO.TUBE

CONNECTOR

FIGURE 2.41

( d l TANK NIPPLE Wall ot

Locknut thread INPSLI


NPT

HEXAGON BUSHING A reducing fitting used tor connecting a smaller plpe into a larger threaded fitting or nozzle. Has many applications to Instrument connections. Reduc~ngfittings can be made i n any reduction b y borlng and tapping standard iorged blanks. Normally not used tor high-pressure service.
HEXAGON BUSHING

FIGURE 2.42

TANK NIPPLE IS used tor making a screwed connection t o a non-pressure

vessel or tank i n low-pressure service. Overall length IS usually 6 Inches with a standard taper pipe thread at each end. On one end only, the taper pipe thread runs Into a ANSI lock-nut thread.

SWAGED NIPPLE This is a reducmg fittmg, used-tor lolnlng larger diameter

to "?r dia plpe. retert as a ' . (pro ad 'sv - 1 and abbrev~atedas 'SWG' or 'SWG NIPP' o n drawmgs. When ordering a swage, state the weight des~gnationso t the plpes t o be jomed: for example, NPS 2 (SCH 40) x NPSI (SCH 80).Aswage may b e used torpining: (1) Screw ed plplng t o screwed pipmg. 12) Screwed plptng t o butt-welded p i p i n g (3) 0un.welded pip~ng t o a threaded nozzle o n equipmentlt isnecessary t o specify on the plpmg drawmg the termmations required.
SPECIFYING SIZE & END FINISH OF THREADEOSWAGES TABLE 2.4

..

THREADED FLANGES are used t o connect threaded plpe t o flawed items.


. :educ .., .,pes a. lable itock. axamp.,. ,aducl~,~ egula flange t o connect a NPS 1 pipe t o a Class 150 NPS 1% linesize flange is specified:

. .,

R E D F L G NPS 1% x 1 Class 150 T H R D THREADED FLANGE


FIGURE 2.45

t I
I

SWAGE FOR JOINING-

LARGER to SMALLER

I
1
I

EXAMPLE NOTE ON DRAWING

THRD ITEM B W ITEMorPlPE THRD ITEM'

I /

THRD ITEM THRD ITEM BW ITEM'

SWG 1% x 1 TBE SWG2 x 1 BLE-TSE SWG3 x 2 TLE-BSE TLE = Threaded large end TOE = Threaded one end BLE = Beveled large end BSE = Beveled small end

ABIIREIIATIONS:

BW = Butt welding THRD =Threaded TBE =Threaded both ends TSE = Threaded small end

' A larger threaded item

1s seldom jo~nedt o a smaller bumelding Item. However, the connection ot a bunwelded line t o a threaded nozzle on a vessel i s an example.

FITTINGS FOR BRANCHING FROM SCREWED SYSTEMS BRANCH FROM SCREWED MAIN RUN TEE, STRAIGHT or REDUCING, makes a 90-degree branch trom the run o l

SWAGED NIPPLES. TBE and BLE-TSE

FIGURE 243

pipe. Reducmg tees are made b y boring and tapping standard forged blanks.

SPECIFYING SIZE OF THREADED REDUCING TEES

ELBOWS make 90- or 45-degree changes i n direct~ona t the run ot pipe.

Street elbows havlng a mtegral n ~ p p l e at one end (see table D-ll),are available
THREADED ELBOWS. 45 and 90 DEGREE
FIGURE 2 4 4

E
THREADED TEES.STRAIGHT and REDUCING
STRAIGHT TEE
REDUCING TEE

FIGURE 2 4 6

i1

1/

I .

LATERAL makes tull-size 45-degree branch trom the maln run ot ptpe.
THREADED LATERAL FIGURE 2.47

The next tour fitttngs for branching are made by Bonny Foroe. These fitttngs a mL -t jotr ...., .:rewe.. .,ing t , ..aided ,,,,, and tv, ,,,.mg Instrument connectlons. The advantages are that the welding end does not requlre remtorcement and that the ends are shaped to the curvature of the run pipe.

..

THREDOLET makes a 90-degree branch, tull or reduc~ng,on stra~ght plpe.

Flat-based thredolets are available tor branch connectlons on plpe caps and vessel heads. THREDOLET FIGURE 2 5 0

CROSS Remarks for butt-welding cross apply - see 2.3.2. Reductng crosses are made by boring and tapping standard torged blanks.
THREADED CROSS

FIGURE 2.48

THREADED ELBOLET makes reducing tangent branch on long-radius and

short radius elbows.


THREADED ELBOLET FIGURE 2.51

FITTINGS FOR SCREWED BRANCH FROM VESSEL OR BUTT-WELDED M A I N R U N HALF-COUPLING can be used to make 90-degree threaded connections t o ptpes for instruments, or for vessel nozzles. Welding heat may cause embrittlement ot the threads of thisshort fitting. Requiresshaping.
THREADED HALFEDUPLING & FULLEDUPLING FIGURE 249

THREADED LATROLET makes a45-degree reducmg branchon astra~ght pipe.


THREADED LATROLET

FIGURE 2.52

FULL.COUPLING Superior t o half-coupling. Also requtres shaping for con-

necting t o pipe.
TANK NIPPLE See 2.5.1, figure 2.39(d).

F L A N G E FACINGS, B O L T S & G A S K E T S

2.6

RINGJOINT FACING is a more expensive tacing, and considered t h most ~


.

FLANGE FACINGS & FINISHES -~

2.6.1

.tent fI-temc r e a m .,.,.. press,... .,me ,u,se flang,, a palr are alike The ring-jolnt facmg is not prone t o damage in handling as thesurfaces in contact wlth the gasket are recessed Use ot facings of thls type may increase as hollow metal O-rings gain acceptance tor process chemlcal seals

..

....-

Many lacings tor flanges are offered by flange manufacturers, including various 'tongue and groove' types which must be used i n pairs. However, only tour types of facing are widely used, and these are shown in figure 2.56. The raised face is used tor about 80% ot all flanges. The ring-]olnt tacing. employed wlth either an oval-section or octagon-section gasket, IS used mainly in the petrochemical industry.
THE MOSTLISED FLANGE FACINGS
RAISED-FACE

LAPJOINT FLANGE is shaped t o accommodate the stub end. The combination ot flange and stub end presents similar geometry m the raised-tace flange and can be used where severe bending stresses will not occur. Advantages ot this flange are stated i n 2.3.1.

FIGURE 2.56
FLAT-FACE

The term 'finah' refers t o the type o f surtace produced by machining the flange tace which contacts the gasket. Two principal types ot finlsh areproduced, the 'serrated' and 'smooth'. Forgedsteel flanges with raised-tace are usually machined to give a 'serratedconcentr~c'groove, or a 'serrated-spiral' groove finish t o the ralsed-tace ot the flange. The serrated-spiral finish is the more common and may be termed the 'stock' or 'standard finish' available from suppliers. vary depending on the sizeand The pitch ot the groovaand the surtaca fin~sh class ot the flange. For ralsed-taca steel flanges, the pitch varies trom 24 to 40 per inch. It is made using a cutting tool having a mlnimum radius at the tip ot 0.06-inch. The maximum roughness of surface finlsh a 125-500 microinches.

R l N G JOINT

L A P JOINT

'Smooth' finlsh is usually specially-ordered, and is available in two qualities. (1) A fine machined finish leaving no definite tool marks. (2) A 'mirror-finlsh', primarily intended tor use without gaskets.
BOLT HOLES I N FLANGES
2.6.2

Bolt holes in flanges are equally spaced. Specifying the number of holes. diameter of the bolt circle and hole size sets the bolting configuration. Number of bolt holes per flange is given in tables F The RAISE0 FACE e I I l B i n c h high for Classes 150 and 300 flanges, and 114-inch high tor all other classes. Class 250 cast-iron flanges and flanged fittingsalso have the 1116-inch raised tace. Flanges are positioned so that bolts straddle vertical and horizontal centerlines. This 1 s the normal position ot bolt holes on all flanged items.
BOLTS FOR FLANGES

2 . 6 . 3

0.06.inch ra~sed face on flanges in Classes 750 and 300, but exclude the 0.25-inch ramd face on flanges In Classes 400 thru 2500. Tables F ~ncluda the ra~sed face forall flange Classes.
FLAT FACE Most common uses are tor mating wlth non-steel flanges on bodies ot pumps,etc. and formatlngwith Clan125 cast-lronvalves and fittings. Flat-taced flanges are used with a gasket whose outer diameter equals that ot the flange -this reduces the danger of cracking a cast-iron, bronze or plastic flange when the assembly is tightened.

Two types ot bolting are available: the studbolt using two nuts, and the machine bolt uslng one nut. Both boltings are illustrated in figure 2.57. Studbolt thread lengths and diameters are given in tables F Studbolts have largely displaced regular bolts tor bolting flanged piping pints. Three advantages ot using studbolts are: (1) (2) (3) The studbolt is more easily removed i f corroded Contusion with other bolts at the site is avoided Studbolts in the less traquently used sizes and materials can be readily made from round stock

5PE. .-E PLATE

BLIND

rigure LOU snows me oleeo nng connecteo to a oleea valve-see 3.1.1I. ihe je of ped athela ble g shc con: ., as I. . a more economic arrangement, and usually can be specified merely by adding a suffix to the valve ordering number. A lineblind valve is not illustrated as construction varies. This type ot valve incorporates a spectacle plate sandwiched between two flanges which may be expanded or t~ghtened(by some easy means), allowing the spectacle plate t o be reversed. Constant-length lineblind v a l k are also available, made to ANSI dimens~onstor run length. Table 2.6 compares the advantages of the four in-line temporary closures:
IN-LINE CLOSURES
CLOSURE
CRITERION
VALVE

TABLE 2.6

SIDE VIEW.

I t should be noted t h a t lack screws may sieze in corrorwe candltlanl

7 ; c g y
LINE BLIND

DOUBLE BLEED

REMOVABLE SPOOL

MEDIUM EXPENSE.

DOUBLE-BLOCK-AND-BLEED

FIGURE 2.60

'BLOCK VALVE

CLOSURES FOR PIPE ENDS & VESSEL OPENINGS


BLEED CONNECTlON VALVES IS LESS EXPENSIVE THAN EMPLOYlNGA BLEED RING

27.2

REMOVABLE SPOOL

FIGURE 2.61

Temporary bolted closures Include blind flanges using flat gaskets or ring joints, T-bolt closures, welded-on closures with hinged doors - including the boltless manhole cover (Robert Jenkins, England) and closures primarily intended for vessels, such as the Lanape range (Bonney Forge) which may also be used with pipe of large diameter. The blind flange i s mostly used with a view to future expansion of the piping system, or tor cleaning, inspection, etc. Hinged closures are often installed on vessels; infrequently on pipe. QUICK CONNECTORS & COUPLINGS QUICK CONNECTORS

2.8
2.8.1

111 must be pOIIlble to move one or both of the adlacent flanges away from t h e moo1 to effect removal+nlS IS erpecmw important wlfh rinppbnt flungcrl

Two forms ot connector specifically des~gned for temporary use are. ( 1 ) Lever type w ~ t h double lever clamping, such as Evertlte 'Standard' and captive nut - 'hose connector' Victaulic 'Snap Jo~nt'. 12) Screw type w ~ t h Typlcal use i s for connecting temporarily to tank cars, trucks or processves. sels. Inter-trades agreements permit plant operators t o attach and uncouple temporary connectors have builtm valves. these boltless connectors Certa~n Evertlte manutactures a double shut-off connector for liquids, and Schrader a valved connector for alr lines.
1221

I f a line is to be temporarily closed down with double-block-and-bleed, both valves are closed, and the fluid between drawn off with the bleed valve. The bleed valve is then left open to show whether the other valves are tightly shut.

IOLT

JICK

'LIN

2 . P 7

Connections of this type may be suitable tor either permanent or temporan/ use, depending on the joint and gasket, and service conditions. Piping can be built rapidly with them, and they are especially useful tor making repairs to lines, for constructing short-run process installations such as pilot plants, and for process modification.
COUPLINGS FOR GROOVED COMPONENTS PIPE

r l \ Re-routinn r re-nnactng the line. (2) Expansion loops-see tigure b. I. ~alcula~ p,acemt#ct ~u "8 anch,,. ,-.I Col- .,.. tging- .-. ..I. Bt type expansion ~ointsof the type shown in figure 2.63 are also used to absorb

n 11 7.1

vibration.
SIMPLE BELLOWS
FIGURE 2.63

Couplings of this type are manufactured by the Victaulic Company Of America tor use wlth steel, cast-iron. FRP or plastic pipe, either having grooved ends, or with Victaulic collars welded or cemented t o the pipe ends. The tollowing special fitt~ngswith grooved ends are available: elbow, tee (all types), lateral, cross, reducer, nlpple, and cap. Grooveended valves and fining and removal. valve adaptors are also available. Advantages: (1) Qu~ck (2) Jornt can take up some deflection and expansion. (3) Suitable for many uses, with correct gaskets. The manufacturer states that the biggest uses are tor permanent plant air, water (drinking, service, process, waste) and lubricant lines.
COMPRESSION SLEEVE COUPLINGS are extensively used tor air, water.

ARTICULATED BELLOWS

FIGURE 2.64

oil and gas. Well-known manufacturers include Victaulic, Dresser and SmithBlair. Advantages: (1) Quick fitting and removal. (2) Joint may take up some deflection and expansion. (3) End preparatron of pipe 1 s not needed. VICTAULIC COMPRESSION SLEEVE COUPLING FIGURE 2 6 2

ARTICULATED TWIN-BELLOWS ASSEMBLY

FIGURE 2.65

I
FIGURES

2.59-2.65

EXPANSION JOINTS & FLEXIBLEPIPING


EXPANSION JOINTS

Figures 2.63 thru 2.66 show methods of accommodating movement in piping due to temperature changes, if such movement cannot be taken up by:
1231

Inserted in lines immediately upstream ot sensitive equipment, strainers collect solid particles in the approximate size range 0.02-0.5 inch, which can be separated by passing the fluid bearmg them thru the strainer's screen. Typical locations for strainers are before a control valve, pump, turbine, or traps on steam systems. 20-mesh strainers are used for steam, water, and heavy for steam, air, other gasis, and light oils. or medium oils. 40mesh is su~table The commonest stralner is the illustrated wye type where the screen is cylinwithin. This type ot strainer is easily dismantdric and retains the part~cies led. Some strainerscan be fitted wlth a valve to facilitate blowmg out collected material without shutt~ngthe line down-see figure 6.9, tor example. Jacketed stramers are available. FLEXIBLE PIPING
2.9.2
SEPARATOR

FIGURE 2 6 7

For filling and emptylng railcars, tankers, etc., thru rig~d plpe, it 1s necessary to design artlculated pip~ng,using 'sw~veling' [ o m , or 'ball' io~nts (the latter is a 'universal' joint). Flexible hose has many uses espec~ally where there is a need tor temporaw connections, or where vibration or movement occurs. Chemical-resistant and/or armored hoses are available in regular or lacketed forms (see figure 6.39).

' DRIER STEAM

SEPARATORS, STRAINERS. SCREENS & DRIPLEGS

2.10
2.10.1

COLLECTING UNWANTED MATERIAL FROM THE FLOW

Devices are included in process and service lines to separate and collect undesirable solid or liquid material. Pipe scale, loose weld metal, unreacted or decomposed process material, precipitates, lubricants, oils. or water may harm either equipment or the process. Common forms of line-installed separator are illustrated in figures 2.67 and 2.68. Other more elaborate separators mentioned in 3.3.3 are available, but these tall more into the caregow o t process equipment, normally selected by the process engineer. Air and some other gases in liquid-bearing lines are normally self-collecting at piping high points and at the remote ends ot headers, and are vented by discharge valves - see 3.1.9. SEPARATORS
2.10.2

VREMOVED WATER
PIPED TO T R A P

STRAINER

FIGURE 2.68

These permanent devices are used t o collect droplets from a gaseous stream, tor example, to collect oil droplets trom compressed air, or condensate droplets from wet steam. Figure 2.67 shows a separator in which droplets in the stream collect in chevroned grooves i n the barr~er and drain to the small well. Collected liquid is discharged via a trap-see 3.1.9 and 6.10.7.

SCREENS

6.

ow..

Simple temporary strainers made from pertorated sheet metal andlor wlre mesh are used tor startup operations on the suctton s~de of pumps and comppressors, especially where there IS a long run of piping before the unlt that may contain weld spatter or material inadvertently left In the pipe. After startup, the screen usually IS removed
It may be necessary to arrange for a small removable spool to accommodate the screen. It IS Important that the flow In suction lines should not be restricted. Coneshaped screens are therefor preferred, w ~ t h cylindrc types as second choice Flat screens are better reserved for low-suction heads
SCREEN BETWEEN FLANGES FIGURE 2.69

BRANCH CONNECTIONS 'Reintorcement' is the addition of extra metal at a branch connection made from a pipe or vessel wall.The added metal compensates tor thestructural weakening due to the hole. Stub-ins may be reintorced with regular or-wraparound saddles, as shown In figure 2.71. Rings made from platestock are used to reintorce branches made with welded laterals and butt-welded connections to vessels. Small welded connections may be reinforced by adding extra weld metal to the pnt. Relntorclng pleces are usually provlded with a small hole to vent gases produced by welding; these gases would otherwise be trapped. A vent hole also serves to indicate any leakage trom the pint. STRAIGHT PIPE

USUAL DIRECTION OF F L O W THRU THE SCREEN

If a butt weld loining two sections at straight pipe is sublect to unusual external stress. it may be relntorced by the a d d i t m ot a 'sleeve' (formed trom two units, each resembling the lower member in figure 2.71 (b)). The code applicable to the piping should be consulted tor relntorcement requiiements. Backing rings are not considered to be reintorcements-see the tootnote to chart 2.1.
REINFORCING SADDLES

FIGURE 2.71

DRIPLEG CONSTRUCTION

FIGURE 2.70
,a) REGULAR SADDLE

VENT HOLE IIn raodle only)

Ib) WRAPAROUNDSAOOLE

BLOWOOWN CONNECTION

Often made from pipe and fittings, the drlpleg is an Inexpensive means of collecting condensate. Figure 2.70 shows a drtpleg fitted to a horizontal pipe. Removal of condensate trom steam lines IS discussed in 6.10. Recommended stzesfor drlplegsare given In table 6.10.

SECTION

ROO

. .,,..
-7.
SECTION

ORORIIPHCTE SLIDE PLATES

2. VARIABLE L O A D TYPE

Symbols for draftlng various types ot support are shown in chart 5.7. For destgntng support systems, see 6.2.
-

,, ,,,-.. .urru,z a u u a ~ m ~ r~uI Iairure L . I W . rlgure 728 : ' applii ot 'I lraph le p k itch i . !red t, Union Carbide Inc. The two plates used in a support are made from or faced with a material of low frict~onable to withstand mechan~cal stress and temperature changes. Plates are often made from graphite blocks. Steel plates with a teflon faclng are available and may be welded to steel.

-..--

PIPE SUPPORTS

2.12.1

Pipe supports shnuld be as simple as conditions allow. Stock items are used where practicable, especially tor piplng held trom above. To support piping trom below, supports are usually made to suit trom platestock, plpe, and pieces ot structural steel. A selection of available hardware tor supporting is illustrated in figures 2.72A and 8.
TERMS FOR SUPPORTS 2.12.2

Spring hangers or supports allow variations i n the length of plpe due t o changes In temperature, and are otten used tor vertical lines. Reter to 6.2.5 figure 6.16. There are two types of spring hanger or support:
'CONSTANT LOAD' HANGER This device consists ot a coil spring and

lever mechanism in a housing. Movement ot the piping, within limits, will not change the spring force holding up the piplng; thus, no additional torces will be introduced to the piping system. These devices Consist Of a coil spring in a houslng. The weight of the piping rests on the spring in compression. The spring permits a limited amount at thermal movement. A variable spring hanger holding up a vertical line will reduce its lifting force as the line expands toward it. A variable spring support would increase its lifting torce as the line expands toward it. Both placea load on the piping system. Where this is undesirable, a constant-load hanger can be used instead.
'VARIABLE SPRING' HANGER, and SUPPORT

SUPPORT The weight of piping is usually carried on supports made from

structural steel, or steel and concrete. (The term 'support' reterence to hangers.)

IS

also used In

HANGER Device which suspends piping (usually a smgle line) from structural steel, concrete or wood. Hangers are usually adiustable tor height. ANCHOR A rigid supportwhich preventstransmission ot movement (thermal, vibratory, etc.) along piping. Construction may be trom steel plate, brackets, flanges, rods, etc. Attachment ot an anchor to plpeshould preferably encircle the pipe and be welded all around as this gives a better distribution ot stress in the plpe wall. T I E An arrangement ot one or more rods, bars, etc., to restrain movement

HYDRAULIC DAMPENER, SHOCK, SNUBBER, o r SWAY SUPPRESSOR

One end of the unit is attached to piping and the other to structural steel or concrete. The unit expands or contracts to absorb slow movement of piping, but is rigid to rapid movement.
SWAY BRACE, or SWAY ARRESTOR, 1 s essentially a helical spring in a

ot piping.
DUMMY LEG An extension piece lot plpe or rolled steel section) welded to an elbow In order to support the line-see figure2.7ZA and table 6.3.

housing which is fined between piping and a rigid structure. Its function is t o buffer vibration and sway.

WELDING T O PIPE

2.12.3

The following hardware is used where mechanical andlor thermal movement is a problem:
GUIDE

A means ot allowing a plpe to move along i t s length, but not

If the applicable code permits, lugs may be welded t o pipe. Figure 2.72A illustrates some common arrangements using welded lugs, rolled steel sections and pipe, tor:(1) (2) Fixing hangers to structural steel, etc. Attaching to pipe (3) Supporting pipe Welding supports to prelined pipe will usually spoil the lining, and therefor lugs, etc., must be welded to pipe and fittmgs before the lining is applied. Welding ot supports and lugs to pipes and vessels to be stress-relievedshould be done before heat treatment.
1281

sideways.
SHOE A metal piece attached to the underside ot a pipe which rests on sup-

porting steel. Primarily used to reduce wear from sliding for lines subject to movement. Perm~ts insulation t o be applied to pipe.
SADDLE A welded attachment tor pipe requiring insulation, and subject

t o longitudinal or rolling movement tresulting trom temperature changes other than climatic). Saddles may be used wlth guldes as shown in 6.2.8.

VALVES
FUNCTIONS OF VALVES

3.1
3.1.1

(1)

The 'disc' and 'seat' that directly affect the flow The 'stem' that moves the disc does the work ot a stem

(2)
(3) Table 3.1 gives a basis tor classifyingvalvesaccording to function:

- in some valves, fluid under pressure

The 'body' and 'bonnet' that house the stem The 'operator' that moves the stem (or pressurizes fluid for squeeze valves, etc.)

(4)
TABLE 3.7

USES OF VALVES

Figures 3.1 thru 3.3 show three common types of valve w ~ t hthe~rparts labeled.

DISC, SEAT, & PORT

3.1.5,3.1.6 and3.1.10
CHECKING IN ONE DIRECTION SWITCHING FLOW ALONG DIFFERENT ROUTES DISCHARGING FLUID FROM ASYSTEM

SWITCHING

3.1.8 3.1.9

D'SCHARGING

I
3.32.

Chart 3.1 illustrates various types ot disc and port arrangements, and mechanisms used tor stopping or regulating flow. The moving part directly affecting the flow i s termed the 'disc' regardless of its shape, and the non-moving part it bears on is termed the 'seat'. The 'port' is the maximum internal opening tor flow (that IS. when the valve is tully open). Discs may be actuated by the conveyed fluid or be moved by a stem having a linear, rotary or helical movement. The stem can be moved manually or be driven hydraulically, pneumatically or electrically, under remote or automat~ccontrol, or mechanically by weighted lever, spring, etc. The size ot a valve IS determined by the size of its ends which connect t o the pipe, etc. The port size may be smaller.
STEM

Types ot valve suitable tor on/off and regulating functions are listed in chart 3.2. The suitability ot a valve tor a requ~redpurpose depends on its construction, discussed in 3.1.3.
PARTS OF VALVES

There are two categories of screwed stem: The rising stem shown in figures 3.1 and 3.2, and the non-rising stem shown in figure 3.3. Rising stem (gate and globe) valves are made either with 'inside screw' (IS) or 'outside screw' (0s). The OS type lias a yoke on the bonnet and the assembly is reterred to as 'outside screw and yoke', abbreviated to 'OS&Y' The handwheel can either rise with the stem, or the stem can rise thru the handwheel.

Valve manutacturers' catalogs offer a seemingly endless variety ot constructions. Classific3tion is possible, however, by considering the basic parts that make UP a valve:

OPERATED VALVES
GATE GLOBE ROTARY

SELF-OPERATED VALVES
!
I
-

DIAPHRAGM

CHECK

REGULATING

SOLID-WEDGE GATE

GLOBE

DIAPHRAGM LSAUNDERS TYPE)

SWING CHECK

PRESSURE REGULATOR

SPLIT.WEDGE GATE

ANGLE GLOBE

BUTTERFLY

PINCH
PRFSIURIZING FLUID

BALL CHECK

PISTON CHECK

63

SINGLE-DISC SINGLESEATGATE

NEEDLE

PLUG or COCK

TILTING DISC CHECK

STOPCHECK

Nor - - -? ster - I .es arr -' -58 gal- '--.Thr ~--'wtiee' -"-' stem "-" '" tne same position whether the valve is open or closed. The screw is lnslae the bonnet and in contact with the conveyed fluid.

00NNr7

There are three basic types ot attachment tor valve bonnets screwed Oncluding union), bolted, and breechlock. A screwed bonnet may occasionally stick and turn when a valve is opened. Although sticking is less a t a problem with the union type bonnet, valves with screwed bonnets are best reserved for services presenting no hazard to personnel. Union bonnets are more suitable for small valves requirin~ fiequent dismantling than the simple screwed type. The bolted bonnet has largely displaced screwed and union bonnet valves in hydrocarbon applications. A U-bolt or clamp-type bonnet is offered on some small gate valves tor moderate pressures, to tacilitate frequent cleaning and
inspection.

.1.2

A 'floor stan$ is a stern extension tor use with both types of stem, where it is necessary to operate a valve thru a floor or plattorm. Alternately, rods universal joints may be used to bring a valve handwheel within fitted an operator's reach.
Depending on the size ot the required valve and availabilities, selection 0t stem type can be based on: Whether i t is undesirable for the conveyed fluid to be in contact with the threaded bearing surtaces (2) Whether an exposed screw is liable to be damaged by abrasive spheric dust (3) Whether it i s necessary to see if the valve is open or closed
1 ,,,
~

The 'pressure seal' is a variation ot the bolted bonnet used for high-pressure valves, usually combined with OS&Y construction. I t makes use of line pressure to t i ~ h t e nend seal an internal metal ring or gasket against the body. The breechlock is a heavier infrequently-used and more expensive construction, also tor high-pressure use, and involves seal-welding ot the bonnet with the body
FIGURE 3.3

In addition to the preceding types of stem used with gate and globe valves, most other valves have a simple rotary stem. Rotan/-ball, plug and butterfly mlves have a rotaw stem which ismoved by a permanent lever,or tool applied to a square bossat'the end of the stem. FIGURE 3.1 GATE VALVE IOSEY. baled bonnet, ndng stem)
FIGURE 3 . 2

GLOBE VALVE (OS&Y. bolted bonnm, rising =om)

GATE VALVE

its. bolted bonnm. non-riring*em)

~~ I J ~ L K U E Y YIOIIY , stem Lare has to oe t a m in me s e i e ~ r i uu~ chol-- - - A appl,""-." ot l,.Lmy,t. ) - optlo"'8." bonn"'

.,

--

--', lncl..'-YzxYII,

'lantern ring' which serves two purposes - either to act as a collection point to dra~noff any hazardous seepages, or as a point where lubricant can be injected.
LANTERN RING

MANUAL OPERATORS HANDLEVER IS used to actuate the stems of small butterfly and rotaryball valves, and small cocks. Wrench operation is used tor cocks and small plug valves.
HANDLEVERS ON SMALL VALVES
WRENCH U5EO A 5 OPERATOR O N COCK WRENCH

COCK

--

BODY

..-.

Selection at material to tabricate the tnterlor of the valve body is important wlth a valve used tor process chem~cals.There is otten a choice with regard to the body and trim, and some valves may be obtained with the entire interior ot the body lined wlth corros~on-resistantmater~al. Valves are connected to pipe, fittings or vessels by their body ends, which may be flanged, screwed, butt- or socket-welding, or finished tor hose,Victaulic coupling, etc. Jacketed valves are also available-see 6.8.2.
SEAL

HANDWHEEL IS the most common means for rotating the stem on the

majority of popular smaller valves such as the gate, globe and diaphragm types. Additional operating torque tor gate and globe valves is offered by 'hammarblow' or 'impact' handwheels which may be subst~tutedfor normal handwheels if easter operation is needed but where gearing is unnecessary.

In most stem-operated valves, whether the stem has rotary or lineal movement, packing or seals are used between stem and bonnet (or body). If high vacuum or corrosive, flammable or toxic fluid 1 s to be handled, the disc or stem may be sealed by a metal bellows, or by a flexible diaphragm (the latter is termed 'packless' construction). A gasket i s used as a seal between a bolted bonnet and valve body.
BELLOWSSEAL VALVE 'PACKLESS VALVE

CHAIN operator i s used where a handwheel would be out at reach. Thestem

is fitted with a chainwheel or wrench (for lever-operated valves) and the loop ot the chain is brought within 3 ft ot working floor level. Universal-type chainwheels which attach to the regular handwheel have been blamed tor accidents: in corrosive atmospheres where an intrequentlvoperated valve has stuck, the attaching bolts have been known to tail. This problem does not arise with the chainwheel that replaces the regular valve handwheel.
GEAR operator is used to reduce the operating torque. For manual operation,

consists ot a handwheel-operated gear train actuating the valve stem. As a guide, gear operators should be considered for valves of the toilowing SIZE and classes: 125. 150, and 300, 14-inch and larger; 400 and 600. 8-inch and larger; 900 and 1500. 6-inch and larger; 2500.4-inch and larger.

~sar~ng-thw motnrc i r e commonly piston-and-cylinrlpr radial tvnes. (31 A ~~~uble-a vane ~ i sW ~~ L, g , limitcu ,~kary r n ~ ~ ~indo n ..dr t ~ctuat~,,~ the stem directly. (4) Squeeze type (reter to 'Squeeze valve'). QUICK-ACTING OPERATORS FOR NON-ROTARY VALVES IManually-operated valves) ~- . .
-. . -. -. -.

Ou~ck-act~ng operators -are used with gate and globe valves. Two stem movements are employed:(1)

(2)

Rotating stem, rotated by a lever Sliding stem, i n which the stem i s ra~sed and lowered-by lever

OUICK-ACTING LEVERS ON VALVES

POWERED OPERATORS Electric, pneumatic or hydraulic operation is used: (1) Where a valve 1 s remote from the main working area. (2) If the required frequency ot operation would need unreasonable human effort. (3) I f rap~dopening and/or closing ot a valve is required. ELECTRIC MOTOR The valve stem i s moved by the electric motor, thru reducing gears. SOLENOID may be used with fast-acting check valves, and wlth ontoff valves rn light-duty instrumentation applications. ELECTRIC MOTOR OPERATOR PNEUMATIC OPERATOR Steam and air whistles are examples of the use ot sliding-stem quick-acting operators with globe valves. SELECTING DNIDFF & REGULATING VALVES
3.1.3

The suitability of a valve for a particular service is decided by its materials of construction in relation t o the conveyed fluid as well as i t s mechanical design. Referring to the descriptions in 3.1.2, the steps in selection are t o choose: (1) Materialls) of construction. (2) The disc type. (3) Stem type. (4) Means ot operatrng the stem - the 'operator'. 15) Bonnet type. (6) Body ends welding, flanged, etc. (7)Delivery tlme. (8) Price. (9) Warranty ot performance tor severe condit~ons.
. .

Chart 3.2 is a guide to valve selection, and indicates valves which may be chosen tor a given service. The chart should be read trom left to right. First. ascertain whether a liquid, gas or powder is to be handled by the valve. Next. consider the nature ot the fluid-whether i t is toodstuffs or drugs to be handled hygienically, chemicals that are corrosive, or whether the fluld is substantially neutral or non-corrosive. Next consider the functron of the valve - simple open-or-closed operatron ('onloff'), or regulating for control or for dosing. These tactors decidedJhe chart will then indicate types of valves which should pertorm satistactorily in the required service. If the publication is available, reterence should also be made to the Crane Company's 'Choos~ng the right valve'

PNEUMATIC & HYDRAULIC OPERATORS may be used where flammable vapor 1 s likely to be present. They take the tollowing forms: (1) Cylinder with double-acting piston drrven by air, water, oil, or other liquid which usually actuates the stem directly. (2) Air motor which actuates the stem thru

KEY;

LVE:

TION

CHART 3 . 2
GATE ROTARY BALL
ON~OFF

NONE

L%RAGM

NONE
NONE I F O ~oil: N O nmme X U D ~ C I NONE NONE

( 1 ) Determine type of conveyed fluid-liqu~d, gas slurry, or


powder

WEUIRAL WATER. OIL. E l d

BUTTERFLY PLUGGiiiE

(2) Determine nature of fluid:


Substant~ally neutral-not noticeably-acid or alkaline, such as various oils, drinking water, nitrogen, gas, ar,etc. a Corrosive-markedly acid, alkaline, or otherw~se chemically reactlve 'Hygienic'-rnaterjals for the food, drug, cosmetlc or e other tndustrtes Sijrry-s~s~ension or solid par[ cles in a K q i d csn ha,e an abrasive eiiccl on valves. etc. Non-abrasve s J r r m uriles can cnoke vave mcchaolsms s.cn 35 ~ v o o d - p ~si o (3) Determine operatlo":
8

CORROSIVE
IALXALINE. ACID. ElC.1

'On/off'-fully open or fully closed Regulatmg-tncluding close reguiatton {throttling) Pressure and temoerature of conveved fluid Method ot operating stem-consider closmg tune Cost Availability Spectal installat6on problems-such as welding valves Into lines. Welding heat will sometmes distort the body and affect the sealing of small valves.

(4) Look lnto other factors affectmg cholce:


o e a
SLURRY

BUmERFLI

LllAPHRAGM

ABRASION RESIST. DISC. RESILENT SEAT

LINED.

SINGLE SEAT. NOTCHED D1SC FIBROUS SUSPENSIONS

REGULATING

SOUEEZE

GLOBE NEUIRAL # M R . STEAM. E l d

I C o m .. l ,m

O,%l.lPb*,~.

0-1

NONE. IUnYliubte ilxncrm - m i GLOBE NEEDLE

NONE, ISrnail flnm only1


SlNGLE SEAT

SINGLE SEAT ICENTRALSEATI

VALVES MAIN1 Y FOR ONlOFF SELIVIPE

714

In ~ndustrial piping, onloff control ot flow i s most commonly effected with gate valves. Most types of gate valve are unsuitable tor regulatlng: erosion ot the seat and disc occurs in the throttling position due to vibration ot the disc ("chattering"). With some fluids, ~t may be desirable to use globevalves for onloff service, as they offer tighter closure. However, as the principal function of globe valves is regulation, they are described in 3.1.5.

SlhlGLE-nlSC PAR41 I ELSE4TS GATF V4LVE llnl~kethe slnnleseer w1t11 t e wvv in e9tsav~ Jirect~m.~rresseb >ltue valbc. WIS valv, .h80rds b k u ~ ~ on stem and bonnet are lower than w ~ t h wedge-gate valves Primarily used for liquid hydrocarbons and gases.
SINGLE-DISC PARALLELSEATS GATE VALVE

PLUG GATE VALVE

SOLID WEDGE GATE VALVE has either a solid or flexible wedge disc. In addition to onloff servlce, these valves can be used tor regulatlng, usually in sizes 6-inch and larger, but will chatter unless disc is tully guided throughout travel. Suitable for most fluids including steam, water, oil, alr and gas. The flexible wedge was developed to overcome sticking on cooling in hightemperature service, and to minimize operating torque. The flexible wedge is not illustrated-it can be likened to two wheels set on a very short axle.
SOLID WEDGE GATE VALVE

PLUG GATE VALVE This valve has a round tapered disc which moves up and down. Suitable tor throttling and tull-flow use, but only available in the smaller slzes. PLUG VALVE Mechanm IS shown in chart 3.1, but the disc may be cylindilc as well as tapered. Advantages are compactness, and rotary 90-degree stem movement. The tapered plug tends to jam and requires a high operating torque: this is overcome t o some extent by the use ot a lowtriction iteflon, etc.) seat, or by lubr~cation1 ~ 1 t the h drawback that the conveyed fluid is contaminated). The friction problem 1 s also met by mechanlsms raising the disc tram the seat before rotatlng it, or by using the 'eccentric' design !see rotary-ball valve). Principal uses are for water, oils, slurries, and gases. DOUBLE-DISC PARALLELSEATS GATE VALVE has two parallel discs wh~ch are torced, on closure, against parallel seats by a 'spreader' Used for liquids and gases at normal temperatures. Unsuitable tor regulation. To prevent lamming, ~nstallatlonis usually vertical wlth handwheel up. DOUBLE-DISC (SPLIT-WEDGEIWEDGEGATE VALVE Discs Wedge against inclined seats wlthout use of a spreader. Remarks tor double-disc parallel seats gate valve apply, but smaller valves are made for steam service. Often. construction allows the discs to rotate, distributing wear. SINGLE-DISC SINGLE-SEAT GATE VALVE, or SLIDE VALVE, i s used tor handling paper pulp slurry and other fibrous suspensions, and for lowpressure gases. Will not function properly with inflow on the seat side. Suitable tor regulating flow i f tight closure is not required. LINE-BLIND VALVE This isa positlve shutoff devicewhich basically consists of a flanged assembly sandwiching a spectacle-plate or blind. This valve is described and compared wlth other closures in 2.7.1. VALVES MAINLY FOR REGULATING SERVICE
3.1.5

GLOBE VALVE, STRAIGHT & ANGLE TYPE These are the valves most used tor regulatlng. For line sizes over Binch, choice ot a valve tor flow control tends to go to suitable gate or butterfly valves. For more setisiactory service, the directlon of flow thru valve recommended by manufacturers is trom stem to seat, to assist closure and to prevent the disc chattering against the seat in the throttling position. Flow should be trom seat to stemside (1) if there is a hazard presented by the disc detaching tram the stem thus closing the valve, or (2) i f a composition disc is used, as this direction of flow then gives less wear.

ANGLE V A L V t

I nls is a glooe valve wliil uuuy msuh O E $#gist miye>, ~ V U I -' - 'ping; - -"en su' ' - - , the I.-- - 'a gO.A----? elbc. "3weve- 'hto higher stresses than straight runs, which must be cons~dered with t h ~ s type ot valve.

V n L I L .", *"" jds ar es R x e tc " is p f cor d by tively large seat area and the ad~ustmentafforded by fine threading ot the stem. l Y L L " L L
I2 Y =lli"li.iYi"r
YILY

I.Y..

,,L,

". ".." .". ....

GLOBEVALVES

NEEDLE VALVE

REGULAR-DISC GLOBE VALVE Unsuitable for close regulation as disc and seat have narrow (almost line) contact. PLUG.TYPE DISC GLOBE VALVE Used tor severe regulating service with

SQUEEZE V A L V E is well-suited to regulating the flow of difficult liqu~ds,

gritty liquids, such as boiler teedwater, and for blowoff service. Lesssubject to wear under close regulation than the regularseared valve.
wYE-BODY GLOBE VALVE has in-line pons and stem emerging at about

slurr~es and powders. Maximum closure is about 80%. which lim~ts the range ot regulation, unless the variation of t h ~ stype of valve with a central core (seat) is used, offering tull.closure.
PINCH VALVE Also suited to regulating flow of difficult liquids, slurries and

45 degrees; hence the 'Y'


pattern.

Preferred for erosive fluids due to smoother flow

powders. Complete closure i s possible but tends to rapidly wear the flexible tube, unless ot special des~gn.
VALVES FOR BOTH REGULATING & ONlOFF SERVICE 3.1.6

WYE.SODY GLOBE VALVE Ilnsorporsting composition disc1

ROTARY-BALL VALVE Advantages are low operating torque, availability in large sizes, compactness, rotary %.degree stem movement, and 'in-line' replaceability ot all wearing parts in some designs. Possible disadvantages are that fluid is trapped within the body (and within the disc on closure), and that compensation for wear is effected only by resilient material behind the s avoided in the singleseat 'eccentric' verslon, which seats: the latter problem 1 has the ball slightly offset so that it presses into the seat, on closure. Principal uses are for water, oils, slurries, gasesand vacuum. Valve is available with a ball having a shaped port tor regulation. ROTARY-BALL VALVE

Suitable tor coarse regulation and tight shutoff. Replaceable composition-disc construction is similar to that of a faucet. Grit will imbed in the soft disc preventmg seat damage and ensuring good closure. Close regulating will rapidly damage the seat.
COMPOSITION-DISC GLOBE VALVE DOUBLE-DISC GLOBE VALVE teatures two discs bearing on separate seats spaced apart on a single shatt, which trees the operator trom stresses set up by the conveyed fluid pressing into the valve. Prmclple is used on control valves and pressure regulators tor steam and other gases. Tight shutoff i s not ensured.
1361

BUTTERFLY VALVE dffers the advantaws ot rotary stem movement ($0 deg -r less,, pact ,.-..,. m d a, " , . , . , ot @ ,ng. -vailaL.+

.,""

all sizes, and can be produced in chemcal-resistant and hygienic forms. The valves are used tor gases, liquids, slurries, powders and vacuum. The usual resilient plastic seat has a temperature limitation, but tight closure at high temperatures is available with a version having a metal ring seal around the disc. If the valve is flanged, rt may be held between flanges ot any type. Slip-on and screwed flanges do not torm a proper seal with some wafer forms ot the valve, In which the resilient seat a extended to serve also as line gaskets.
BUlTERFLY VALVE

,, .

.; .

..-

flow velocit~esand lower-pressure drop with small velocities tnan a compar--.e sw ack b. ... May . ....s t a l k ically ...... flow -,. ,rd, c . hornontally. Disc movement can be controlled by an integral dashpot or snubber.
LIFT-CHECK VALVE resembles the piston-check valve. The disc e guided, but the dashpot teature is absent. Springloaded types can operate at any orientation, but unsprung valves have to be arranged so that the disc will close by gravity. Composit~on-discvalves are available tor gritty liqurds. PISTON-CHECK VALVE Surtable where trequent change ot direction of

1-11

flow occurs as these valves are much less subiect to pounding with pulsatrng flow due to the integral dash-pot. Sprrng-loaded types can operate at any onentatlon. Unsprung valves have t o be orientated tor gravity closure. Not suitable for grrtty liquids.
STOP CHECK VALVE

PIST0N.CHECK VALVE

VALVES FOR CHECKING BACKFLOW

3.1.7

All valves in this category are designed to permit flow of liquid or gas in one direction and close if flow reverses.
SWING CHECK VALVE The regular swing check valve is not suitable if there

is frequent flow reversal as pounding and wearing ot disc occurs. For gritty liquids a composition disc 1 s advisable to reduce damage to the seat. May be mounted vertically with flow upward, or horizontally. Vertically-mounted valve has a tendency to remain open if the stream velocity changes slowly. An optional lever and outside werght may be offered either to assist closing or to counterbalance the disc in part, and allow opening by low-pressure fluid.
SWING CHECK VALVES

STOP.CHECK VALVE

Principal example ot use is in steam generation by multiple boilers, where a valve is inserted between each boiler and the main steam header. Basically, acheck valve that optionally can be kept closed automatrcally or manually.

BALL-CHECK VALVE IS suitable for most services. The valve can handle gases, vapors and liquids, including those torming gummy deposits. The ball seats by gravity and/or back pressure, and is iree to rotate, which distributes wear and aids in keeping contacting surtaeesclean. WAFER CHECK VALVE effects C ~ O S U by ~ two ~ ~ e m l c i r ~ ~'doors', lar both

hinged to a central post in a ring-shaped body which i s installed between flanges. Frequently used tor nowfouling liquids, as it IS compact and ot relatively low cost. A single disc type i s also available.
TILTING-DISC VALVE Suitable where trequent flow reversal occurs. Valve

closes rapidly with better closure and less slamming than the swing check valve, which it somewhat resembles. It has higher pressure drop with large
1371

FOOT VALVE Typical use is to maintar a head ot water on the suction side ot a sump pump. The valve is basically a lift-check valve wrth a stralner integrated.

VALVES FOR SWITCHING FLOW

3 . : .8

MULTIPORT VALVE Used largely on hydraulic and pneumatic control cir-

cuits and sometimes used directly i n process pipmg, thesevalves have rotaryball or plug-type discs with one or more ports arranged to switch flow.
DIVERTING VALVE TWOtypes of 'divert~ng'valve are made. Both switch flow trom a line Into one ot two outlets. One type is of wye pattern with a hinged disc at the lunctlon which closes one ot the two outlets, and IS used to handle powders and other solids. The second type handles liqu~d only, and s switched by two pneumatic control lines. It is has no movmg parts-flow 1 available in s m to Ginch. VALVES FOR DISCHARGING 3.1.9

ems and act as vacuum breakers or breather valves. 13) To control liquid level in tanks. They are not mended to remove condensate.
BALL FLOAT VALVE [For fir% ure above1
FROM DRIPLEG

BALL FLOAT VALVE 1 hese automatic valves are ussu. I wb .nave .. . iron . iymer . ! To .e alr liqui

I,

BLOWDFF VALVE

These valves allow removal of fluld trom wlthin a piping system elther to atmosphere, to a drain, or to another plplng system or vessel at a lower pressure. Operation IS otten automatic. Reliet and safety valves, steam traps, and rupture discs are included in this section. Pressurerelieving valves are usually spring loaded, as those worked by lever and we~ghtcan be easily rendered Inoperatwe by personnel. The first three valves are operated by system pressure, and are usually mounted directly onto the plplng or vessel to be protected, in a vert~cal,upright position. Reter to the governing code tor the applicatbon ot these valves, including the need tor an external lifting device (handlever, etc.).
__0__

WATER RELEASED

BLOWOFF VALVE

A varlety of globe valve contorming with boiler code

requirements and espec~allydes~gned for boiler blowoff service. Sometlines

sultable also tor blowdown servlce. Wyepettern and angle types often used. Used to remove alr and other gases from bollerr, etc Manually-operated. Usually a globe type, designed to mmrmlze pocketmg, prlmarity tor conveniently discharg~ng liqu~d trom the low polnt of a tank.
FLUSH-BOTTOM TANK VALVE
FLUSH.BOTTOM TANK VALVE (GLOBE TYPE1

SAFETY VALVE

A rapid-openmg (popping action) tull-flow valve for air

and other gases.


RELIEF VALVE Intended to relieve excess pressure in liquids, in swations where tull-flow discharge is not required, when release of a small volume of liquid would rapidly lower pressure. Mountmg is shown In figure 6.4.
SAFETY VALVE RELIEF VALVE

EXTERNAL V i E W

SECTIONAL V I E W

RUPTURE DISC Asafeiydevicedeslgned to burst at a cenam excess pressure and rapidly discharge gas or liquid trom a system. Usually made rn the torin of a replaceable metal disc held between flanges. Disc may also be of graphlte or, for lowest bursting pressures, plastic film. SAMPLING VALVE A valve, usually ot needle or globe pattern, placed in a branch line tor the purpose ot drawmg off samples ot process mater~al thru the branch. Sampling trom very high pressure lines IS best done thru a double valved collecting vessel. A cooling arrangement may be needed tor sampling trom high-temperaturelines.
C381

SAFETY-RELIEF VALVE Relieves excess pressure of e~ther gas or liqu~d which may suddenly develop a vapor phase due to rap~d and uncontrolled heatlng trom chem~cal reaction in liquid-laden vessels. Reter to figure 6.4.

FL~D SIALVL:

nOn.r"+..r- valvr h-.,lng a

h;--4

di--

rubb-. PUMPS DRIVERS 3.2.1

leatner ilap, use0 ror lowpressure ilnes.


HEADER VALVE A n lsolat~ngvalve installed in a branch where 11ioms

a header.
HOSE VALVE A gate or globe valve havmg one ot 11s ends externally threaded to one ot the hose thread standards in use in the USA. These valves are used tor vehicular and firewater connections. ISOLATING VALVE An onloff valve ~solatinga piece ot equipment or a process trom piping. KNIFE-EDGE VALVE A single-disc single-seat gate valve (slide gate) with a knifeedged disc. MIXING VALVE regulates the propoit~onsot two infiows to-produce a controlled outflow.

Electric motors are the most trequently used drivers. Larger pumps may be driven by steam-, gas-, or diesel-engines, or b y turbines.

'HEADS IPRESSURESI IN PUMP PIPING

FIGURE 3.5

NON-RETURN VALVE Any type ot stopcheck valve-see 3.1.7.

PAPER-STOCK VALVE A s~ngle-disc single-seat gate valve (slide gate) w ~ t h

knifeedged or notched disc used to regulate flow ot paper slurry or other fibrous slurry.
PRIMARY VALVE

See 'Root valve', this sectlon. Any valve used to adiust flow.

REGULATING VALVE

ROOT VALVE ( 1 ) ~ V a ~ used v e to Isolate a pressure element or instrument

from a line or vessel. (2) A valve placed at the beginnmg ot a branch trom a header. SAMPLING VALVE Small valve prov~ded for draw~ng off fluid. See 3.1.9.
SHUTOFF VALVE An onloff valve placed in lines to or trom equipment.

CENTERLINE OF PUMP

tor the purpose ot stoppmg and startlng flow. SLURRY VALVE A knife-edge valve used to control flow ot nowabrasive slurries. SPIRAL-SOCK VALVE A valve used to control flow ot powders by means ot a tw~stable fabr~c tube or sock.
STOP VALVE A n onioff valve, usually a globe valve. THROTTLING VALVE

NOTES
Thetotal heud, H . which m a n be provided by the pump m Vle airsngementrhown. 0s:-

H = hd-h, = H,,

Vild

hl,l

Wd-P.l

Any valve used to closely regulate flow In the

iust-open posltlon.
VACUUM BREAKER A special self-actlng valve, or any valve su~tabletor

Heads may bc cipicned either ail in ohroiuie unm ai ail in guge u n W but not in mlxed unlu.The vsrious heud terms in this equmon are. with rclerence la the illurlraf~on:hd h ,

= tom1 diwhaqe head = total suction head

vacuum service, operated manually or automat~cally, lnstalled to a d m ~ t gas (usually atmospher~ca ~ r )Into a vacuum or low-pressure space. Such valves are lnstalled on high polnts ot p w n g or vessels to permlt dra~nlng, and sometimes to prevent siphon~ng.
UNLOAOING VALVE See 3.2.2, under 'Unloading', and figure 6.23. OulCK-ACTING VALVE Any onloff valve rapidly operable, e~ther by man-

H,, = naoc head ldiffcmniiull = D - S hfd = f r i c i m head lorr ,n di~chvrgr pqmg. m l v d i n g cmr l o a iasliquid diwhrrgcr mioucuei. e t d end 1 0 s at mcrearer l w i e d at pump outlet'
hlr

= l i i m o n head 101sm .ilction piping. miuding enmanee lo- is liquid cnrsri line from hrrdcr.
eic.1 md l o n rr reducer locrtcd ar pump inlet' = prenurc head shove liquid iwel in dichanje vessel or hcrdcr = pressure head above liquid l w e l in lvcllon headcr or vcrwl

P , P ,

ual lever, spring, or by plston, solenoid or lever with heat-fusible link releasing valves are desirable a we~ghtwhich in talling operates the valve. Quick-act~ng in linesconveylngflammable liquids. Unsu~table tor water or tor liqu~d service In general wlthout a cushionmg devlce (hydraulic accumulator, 'pulsat~onpot' or 'standp~pe') to protect plping trom shock. See 3.1.2, under 'Quick-acting operators tor non-rotary valves'.

NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD INPSHI 'NPSH' i s dclinsd by:5- h , +P,-Pw.whcrc , P , = vrpoi prcrivrc a1 liquid at lempcmrurc of liquid ai rucf8an header. ctc. Vapor Drairurel are givcn in rbralvle vnltr

.Table F.10 gwcr cnlirnce loo, ex,, 10s.flow rertrtance of redvcerr and rwrgcr. an equwlenl lenglhl of prpc.

eic.,~xprened

TYPES O F PUMP

VELOCITY HEAD

A pump is a device tor moving a fluid trom one place to another thru plpes or channels. Chart 3.3, a selection gu~detor pumps, puts various types ot pump used industrially into five catagorles, based on operating princ~ple.I n common reterence, the terms centrifugal, rotary, screw, and reclprocatlng are used. Chart 3.3 is not comprehensw pumps utilizmg other princ~ples are in use. Abour n ~ n e out of ten pumps used m ~ndustryare of the centrlfuyal type.

Usually the liquid being pumped is stationary betore entermg the suction piping, and some power 1 s absorbed i n accelerating it t o the suction line velocity. This causes a small 'velocity head' loss (usually about 1 i t ) and may be tound trom table 3.2, which is applicable to liquid ot any density, if the velocity head is read as feet ot the liquid concerned.
VELOCITY & VELOCITY HEAD

The tollow~nginformation IS glven to enable an estmate to be made of required total head, pump size, capacity, and horsepower tor plannmg purposes. Data in the Guide permlt estmating pump requirements for water
systems.
PUMP 'TOTAL HEAD'

TABLE 3.2

A pump imparts energy to the pumped liqu~d. This energy is able to raise the
liquid to a height, or 'head'. The 'total head' ot a pump (in f t l IS the energy (in ft-lbl imparted by the pump to each pound ot liquid. I n piped systems. part of the total head is used to overcome trlction in the plplng, which'results in a pressure drop (or 'headloss'). For a centrifugal pump, the same total head can be lmparted to all liqulds ot comparable viscosity, and is Independent ot the liquld's density: the requlred driving power increases wlth density. Figure 3.3 relates the total head provided by the pump to the headlosses in the pumped system.
PRESSURE & 'HEAD'

Flow rate. liquid velocity and cross-sectional area (at right angles t o flow) are related by the formulas: Flow rate in cubic teet per second Flow rate in US gallons per minute where:

=
=

( v )( a Il(144)

I l l
FIGURE

i3.1169)( v )( a 1

v = liquid velocity in teet per second = cross-sectional area in square inches (table P-1)

POWER CALCULATIONS

In US customary unlts, pressure i p 1 In PSI is related to head ( h ) in tt p IPS11 = (d)(hIll1441 = (S.G.I(h)112.311, where d is liquid density In lblft! and S.G. is specific gravity. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is equal to 14.7 PSIA, the pressure generated by a 3441 height ot water.

If S.G. = specific gravlty of the pumped liqutd. H = total head in teet ot the pumped liquld, andp = pressure drop in PSI, then: Hydraulic horsepower = (GPM)(HI(S.G.I - (GPM)(p) 3960 1714

1 s the L...'-l~I~C h^."" 3t a r.8,IS def Th- ---hanic-I "f+ienc. power (power transferred to tne pumped tiquid) divided by the make horsepower (power applied t o the driv~ng shatt ot the pump)

If-the pump is driven by an electric motor which has a mechanical efficiency em, the electrtcity demand is:

RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR Air O r other gas is pressurized in cylinders by reciprocating prstons. I f the compressor is lubricated, the outflow may be contaminated by oil. If en oil-tree outflow is required, the pistons may be fitted with graphite or teflon piston rings. Flow is pulsating. ROTARY SCREW COMPRESSOR Air or other gas enters pockets tormed between mating rotors and a castng wall. The pockets rotate away from the inlet, taking the gas toward the discharge end. The rotors do not touch each other or the casing wall. Outflow is uncontaminated in the 'dry type' ot machine, in which power is applied to both rotors thru external timing gears. In the 'wet type', power is applied to one rotor, and both rotors ere separated by an oil film, which contaminates the discharge. Flow is uniform. ROTARY VANE COMPRESSOR resembles the rotary vane pump shown in chart 3.3. Variation in the volume enclosed by adjacent vanes as they rotate produces compression. Ample lubrication is required, which may introduce contamtnation. Flow is uniform. ROTARY LOBE COMPRESSOR consists 01 two synchronized lobed rotors turning within a casing, In the same way as the pump shown tn chart 3.3 (under 'spurgear' type). The rotors do not touch each other or the casing. No lubrication is used within the casing,and the outflow is not contaminated. Flow i s uniform. This machine is often reterred to as a 'blowei'. D~NAMIC COMPRESsoRS resemble gas turbines acting In reverse. Both axtal-flow machines and centrifugal machines (with radial flow) are available. Centrifugal compressors commonly have either one or two stages. Axial compressors have at least two stages, but seldom more then 16 stages. The outflow is not contaminated. Flow is uniform.

Often, estimates of brake horsepower, electricity demand, etc., must be made without proper knowledge ot the efficiencies.To obtain estimates, the mechanical effic~encyot a centrifugal pump may be assumed to be 60% and that ot an electric motor 80%.
COMPRESSORS, BLOWERS & FANS
REFERENCES

3.2.2

'Compressed air and gas data'. Editor Gibbs C.W. (lngersoll-Rand) 'Air receivers'. Section 1910.169 ot the Code ot Federal Regulations: CFR Occupat~onal Satety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Compressors are used to supply .high-pressure air tor plant use, to pressurize retrigerant vapors tor cooling systems, to liquefy gases, etc. They are rated by their maximum output pressure and the number ot cubic feet per minute ot a gas handled at a specified speed or power, stated at 'standard conditions', 60 F and 14.7 PSlA (not at compressed volume). 60 F is accepted asstandard temperature by the gas industry. The term 'compressor' is usually reserved tor machines developing high pressures in closed systems, and the terms 'blower' end 'fan' for machines working at low pressures in open-ended systems.
COMPRESSOR P R E S S U R E R A N G E S T A B L E 3.3

COMPRESSOR

15 thru 20,000 PSIG, and higher 1 thru 15PSlG Up to 1 PSIG labout30in. water)

This type at compressor consists ot a single multi-bladed rotor which turns within a casing ot approximately elliptic cross section. A controlled volume ot liquid in the casing ts thrown to the casing wall with rotation ot the vanes. This liquid serves both to compress and to seal. Inlet and outlet ports located in the hub communicate with the pockets formed between the vanes end the liquid ring. These compressors have special advantages: wet gases and liquid carryover including hydrocarbonswhich are troublesome with other compressors are easily handled. Additional cooling is seldom required. Condensible vapor can be recovered by using liquid similar to that in the rlng. Flow IS uniform.
LIQUID EQUIPMENT FOR COMPRESSORS INTERCOOLER A heat exchanger used tor cooling compressed gas between stages. Air must not be cooled below the dew point (at the higher pressure) as moisture will tnterfere with lubrtcatton and cause wear in the next stage. AFTERCOOLER A heat exchanger used tor cooling gas after compression is

RING COMPRESSOR

-.

COMPRESSING I N STAGES

Gases (including air) can be compressed in one or more operations termed 'stages'. Each stage can handle a practicable increase in pressure-betore temperature increase due to the compression necessitates cooling the gas. Cooling between stages a effected by passtng the gas thru an intercooler. Staging permits high pressures, and lower discharge temperatures, with reduced stresses on the compressor.

completed. If air is being compressed, chilling permits removal ot much ot the moisture.
DAMPENER or SNUBBER; VOLUME BOTTLE or SURGE DRUM Recip-

rocating compressors create pulsations in the air or gas which may cause the

I~scharns aodlor ?llrteon plplnn to resonnti. and dmmne the rnmnressor or H damp~w, or Srwu~e,. IS a udvwd vesei wiiich S I ~ I U U ~ ~ I SDUIao. ~ t valve:, s tions in flow. A volume bottle or surge drum has thesame purpose, but lacks baffles These devices are not normally part ot the compressor package, and are otten bought separately h t h the compressor maker's recommendations). Large compressors may require an arrangement of 'choke tubes' irestrictions) and 'bottles' (vessels), contormrng to a theoretrcal design and located near the compressor's outlet, upstream ot the attercooler. The locatlon of the tollow~ng tour rtems at equipment rsshown rn figure 6.23: SEPARATOR lnormally used only wlth alr compressors) A water separator is otten prov~ded tollow~ng the attercooler, and, sometrmes, also at the rntake to a compressor havmg a long suctlon line, if water 1 s likely to collect in the line. Each separator IS provided with a dram to allow continuous removal ot water. RECEIVER Refer to 'Discharge (supply) lines' and 'Stor~ngcompressed air', this sectlon. SILENCER IS used to suppress obiectionable sound which may radiate from an air intake. FILTER IS provided in the suctlon line to an alr compressor to collect particulate matter.
The following informat~on isg~ven as a guide for engineering purposes

COMPRESSOR CHARACTERISTICS

COMPRESSIIRNPE

- INFLOW : i : [ & INANT E


MAXIMUM

TALIL~ 1 . 9

(PSIGI

CONTAM IN OUTPUT

ICFMIHPI

ECONOMICRANGE IInIlor, CFMI

DATA FOR 100 PSI0 OUTFLOW

Lubicated Nnn-lt~hncated

35,000 700 4.000 90 125

1 OIL 1 NONE
NONE NONE OIL

4ta7 4 4% 4

1 10,000
500 to 110.000 5.000 to 13,000.000 150 to 6,000

DYNAMIC Centrifugal Axial ROTARYVANE ROTARY LOBE ROTARY SCREW


-ON-LUBEDILUBED

1
I

30 125 75'

/ /1

NONE NONE/ OIL

/ 1 I

1
4

50,000 3 0 t o 150
20 to 5,000

LlOUlO RING

WATER 1.6 to 2.2 or other

1
1
6

TABLE 3.5

LINE SIZES FOR AIR SUCTION & DISTRIBUTION SUCTION LINE Suction lines and manifolds should be large enough to prevent excessive noise and starvation of the alr supply. If the first compression stage is remprocatlng, the suctlon line should allow a 10 to 23 tilsec flow: if a smgle-stage reclprocatlng compressor is used, the intake flow should not be taster than 20 ftisec. Dynamic compressors can operate wrth iaster intake velocities, but 40 ttlsec is suggested as a maximum. The mlet reducer tor a dynamrc compressor should be placed close to the inlet nozzle.
DISCHARGE (SUPPLY) LINES are sized for 150 to 175% ot average flow. depending on the number ot outlets m use at any tme. The pressure loss in a branch should be limited to 3 PSI. The pressure drop in a hose should not exceed 5 PSI. The pressure drop in distribution piplng, trom the compressor to the most remote part ot thesystem, should not be greater than 5 PSI (not including hoses). These suggested pressure drops may be used to select line sizes w ~ t h the aid of table 3.5. From the requlred SCFM flow in the line to be wed, find the next higher flow i n the table. Mult~ply theallowed pressure drop (PSI) i n the line by 100 and divide by the length ot the line in teet to obtam the PSI drop per 100 it-find the next lower figure to this in the table, and read required line slze. Equipment drawmg alr at a high rate tor a short perlod is best served by a recekver close to the polnt ot maximum use-lines can then be srzed on average demand. A minlmum receiver size ot double the SCF used in intermlttent demand should lim~r the pressure drop at the end ot the perrod of use to about 20% in the worst Instances and keep it under 10% in most others.

FREE AIR INFLOW

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE IINCHES) -SCHEDULE 40

PI^
4

ISCFM) 40 70 90 100 400 700 900 1.000 4,000 7,000 9.000 10,000 40,000

% 1.24 3.77 6.00 7.53

1 1 % 0.37 1.05 0.12 1.69 0.18 2.09 0.24 3.59 32.2 10.8 17.9 22.0

Preiwre drop smaller rhan


PSlpei 100 fr than a I

0.98 2.92 4.78 5.90

0.41 1.14 1.97 2.43

0.13 ' 0.38 0.62 0.76 11.9

P m w e drop larger rhan 35PSl per I00 / I

0.10 0.15 0.19 2.90 0.35 8.77 1.06 14.6 1.75 16.0 2.13 33.8

POWER CONSUMPTION The power consumption ot the different compressor types is characteristic. Table 3.4 gives the horsepower needed at an output pressure ot 100 PSIG. Power consumptlon per CFM rlses with rising output pressure. Air cooling adds 3.5% to power consumption (including fan drive). 'FAD' power consumptcon figures tor compressors ot 'average' power consumption are glven. 'FAD' denotes 'free air delivered corresponding to standard cubic t t per rn~nute(SCFM) or liters per minute measured as set out in ASME PTC9. BS 1571 or DIN 1945.'

~~GZES
i3.3-3.5
-

SEPARATION

-.-."

jn'i-. 7 '

--

Process equipment IS a term used t o cover the many types ot equipment used to pertorm one or more o t these basic operations on the process material:
11)
CHEMICAL REACTION

Equ~pment tor separation IS even more vaned. Equipment separatlng solids on the basis o t partlcle size or specific gravlty alone are m general termed classifiers. The broader range o t separation equipment separates phases (solid, liquid, gas) and some o t the types used are listed i n the table below:
SEPARATION EQUIPMENT
TABLE

Id 1 3.5

I21
13)

MIXING
SEPARATION

3.8

(4)

CHANGE OF PARTICLE SIZE


HEAT TRANSFER
EQUIPMENT

ElAlNEO ATERIAL

I51

S+L L l l t + L121 S+G L+G L+G L111' 1121


S+L
S
None

OUTFLOW MATERIAL

Equipment manufacturers give all Intormanon necessary tor ~nstallationand pwngThis section 1 s a quick reterence to the function o t some Items 01 equipment used in processwork. I n table 3.7, the tunction o t the equipment IS expressed in terms ot the phase (solid, liquid or gas) o t the process materials mixed. Examples: 11) A blender can mlx t w o powders, and itstunction IS tabulated S i S '( 2 ) A n agitator can be used t o stir a liquid into another Iiqurd-this as " tunction is tabulated "LiL" Another large and varied group ot equipment achieves separations, and a similar method o t tabulating tunction is used i n table 3.R.

CENTRIFUGE CONTINUOUS CENTRIFUGE


CYCLONE

Lllt. L12t.f
G.Sf

None
L L

DEAERATOR

DEFOAMER DISTILLATION COLUMN


DRYER

LIII

Liz1 '
L.

ORY SCREEN EVAPORATOR FILTER PRESS FLOTATION TANK FRACTIONATION COLUMN SCRUBBER SETTLING TANK
STRIPPER
seonrate 110-I

Stlt +Sl2i L+S L i l t + LIZ1 S+L


SCL

L i t ) + LIZ1 + L13l + etc.

S11) L+S Li11 S s None


S

Sl2t L' Liz1 ' L L Li11. L121. Li31, e8c.t


G
L

S+G
S+ L

Chemical reactions are carried out i n a widevariety of specialized equipment. termed reactors, autoclaves, turnaces, etc. Reactions involving liquids, suspensions, and sometimes gases, are otten performed in 'reaction vessels'.The vessel and its contents trequently have to be heated or cooled, and piplng t o a lackei or internal system ot coils has t o be arranged. I f reaction takes place under pressure, the vessel may need t o comply wrth the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Reter also t o 6.5.1, under 'Pressure vessels', and t o the standards listed i n table 7.10. MIXING
3.3.2

5
Lill

L i l t + LIZ1

LIZ1

CHANGE OF PARTICLE S I Z E

3.3.4

A varlety ot equlpment is made t o r rnlxing operations. The principal types ot equipment are listed i n table 3.7
MIXING EOUIPMENT
TABLE

3.7

Reductron a t particle size a a common operation, and can be termed 'attrition'. Equipment used includes crushers, rod-, ball- and hammer-mills. and-to achieve the finest reductions-energy mills, which run on compressed alr. Emulsions I'creams' or 'milks'), which are liquid-in-liquid dispersions. are stabilized by homogenizers, typically used o n milk t o reduce the slze ot the tat globules and thus prevent cream from separatlng. Occasionally, particle or lump size a t the product is increased. Equ~pment tor agglomerating, pelletizing, etc., IS used. Examples: tablets, sugar cubes, p o w dercd beverage and food products. PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER
3.3.5

EQUIPMENT

PHASES MIXED

AGITATOR BLENDER ITUMBLER TYPE)


EDUCTOR MIXER (RIBBON. SCROLL.

S+L.

L+ L

S*S.S+L

OR OTHERTYPEI PROPORTIONING PUMP PROPORTIONING VALVE

LIL,L+G,G+G

S+S,S+L L+L L+L

II

Adding and removing heat is a s~gnificant part ot chemical processing. Heating or cooling ot process material 1 s accomplished w l t h heat exchangers. iacketed vessels, or other heat transter equipment. The prolect and piping groups specify the duty and mechanical arrangement, b u t the detail design IS normally lett to the manutacturer.

exchanging heat between two flu~ds which are kept s~narated.Th~ om&-^* torn. .!eat L..,,,,.iger I , 'shel~-.,,~-~ube'u ~ ~ d i g e wnristlng r, or a bundle ot tubes held inside a 'shell' (the vessel part). One fluid passes inside the tubes, the other thru the space between the tubes and shell. Exchanged hearhas to flow thru the tube walls. Reter t o 6.8 ('Keeping process material shell-and-tube heat exchangers. at the right temperature') and to 6.6 for p~ping

,.

Heat exchange w ~ t hprocess mater~alcan take place i n a variety ot other


equipment, such as condensers, evaporators, heaters, chillers, etc.

MULTIFUNCTION EQUIPMENT

3.3.6

Sometimes, items of equipment are designed t o pertorm more than one ot the tunctions listed at the beg~nningot 3.3. Mix~ng and heatmg (or cooling) may be simultaneously carried out i n mixers hav~ng blades prov~ded w~th lnternal channels t o carry hot (or cold) flu~d. Separat~on and attrition may be achieved in a s~ngle mill, des~gned t o output part~clesot the requ~red degree of fineness and recycle and regrmd part~cles which are still too coarse.

THE PIPING GROUP

4.1

JOB
DESIGN SUPERVISOR
17) I21 131

FUNCTIONS
RESPONSIBLE F O R A L L PERSONNEL I N GROUPS INCLUDING HIRING C O O R D I N A T I N G WITH OTHER GROUPS ( A N D T H E CLIENT1 O V E R A L L P L A N N I N G A N D SUPERVISING T H E GROUP'S WORK L i A 1 5 0 N WSTH PROJECT ENGINEERISI SUPERV~S~NG DESIGN a D R A F T I N G I N AREAIS) A L L O C A T E D B Y DESIGN SUPERVISOR

Plan: design 1s divided I n t o several areas, each the responsibility ot a 'design g r o u p ' Chart 4.l(a) shows the m a l n groups ot people cooperating on the plant design, and the types ot draw~ngs tor which they are responsible. Other groups, involved with i n s t r u m e n t a t t o n , stress analysrs, pipesupport, etC.. con. tribute t o the deslgn at appropriate stages. The personnel responsible tor the p l p i n g des~gn may be part ot an engineering department's mechan~caldeslgn group, or they may tunctm as a separate sectcon or department. For slrnpliclty, this design group 1s reterred to as the ' p l p l n g group', and i t s relationship with the organization and baslc actlvkties are ~ndicated in chart 4.lia).
Chart

GROUP LEADER
NOTE: I

171

. , .

I41

F I N I S H E D DRAWINGS C O O R D I N A T E S MECHANICAL. STRUCTURAL. E L E C T R I C A L . A N 0 C l V l L D E T A I L S F R O M OTHER GROUPS


CHECKING a MARKING VENOORS DRAWINGS O B T A I N I N G I N F O R M A T I O N F O R MEMBERS O F T H E GROUP

4 . l i c l shows the structure ot a design group.


4.1.1

(51

I61

RESPONSIBlLlTlES OF THE PIPING GROUP

The plplng group produces des~gnsin the torrn ot drawings and modelisl.
showlng equipment and piping.
191 E S T A B L I S H I N G A DESIGN GROUP F I L I N G SYS. T E M F O R A L L I N C O M I N G & O U T G O I N G PAPERWORK K E E P I N G A CURRENT SCHEDULE A N D RECORD O F HOURS W O R K E D RECWISITIONING V I A PURCHASING DEPART. M E N T A L L PIPING M A T E R I A L S

The tollowing are provided by the p l a n t des~gn:171

plpmg

group as

its

contribution to the

110) (1))

A N EQUIPMENT A R R A N G E M E N T D R A W I N G , U S U A L L Y T E R M E D T H E 'PLOT PLAN'

CHECKER

121

PIPING DESIGN (DRAWINGS OR M O D E L )

131

PIPING D E T A I L S F O R F A B R I C A T I O N A N D CONSTRUCTION

DESIGNER
(41 REOUISITIONS F O R PURCHASE O F P I P I N G M A T E R I E L

111 I21 131

PRODUCING STUDIES A N D L A Y O U T S OF EQUIPM E N T A N D PIPING WHICH MUST B E ECONOMIC. SAFE, OPERABLE A N D E A S I L Y M A I N T A I N E D M A K I N G A N Y NECESSARY A D D I T I O N A L CALC. U L A T I O N S FOR THE DESIGN SUPERVISING DRAFTERS

JOB FUNCTIONS

4.1.2
it

6s i m p o r t a n t that the new member should know w h a t line ot a u t l i o r l t y exlsts. This IS especially Important when l n t o r m a t i o n IS required and 11saves the wrong people trom belng interrupted. Chart 4.2 shows two typical lines ot authority. (Different companies will have diiierent set-ups and job titles.)
On
iolning 1471

a design office

DRAFTER

M I N I M U M RESPONSIBILITIES ARE:11) P R O D U C I N G D E T A I L E D DRAWINGS F R O M DESIGNERS' OR GROUP LEADERS' STUDIES OR SKETCHES 1>1 S E C O N D A R Y DESIGN WORK

[a] PROJECT ORGAHIZATION


HEAVY LIRTSSHOYIFL0YlI)F IWFIIRPAIIOW
L l O H i LlREB iNlliELii hUIHORITY CLIENT
plsUINr"/
L E X E C Y T I V ~5 I L . f

0 s INTl"5lRl"T

C0Y.l""

a
,l'i0"..~1,10*10"

HELD OF
~sc",Rz~.9z,~:s,a c3a"~~>a~'c~.~cs
msz,G:#,

LO">S..,ilii

ozmms oEteGaI5m ,o n E t 0

*
PROJECT GROUP
llNCLUDlNG PROCESS ENGINEERING1

1
CONSULTANT

SPECIFIC&TCON GROUP

icl
OESlGN SUPERVISOR

PROIECT & DESIGN GROUPS


SHOWING FLOW OF INFORMATION

DESIGN GROUP
SHOWING LINES OF AUTHORITY

i:

a
* 3
DESIGNERS

+
DRAFTERS RECORDS

I r t E DECICLt4T10hl SHFETS

hr

TABLES

4.L.J

The tollowlng ~ntormationis requ~redb y the plplng group'-

These sheets c o n t a n tabulated data showing nominal pipe slze, materlal specificat~on, design and operatmg conditions. Llne numbers are assigned i n sequence of flow, and a separate sheet IS prepared tor each conveyed fluid -see 5.2.5.

FROM THE
PROJECT GROUP

'JOB SCOPE. DOCUMENT. WHICH DEFINES PROCEDURES T O BE USE0 IN PREPARING OESiGN SKETCHES AND DIAGRAMS DRAWING CONTROL (REGISTER) 4.2.4 PIPING & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (PBIIO-SEE 5.2.41 A drawing number relates the drawlng t o the proiect, and may be coded L I S T OF MAJOR EOUIPMENT (EOUIPMENT 1 ~ 0 ~ SPECIAL x 1 EOUIPMENT AND MAT. t o show such intormation as prolect (or 'job') number, area ot plant, and E R I A L ~ 'OF F A B R I C A T I O N originating group (which may be ~ndicated tor mechanical, etc.). Figure LINE DESIGNATION SHEETS OR TABLES, lNCLUOlNG ASSIGNATION OF L I N E Nub%5.15 shows a number ldentifyng part ot a plpkng system. BERS-SEE 4.2.3 A N 0 5.2.5 SPECIFICATIONS FOR MATERIALS USED The drawing control shows the drawing number, t~tle,and progress toward IN PIPING SYSTEMS-SEE 4.2.) SCHEDULE OF COMPLETION DATES SUPcomplet~on.Thestatus ot revision and issues is shown-see 5.4.3.The drawing DATED ON FED-BACKINFORMATION> control is kept up-to.date b y the group leader. CONTROLS IMETHOOS O F WORKING.ETC.I TO BE AOOPTEO FOR E X P E D I T I N G THE JOB

'M'

FROM OTHER GROUPS

ORAWINGS-SEE 5.2.7

DESIGN GROUP-TWO TYPICAL LINES OF AUTHORITY

CHART 4.2

FROM SUPPLIERS

VENDORS' PRINTS-SEE

8.2.1

Example 1
HEADOF DESIGN.

Exomple 2

C H E F ENGINEER

SPECIFICATIONS These consst of separate specifications tor plant layout, piplng materiels. supporting, tabricatlon, ~nsulatron, welding, erection, palntlng and testmg. The piping designer is mostly concerned w l t h plant layout and materlei specificat~ons,which detail the deslgn requirements and materials tor plpe. flanges, fittings, valves, etc., t o be used tor the particular prolect. The plping materials specification usually has an index t o the various services or processes. The part of the specification dealing with a particular service can be identified t r o m the piping drawing line number or P&ID line numbermust be s t r ~ c t l y adhered see 5.2.4 under 'Flow lines'. A l l pipmg specificat~ons t o as they are compiled f r o m lntormetion supplied b y the prolect group. Although the fittings, etc.. described i n the Guide are thosc most irequently used, they will n o t necessarily be seen i n every plping specification. On some pro~ects[such as 'revamp' work) where there IS no specificatlon. the des~gnermay be responsible t o r selecting materials and hardware, and it is cmportant tog~vesufficient ~ntormation t o specify the hardware i n ell essential details. Nan-standard items are otten listed b y the Item number andlor model specificatlon tor ordering taken trom thecatalogot theparticular manutacturer. LIST O F EQUIPMENT, or EOUIPMENT INDEX
4.2.2

DESIGN SUPERVISOR

This shows, tor each item o t equipment, the equrpment number, equipment tltle, and status-that IS whether the Item has been approved, ordered, end whether certified vendor's prints have been recewed.

FILING DRAWINGS

4.3

FILING SYSTEM

CHAHi 4.J

There are two types ot drawlngs to iile-those produced by the group and those received by the group. The tormer are iiled in numerical order under plant or unit number in the drawing oifice on a 'stlck file' or in a drawersee 4 4 1O.Theiiling ot the latter. 'ioreign', prints is otten poorly done, causing tlme to be wasted and information to be lost. These printsare commonly filed by equipment index number, placing all intormation connected with that Item ot equipment in the one file. A suggested method tor filing these incoming prlnts is illustrated in chart 4.3, which cross-reterences process, tunction, or area with the group originallng the drewlng, and with associated vessels, equipment, etc. All correspondence between the protect and design groups, client, vendors, and field would be filed under 'zero', as shown. M A T E R I A L S & T O O L S F O R THE D R A F T I N G R O O M
PAPER

4.4
4.4.1

Vellum paper and mylar film are used tor drawings. Drawing sheets must be translucent to the light used in copyingmachines. Mylarwithacoateddrawing surtace a more expenwe than vellum, but is pretereble where durability and dimensional stabilitv are important. Sheets can be supplied printed with border and title block and with a 'fade-out' ruled grid on the reverse side. 'Isometric' sheets with t a d e a t 30-degree grid are available tor drawing isos. ANSI 14.1 deiinesthe tollowing flat drawing-sheet sizes (in inches): [A) 8'/2x11, (0) 11x17, [C) 17x22. ID)22x34. iE) 34x44. International drawing sheet sizes ot approximately the same dimens~ons are defined (ininches) as: (A4) 8.27x11.69, (A31 11.69x16.54. (A2) 16.54~2339. [ A t ) 23.39x33.11. (AO) 3311~46.81.
PAPERS FOR COPYING MACHINES

Papwwofk c l ~ s i f i ~ according d to o wnem of t h i s type may be l o e l e d cabinet fisted with numbered dividers a r shown :-

i n a filing

STANDARD DIVIDERS FOR FlLlNG CABINE?

Photosensitive paper is used tor making prints tor checking, issuing and filing purposes. 'Sepia' photocopying paper (Ozalid Company, etc.) gives brown positive prints which may be amended with pencil or ink, and the revision used as an original tor photocopying in a diazo machine. Sepias may also be used to give a taint background print tor drawing other work over, such as ducting or pipesupports. The quality ot sepia prints is not good. Positive photocopies ot superior quality are made on clear plastic film, which may have either continuous emulsion to give heavy copies, or screened emulsion to yield taint background prints (emulsion should preterably be water-removable).
LEADS & PENCILS

to smearing on handling. Grades harder than 3H tend to cut paper making lines diiiicult to erase. Conventional leads are 2 mm in diameter and requlre frequent repointing. 0.5 mm and 0.3 mm leads speed work, as they need no repainting. Conventional leadsare not suitable tor use on plastic iilms as they smear and are diiiicult to erase. 'Film' leads and pencils are available in the same sizes as conventional leads, and in diiferent grades o i hardness. Clutch pencils [lead holders) suitable tor use with either type ot the smaller diameter leads have a push-button advance.
SCALES 4.4.3

4.4.2

Pencil leads used in the drawing office are available in the tollowing grades, beginning with the sottest : B (used tor shading), HB lusually used tor writing only). F (usually sottest grade used for dratting), H (grade most otten used tor dratting), 2H (used tor drawing thinner lines such as dimension lines), 3H and 4H (used tor faint lines tor layout or background). Softer penciling is prone

The architect's scale IS used tor plping drawings,and is d~videdinto tractions ot an inch to one toot-tor example. 318 inch per toot. The eng~neer's scale is used to draw site plans, etc., and is d~vided into one inch per stated number oi teet. such as 1 inch per 30 teet.

ERASERS & ERASING SHIELDS

4.4.4

Several types ot eraser and erasing methods are available-use ot each is given in table 4.1: Rubber in various hardnesses trom pure gum rubber (artgum) tor soit pencilling and cleaning lead smears, to hard rubber tor hard pencelling and ink; 'plast~c' is cleaner to use, as i t has less tendency to absorb graphite; 'magic rub' tor eraslng pencil trom plastic films. Most types ot eraser are available tor use with electric erasing machines. An erasing shield is a thin metal plate with holes ot various shapes and sizes so that parts ot the drawing not to be erased may be protected.
ERASING GUIDE

out areuserul ror manirlg U ~ ~ are limited in appiicati~n. jduct ~ch a ?I bo harts speci, under 'Photographic layouts'.
TEMPLATES

W I IUI I I ~ ~~ IIULU~O/IIIIL

]its-'

13,

4.4.7

Templates having c~rcularend rectangular openlngs are common. Orthogonal and isometric dratt~ngtemplates are available tor making process piping drawings and flow diagrams. These piplng templates give thewtlines tor ANSI valves, flanges, fittings and pipe diameters to 318 Inch per tool, or l/4-inch per toot.

TABLE 4.1

MACHINES

4.4.8

The first two machines are usually used in drawing offices in place ot the slower teesquare:
DRAFTING MACHINE allows parallel movement of a pair ot rules set

at right angles. The rules ere set on a protractor, and their angle on the board may be altered. The protractor usually has 15-degree clickstops and vernler scale.
PARALLEL RULE, or SLIDER, permits drawing ot long horizontal lines
Chemical bleach tor

rernovmy

black phoioyraphie rilvilr deposit

only, and is used with a fixed or adjustable triangle.


PLANIMETER A portable machine tor measuring areas. When set t o the scale ot the draw~ng, the plenlmeter will measure areas ot any shape.
PANTOGRAPH System ot articulated rods permltting reduction or eniarge-

CLEANING POWDER

4.4.5

Fine rubber granules are supplied i n 'salt-shaker' drums. Sprinkled on a drawing, these granules reduce smearing ot pencil lines during working. The use ot cleaning powder is especially helptul when using a teesquare. The powder is brushed off after use.
LETTERING AIDS

ment at a drawing by hand. Application is limited.


LIGHT BOX

4.4.9

4.4.6 A light box has a translucent glass or plastlc working surtace fined underneath with electric lights. The drawing to be traced is placed on the illuminafed surtace.
FILING METHODS

7itleblocks, notes, and subr,tles on drawings orsect,onsshould be in


Capitals, either upright or sloped, are preterred. Pencilled lettering is normally used. Where ink work is required on drawings tor photography, charts. r e ports, etc., ink stylus pens (Technos, Rapidograph, etc.) are available for stencil lettering (and for line drewlng in place ot ruling pens). The Leroy equipment is also used tor mked lettering. Skeleton lettering templates are used tor lettering section keys. The parallel line spacer is a small, inexpensive tool usetul for ruling guide lines tor lettering.

4.4.10

Original drawlngs are best filed flat in shallow drawers. Prints filed i n the drawlng office are usually retained on a 'stick', which is a clamp tor holding several sheets. Sticks are housed in a special rack or cabinet. Original drawings will eventually create a storage problem, as it is inadvisable to scrap them. I f these drawings are not sent to an archive, after a period of about three years they are photographed to a reduced scale tor filing, and only the film is retained. Equipment is available tor reading such films, or large photographic prints can be made.
(511

As alternatives to hand-inked letter~ng,machines such as Kroy which print onto adhes~ve-backed transparent film which is later pos~t~oned on the drawing. Adhes~veor transterable letters and numbers are available i n sheets, and special patterns and panels can be supplied to order tor t ~ t i e blocks or detailing, symbolism, abbrev~ations,specla1 notes, etc. Printed adhesive tapes

TABLE

--. . ...- .

-.-. . .

'LP~L or U 'ayeitid processes reproouce to tne same scale as the original


draw~ngasa posltive copy or print. Bruning and Ozalid machines are otten employed. The drawing that is to be copied must be on traclng paper, linen or film, and the copy is made on light-sensitive papers or films. The older reversed-tone 'blueprint' is no longer i n use.
SCALED PLANT MODELS
4.4.12

1 8 8 ~ c a i i ~ o u v r 12 /IIUWLIW L L ~ ~ U U a ~ cuui!aLl I I screen arm a prim mane on ? fir 'men: notes are i to thi , jduciL.. '-epro ' film which can be pr~ntedby a diazo process-see 4.4.11. These prlnts are used as working drawings, and distributed to those needing ~ntormation.

REVAMP WORK FOR EXISTING PLANTS

A Polaroid (or video) camera can be used to supply views ot the plant and unrecorded changes. Filed drawings ot a plant do not always include alteratram original design. tions, or dev~ation

Plant models are otten used in design~nglarge installations involving much piping When deslgn ot the plant is completed, the model 1 s sent to the site as the basis ot construction in the place ot orthographic drawings Some engineering companies strongly advocate the~r use, which necessitates maintaining a model shop and retaining trained personnel Scaled model piping components are available in a wide range ot sizes The tollowing color coding may be used on models PIPING

Photographs otsections ot a plant can be combined with drawings to tacil~tate installation at new equipment, or t o make turther changes t o the exrsting plant. To do this, photographs are taker, or the required views, uslng a camera fitted with a w~de-anglelens (to obtain a wider view) The negatives obtained are printed onto screened positive films which are attached to the back a t a clear plastic drawing sheet. Alterations to the piping system are then drawn on the tront tece ot thissheet, linking the photographs as desired. Reproductions of the composite drawing are made in the usual way by diazo process. Alternately, positives may be marked directly tor minor changes or instructions to the field.
PHOTOGRAPHIC LAYOUTS

.
.

. .

EQUIPMENT INSTRUMENTS
ELECTRICAL

.
. .

. .
~ ~

~
~

.
.

YELLOW, RED or BLUE

.
,
~

GREY

~
.

ORANGE
GREEN

. .

ADVANTAGES
0

a
o
II 8

Available routes tor piplng are easily seen lnterterences are easily avoided Piping plan and elevation drawings can be eliminated; only the model, plot plan, P&ID's, and piping tabricatlon draw~ngs (isos) are required The model can be photographed -see 4.4.13. Provides a superior visual aid for conterences, tor constructlon crews and tor training plant personnel

The tollowing technique produces equipment layout 'drawings', and is especially usetul tor areas where method study or investigattonal reports are required. in First, equipment outlines are produced to scale on photographic film, e~ther the regular way or by xerography. Next, a drawing.sizedsheet ot clear film is laid on a white backing sheet having a correctly-scaled grid marked on it. The building outline and other teatures can be put onto the film using the variety ot printed transparent tapes and decals available. The pleces ot film with equipment outlines may then be positioned with clear tape, and any other parts ot the 'drawing' completed. Alterations to the layout may be rapidly made with this technique, which photographs well tor reports, and allows prints to be made in the usual ways tor marking and comment. The film layout should be covered with an acetate or other protective sheet betore lnsertlon in a copying machine.
REDUCTlON BY PHOTOGRAPHY

DISADVANTAGES

Duplication of the model is expensive The model 1 s not easily portable and portation
IS

o a

liable to damage dur~ng trans-

Changes are not recorded in the model itself


4.4.13

PHOTOGRAPHIC AIDS 'DRAWINGS' FROM THE MODEL

The lack ot portability at a scaled plant model can be partially overcome by photographing it. To do this it must be designed so that it can be taken apart easily. Photographs can be made to correspond closely to the regular plan, elevation and isometric proiections by photographing the model from 40 t t or more away w ~ t h long tocal length lenses-'vanishing points' (converging lines) in the picture are effect~velyeliminated.

I t is trequently required t o include reproductions ot diagrams and draw~ngs in reports, etc. Photographic reduction t o less than half-s~ze Ion lengths) is not recommended because normal-sized print~ngand details may not be legible. A graphic scale should be included on draw~ngs to be reduced-see chart 5.8.

PIPING SYMBOLS
SHOWING PIPE & JOINTS

5.1
5.1.1

Hand-drawn piping layouts depict pipe by smglelines iorclarityand economy. Pipe and flanges are sometimes drawn partially 'double line' to display clearances. Computer drawn layouts can show piplng in plan, elevational and isometric vrews i n single line, or lwrthout additional eiiorr or expense) in double line. Double line representation 1 s best resewed tor threedimens~onalviews, such as isos. In doubleline draw~ng.valves are shown by the symbols in chart 5.6 (refer t o the panel 'Dratt~ngvalves'). Double-line representation is not used tor entlre ptping arrangements, as i t is very time-consuming, difficult to read, and not pstified techn~cally.

If there is a piping specification. ~tis not necessary to Indicate welded or screwed writs, except to remove ambiguities-tor example, t o differentiate between a tee and a stub-in. I n most current practice, the symbols tor screwed joints and socket welds are normally om~tted,although b u n welds are often shown. The ways ot show~ngloints set out in the standard ANSI Y32.2.3 are not typ~calot current mdustrial practice. The standard's symbol tor a bun-weld s commonly used to Indicate a butt-weld to be made 'in asshown i n table 5.1 1 the field' (field weld)
SHOWING NON.FLANGE0 JOINTS AT ELBOWS

TABLE 5.1

BUTT WELD

SOCKET WELD

SCREWED JOIN;

SIMPLIFIED
OOUBLE-LINE PRESENTATION
SINGLE.LINE PRESENTATION

PRACTICE.

CONVENTIONAL PRACTICE

In presenting piplng 'single line' on plping draw~ngs,only the centerline o l the pipe is drawn, using a solid tine (see chart 5.1), and the line size is written. Flanges are shown as thick lines drawn to the scaled outside diameter of the flange. Valves are shown by special symbols drawn to scale. Pumps are shown b y drawrng the pads on which they rest, and their nozzles: figure 6.21 illustrates this simplified presentation. Equipment and vessels are shown b y drawmg their nozzles, outlines, and supporting pads.

ANSI Y32.2.3 (Not current


pr.ctd

LINE SYMBOLS WHICH MAY BE USED ON ALL U H A W I N t i S

3.1.L

IY113C~LLF.IVE""~ I , .

I V I D V C ~ run I

r,

tl""

Cha~. shun. .man,, --.:pled ot 0. ... ; variL.. ..,es. L .-,,, other line symbols have been devlsed but most ot theseare not readily recop nlzed, and 111 s better to state In words the tunctlon ot speclal lines, particularly on process flow diagrams and P&lD's. The desrgner or drattsman should use his currant employer's symbols.

_, lbols .
5 7.

jre sh-..

. I a SI

. . Nay

u..n...l.rr ., .ysten., -.. xllec.+,

...chart
5.1.7

-.

GENERAL ENGINEERING SYMBOLS

Char! 5.8 glves some symbols, signs,-etc., whlch are used generally and are likely to be found or needed on plping drawlnos.

VALVE & EQUIPMENT SYMBOLS FOR PEID's & PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

5.1.3

Pract~cein showing equipment IS not uniform. Chart 5.2 1 s based on ANSI Y32.11, and applies to P&ID's and process flow diagrams.
REPRESENTING PIPING O N PIPING DRAWINGS

5.14

Charts 5.3-6 show symbols used In burr-welded, screwed and socket-welded systems. The various aspects ot the fittlng, valve, etc., are given. These symbols ere based on conventional practlce rather than the ANSI standard 232.2.3, tltled 'Graphic symbols tor plpe fittmgs, valves and plplng'.
REPRESENTING VALVES O N PIPING DRAWINGS

5.1.5

Chart 5.6 shows ways ot denotlng valves, ~ncluding stems, handwheels and other operators. The symbols are based on ANSI i32.2.3, but more valve types are covered and the presentarm 1s updated. Valve handwheelsshould to be drawn to scale wlth valve stem shown tully extended.

_ i

Solid from solid

Solid from solid + gas PESO,

+-

CHART 5.6 GIVES THE BASIC SYMBOLS FOR VALVES THESE FOLLOWS: E~SIC SYMBOLS ARE USED OR ADbPTED AS

P & I 0's
I
>UPLING. FULL.. HALF.

USE THE RELEVANT YALVE SYMBOL TO SHOWTHE TYPE hWNUAL 0FVALVE.DRAW OPERATORS ARE MOSTSYMBOLS NOT SHOWN. I M n . LONG

SHOIY FOR BRANCH COPINECTIONS ONLYSEE 'COUPLING' iN CHI-RT 5.3

PIPING DRAWINGS
OPERATOR %SHOWN IF IMPORTrZNT

I , ,Y R E W E D VALVES
USE THE B A S K VALVE SYNBDL. ORAWTHE iENGTP
OF THE VALVE TO Y A L E .

121 SOCIET.ENDED VALVES I F THE PROJECT HAS A PiPbNO SPECIFICATION. US1 THE B A S E YALVE SYMBOL. IF NOT. SHOW SOCKn ENDS TO THE VALVES:

/
HOSE

% :

/@qi~3ft
I
DOUBLELINE

DRAW THE LENGTH OF THE BASIC VALVE SYMBO TOSCALE OVERSOCKETENDS.

J-uwL0 I-

191 FLkNGECI VALVES USE THE BASIC YALVE SYMBOL, WITH OPERA705 AN0 SHOW MATlNG FLANGES AS DETAILED BELOL'

HOSECONNECT~ON

SINGLE-LINE

PIPE

@
HOSE

1. Drawing the symbol

PLUG

4 f u b

PIPE

@ + 3 @

REDUCER.

Crib IBi ICb

Show O m r the IirnnE b l OD i c nto ivc wr'E Vmbal k i w m IlrnEn

D n u Ulue lennihs urld to the flrngebreio ti2ngel.c" *C ursve. 0, ren,.r.,o ,,rngr,r, dimen%lonr tor

I
SIYAGE. CONCENTRIC

TOPVIEW

W i R TOP

STRAIGHT or REDUCl TEE. STRAIGHT or REDUCING

END'

JACKETED P!PE WET" lWULJITlON

VENT

FOR TANK

FLOOR BUPPDR

. LeJeune Road,

M i a m i F l o r l d a 33126. Telephone ( 3 0 5 ) 443-9353.

s y p p n l + FOP W F I DING nFTAILS

5.1.8

EXAMPLE USE OF THE FILLET WELD SYMBOL

Standard welding symbols are published by the American Welding Society. These symbols should be used as necessary on details of attachments, vessels. piping supports, etc. The practice ot writing on drawings instructions such as 'TO BE WELDED THROUGHOUT', or 'TO BE COMPLETELY WELDED' transters the design responsibility for all attachments and connections trom the designer to the weider, which the Society considers to be a dangerous and uneconomic practice. The 'welding symbol' devised by the Amerlcan Welding Society has e~ght elements. Not all of these eiements are necessarily needed by piplng designers. The assembled welding symbol which gives the welder ail the necessary instructlon, and locations ot its elements, is shown in chart 5.9. Theelements are:

If a continuous fiilet weld is needed, hke thls the filletweld symbol is placed on the 'arrow side' of the reference line, thus: If the weid is required on the far side from the arrow, thus. the weld symbol 1 s shown on the 'other side ot the reference line If a continuous fillet weld is needed on both sides ot the joint,

s
8
0

REFERENCE LINE

ARROW
BASIC WELD SYMBOLS DIMENSIONS & OTHER DATA SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS

A
/Cl_

the fillet weld symbol is placed on both sides of the reference line.

a a
0 9

EXAMPLE USE OF THE BEVEL GROOVE SYMBOL

FINISH SYMBOLS
TAIL

SPECIFICATIONS. PROCESS or OTHER

REFERENCE

The tollowmg is a qulck guide t o the scheme:Full details will be found m the current revision ot 'Standard Welding Symbois' available from the American Welding Society.
ASSEMBLING THE WELDING SYMBOL

If a bevel groove i s required, like this: - a The 'qroove' symbol +nr bevei is shown, wlth the illlet weld symbol, and a break is made in the arrow toward the member to be beveled, thus:

v
K T
15.9

Only the bevel and 'J' groove symbols require a break ~nthe arrow -see chart 5.9.
DIMENSIONING THE WELD CROSS SECTION

Reterence line and arrow: The symbol begins with a reterence line and arrow pointing to the joint where the weld is to be made. The reterence line has two 'sides': 'other side' (above the line) and 'arrow side' (below the line)-reter to the tollowing examples and to chart 5.9.
BASIC WELDING ARROW

Suppose the weld is requlred to be 114 inch in sm, and the bevei is to be 3/16 inch deep: These dimensions are shown to the lett of the weld sym

FIGURE 5.1

Alternatively, the bevel can be expressed in degrees of arc:


BASIC WELDING SYMBOLS

la) The weld rymbai

and be ndicated thus on the symboi.

If a root gap i s required, thus:

the symbol is

L,,..,

back , ,,le fillc, ~ l !omt d wjthout a orval, if ma weld needs to be 114-inch in slze and 6 inches long, like this:

&
the symbol is:

the weld symbol may be drawn:

m''
311

U Y I ~ I ~

u o ~ niu r w r m a ~ l l p l cu t a xnqnc 9 m r ~ wwu, l i r t w


'

ar

a me

like t i :

I
r

@./

or like this:

1 1
@
____j

wriu

i~ I~~UIIBU

alternately:

Fm
6"
YA
6-12

it

IS

shown In this way:

If a sertes ot 6-inch long welds IS requ~redwith 6-inch gaps between them (that is, the pitch ot the welds is 12 inches), thus:

& * ~
alternately:
" .

If this same 'all around' weld has to be made in the field. i t i s shown thus:

The contour at the weld i s shown by a contour symbol on the weld symbol:
FLUSH CONTOUR
CONVEXCONTOUR CONCAVECONTOUR

1:,. .
t:

i.

k
...
,

like this:

like this:

or:

<i
The method of finishing the weld contour is indicated by adding a finish notatlon letter, thus.
Ud
6-12

If these welds are requlred staggered on both sides-

, i

like this:

. " " '

.-

I $

the symbol is:

V. V 6 - 1 2

I ,I I 1I ! i

n
FULL WELDING SYMBOL

1;
i
,

11 i

/I

SUPPLEMENTARY SYMBOLS

where M = machining, G =grinding, and C = chipping.

1i
. .. ... ,' : .

These symbols give instructions tor making the weld and define the requ~red countour:

~1

ml~llll
I A W ~

CllUlOUR

riimmto

UEIT.~IIRU

FiYIX

EDllVlll

CDlfliVt

Occasionally it is necessary to give other instruct~onsin the weldingsymbol. The symbol can be elaborated tor this as shown in 'Locat~on at elements ot a welding symbol' in chart 5.9. Chart 5.9, reproduced by permission ot the American Welding Society,
summarizes and amplifies the explanations of this section.
1641

B l s ~

DRAWINGS
All intormation for constructing piping systems IS contained In drawings, apart trom the specifications, and the possible use ot a model and photographs.

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

5.2 7

r
,

i 1.8 [JJI.2.3

Commonly referred to as a 'schematic', this diagram shows paths of flow by slngle lines, and operattons or process equipment are represented by simple figures such as rectangles and circles. Notes on the process will oiten be included. The diagram IS not to scale, hut relationships between equrpment and prping wlth regard to the process are shown. The desired spatial arrangement ot equipment and piping may be broadly indicated. Usually, the schematic is not used after the inltial planning stage, but serves to develop the process flow diagram which then becomes the primary reterence.

THE MAIN PURPOSE OF A DRAWING ISTO COMMUNICATE INFORMATION I N ASIMPLE AND EXPLICIT WAY.

PROCESS & PIPING DRAWINGS GROW FROM THE SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

To deslgn process plplng, three types ot drawing are developed in sequence trom the schematic diagram (or 'schemats') prepared by the process engmeer. These three types of drawing are, in order ot development:(11
FLOW DIAGRAM (PROCESS. or SERVICE) PIPING AND

FLOW DIAGRAM

5.2.3

This is an unscaled drawing describing the process. I t is also reterred to as a 'flow sheet'. It should state the materials to be conveyed by the plping, conveyors, etc., and specify their rates of flow and other information such as temperature and pressure, where of interest. This intormation may be 'flagged' (on lines) within the diagram or be tabulated on a separate panel-such a panel is shown at the bottom left ot figure 5.3.
LAYOUT OF THE FLOW DIAGRAM

(21
(31

INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM, or ?&ID'

PIPING DRAWING

EXAMPLE DIAGRAMS

Figure 5.2 shows a simple example ot a 'schematic'. A solvent recovery system is used as an example. Based on the schematic diagram of figure 5.2, a developed process flow diagram IS shown in figure 5.3. From this flow diagram, the P&ID (figure 5.3) is evolved. As tar as practicable, the flow of material(s) should be trom left to right. Incoming flows should be arrowed and described down the lett-hand edge of the drawing, and exltttng flows arrowed and described at the right at the drawing, without Intruding into the space over the tltle block. Intormation normally Included on the process drawings is detailed In sections 5.2.2 thru 5.2.4. Flow diagrams and P&ID's each have thelr own tunctions and should show only that information relevant to thelr functlons. as set out in 5.2.3 and 5.2.4. Extraneous intormatlon such as piping, structural and mechanical notes should not be included, unless essentlai to the process.
SECURITY

Whether a flow diagram 1 s to be In elevation or plan view should depend on how the P&ID is to be presented. To easily relatethe two drawings, both should be presented in the same vlew. Elevations are suitable tor slmple systems arranged vertically. Installations coverlng large horizontal areas are best shown in plan vlew. Normally, a separate flow diagram is prepared tor each plant process. If a slngle sheet would be too crowded, two or more sheets may be used. For slmple processes, more than one may be shown on a sheet. Process lines should have the rate and direction of flow, and other required data, noted. Main process flows should preterably be shown going trom the lett of the sheet to the rtght. Llne s~zesare normally not shown on a flow diagram. Critical internal parts of vessels and other Items essential to the process should be indicated. All tactors considered, it is advisable to write equipment tltles either near the top or near the bottom o f the sheet, either directly above or below the equipment symbol. Sometimes 11may be directed that all pumps be drawn at a common level near the bottom of thesheet, although this practice may lead to a complex-looking drawing. Particularly with flow diagrams, simplicity in presentatlon is ot prime Importance.

A real or supposed need tor industrial or national security may restrlct lntoimation appearing on drawings Instead ot naming ckmlcals, indeterminate ' , or traditional terms such as 'sweet water', 'brine', 'leach acid'. 'chemical B may be used. Data Important to the reactionssuch a s temperatures, pressures and flow rates mav be withheld. Sometimes certeln key drawings are locked away when not in use.

SEPARATOR SIZE, DLirr EQUIP NO--

WATER SEPARATOP IOLVENT VAPORIZOR SIZE, D U N EQUIP NO--SHOW SIZE AND DUTY FOR ALL EOUIPMENT SOLVENT COOLER SIZE, DUTY EQUIP NO--SIZE, EOUIPNO---

SOLVENT PREHEATER SIZE, DUTY EQUIP NO---

SOLVENT RETWN PUMP SIZE, DUTY EQUIP NO---

STREAM NO/ LB/HR

I
2

1 PSlG 1 SG / DEG F I I I
I

c *ALTERNATE hlETHODOF SHOWING SlREAM DATA

FLOW LINES

d i r e c t u s dt ilob" w ~ n i n tlw wgram d ~ e m w n uy m i d arrowiieads. 111e use of arrowheads at all iunctions and corners aids the rapid reading ot the diagram. The number o i crossings can be minmzed by good arrangement Suitable line thicknesses are shown at full size in chart 5.1. For photographic reduction, lines should be spaced not closer than 318 inch. Process and service streams entering or leavlnq the flow diagram are shown by large hollow arrowheads, w ~ t h the conveyed iluid written over and the continuation sheet number within the arrowhead, as in figure 5.3.
ARROWS ON FLOW DIAGRAMS

PROCESS DATA FOR EQUIPMENT

The basic process information required for designing and operating maior items ot equipment should be shown. This intormation is best placed immediately below the title ot the equipment.
IDENTIFYING EOUIPMENT

SHOWING VALVES ON THE FLOW DIAGRAM

Difierent types of equipment may be reterred to by a classification letter (or letters). There is no generally accepted coding -each company has its own scheme if any standardization is made at all. Equipment classed under a certain letter is numbered in sequence from '1' upward. l i a new installation is made in an existing plant, the method at numbering may tallow previous practice tor the plant. Also, it IS useful to divide the plant and open part ot the slte as necessary into areas, givlng each a code number. An area number can be made the first part of en equipment number. For example, if a heat exchanger is the 53rd item of equipment listed under the classifrcatron letter 'E', located in area '1'. (see 'Key plan' In 5.2.7) the exchanger's equlpment number can be 1-E-53. Each Item ot equlpment should bear the same number on all drawings, diagrams and listings. Standby or identical equipment, i f in the same servlce. may be identified by adding the letters, A. 8. C, and so on, to the same equipment identification letter and number. For example, a heat exchanger and itsstandby may be des~gnated 1-E-53A, and 1-E-538.
SERVICES ON PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS

lnstrument-controlled and manual valves which are necessary to the proces are shown. The tollowing valves are shown i f required by a governing code or regulation, or i f they are essential to the process: ~solating,bypassing, ventlng, draining, sampling, and valves used for purging, steamout, etc., tor relieving excess pressure o i gases.or :liquids (including rupture discs), breather valves and vacuum breakers.
SHOW ONLY SPECIAL FITTINGS

Piping fittings, strainers, and flame arrestors should not be shown unless of specla1 importance to the process.
ESSENTIAL INSTRUMENTATION

Only instrumentation essent~al to process control should be shown.Simplified representation 1 s suitable. For example, only instruments such as controllers and indicators need be shown: items not essential to the drawing (transmltters, tor example) may be omitted.
EQUIPMENT DATA

Systems for providing services should not be shown. However, the type of service, flow rates, temperatures and pressures should be noted at consumption rates corresponding to the material balance-usually shown by a 'flagr to the line-see iigure 5.3.
DISPOSAL OF WASTES

Capacities ot equipment should be shown. Equipment should be drawn schemat~cally,using equipment symbols, and where teasible should be drawn in proportion to the actual sizes ot the items. Equipment symbols should neither dominate the drawmg, nor be too small tor clear understanding.
STANDBY & PARALLELED EQUIPMENT

The routes ot disposal tor all waste streams should be indicated. For example, arrows or dram symbols may be labelled with destmation, such as 'chemical sewer' or 'dr~psrecovery system'. In some instances the disposal or wastetreatment system may be detailed on one or more separate sheets. See 6.13 where 'effluent' is discussed.
MATERIAL BALANCE

Standby equlpment is not normally drawn. If ~dent~cal units of equipment are provided tor paralleled operatlon (that is, all unlts on stream), only one unit need normally be drawn. Paralleled or standby units should be indicated by noting the equipment number and the servlce tunctlon ('STANOBY'or 'PARALLEL OF).

The process material balance can be tabulated on separate 8% x 11-inch sheets, or along the bottom of the process flow diagram.

Thtr Amwing sc mqmoni- mhrred *the 'P" '"' Its 0: :to I1 all IJiuLass anu aalvice liries, instruments and controls, equipment, and data necessary tor the design groups. The process flow diagram is the primary source ot lntormat~ontor developing the P&ID Symbols su~table tor P&ID's are given in charts 5.1 thru 5.7. The P&ID should define piping, equipment and instrumentation well enough for cost estimat~onand for subsequent design, construction, operation and modification of the process. Material balance data, flow rates, temperatures, pressures, etc., and piping fitting details are not shown, and purely mechanical piping detailssuch as elbows, pints and unlons are Inappropriate to P&ID's.
INTERCONNECTING P&iD

--

! s ani . .conn.... s she,., , II flo , shovv4bU L P&IL ~ s. w r y h i e should show direction ot flow, and be labeled to show the area ot project, conveyed fluid, line size, piping material or specification code number (company code), and number ot the line. This intormation is shown in the 'line number'.
EXAMPLE LINE NUMBER: (74/82161412j23) may denote the 23rd line in area 74, a &inch p~pe to company specification 412. 'BZ' identifies the conveyed fluid.

This type ot tull deslgnat~ontor a flow line need not be used, provided identification is adequate. Pip~ngdrawings use the line numbering ot the P&IO, end the tollowlng points apply to piplng drawings as well as P&ID's.
a e

This drawing shows process and service lines between buildings and units, etc., and serves to link the P&ID's for the indiv~dualprocesses, units or buildings. Like any P&ID, the drawing is not to scale. It resembles the layout of the site plan, which enables line sizes and branching points trom headers to be established, and assists in planning plpeways.

For a system of lines conveying the same flu~d,allocate sequential numbers to lines, beginning wlth '1' for each system For a continuous line, retaln the same number ot line (such as 23 in the example) as the line goes thru valves, strainers, small filters, traps, venturls, orifice flanges and small equlpment generally -unless the line changes in s1ze Termmate the number ot a line at a maror item ot equipment such as a tank, pressure vessel, mixer, or any equipment carrylng an individual equipment number Allocate new numbers to branches

P&ID LAYOUT

The layout ot the ?&ID shou!dresemb!e as tar as practlceble that ot the process flow diagram. The process relationship ot equipment should correspond exactly. Often it is useful to draw equlpment in proportion vertically, but to reduce horizontal dimensions to save space and allow room tor flow lines between equipment. Crowding intormation is a common dratting fault - i t is desirable to space generously, as, more often than not, revisions add intormation. On an elevational P&ID, a base line indicating grade or first-floor level can be shown. Crltlcal elevations are noted. For revision purposes, a P&ID is best made on a drawing sheet having a grid system-this is a sheet having letters along one border and numbers along the adiacent border. Thus, reterences such as 'A6'. 'BV, etc., can be glven to an area where a change has been made. (A grid system IS applicable t o P&ID's more complicated than the simple example of figure 5.4.)
DRAFTING GUIDELINES FOR P&ID'n

As with the process flow diagram, directions of flow within the drawing are shown by solid arrows placed at every junction, and all corners except where changes of direction occur closely together. Corners should be square. The number of crossingsshould be kept minimal by good arrangement. Process end servicestreams entering or leavlng the process are noted by hollow arrows with the name ot the conveyed fluid wrrtten over the arrowhead and the continuation sheet number within it. No process flow data will normally be shown on a ?&ID.
FLOW LINES ON P&IWs

o
B

Suitable line thicknesses are shown at full s1ze in chart 5.1 Crossing lines must not touch-break lines going in one direction only. Break Instrument lines crossing process and service lines Keep parallel lines at least 318 inch apart Preterably draw ail valves the same size-114-inch long is suitable-as this retalns legibility for photographic reduction. Instrument isolating valves and drain valves can be drawn smaller, if desired Draw Instrument ~dentificat~on balloons 7116th-inch diameter-see 5.5 Draw trap symbols 318th-inch square
(681

NOTES FOR LINES

e e

Special points tor des~gnand operating procedures are noted-such a s lines which need to be sloped tor gravity flow, lines which need careful cleanlng before startup, etc.

:he PUev " h o u l ~ a ~ , u all . ~ rt.~,2 ~q , u i p ~ , , and ~ , ~ i i , , ~ ~ n ~ d t MOL i o n reievo*>~ to the process, such as equipment names, equlpment numbers, the slzes, ratings, capacities, endlor duties of equipment, end ~nstrumentation. Standby and paralleled equlpment is shown, including all connected lines. Equipment numbers end service functions ('STANDBY' or 'PARALLEL OF1 are noted. 'Future' equlpment, together with the equipment that will service it, is shown in broken outline, and labeled. Blind-flange term~nationsto accommodate future piping should be Indicated on headers and branches. 'Future'additions are usually not antichpated beyond a 5-year period. Pressure ratings tor equipment are noted if the rating is different trom the plping system. A 'typical' note may be used to describe multiple pieces ot identical equipment in the same service, but all equipment numbers are written.
CLOSURES

" 'e iter

' ~uld t ' Nn u n of protection, end ere discussed in 2.10.

nent

'

.aces:

!ding

STEAM TRAPS ON THE P&ID

I f the locat~onsof traps erqknown they are indicated. For example, the trap required upstream ot a pressure-reduc~ngstatlon teeding a steam turbine should be shown.

Steam traps on steam piping are not otherwise indicated, as these trap positions are determined when making the piping drawings. They can be added later to the P&lO if desired, after the piping drawmgs have been completed.
DRIPLEGS

Oriplegs are not shown.


VENTS & DRAINS

Temporary closures tor process operation or personnel protection are shown.

Vents end drains on high and low points of lines respectively, to be used tor hydrostatic testing, are not shown, as they are established on the plping arrangement drawings. Process vents and drains are shown.

SHOW NUMBERS SHOWSIZE ANDPRESSURERATING ON ALL INSTRUMENTATION OF CONTROLVALVES. AN0 SIZE OF S M ~ L S IREFERTOS.+~I ALLOTHER VALVES

INSTRUMENT

TO ATM

SPACE OVER TlTLE BLOCK FOR NOTES. SPECIAL NMBOL IDENTIFICATION.^^

COOLING WATER

CONDENSATE ON ALL LINES


SEPAPATOR -

WATER SEPAPATOR SOLVENT VAPO?IZER EQUIP NO

SOLVENT PaEHEATER EQUIP NO

SOLVENT COOL^ EOUlP NO

EOUiP
SOLVENTRETURN PUM?

EQUIP NO

St,. ..id te4 a . ,s s ar,, .,dice v ~ , . . ~ t sbre h aiid idenuiyiiig number if applicable. Give pressure ratlng if different trom line specification Indicate any valves that have to be locked open or locked closed Indicate powered operators

Inese sheets are tabulated lists ot hnes and intormatton about them. The numbers ot the l~nesare usually listed at the rtght of the sheet. Other columns list h e we, material ot construction (using company's specif~cation code, if there 1 s one), conveyed fluid, pressure, temperature, flow rate, test pressure, insulation or lacket~ng(if required), and connected hnes (which will usually be branches) The sheets are compiled and kept up-to-date by the project group, taking all the tntormation trom the P&ID. Copies are supplied to the piptnggroupfor reference. On smell pro~ects involving only a tew lines line designation sheets may not be used. It is useful to add a note on the P&IO statlng the numbers ot the last line and lest valve used.
VIEWS USED FOR PIPING DRAWINGS

SHOWING INSTRUMENTATION ON THE P&ID

Signal-lead dretting symbols shown tn chart 5.1 may be used, and the ISA scheme tor designat~ngtnstrumentetion ts described in 5.5. Details ot tnstrument piping and conduit are usually shown on separate instrument tnstallation drew~ngs.
B

Show all instrumentation on the P&IO, tor and including these items: element or sensor, signal lead, orifice flange assembly, transmitter, controller, vacuum breaker,flame arrestor, level gage,s~ghtglass, flow indicator, relief valve, rupture disc, safety valve. The last three items may be tagged w ~ t h set pressure(s) also lndicate local- or board-mounting ot instruments by the symbol-reter to the labeling scheme in 5.5.4

5.26

Two types of view are used:


(1)
ORTHOGRAPHIC -PLANS AND ELEVATIONS

I21

PICTORIAL

- ISOMETRIC VIEW AND OBLIQUE PRESENTATION


FIGURE 5 . 5

INSULATION & TRACING

Figure 5.5 shows how a building would appear in these different vlews
PRESENTATIONS USED IN PIPING DRAWINGS

lnsulat~onon piping end equipment is shown, together with the thickness required. Tracing requirements are indicated. Reter to 6.8.
CONTROL STATIONS

Control stations are discussed in 6.1.4. Control valves are indicated by pressure rating, instrument identifying number and size-see figure 5.15, for example.
P&ID SHOWS HOW WASTES ARE HANDLED

Dratns, tunnels, reliet valves and other equipment handling wastes are shown on the P&lD. If an extenslve system or waste-treatment tacility 1s involved, tt should be shown on e separate P&ID. Wastes and effluents are discussed in 6.13.
SERVICE SYSTEMS MAY HAVE THEIR OWN P&ID
I

INS

iI

OSLIOUE

Process equipment may be provided with vartous servtces, such as steam for heating, water or retrigerant tor cooling, or alr tor oxidizing. Plant or equipthese services is usually described on separate 'service P&lD's'. ment prov~ding A service line such as a steam line entering e process P&ID is given a 'hollow arrow' line designailon taken from the servlce P&ID. Returning servtce lines in the same way. Reter to figure 5.4. are des~gnated
UTILITY STATIONS

PLANS & ELEVATIONS

Plan vlews are morecommon than elevational views. Piping layout is developed in plan view, and elevational vtews and section details ere added tor clarity where necessary.
PICTORIAL VIEWS

Stations providing steam, compressed air, and water, are shown. Reier to 6.1.5.

In complex ptping systems, where orthographic vlews may not easily illustrate the design, pictor~elpresentatton can be used tor clar~ty. In e~ther isometrtc or oblique presentations, lines not horizontal or vertical on the drawtng are usually drawn at 30 degrees to the horizontal.

she,. as ot

oblique Dresentatlon has theadvantage that 11 can he distorted nr ~ x p a n d ~ tn d v,u,~t,etc. .,,u,2 cleb.,, d a n a,, ~ w n e t r l cvtavv. It l a t w r commonly used, but can be useful tor diagramat~c work
I

Figure 5.6 illustrates how clrcular shapes vlewed at different angles are approxlmated by means ot a %-degree ellipse template. lsometr~c templates t o r valves, etc., are available and neat drawlngs can be rapldly produced wlth them. Orthographic and lsometrlc templates can be used to produce an oblique presentation.
ISOMETRIC PRESENTATION OF CIRCULAR SECTIONS

Figure 5.7 IS used to show the presentations used In drattlng. lsometr~c and oblique drawlngs bqth clearly show the plptng arrangement, but the plan vlew fails to show the bypass loop and valve, and the supplementary elevation IS needed. PIPING DRAWINGS ARE BASED ON OTHER DRAWINGS 5.2.7

FIGURE 5.6

The purpose of piplng drawlngs IS to supply detailed mtormation to enable a plant to be built. Prlor t o making plpmg drawlngs, the site plan and equipment arrangement drawlngs are prepared, and from these two drawings the plot plan IS derlved. These three drawlngs are used as the basis for developing the plplng drawlngs.
SITE PLAN

The plplng group produces a 'site plan' to a small scale (1inch t o 3 0 or lOOft tor example). It shows the whole slte Including the boundaries, roads. railroad spurs, pavement, buildings, process plant areas, large structures, storage areas, effluent ponds, waste disposal, shlpplng and loading areas. True' (geographic) and 'assumed' or 'plant' nonh are marked and their angular separation shown-see figure 5.1 1.
PIPING ARRANGEMENT IN DIFFERENT PRESENTATIONS FIGURE 5.7

__---_

_---__

LJ

ELEVATION

ISOMETRIC

OBLIQUE

KEY PLAN

. Eauioment coordinat~sare usuallw n i ~ ~ e to nt

A 'kel p ~ Y I IS ~ 'P I U U U ~ by ~~ ~~.$tlng tw. sure plau, u ~ v ~ d ~ uie ng drea of me slte into smaller areas identified by key letters or numbers A small simplified inset ot the key plan is added to plot plans, and may be added to plping and othecdrawings for reterence purposes The subiect area ot the part~cular drawmg is hatched or shaded, as shown in figure 5.8.
DRAWING SHEETSHOWING KEY PLAN & MATCHLINE FIGURE 5.8

h wner"m== ~ Coord;n=t'$ tor I to t h ~ d i t e r l i i ~ u! e the pu11tpshatt ano either to me face .u,,.$ are ,,, ot the pump toundat~on,or to the centerline ot the discharge port.

Up-dated copies of the above drawings are sent to the civil, structural and electr~calor other groups ~nvolvedin the design, to intorm them ot require ments as the des~gn develops.

VESSEL DRAWINGS CVhen the equipment arrangement has been approved and the piping arrange ment determined, small dimensioned drawngs at process vessels are made (on sheets 8% x 11 or 11 x 17 inches) in order to fix nozzles and their orientations, manholes, ladders, etc. These drawings are then sent to the vendor who makes the shop detail draw~ngs,wh~chare exam~nedby the project engineer and sent to the pipmg group for checking and approval. Vessel drawings need not be to scale. (Figure 5.14 i s an example vessel drawing.) DRAWINGS FROM OTHER SOURCES Pipmg drawmgs should be correlated with the tollowing drawlngs trom other desrgn groups and from vendors. Poms to be checked are listed:

PIPING PLAN, AREA'?'

EQUIPMENT ARRANGEMENT DRAWING Under prolect group supervision, the piping group usually makes several viable arrangements ot equlpment, seeking an optimal design that satisfies process requtrements. Often, prelimmary piping studies are necessary in order to establish equipment coordinates. A design aid tor pos~tioningequipment is to cut out scaled outlines of equipment trom stiff paper, which can be moved about on a plan vlew ot the area involved. (If multiple units ot the same type are to be used, xeroxing the equipment outlines is faster.) Another method which is usetul tor areas where method study or investigat~onalreports are needed IS described in 4.4.13 under 'Photographic layouts'. PLOT PLAN When the equipment arrangement drawings are approved, they are developed rnto 'plot plans' by the addit~onot dimensions and coordinates to locate all malor Items ot equipment and structures. North and east coordinates of the extremities of buildings, and centerlines ot steelwork or other architectural constructions should be shown on the plot plan, preterably at the west and south ends ot the installation. Both 'plant north' and true north should be shown-see figure 5.11.

Architectural drawtngs: s Our ines of v.alls or sldings, lnoicarlng tnickress 8 F our penerimons rur stairrA.~ys. I:frr, e eaors, oilcrs, dralns, erc a Positions ot doors and wmdows Civil engtneertng drawmgs: Foundations, underground piptng, drams, etc. Structural-steel drawmgs: 6 Positions of steel columns supporting next higher floor level s Supportmg structures such as overhead cranes, monorails, plattorms or beams (i Wall bracmg, where pipes may be taken thru walls Heating, ventilatmg & ar-condittonmg (HVACJ drawmgs: o Paths ot ducting and rismg ducts, fan room, plenums, space heaters,etc. Eiectrtcal drawtngs: e Positions ot motor control centers, sw~tchgear,l u n c t m boxes and control panels s Major condun or wirmg runs (including buried runs) o Positions of lights lnstrumentat~on drawings: n instrument panel and console locations Vendors' drawtngs: o Oimens~ons ot equipment o Positions of nozzles, flange type and pressure rating, mstruments, etc. Mechanical drawings: s Pos~tionsand dimensions ot mechanical equipment such as conveyors, chutes, etc. o Piped services needed tor mechanical esuioment.

PIPING DRAWINGS

5.2.8

Process equipment and piping systems have priority. Draw~ngslisted on the preceding page must be reviewed for compatibility with the developing prping design. Pertinent background details (drawn faintly) trom these drawings help to avoid interferences. Omission ot such detail trom the piping drawing often leads to the subsequent discovery that pipe has been routed thru a brace, equipment, motor control stairway, doorway, toundat~on,duct, mechan~cal center, fire-fight~ngequipment, etc. Completed piping drawings will also show spool numbers, if this part ot the lob is not subcontracted - see 5.2.9. Electr~caland instrument cables are not shown on piping drawings, but trays to hold the cables are indicated-tor example, see figure 6.3, point (8). I t is not always possible tor the piping drawing to tollow exactly the logicai arrangement ot the ?&ID. Sometimes lines must be routed with different iunction sequence, and line numbers may be changed. During the preliminary piping studies, economiesend practicableimprovementsmay be found, and the P&ID may be modified to take these into account. However, it is not the piping designer's job to seek ways to change the P&iD.
SCALE

On nnn-vtandard rhnnts, lewn 1%- t- .--h mr-- - ' the ' ' 'ge ot the w e i , to ailow i ~ l i n g on a stick' htandard draw~ng sheets usually have this margin On drawings showing a plan view, place a north arrow at the top left corner ot the sheet to indicate plant north-see figure 5.1 1 Do not draw in the area above the title block, as this space is allocated to the bill of materiel, or to general notes; briet descriptions of changes, and the titles and numbers ot reference drawings If plans and elevations are small enough to go on the same sheet, draw the plan at the upper left side ot the sheet and elevations to the right and bottom of it, as shown in figure 5.9
BACKGROUND DETAIL

Show background detail as discussed in 5.2.8 under 'Piping drawings'. It IS sometimes convenient to draw outlines on the reverse side ot the draw~ng sheet
I

After background details have been determined. it i s best to make a print on which nozzles on vessels, pumps, etc., to be pped can be marked in red pencil. Utility stations can also be established. This will for the indicate areas ot malor usage and the most convenient locat~ons headers. Obviously, at tlmes there will be a number ot alternate routes offering comparable advantages

Piping is arranged in plan view, usually to 318 in.lft scale.


ALLOCATING SPACE O N THE SHEET

PROCESS & SERVICE LINES ON PIPING DRAWINGS


I

Obtain the drawing number and fill in the utle block at the bottom right corner ot the sheet
FIGURE 5.9

Take line numbers from the P&ID. Refer to 5.2.4 under 'Flow lines on P&ID's' tor intormation on numbering lines. Include line numbers on all views, and arrowheads showing direction of flow Draw all pipe 'single line' unless special lnstructlons have been given tor drawing 'double line'. Chart 5.1 gives line thicknesses (full size) Line numbers are shown against lines, thus:

s
a

ALLOCATING SPACE ON A DRAWING SHEET

W
_ I

'
8

I
l

ii
x

H
LINE NUMBER

s e
L

1
1

e
ELEVATION

I 5

? I

Take lines cont~nuedon another sheet to a matchline, and there code with line numbers only. Show the continuation sheet numbers on matchlines-see figure 5.8 Show where changes in line material specification occur. The change is usually indicated immediately downstream of a flange of a valve or equipment
SPEC .A' SPEC ' 8 .

, 1 , j 1 g: 1 , L ----------i
1
01

GZ C I 5 1 3 1

L----------i
PLAN r--- - -------

,
I

i
1

I J

8 8

ELEVATION

VALVE. ctc.

Show a definite break in a h e crossmg behind another he-see 'Rolled ell', under 'Plan view piping drawmgs', this section

b e sle e rec thru : . indir ' +ere 1' , e nec '- ' and intorm the group leader for transmitting this intormetion to the group(s) concerned Indicate insulation, and show whether lines are electrically or steam tmced-see chart 5.7

ol

2~ Vl=ul DIPIN(: nRAWlNGS

Draw plan views tor each floor of the plant. These views should show what the layout will look like between adjacent floors, viewed from above, or at the elevation thru which the plan view i s cut If the plan view will not f i t on one sheet, present it on two or more sheets, using matchlines to link the drawings. See figure 5.8

FITTINGS, FLANGES, VALVES & PUMPS ON PIPING DRAWINGS

The tollowrng items should be labeled in one view only: tees and ells rolled at 45 degrees (see example, this page), short-radius ell, reducing ell, eccentric reducer and eccentric swage (note on plan views whether 'top flat' or 'bottom flat'), concentric reducer, concentric swage, non-standard or companion flange, reducing tee, special items of unusual material, ot pressure rating different trom that ot the system. etc. Reter to charts 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5 tor symbol usage Drew the outside diameters ot flanges to scale Showvalve identification number trom P&ID Label control valves to show: size, pressure rating, dimension over flanges, and valve instrument number, trom the P&ID-see figure 5.15 Draw valve handwheels to scale with valve stem tully extended If a valve is chatn-operated, note distance ot chain from operatkng floor, which for satety should be approximately 3 f t For pumps, show outline o t foundation and nozzles
DRIPLEGS & STEAM TRAPS

Note the elevation below which a plan view is &own-tor example, 'PLAN BELOW ELEVATION 15-0" ' For clarity, both elevations can be stated 'PLAN BETWEEN ELEVATIONS 30'-0" & 15-0" ' i f a tee or elbow is 'rolled' at 45 degrees, note as shown in the view where the fitting is rolled out ot the plane ot the drawing sheet
'ROLLED' TEE

'ROLLED' ELL

ROLL ELL AT 45'

ROLL TEE AT 45'

Driplegs are indicated on relevant plping drawlng plan views. Unless identical, a separate detail is drawn for each dripleg. The trap is indicated on the dilpleg pipkng by a symbol, and referred to a separate trap detail or data sheet. The trap detail drawing should show all necessary valves, strainers, unions; etc., requlred at the trap-see figures 6.43 and 6.44. The piping shown on the dripleg details should indicate whether condensate is to be taken to a header tor reuse, or run to waste. The design notes in 6.10.5 discuss dripleg details for steam lines in which condensate torms cont~nuously. Refer t o 6.10.9 also.
INSTRUMENTS & CONNECTIONS O N PIPING DRAWINGS

Figure 5.10 shows how linescan be broken t o give sufficient intormation without drawing other wews Indicate required field welds

ELEVATIONS (SECTIONS) & DETAILS

Draw elevations and details to clarify complex piping or piping hidden in the plan view Do not drew detail that can be described by a note Show only as many sections as necessary. A section does not have to be a complete cross section of the plan Draw to a large scale any part needing tuller detail. Enlarged details are preferably drawn i n available space on elevational drawings, and should be cross-referenced by the applicable detail and draw~ng numbeds) Identify sections indicated on plan views by letters (see chert 5.8) and details by numbers. Letters I and 0 are not used as this can lead to contusion w ~ t h numerals. If more than twentyfour sectlons are needed the letter Identification can be broken down thus: Al-Al, A2-A2, 84-84 ,....... and so on DOnot sectkon planv~ewslookingtoward the bottom ot thedrawingsheet

s
8

B
P

Show locationforeachinstrument connection with encircled instrument number taken from the P&ID. Reter to 5.5.3 and chan 6.2 Show similar isolating valve arrangements on instrument connections as 'typical' detail, unless covered by standard company detail sheet

VENTS & DRAINS

Reter to 6.1 1 and figure 6.47.


PIPE SUPPORTS

Reter to 6.2.2, end chert 5.7. tor symbols


C7d,

Figure 5.10 shows how to break lines t o give sufficient intormation t avo1 rawir.her k sect1

SHOWING 'HIDDEN'

LINES ON PIPING ORAIVINGS

FIGURE 5.10

IDENTIFY BY LINE

NUMBER

P L A N lor ELEVATION)

ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS, or 'ISOS'

An is0 usually shows a complete line trom one piece of equipment to ?ecessary tor tabrication and another-see figure 5.15. It gives all intormat~on erection ot piping.
Correrponding

E L E V A T I 0 N lor PLAN1

PIPING FABRICATION DRAWINGS-'ISOS'

5 'SPOOLS

5.2.9

lsos are usually drawn treehand, but the various runs ot pipe, fittings and valves should be roughly in proportion tor easy understanding. Any one line (that is, all the ptping with the same line number) should be drawn on the minimum number ot iso sheets. If continuation sheets are needed, break the line at natural breakpoints such as flanges (except orificeflanges), welds at fittings, or field welds required tor installation. ltemsand intormetion to be shown on an is0 include:

The two most common methods tor producing piping designs tor a plant are by making either plan and elevation drawings, or by constructing a scaled model. For fabricating welded piping, plans and elevations are sent directly to a subcontractor, usually referred to as a 'shop tabricatoi'-if a model is used, isometric drawings (reterred to as 'isos') are sent instead. Isometric vlews are commonly used in pretabricating parts of butt-welded piping systems. lsos showing the piprng to be pretabricated are sent to the shop tabricator. Figure 5.15 is an example of such an !so.

North arrow (plant north)

Dimensions and angles


Reterence number ot plan drawing from whlch is0 is made (unless model is used), line number, direction ot flow, insulation end tracing Equ~pment numbers and locations ot equipment (by centerlines) Identify all items by use ot an understood symbol, and amplify by a description, as necessary Give details ot any flanged nozzles on equipment to which piping has to be connected, if the flange is different from the specification tor the connected piping Size and type ot every valve Size, pressure ratlng and instrument number ot control valves Number, location and orientat~on for each instrument connection

-i

FIGURE

. -

5.10

The pretabricated parts ot the piping system are termed 'spools', described under 'Spools', this section. The plping group either produces isos showing the required spools, or marks the piping to be spooled on plans and elevations, depending on whether or not a model is used (as shown in chert 5.10). From these drawin@, the subcontractor makes detail drawings termed 'spool sheets'. Figure 5.17 is an example spool sheet.

.
0

. ~ . F _

....... _-.-..-r-..-..
ibers

..--.. "..
(2) (3) (4) Lists the cut lengths ot plpe, fittings and flanges, etc. needed to make the spool Gives materials of construction, and any special treatment of the fin~shedpiping Indicates how many spools of the same type are required

1"-

sheet ---'.iuatir -

s
o
o
P

Un~ons required tor installation and matntenance purposes On screwed and socket-welded assemblies, valve handwheel posttions need not be shown Matertals of construction Locations ot vents, drains, and traps Loeations ot supports, ~dentified by prpesupport number

NUMBERING ISOS, SPOOL SHEETS, & SPOOLS

The tollowing intormation may also be given:


I

Requirements tor stress relieving, seal welding, p~ckling,lining, coating. or other special treatment ot the line

Spool numbers are allocated by the pip~nggroup, and appear on all plplng draw~ngs.Vartous methods of number~ngcan be used as long as ~dentificationIS easily made. A suggested method toIlor6.Iso sheets can be Identified by the line number ot thesectton of line that is shown, tollowed by a sequential number. For example, the tourth is0 sheet showing a spool to be part of a line numbered 74/BZ/6/412/23 could be identified. 74/B2/6/412/23-4

Drawing style to be tollowed is shown in the example iso, figure 5.15, which displays some ot the above points, and gives others as shaded notes. An iso may show more than one spool.
SPOOLS

A spool is an assembly ot fittings, flanges and pipe that may be prefabricated.

It does not include bolts, gaskets. valves or instruments. Straight mill-run lengths ot pipe over 20 tt are usually not lncluded in a spool, as stich lengths may be welded in the system on erection Ion the tso, this 1 s ind~cated by notlng the length, and stating 'BY FIELD'). The size ot a spool is limtted by the tabrtcator's available means ot transportailon, and a spool is usually contained w~thina space ot dimensions 40 f t x 10 t t x 8 tt. The maximum permtssible dimensions may be obtained trom the tabricator.
FIELD-FABRICATED SPOOLS

Both the spool and the spool sheet can be identified by number or letter ustng the is0 sheet number as a prefix. For example, the numbering of spool sheets relating to tso sheet 74/BZ/6/412/23-4 could be 74/BZ/6/412/23-4-1, or 74/82/6/412/23-4-A, 74/BZ/6/412/23-4-2, 74/BZ/6/412/23-4-5,

........ etc.,

........ etc.

The tull line number need not be used i f a shorter t o r n would suffice for identification. Spool numbers are also reterred to as 'mark numbers'. They are shown on lsos and on the tollowing:(1) (2) (3) Spool sheets-as the sheet number The tabrtcated spool-so i t can be related to draw~ngs or isos Pip~ng drawtngs-plans and elevations

Some States in the USA have a trades agreement that 2-inch and smaller carbon-steel piptng must be fabricated at the site. This rule IS somettmes extended to piping larger than 2-inch.
SHOP-FABRICATED SPOOLS

DIMENSIONING
DIMENSIONING FROM REFERENCE POINTS

5.3
5.3.1

All allovspools, and spools with 3 or more welds made trom 3-inch (occasionally 4-inch) and larger carbon-steel pipe are normally 'shop-fabricated'. This is, tabricated in the shop fabricator's workshop, etther at his plant or at the site. Spools with tewer welds are usually made In the field. Large-diameter piping, being more difficult to handle, often necessttates the use ot iigs end templates, and is more economically produced in a workshop.
SPOOL SHEETS

HORIZONTAL REFERENCE

When a proposed plant site is surveyed, a geographic reterence point is utilized trom which measurements to boundaries, roads, buildings, tanks, etc., can be made. The geographic reterence point chosen is usually an offictally-established one. The lines ot lat~tudeand longitude which define the geographic reterence point are not used. as a 'plant north' (see figure 5.11) is established, parallel to structural steelwork. The direct~onclosest to true north 1s chosen for the 'plant north'.

A spool sheet is an orthographic drawing of a spool made by the plping


contractor either trom plans and elevattons, or trom an iso-see chart 5.10.

The coordinatPs of the snuihwest r n r n w ot t h ~ nlant in f ~ n t ~ r5.11 e ac rett,,,, ,o 'pl,,,, liYrth', ,, l l O . Y U E~UUW Sometimes coordinates such as those above may be written N l + l O and E 2+00. The first coordinate is read as "one hundred plus 10 tt north" and the second as "two hundred plus zero tt east" This e a system used tor traverse survey, and IS more correctly applied t o highways, railroads, etc. Coordinates are used to locate tanks, vessels, malor equipment and structural steel. I n the open, these Items are located directly wlth respect t o e geographic reference point, but In buildings and structures, can be dimensioned lrom the building steel.
HORIZONTAL REFERENCE
FIGURE 5.11

VERTICAL REFERENCE Before anv building or erectlng begins , the site IS leveled ('graded') w ~ t h earth-movmg equipment. The ground is made as flat as practicable, and atter leveling IS termed 'finished grade'. The highest graded poini is termed the 'high polnt ot finished grade', IHPFG), and the horizontal plane passing thru-it is made the venical reference plane or 'datum' from which plant elevations are glven. Figure 5.12 shows that this horizontal plane is given e 'false' or nominal elevat~on,usually 100 tt. and is not reterred to mean sea level. The 100 It nominal elevation ensures that foundations, basements, buried pipes and tanks, etc., will have posltive elevations. 'Minus' elevations, whlch would be a nuisance, are thus avo~ded. Large plants may have several areas, each having Its own high polnt ot finished grade. Nominal grade elevation is measured trom a benchmark, as illustrated in figure 5.12.
VERTICAL REFERENCE

FIGURE 5.12

712 , . 1 ELEVAilON ,

ABOVE SEA LEVEL

The US Department ot Commerce's Coast and Geodetic Suwey has established e large number of reterences tor latltuda and long~tude, and tor elevations above sea level. These are termed 'geodetic control stations'. Control stations tor horizontal reterence (latitude and longitude) are referred to as 'triangulation stations' or 'traverse stations', etC. Control StatlOnS tor vert~calreterence are reterred t o as 'benchmarks'. Latitude and long~tude have not been established for all benchmarks. A geodetic control station IS marked with e metal disc showing ~ d e n t ~ t y and date at establishment. T o provlde stable locations tor the discs, they are set into tops ot 'monuments', mounted in holes drilled in bedrock or large firmly-imbedded boulders, or affixed t o a solid structure, such as a building, bridge, etc. The oeoaraphic ot these stations can be obtamed trom the Director, - - . positions . US Coast and Geodetic S u ~ e y Rockville, , Maryland 20852.
1771

DIMENSIONING PIPING DRAWINGS DRAWING DIMENSIONS-& TOLERANCES MAINTAINED IN ERECTED PIPING within On plot: Dimensions on piping drawings are normally mainta~ned the l m t s ot plus or minus 1116th inch. How t h ~ s tolerance is met does not concern the des~gner.Any necessary allowances to ensure that dimensions are made by the tabricator and erector (contractor). are mainta~ned

15.11&5.12

Offplot:
~~~~~~ ~

D~mensans are rnainta~ned as closely as practicable by the erector.

WHICH DIMENSIONS SHOULD BE SHOWN? Suffic~entdimensions should be glven for positioning equipment, tor tabricatinn erectlno ot dimensions in different . . . . . . > .snnnls 7 . . . - - and tor " ,oioino. . Duolication . views should be avoided, as this may easily lead to error i f alterations are made.
~

Basically the dimensions to snow are.

On plping draw~ngs, elevat~ons may be given as in table 5.2

2 3

I /

R E F E R E N C E LINE' TO C E N T E R L I N E

C E N T E R L I N E TO C E N T E R L I N E

I I

PUMPS EoU,PMENT

~~,"oARovALVEs
VESSELS

I
J

CENTERLINE

TO F L A N G E F A C E t

NOZZLESON EOUlPMENT

FLANGE FACE T O FLANGE F A C E t

INSTRUMENTS

SINGLEPIPE: SHOIVCENTERLlNE ELEVATION

BUR#EDLINCSIIN ATRENCHI: SHOW ELEVATION OF BOTTOMS OF PIPES

REFERENCE LINE CAN BE EITHER A N ORDINATE (LINE OF LATITUOE OR LONGITUDE1 OR A CENTERLINE OF BUILDING STEEL STANOARO DIMENSIONS IOEFINEO BY A N Y RECOGNIZED STANOARDI SINGLE PIPE TO NOZZLE: SHOW CENTERLINE ELEVATION OF PIPE ATNOZZLE

v , BOP EL
@@@@/,

T I T IS NECESSARY T O SHOW THESE DIMENSIONS FOR ITEhlS LACKING


FOR h!lNlMUhlCOVER. REFER TOP OF PiPE TO GRADE ELEVATION: EL

Figure 5.13 illustrates the use ot these types ot dimens~ons


PLAN VlEW OlMENSlONS
DRAINSAND SEWERS: SHOW'INVERT ELEVATION'llEl SEVERAL PIPES SHhRING ACOhlMON SUPPORT: SHOW ELEVATION OF BOTTOMSOF PIPES BOP EL

Plan views convey most of the dimens~onalintormation. and may also show dimensions tor elevat~ons in theabsence ot an elevatlonal vlew or sectlon.
E X A M P L E D I M E N S I O N S F O R PLAN V I E W F I G U R E 5.13

SEVERALPIPESON APIPERACb SHOW 'TOP OF SUPPORT'ELEVATION

w TOS EL 1

CLEARANCES:

@ -

FINISHED FLOOR: WOWELEVATION OF HIGH POINT OF FLOOR

/ERTIC&L NOZZLE: ;HOW ELEVATION OF FLANGE FACE

TOUNOATION: SHOWTOP OF CONCRETE'. lNCLUOiNG GROUT

...... ',....,.. .. .
,

..

TOC EL
' . ' "

;.\'":;.i:;:. ~.

....

SHOE: DIMENSION ASSHOViN INTHE PIPERACKSKETCH ABOVE

GUIDELINES FOR DIMENSIONING ALL PIPING ORAWlNtiX

3 . J . J

"0""

P>V""

Y U . . l .

e a

Shuvva , , key b,,,,v6sions, ,,,~,Jing 6 , ~ ~ ~ ar," d n buurdina.bd s Show dimensionsoutsideotthedrawn view unless unavoidable - do not clutter the picture Draw dimension lines unbroken with a fine line. Write the dimension just above a horizontal line. Write the dimension ot a vertical line sideways, preferably at the lett. I t is usual to terminate the line with arrowheads, and theseare preterable for isos. The oblique dashes shown are qulcker and are suitable tor plans and elevations, especially if the dimer~sions are cramped
DIMENSION
L ,

DIMENSION

:he si' "' Id rul ' "ierefl ~eon' " :e dim IS nec to route such piping clear of equipment, other obstructions, and thru walls, and to locate only those items whose sate positioning or accessability IS important to the process Most lengths wlll be stated t o the nearest sixteenth ot an inch. Dimensions which cannot or need not be stated to this precislon are shown with a plus-or-minus sign: 8'-7"+, 15'-3+, etc. Dimensions under two feet are usually marked in inches, and those over two feet in feet and inches. Some companies preter to mark all dimensions over one foot i n feet and inches Attempt to round off non-critical dimensions to whole feet and inches. this precision Reserve tractions of inches for dimensions requ~ring
PLANS & ELEVATIONS-GENERAL DIMENSIONING POINTS

- ...

.-

-. . . ~-~

..

a o

Reserve horizontal dimensions for the pian view Underline all out-ofscale dimensions, or show as in chart 5.8 If a certain piping arrangement is repeated on the same drawing, it is sufficient to dimension the piping in one Instance and note the other appearances as 'TYP' (typical). This situation occurs where similar pumps are connected to a common header. For another example, see the pump base i n figure 6.17 Do not duplicate dimensions. Do not repeat them in different views

If a series o t dimens~onsis to be shown, strlng them together asshown in the sketch. (Do not dimension from a common reterence line as in machine drawing.) Show the overall dimension of the string ot dimenslons i f this dimension will be ot repeated interest
DIMENSIONS ON MACHINE DRAWINGS

DIMENSIONING TO JOINTS

e
P

DIM

t
DIM

DIM DIM

--

Do not terminate dimensions at a welded or screwed joint Unless necessary, do not dimension to unions, d i n e couplings or any other items that are not critical to construction or operation of the piping Where flanges meet i t 1 s usual to show a small gap between dimension lines t o Indicate the gasket. Gaskets should be covered in the piping specification, with gasket type and thickness stated. Reter to the panel 'Dratting valves', preceding chart 5.6.

FIGURE
.: :

DIMENSIONSON PIPING DRAWINGS

DIM

DIM

DIM

Do not omit a s~gnificanrdimension other than 'fitting makeup', even though it may be easily calculated - see 'fittmg makeup', this section
1791

As nearly all flanged pints have gaskets, a tlmesavlng procedure 1 s to note flanged loints without gaskets (for example, see 3.1.6 under 'Butterfly valve'). The fabricator and erector can be alerted to the need tor gasketselsewhere by a general note on all plping drawings: "GASKETS ASSPECIFICATION EXCEPT AS NOTED"

If ~ber ' ns ot ard t ions i . ,uped ier it necessary to dimension each item, a s the tabricator knows the sizes ot standard fittings and equipment. I t is necessary, however, to Indicate that the overall dimension is 'fitting makeup' by the special cross symbol, or preterably by writing the overall dimension. Any nonstandard Item inserted between standard items should be dimensioned.
'

FITTING MAKEUP

SYMBOL

ANGENT LINE

DIMENSIONING TO VALVES
D

Locate flanged and welding-endvalves with ANSI standard dimensions by dimensioning to their centers. Most gate and globe valves are standard-see table V-1 Dimension non-standard flanged valves as shown in the panel opposite chart 5.6. Although a standard exists tor control valves, tackto-tace dimensions are usually given, as it i<possible to obtain them in nonstandard sizes Standard flanged check valves need not be dimensioned, but if location IS Important, dimension to the flange tace(s) Non-flanged valves are dimensioned to their centers or stems

SPACED. FROM SCH 40 PIPE

DIMENSIONING TO NOZZLES ON VESSELS & EQUIPMENT

a
I

In plan view, a nozzle is dimensioned to its tace trom the centerline ot the equipment it i s on In elevation, a nozzle's centerline is either given its own elevation or is dimensioned trom another reterence. In the absence ot an elevational view, nozzle elevations can be shown on the plan view
5.3.4
FACES OF FLANGED NOZZLES SHALL PROlECT THE FOLLOWNG DISIIINCES FRDU INTERNAL SURFACE OF VESSEL.

PLAN -

DIMENSIONING ISOS

In order to clearly show all dimensions, the best aspect ot the piping must be determined. Freedom to extend linesand spread the piping without regard to scale is a great help In showing isometric dimensions. The basic dimensions set out in 5.3.2. 5.3.3, and the guidelines in 5.2.9 apply. Figure 5.15 illustrates the main requirements of an isometric drawing, and inincludes a dimensioned offset. Figure 5.16 shows how other offsets are dim. ens~oned.
o

U N I E S DTHERiYISE SPSC1FIED:-

OZZLESZE: 3"&iru 4"thiu 22" 14"Blrrgci 1Ym8ON: I /r

I NOZZLE LISTING 1

. /

FA",'iCEL ~ ~ ~
OF

"

'

"

W E R l E Z T O BE I\WWEREDUYTHEOPlGNER )R ORDER To pnovloEm~n rN~onMarloa NE#XSS&RI FOR DESIOH W D FABRICATION

THE VESSEL

OZZLE 51ZE RATING B DESCRIPTION

Dimension in the same way as plans and elevations Give sufficientdimensionstor the tabricator to make the spool drawings -see figure 5.17

Allowance tor weld spacing (root gap) IS ;,shop set-up prnblem and should not be considered in making assembly drawings or detailed sketches. The Pipe Fabr~cationInstitute recommends that an overall dimension is shown which IS the sum ot the nominal dimensions ot the component parts.

A spool sheet deals w ~ t honly one des~gnot spool, and shows complete
dimens~onaldetail, lists material tor making the spool, and specifies how many spools of that type are requ~red.Figure 5.17 shows how a spool trom figure 5.15 would be dimensioned.

EXAMPLE SPOOL No. W-1.E

FROM FIGURE 5.15

THIS ISOMETRIC VIEW I S SHOWN HERE FOR EXPLANATION ONLY. AND i S NOT A PART OF THE SPOOL DRAWING AT RIGHT

(PLANS, ELEVATION>, RESPONSIBILITIES


5.4.1

C1 I X J a I

Points to be checked on all piping drawings include the tollowing Title ot drawing Number of issue, and revrsion number Orientation: North arrow against plot plan Inclusion ot graphic scale (if drawing i s to be photographically reduced)

P&IDZs, process flow diagrams and line designation sheets are checked by engineers in the project group. Except for spool drawings, all piping drawingsare checked by the prplng group. Orthographic spool drawings produced by the piping fabricator are not usually checked by the piping group, except for 'critical' spools, such as spools tor overseas shipment and intricate spools. Usually an experienced designer within the piping group is given the task ot checking. Some companies employ persons specifically as design checkers. The checker's responsibilities are set out in 4.1.2

Equipment numbers and their appearance on piping drawings That correct identification appears on all lines in all views Line material specification changes Agreement with specifications and agreement with other drawings That the drawing includes reterence numbeds) and title(s) to any other relevant drawings That all dimensions are correct Agreement with certified vendors' drawings tor dimensions, nozzle orientation, manholes and ladders That face-to-face dimensions and pressure ratings are shown for all nun-standard flanged items Location and identification ot instrument connections :Provision of line vents, drains, traps, and tracing. Check that vents are at all high points and drains at all low points ot lines for hydrostatic test. Driplegs should be indicated and detailed. Traps should be identified, and piping detailed The following rtems should be labeled in one view only: tees and ells rolled at 45 degrees (see example in 5.2.8), short-radius ell. reducing ell, eccentric reducer and eccentric swage [note on plan views whether 'top flat' or 'bottom flat'), concentric reducer, concentric swage, non-standard or companion flange, reducrng tee, special items of unusual material, ot pressure rating different from that of the system, etc. Reter to charts 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5 tor symbol usage That insulation has been shown as required by the P&IO Pipe support locations with support numbers That all anchors, dummy legs and welded supports are shown That the stress group's requirements have been met That all field welds are shown Correctness of scale Coordinates of equipment against plot plan Piping arrangement against P&ID requirements Possible interferences Adequacy ot clearances ot piping trom steelwork,doors, windows and braces, ductwork, equipment and malor electric apparatus, including control consoles, cables trom motor control centers (MCC's), and firefighting equipment. Check accessibility tor operation and maintenance

CHECKING PIPING DRAWINGS

5.4.2

Prints ot drawings are checked and corrected by marking with colored pencils. Areas to be corrected on the drawing are usually marked in red on the print. Correct areas and dimensions are usually marked in yellow. Checked drawings to be changed should be returned to their originator whenever possible, tor amendment. A new print is supplied to the checker with the original 'marked up' print tor 'backchecking'.

ISSUING DRAWINGS

5.4.3

Areas ot a drawing awaiting further rntormation or decision are ringed clearly on the reverse side and labeled 'HOLD'-reter to chart 5.8. (A black, red, or yellow china marker is suitable tor film with a slick finish on the reverse srde.) Changes or revisions are indicated on the fronts ot the sheets by a small triangle in the area ot the revision. The revision number is marked inside the triangle, noted above the title block (or in an allocated ane el) with a description ot the revision, required initials, and date. The reviscon number may be part ot the drawing number, or i t may tollow the drawing number (preferred method-see figure 5.17). The drawing as first issued is numbered the 'zero' revtsion.
A drawing i s issued in three stagas.The first Issue is 'FOR APPROVAL', by management or client. The second issue is'FOR CONSTRUCTION BID', when vendors are invrted to bid tor equipment and work contracts. The third issue i s 'FOR CONSTRUCTION' tollowing awarding at all purchase orders and contracts. Drawings may be reissued at each stage if significant changes are made. Minor changes may be made attar the third stage (by agreement on cost and extent ot work) but major changes may involve all three stages ot issue.

R
8

s
a

noles, natcnes, covers, dropout and handling areas, etc. have been provided Foundation drawings with vendors' equipment requirements List ot materiel, ~f any. Listed items should be Identified once, either on the plan or the elevation drawings That section letters agree with the section markings on the plan vlew That drawings include necessary matchline intormation Appearance ot necessary continuation sheet numberls) That spool numbers appear correctly Presence ot all requ~redsignatures

Although Instruments are used tor many purposes, their basic tunctions are tew in number. (1) To sense e 'condition' of the process material, most commonly its pressure, temperature. flosw rate or level. These 'conditions' are termed process variables. The piece of equipment that does the sensing is termed a 'prlmary element'. 'sensor', or 'detector'. To transmlt a measure ot the process var~able trom a prlmary element. To indicate a measure of a process variable to the plant operator, by showing the measured value by a dial and pointer, pen and paper roll or digital display. Anothertorm of indicator isen alarm which glves audible or visual warning when a processvariablesuch as temperature approaches an unsate or undes~red value. To record the measure ot a process variable. blost recorders are electrically-operated pen-and.paper-roll types which record either the instantaneous value or the average over a time period.
IS termed a 'controller' A controller sustains or changes the value of the process variable by actuating a 'final control element' ithis element is usually a valve, In process piping).

(2)
(3)

e
o

5 . 5

(4)

This turther point should be checked on ~sos:


a

Agreement with model

(5) To control the process var~able.A n instrument initiating this tunct~on

These turther points should be checked on spool sheets:


I
6

That materiel is completely listed and described That the required number at spools of identical type is noted

INSTRUMENTATION (As s h o w n on P&ID's)

Many instruments combine two or more ot these five tunctions, and may also have mechanical parts integrated - the commonest example ot this is the selfmntained control valve (see 3.1.10, under 'Pressure regulator', and chart 3.1).
HOW INSTRUMENTATION IS IDENTIFIED 5.5.3

This sectlon briefly describes the purposes ot instruments and explains how instrumentatlon may be read trom P&ID's. Piping drawings will also show the connection icoupling, etc.) to line or vessel. However, piping drawings should show only instruments connected to (or located in) plplng and vessels. The only purpose i n adding instrumentation to a plplng drawing is to identify the connection, orifice plate or equipment to be installed on or in the piplng, and to correlate the piping drawing to the ?&ID.
INSTRUMENT FUNCTION ONLY IS SHOWN 5.5.1

The most-used instruments are pressure and temperature gages ('indicators') and are shown as in figure 5.18 ia) and lb). An example 'instrument identification number' lor 'tag number') IS shown in figure 5.18 (c). The balloon around the number is usually drawn 7116-inch diameter.
INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBERS FIGURE 5.18

Instrumentation isshown on processdiagramsand piping drawings by symbols. The tunctions of intruments are shown, not the instruments. Only the primary connection to a vessel or line, or dev~cesinstalled in a line (such as orifice plates and control valves) are indicated. There is some uniformity, among the larger companies at least, in the way'in which instrumentatlon is shown. There is a willingness t o adopt the recommendat~ons ot the InstrumentSociety ot America, but adherence is not always 'Instrumentat~onsymbols and idencomplete. The ISA standard is S5.1, t ~ t l e d tification'. Compliance with the ISAscheme is to some extent internat~onal.This is beneficial when drawings go from one country to another, as there is then no difficulty in understanding the instrumentation.

In figure 5.18, 'P', 'T', and 'F' denote process variables pressure, temperature, end flow respectively. 'I' and 'G' show the type ot instrument; indicator and gage respectively. Table 5.3 glves other letters denoting process variable, type of instrument, etc. The number '8', labeled 'loop number', is an example sequential number (allocated by an instrumentatlon engineer).

INST. -NT R TING & MULTIPLE-FUNCTION INSTRUMENTS

^'""AL

I C""S

3 . 3 . 0

A horizontal line in the ISA balloon shows that the ~nstromentperforming the t u n c t ~ o n IS to be 'board mounted' in a console, etc. Absence o t this line shows 'local mounting'. in or near the piping, vessel, etc.
BOARD MOUNTING

Elements, transmitters, recorders. indrcaiorsand controlierscommunrcate wlth each other b y means o t signal leads - w h i c h are represented by lines on the drawing The s~gnalcan be most common signals

a voltage.

the pressure o t a fluid, etc -these are the

LOCAL MOUNTING

Symbols tor instrument signal leads are given

- in

chart

51
TABLE 5 3

INSTRUMENTATION CODING. ISA CODING


PROCESS VARIABLE

TYPE OF INSTRUMENT ALARM A USER'S CHOICE ............... 8 CONTROLLER C CONTROLVALVE ........... CV TRAP.. CV SENSOR IPrlmary Element) ...... E RUPTURE DISC ............... E SIGHT or GAGE GLASS ......... G TELEVISION MONITOR ........ G INDICATOR I CONTROLSTATION ........... K LIGHT IPilotIOperatlon) ......... L JSER'S CHOICE N :LOW RESTRICTION ORIFICE.. . 0 TEST POINT [Sample Palntl ...... P iECORDER .................. 3 I WITCH 5 TRANSMITTER ............... T MULTIFUNCTION ............. U JALVEIDAMPER .............. V NELL ........................ W JNCLASSIFIED ............... .. RELAY ...................... Y DRIVER ..................... ACTUATOR ..................

The ISA scheme shows instrument tunctions, n o t instruments. However, a multipie-tunction instrument can be indicated b y drawing rhe balloonsshowIng the separate tunctions so that the circles touch. Sometimes, a multiple-tunction instrument will be indicated b y a srngle balloon symbol. w i t h a l u n c t ~ o nidentification, such as 'TRC' t o r a temperature recorder-controller. This practice is n o t preferred-it i s better t o draw ( i n this example) separate 'TR' and 'TC' balloons, touching. INTERCONNECTED INSTRUMENTS ['LOOPS')

IF

5.5.5

Ii

The ISA standard use: the term 'loop' t o describe an interconnected group o i instruments, which is not necessarily a closed-loop arrangement: that IS. lnstrumentat~on used in a teedback l o r feedforward) arrangement. I t several Instruments are interconnected, they may be all allocated the same number tor 'loop' identificatlon. Figure 5.19 shows a process line served b y one group o l instruments (loop number 73) t o sense, transmit and Indicate temperature, and a second group (loop number 74) t o sense, transmit. indicate, record and control flow rate. EXAMPLE INSTRUMENT 'LOOPS' FIGURE 5.19

,NALYSIS.. ................. A URNER [Flamel .......-..... 6 OMBUSTION.. .............. B ISER'S CHOICE C ISER'S CHOICE .............. D \ 'OLTAGE ................... E LOW RATE ................. F ISERSCHOICE .............. G :URRENT [Electrlci ........... 1 'OWER ..................... J 3ME [Time Contiol/Clock) . . . . . . K E V E L . . .................... L SER'S CHOICE .............. M SER'S CHOICE .............. N SER'S CHOICE .............. 0 RESSURE/VACUUM.. ........ P ADlATlON ................. R PEED (or Frequency) .......... S EMPERATURE ......-....... IULTIVARIABLE ............ U IBRATION ................. V rElGHT tar Force) ............ W INCLASSIFIED .............. X VENT IRerponre to1 .......... Y OSITION, DIMENSION ........

..............

...................... ................ ....................

..................
...............

......................

DIFFERENTIAL. TOTAL

D
Q

When the difference between two values of the procerr vartable is znvolved When the process variable is t o be summed aver a perlad of tme. For example. flow rate can be summed t o gwe total volume When the ratlo ot two valuer of the process varwble ,r !nvolved T o denore an ,tern such ar a relief valve or ruptuie disc T o denote a hand.aperated o r hand-started
.~b..,

. . .
.

RATIO

SAFETY ITEM 'HAND'

.
~.

S H

QUALIFYINGLETTER AFTER THE'TYPE O F INSTRUMENP LETfiR HIGH INTERMEDIATE. LOW


L

T o denote instrument actlon on 'high' set value ot the process vanable T o denote instrument actlon on 'intermediate' set value of the procerr vanable T o denote ~nrtrumentaction on 'low' set value of the process vanable

L I S T I N G PIPING M A T E R I E L O N D R A W I N G S

5 . 6

In the engineering construction industry, i t is usual tor piping components to be given a code number which appears in the piping specification. I n companies not primarily engaged in plant construction, materiel is tiequently listed on drawings DIFFERENT FORMS OF LIST 5 . 6 . 1

Hanhazarrl listtng of i t m s mai.0. rakrenc" fc",'bleso-The s-'--' sup L 5.1 1 ib uaied on liie outy of me nardware and can be extended 9ca~ed in - & t o # to listing equipment if desired. Items of higher pressure rating and larger size can be listed first within each class. LISTING SPECIFIC ITEMS 5 . 6 . 3

This list is usually titled 'list ot material', or preterably, 'list of materiel', as items of hardware are referred to. 'Pans list' and 'Bill of materiel' are alternate headings. Either a separate list can be made tor materiel on several drawings, or each drawing sheet can include a list tor items on the panicular drawing. Lists on drawings are written in the space above the title block. Column headings normally used tor the list are:

Under the heading DESCRIPTION, otten on drawings thesize ot the item is stated first. A typical order is: SIZE (NPS). RATING (class, schedule numher, etc.), NAME (ot item). MATERIAL [ASTM or other material specification), and FEATURE (design feature). Descriptions ere best headed bythe NAME ot the item. followed by the SIZE. RATING, FEATUREN, and MATERIAL. Asmaterial listingsare commonly handled by data-processing equipment, beginning the description ot an item by name is ot asststance in handling the data. The descrtption tor 'pipe' is detailed.
EXAMPLE LISTING FOR PIPE

II
lTEM NUMBER

L I S T OF M A T E R I E L REMARK' REoU'S'T'ON NUMBER' ORCOMPANYCODE

NAME. SIZE. RATING.

State 'PIPE' Specify nominal pipe size. See 2.1.3 and tables P-I Specify wall thickness as either a schedule number, a manutacturers'weight,etc. See tables P-I. SCH=schedule, STD= standard, XS= extra-strong, XXS= doubleextrastrong, API= American Petroleum Institute. Specify design teaturets) unless covered by a pipe specification tor the prolect. Pipe is available seamless or with a welded seamexamples of designations are: SMLS = seamless, FEW = turnace-butt-welded, ERW = electric-resistancewelded GALV = galvanized. Specify ends: T&C = threaded and coupled, BE = beveled end, PE = plain end.

QUANTITY

DEYRlPilON

SUGGESTED LISTING SCHEME

5 . 6 . 2 FEATURE.

Vessels, pumps, machinery and instruments are normally listed separately trom piping hardware. However, it is not uncommon, on small proiects or revamp work, t o list all materiel on a drawing.
CLASSIFICATION FOR PIPING COMPONENTS

CHART 5.11

I
I

CLASS

&
I

I'

INTENDED D U T Y O F H A R D W A R E
WtTH

RESPECT

TO

FLUlD

E X A M P L E HARDWARE

CONVEYANCE: To p r ~ ~ k f e r i ~ v l h Pipe, fimngr. ordinary flanges. bolt and gasket rcir lor drid Ilmc FLOW CONTROL:
valve, orifice piale, vcnlvii

MATERIAL. Carbon-steel pipe is otten ordered t o ASTM A53 or A106, Grade A or B. Other specifications are given in tables 7.5 and 2.1.

POINTS TO CHECK WHEN MAKING THE LlST


0

5 . 6 . 4

See that all items in the list have been given a sequential item number Label the items appearing on the piping drawings with the item number from the list. Write the item number in a circle wtth a fine line or arrow pointing t o the item on the drawing. Each item in the list ot materiel is this ~ way , once the plan or lindicated ~ ~ in ~ ~ on $ l ~ elevational ~ ~ ~piping ~ drawings ~ Verify that all data on the list agree with: (1) Requirements set out in piping drawings (2) Available hardware in the manufacturers' catalogs

Ivi

MEASUREMENT: 7b ,,icamic ,.dnd,a qi tiic p,,id, rl.cil or

paw

Gages l a i l typed rhermomctcrr l a i l type% flow m h . denrltameter.

r ~ w . ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ prcinm, c~~r~r dotnty, .-, m s ~ o s ~ tlrrb;dirj, r, roimr

8nnrumentf

A R R A N G I N G PIPING
GUIDELINES & NOTES

6 . 1
6.1.1

Avoid burying steam lines that pocket, due t o the difficully ot collect. ing condensate. Steam lines may be run below grade in trenches provided with covers or (for short runs) in sleeves Lines that are usually buried d u d e dra~ns and lines bringing in water or gas. Where long cold winters treeze the soil, burying lines below the trost line may avoid the treezing ot water and solutions, saving the expense ot trecmg long horizontal parts ot the lines Include removable flanged spools t o aid maintenance, especially at pumps, turbines, and other equipment that will have to be removed tor overhaul

Simple arrangements and short lines mmfmfze pressure drops and lower pumpfng costs. Designing piping so that the arrangement 1 s 'flexible' reduces stresses due to mechanical or thermal movement-rater to figure 6.1 and 'Stresses on piptng', this section. Inside buildings, plplng is usually arranged parallel to building steelwork to simplify supporting and improve appearance. Outside buildings, piping can be arranged: (1) On piperacks. (21 Near grade on sleepers. (3) In trenches. (4) Vertically agalnst steelwork or large items 01 equipment.
PIPING ARRANGEMENT
B

Take gas and vapor branch lines from tops ot headers where it is necessary to reduce the chance ot drawing off condensate (if present) or sediment which may damage rotating equipment Avoid pocket~nglines-arrange piping so that lines drain back into equipment or into lines that can be drained Vent all high points and drain all low points on lines - see figure 6.47. Indicate vents and drains using symbols i n chart 5.7. Caretully-placed drains and valved vents permit lines t o be easily drained or purged during shutdown periods: this isespecially important in treezing climates and can reduce winterizing costs

a
o

Use standard available items wherever possible Do not use miters unless directed to do so Do not run piping under toundat~ons.(Pipes may be run under grade beams) Piping may have t o go thru concrete floors or walls. Establish these points ot penetration as early as possible and intorm the group concernbars ed (architectural or civil) to avoid cutting existing reintorc~ng Preferably lay piping such as lines to outside storage, loading and receiving tacilit~es,at grade on pipe sleepers (see figure 6.3) if there is no possibility of future roads or site development
1871

s
a

ARRANGE FOR SUPPORTING o


0

Group lines in pipeways, where practicable Support piping trom overhead, i n preterence to underneath Run plping beneath plattorrns, rather than over them

REMOVING EQUIPMENT & CLEANING LINES e

Provide union- and flanged joints as necessary, and in addit~onuse crosses instead of elbows, to permit removing material that may solidify

C L F A R A N C E S & ACCESS

P
I

Steqqer flanges, with 12-inch minimum clearance trom stipporting steel Keep iield weio!, dnd oiiit?~mnts d i least 3 I I I L I I ~ t r o n ~ >upportiny steel, building s~dingor other obstruction Allow room tor the p i n t to be made Allow room tor loops and other pipe arrangements to cope with expansion by early consultation with staff concerned w ~ t h pipe stressing. Notify the structural group of any additional steel required to support such loops

e a

Route piplng to obta~n adequate clearance tor maintaining and removing equipment Locate within reach, or make accessible, all equipment sub~ect to periodic operation or inspection - with special reterence t o check valves. pressure r e k t valves, traps, strainen and instruments Take care to not obstruct access ways - doorways, escape panels, truckways, walkways, lift~ng wells, etc Posrt~on equipment with adequate clearancp tor operation and maintenance Clearances otten adopted are given in tabla 6 1 I n some circumstances, these clearances may be inadequate-tor example, with shell-and-tube heat exchanoen, space must be provided to permit withdrawal ot the tubes trom the shell

o
0

THERMALMOVEMENT

MINIMUM CLEARANCES HORIZONTAL Operstmg space around equipment t CLEARANCES. Centerline of railroad to nearest obnmenon: ( 1 ) Straight track (2) Curved track Manhole to railing or ohnruction Over walkway. platform, or operating area VERTICAL CLEARANCE^: Overstaway Over high polnt ot plant roadway: (1) Minor roadway (2) Majsr roadway Over railroad from top ot rail MINIMUM HORIZONTAL DIMENSIONS Width of walkway at floor level Width of elevated walkway or staltway Width ot rung of fixed ladder See charr P-2. Width of way for forklift truck VERTICAL DIMENSIONS Railing. Top of floor. platform, or stair, to: (11 Lower rail 12) Upper rail Manhole centerline to floor See rable 6.2 andcharr P-2. Valves:

ABLE 6.1
2ft Eft 9fl 3h 6ft 7ft 17ft 20h 22ft 3ft 2h 6in. Sin. Sin. Din. Sin. Din. Oin. Oin. 6in.

iviaximum and minimum lengths ot a pipe run will correspond to the temperature extremes to which it is subjected. The amount ot expansion or shrinkage In steel per degree change i n temperature ('coefficient ot expansion') is approxmately the same -that is, the expansion trow 40F to 41F isabout the same as from 132 F to 133 Fc or trow 179 F to 180 F, etc. Chart 6.1 gives changes in line length tor changes in temperature.
EXPANSION OF CARBON.STEEL PIPE
CHART 6.1

Din. Sin. 16in. 8h Din. gin. Sin. Din.

lft 3fi 3fl

Ensure very hot lines are not run adiacent to lines carrying temperature sensitive fluids, or elsewhere, where heat might be undes~rable Establish suffic~ent headroom tor ductwork, essential electr~calruns. and at least two elevations tor pipe run north-south and east-west (based on clearance ot largest lines, steelwork, ductwork, etc.-see figure 6.49) Elevations ot lines are usually changed when chang~ng horizontal direction where lines are grouped together or are in a congested area, so as not to block space where tuture lines may have t o be routed

0.65

Expansion inches p e r 100 ft)

STRESSESON PIPING THERMAL STRESSES

Changes in temperature ot plping, due either to change in temperature of the environment or ot the conveyed fluid, cause changes in length of the piping. This expanslon or contraction in turn causes strarns inpiping, supports and attached equipment.

....

SETTLEMENT STRAINS Foundat~ons at large tanks and heavy equipment

plping and equipmay settle or tilt slightly in the course ot t~merConnected ment not on a common toundat~on will be stressed by the displacement unless the plplng is arranged in a configuration flexible enough to accommodate mult~ole-olane , . movement. This problem should not arlse ln new constfuctlon but could occur in a modification to a plant unit or process.
FLEXIBILITY I N PIPING

To reduce strains in piping caused by substant~al thermal movement, flexible and expanslon joints may be used. However, the use ot these rolnts may be m~nimlzed by arrangmg piping in aflexible manner, as illustrated in figure 6.1. Pipe can flex in a direction perpendicular to its length: thus, the longer an offset, or the deeper a loop, the more flexibility 1 s gained.
COLD SPRING

Cold springing of lines should be avoided if an alternate method can be used.

A line may be cold sprung to reduce the amplitude ot movement from


thermal expansion or contraction in order: la) To reduce stress on connections. !b) To avoid an interterence. Figure 6.2 schemat~callyillustrates the use ot cold springmg tor both purposes. Cold springing in example (a) consists ot making the branch in the indicated cold position, which divides thermal movement between the cold and hot positrons. In example ( b ) the cold sprlng is made equal to the thermal movement.
COLD SPRINGING
(a) TO REDUCESTRESS

HOT POSITION

COLD SPV.ING

iCHnRT

1 6 . 1

FIGURE 6.2

TDL Urn limb in UiL more linibie arirnW3mi . ! , . a grr.,., Virrmr, ma""mi b n r e n mmeh and run.

,Dl TO A V O I D A N fNTERFERENCE

COLD LlNE

---I I COLD SPXING


1891

Anchored end

. exar.,-

F..--.-

er-"..3dSOl-l...-

redue.. . ess: .

Th- .--ilest

*--

-' pipe

.,.- 7n a *."n,nek w s * i - , , ' addi-.-n-' SUj3pm-'

'"

A l o n g p l p e connected by a 90-degree elbow and flange to a nozzle may on h e a t i n g e x p a n d so that i t imposes a load on the nozzle I n excess ot that recommended. Assume t h a t p l p i n g to the nozzle has been installed at ambient temperature, and that the plpe expands 0.75 Inch when hot material flows t h r u it, p u t t i n g a lateral ls~deways)load ot 600 lb on the nozzle.
pipe had 0.375 inch of its l e n g t h removed betore connection, the roomload on t h e n o z z l e w o u l d be about 300 lb (instead at zero), and the hot load would be reduced t o about 300 lb.
I f the t e m p e r a t u r e lateral

I t may be more economlc 10 change p r o p o s e 0 small lines to 2-inch plpe, or to suspend them trom 4-inch or larger lines, Instead ot providing additional support.

usually 2 inch.

Table S-'I and charts S-2


pipe.

gave

stress and support data tor spans ot hor~zontal

KEY FOR FIGURE 6.3


'11 WHEN USING A DOUBLE DECK. I T IS CONVENTIONAL TO PLACE UTILITY AND SERVICE PIPING ON THE UPPER LEVEL OF THE PIPERACK 121 0 0 NOT RUN PIPING OVER STANCHIONS AS THlS WILL PREVENT ADDING ANOTHER DECK

The t r a c t i o n o i the e x p a n s i o n taken up can be varied. A coldspring ot 50% 01 t h e expansion b e t w e e n the t e m p e r a t u r e e x t r e m e s glves the most benefit in reduc~ngstress. Cold s p r i n g i n g IS n o t recommended if an alternate solution can be used. Reter to t h e Code torPressurePip~ng ANS! 831 and to rable7.2.
RESISTANCE

OF P I P I N G TO F L O W

All p l p l n g has res~stance to flow. The smaller the flow cross sectlon and the more abrupt the change in direction ot ilow, the greater 1s the r e s ~ s t a n c eand loss ot pressure. For a p a r t i c u l a r line s1ze the reslstance 1s proport~onalto the length ot plpe, and the resistance ot fitt~ngs,valves, etc. may be expressed as a length o f plpe having the same reslstance to flow. Table F-10 gives such equivalent lengths ot plpe tor fittings, valves, etc.

AN ADDITIONAL 25 PERCENT ITHAT IS. 20 PERCENT OF FINAL WIDTH-SEE TABLES A - l l 15) HOT PIPES ARE USUALLY INSULATED AND MOUNTED ON SHOES 161 WARM PIPES MAY HAVE INSULATION LOCALLY REMOVED AT SUPPORTS 17) THE HEIGHT OF A RELIEF HEADER IS FIXED BY ITS POINT OF ORIGIN A N 0 THE SLOPE REOUIREDTO DRAIN THE L I N E T O A T A N K . Eic. 10. E.ECTRlCA. A\O I\SIRL)IlEhT TRAYS IFOR C O h D J l T AVO CABLES, ARF SCST P-ACED Oh OUTR GGtRS OR BRACKETS ASSnOlIN. TO PREStkT ThE -CAST PROB.EL! V/ T n P.PES LEAWNG TdE PIPEi'VAY ALTERFIATELY. TRAYS hlAY 6E ATTACdEO TO TnE STANCrllOhS

4 1 PROVIDE DISTRlaUTED SPACE FOR FUTURE PIPES-APPROXIMATELY

Table F-11 gives pressure drops tor water flowlng thru SCH 40 p l p e at varlous rates. Charts to determine the economlc slze ( N P S ) ot p l p l n g are g l v e n in the Chemical Eng~neer'sHandbook and other sources.
SLIDERULE FOR FLOWPROBLEMS

191 WHEN CHANGE I N DIRECTION OF A HORIZONTAL LINE ISMADE. I T ISBEST ALSO TO MAKE A CHANGE OF ELEVATION [EITHER UP OR DOWN). THIS AVOIDS BLOCKING SPACE FOR FUTURE LINES. BO-DEGREE CHANGES I N DIRECTION OF THE WHOLE PIPEWAY OFFER THE OPPORTUNITY TO CHANGE THE ORDER OF LINES. A SINGLE DECK IS SHOWN AT AN INTERMEDIATE ELEVATION -110 SOI.ICTIP!ES II.TEHFACE~ ARE ESTABLISHED TO DEFINE BREAKPOI'.TS FOR CONTRACTED :.ORK i i . n E R i O\E COhTHACTOR'S PIP NG HAS i 0 JOIN 7 A T E A'. lfiTEr?FACE I S A X IZ!AGINARY P-AEIE \'.nlCh i ' A Y BE ESTAB-ISrlEO FAR E*.OuGri FROIl A MALL. SlOlhG. PROCESS .h T OR STORAGE L!, T TO E h A B L t COh\ECT ON5 TO BE hlAOE I l l ) PIPES SHOULD BE RACKED ON ASINGLE DECK IF SPACEPERMITS I121 PIP !.G ShOJLO BE SUPPORTEO O h SLEtPERS AT GRADE IF ROAOS.$'.Al.K \a,AYS. E x . \$: -L hOT BE REOUIRED OVER ThE PPEWAY AT A LATER DATE PIP *.G AT ~ a ~ o E ' s d 0 BE 12 IVCnESOR MORE ABOVE GRA9E . I 3 C-RREkT PRACTICE tS TO SPACE BEhTS 20--25 FEET APART THlS SPACllG IS A CO'dPROVfSC BETla,EEN TnE ACCFPTAB-E OEFLECTIO\S OF T r l t S\lAL-ER PIPES A\G TnE MOST ECONOVIC BEAh' SECTIO*. DESIRE0 FOR TnE PIPERACK. PPERACKS ARE USUALLY hOT OVER 25 FEET lh 'V. DTH. l r hlORE HODCl IS h t E O E 0 , T r l E PIPERACK IS DOUBLEORTRIPLEDECKED 1141 MINIMUM CLEARANCE UNDERNEATH THE PIPERACK IS DETERMINED BY AVAILABLE MOBILE LIFTING EQUIPMENT REOUIRING ACCESS UNOERTHE PIPERACK. VERTICAL CLEARANCES SHOULO BE AS SET OUT I N TABLE 6.1. BUT CANNOT NECESSARILY BE ADHERED TO AS ELEVATIONS OF PIPES AT INTERFACES ARE SOMETIMES FIXED BY PLANT SUBCONTRACTORS. I F THlS SITUATION ARISES THE PlPlNG GROUP SHOULO ESTABLISH MAX. IMUM AND MINIMUM ELEV~TIONS WHICH THE PIPING SUBCONTRACTORS MUST WORK TO-THIS HELPS TO AVOID PROBLEMS AT A LATER DATE. CHECK THE MINIMUM HEIGHT REOUIRED FOR ACCESS WHERE THE PIPE. RACK RUNS PAST A UNIT OR PLANT ENTRANCE I161 WHEN SETTING ELEVATIONS FOR T H E PIPERACK. T R Y TO AVO10 POCKETS I N THE PIPING. LINES SHOULD BE ABLE TO DRAIN INTO EQUIPMENT OR LiNES THAT CAN BE DRAINEO 116) GROUP HOT LINES REOUIRING EXPANSION LOOPS AT ONE SIDE OF THE PIPERACK FOR EASE OF SUPPORT-SEE FIGURE 6.1 117) LOCATE UTILITY STATIONS CONTROL I V A L V E l STATIONS. AND FIREHOSE POINTS ADJACENTTO STANCHIONS FOR SUPPORTING 118) LEAVE SPACE FOR OOWNCOMERS TO PUMPS. EL.. BETWEEN PIPERACK AN0 ADJACENT BUILDING OR STRUCTURE

Problems 01 resistance to flow can be qu~cklysolved w ~ t hthe ald ot the slidemle calculator obiamable trom Tube Turns D i v ~ s ~ oot n Chemetron Corporation, PO B o x 32160. Lou~sville.K Y 40232.

A ' p ~ p e w a y 'is thespace a l l o c a t e d tor r o u t l n g several parallel adjacent lines. A 'plperack' i s a structure in the prpeway tor cairyrng p~pesand is usually tabw cated trom steel, or concrete end steel, conslstmg ot connected n-shaped trarnes termed 'bents' on top ot which the p l p e s rest. The vertlcal members ot t h e bents are termed 'stanchions'. Figure 6.3 shows two p ~ p e r a c k suslng this torm at construction, one at which 1s 'double-decked'. Piperacks tor only two or three plpes are made trom 'T'-shaped members, termed 'tee-head supports'.

Piperacks are expenswe, but are necessary tor airanglng t h e main processand servlce lines around the plant site. They are made use of in secondary ways. pr~nc~pally to provlde a protected locatlon tor ancillary e q u i p m e n t .
Pumps, utility stations, manifolds, iire-fightmg and f i r s l a d statlons can be l o c a t e d under t h e p i p e r a c k , Llghtlng and other f i x t u r e s can be f i t t e d t o s t a m chlons. Air-cooled heat exchangers can be s u p p o r t e d above the piperack.

GRADE IELEVATIONI

. .... . . ..

KEEP SPACE UNDER THE PIPERACK CLEAR FOR ACCESS. OR U T I L I Z E fOR PUMPS AND/OR ANCILLARY EOUIPIIIENT

TllESEDIIIIENSIOI*SARE FOR GUIDAhCE ONLY -SUITABLE FOR hlOSTPRELlhllNARY DESIGNS

VALVES I N PIPING DESIGN Vaii . . (1) (2) (3) (4)


..used .

...ese p-.,.

JS:

Process control during operation Controlling sewicesand utilities-steam, water, air, gasand oil lsolatmg equipment or instruments, tor maintenance Discharging gas, vapor or liquid Drainmg piping and equipment on shutdown Emergency shutdown i n the event ot plant mishap or fire

(5) (6)

WHICH SIZE VALVE TO USE 7 Nearly all valves will be line stze - one exception is control valves, which are usually one or two sizes smaller than line size; never larger. A t control stat~ons and pumps it has been almost tradit~onalto use line-size isolating valves. However, some companies are now uslng isolating valves at control stations the same size as the control valve, and at pumps are using 'pump sue. tsolating valves at suction and discharge. The choice IS usually an economlc one made by a prolact engmeer. The sizes ot bypass valves tor control stations are given in 6.1.4, under 'Control (valve) stations'. WHERE TO PLACE VALVES See 6.3.1 tor wiving pumps, under 'Pump emplacement & connections'. Pretarably, placevalves in lines from headers Ion plperacks) In horizona tal rather than vertical runs, so that lines can drain when the valves are closed. (In cold climates, water held i n lines may treeze and rupture the piping: such lines should be traced - sea 6.8.2) To avoid spooling unnecessary lengths ot pipe, mount valves directly 6 onto flanged equipment, if the flange is correctly presurerated. See 6.5.1 under 'Nozzle loading' A reliet valve that discharges Into a header should be placed higher than e the header in order t o dram into it Locate heavy valves near suitable support points. Flanges should be o not closer than 12 inches to the nearest support, so that ~nstallationis not hampered
a

Intrequently-used valves can be reached by a ladder-but cons~deralteinatlves Do not locate valves on piperacks, unless unavoidable Group valves which would be out ot reach so that all can be operated a plattorm, i f automatic operators are not used by prov~ding If e chain is used on a horizontally-mounted valve, take the bottom of the loop to within 3 tt ot floor level tor satety, and provide a hook nearby to hold the chain out ot the way -sea 3.1.2, under 'Cham' Do not use chain operators on screwed valves, or on any valve l'/r~nches and smaller With lines handling dangerous materials it 1 s better t o place valves at a suitably low level above grade, floor, plattorm, etc., so t h i t the operator does not have to reach above head height ACCESSTO VALVES I N HAZARDOUS AREAS Locate main isolating valves where they can be reached in an emergency such as an outbreak ot fire or a plant m~shap. Make sure that personnel will be able to reach valves easily by walkway or automobile Locate manually-operated valves at the plant perimeter, or outs~de the hazardous area Ensure that automatic operators and their control lines will be protected trom the effects ot fire Make use ot brick or concrete walls as possible fire shields for valve stations Inside a plant, place isolating valves i n accessible positions to shut feed lines for equipment and processes having a fire risk Cons~derthe use ot automatic valves in fire-fight~ng systems to release water, toam and other firefighting agents, responding to heat-tusible links, smoke detectors, etc., triggered by fire or undue rise in temperature -advice may be obtained from the insurer and the local fire department

For appearance. i f practicable, keep centerlines of valves at the same he~ght above floor, end in-line on plan vlew

OPERATING ACCESS TO VALVES

a
a

Consider trequency ot operation when locating manually-operated valves Locate trequantly-operatedvalves so they are accessible t o an operator trom gradeor platform. Above this he~ght and up to 20 ft, use chain operators or extenston stem. Over 20 tt, consider a plattorm or remote operation

$"$ide aLLea5 lor muuiie itfting equipment to handle heavy valves


e
I

Consider providing lifting davits tor heavy valves difficult to move by other means, if access is restricted If possible, arrange valves so that supports will not be on removable spools:

Lonsider valve-closing time in shutting down or throttltng large lines Rapid closure of the valve requires rapid dissipat~on ot the liquid's kinettc energy, with a risk of rupturing the h e . Long-distance pipelines present an example ot this problem.

w1-

..

1.3

T
I
e

PREFERRED ARRANGEMENT

A liquid line fitted wlth a tast-closing valve should be provided with a standpipe upstream and close to the valve to absorb the kinetic energy ot the liquid. A standpipe is a closed vertical branch on a line: air or other gas is trapped in this branch to form a pneumatic cushion.
IF THERE IS NO P&ID

.....

Provide valves at headers, pumps, equipment, etc., to ensure that the system will be pressure-ttght tor hydrostat~c testing, and to allow equtpment to be removed for maintenance wtthout shutting down the system Provide isolattng valves in all small lines branching trom headers-for example, see figure 6.12 Provtde tsolattng valves at all instrument pressure points tor removal ot Instruments under operating conditions Provide valved drains on all tanks, vessels, etc., and other equtpment which may contain or collect liquids Protect sensitive equtpmant by using a tast-closing check valve to stop backflow betore i t can gather momentum Consider butt-welding or ring-pnt flanged valves tor lines contatntng hazardous or 'searching' fluids. Hydrogen ts espectally liable to leak Consider seal welding screwed valves if used in hydrocarbon service -see chart 2.3 (inset sketch) Provtde sufficient valves to control flows Constder provtding a concrete pit !usually about 4 t t x 4 ft) for a valve which is to be located below grade Consider use of temporary closures tor positive shutoff-see 2.7 Provide a bypass if necessary for equipment which may be taken out of service Provide a bypass valve around control stations if continuous flow is required. See 6.1.4 and figure 6.6. The bypass should be at least as large as the control valve, and is usually globe type, unless 6-inch or larger, when a gate valve is normally used (see 3.1.4.under 'Gatevalve') Provide an upstream isolattng valve wtth a small valved bypass to equtpmen1 which may be subiect to tracture if heat ts too rapidly applied on opening the isolattng valve. Typical use is in steam systems to lessen the risk ot fracture ot such things as castings, v~treous-linedvessels, etc. Consider providing large gate valves with a valved bypass to equalize pressure on either side of the disc to reduce effort needed to open the valve

A plug valve requiring lubr~cation must beeasily accessible, even though it may not be trequently operated

a e

MAKE MAINTENANCE SAFE

Use line-blind valves, spectacle plates or the 'double block and bleed' where positive shutoff i s requtred either for rnaintenance or process needs -see 2.7

s
o

ORIENTATION OF VALVE STEMS

o a

Do not point valve stems into walkways. truckways, ladder space, etc. Unless necessary, do not arrange gate and globevalves with their stems pointtng downward (at any angle below the horizontal), as:(1) Sediment may collect in the gland packing and score the stem. (2) A prolecttng stem may be a hazard to personnel.

s
a
I

s
8

If an inverted positlon is necessary, consider employing a dripshield.

pp
j

1931

Extend safeh/-valve discharge rlsen that discharge t o atmosphere at least 10 ft above the roof line or platform for safety. Support the vent plpe so as not t o strain the valve or the pipmg t o the valve. Pointing the discharge line upward (see figure 6.4) imposes less stress when the valve discharges than does the horizontal arrangement The downstream slde o f a satety valve should be unobstructed and involve the mlnlmum o t piplng. The downstream slde of a relief or t o a reliet header or knockout drum-see satety-relief valve IS p ~ p e d 6.11.3, under 'Venting gases', and 6.12, under 'Relieving pressureliquids' Pipe exhausting t o atmosphere IS cut square, not at a slant as formerly done, as no real advantage is gamed tor the cost involved Normally, do n o t Instal a valve upstream of a pressurereliet valve protecting a vessel or system t r o m excessive pressure. However, if an Isolating valve is used t o tacilitata maintenance of a pressure-reliet valve, the isolating valve is 'locked open'-sometimes termed 'car sealed open' (CSO)

VAPOR TO ATMOSPHERE

10 FT MIN. ABOVE PERSONNEL AREA

RELIEF VALVE. SAFETY VALVE, or SAFETY-RELIEF

\
4"-INCH DRAIN HOLE ISOLATING VALVE------

In critical applications, t w o pressurereliet valves provided w i t h isolating valves can be used

d"

VAPOR TO ATMOSPHERE

FROM VESSEL
OR SYSTEM

DISCHARGE FOR RELIEF VALVE OR SAFEN-RELIEF VALVE

The lnrtallstlon of pr-rerellwing devices and the use of irolating valves in lines to and from rueh devises s governed by rhe Code for Prerrure Piping. ANSI 031 and the ASME Boiler and Preaure Venel Code.

VAPOR AND/OR LIOUID TO RELIEF LINE

INSTALLING BUTTERFLY V A L V E S
o
a

Ensure that the disc has room t o rotate when the valve as the disc enters the plplng i n the open posltlon

IS

installed.

11

REFER TO 6.1.3 UNDER 'PIPING SAFETY AND RELIEF VALVES' REGARDING USE OF AN ISOLATING VALVE I N THIS POSITION I F AN ISOLATING VALVE IS PROVIDED. IT IS ALSO NECESSARY TO PROVIDE RELIEVE PRESSURE BETWEEN THE ISOLATING VALVE AND THE PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE IFOR MAINTENANCE PURPOSES) I F A SPOOL BETWEEN THE TWO VALVES IS NOT USED. THE BLEED VALVE MAY BE PLACED AS SHOWN IF THE VALVE'S BODY CAN aE TAPPED
A BLEED VALVE TO

Place butterfly valves w i t h Integral gaskets between waldinpneck or socket-welding flanges-see 3.1.6, under 'Butterfly valve'. The usual method o f welding a slip-on flange (see figure 2.7) w i l l not give an adequate seal, unless the plpe 1 s fin~shed smooth wlth the face of tne flanoe

21

31

rlLlT A control statlon is an arrangement of piping in which a control valve is used to reduce and regulate the pressure or rate ot flow ot steam, gas, or liquid.

iTIO:

""

3:.. .

Control stations should be des~gnedso that the control valve can be isolated and removed lor servicing. To facilitate this, the piping ot the stations should be as flexible as circumstances permit. Figure 6.5 shows ways ot permlttlng control valve removal in welded or screwed systems. Figure 6.6 shows the basic arrangement tor control statlon piping. The two isolating valves permit servicing ot the control valve. The emergencv bypass valve is used tor manual regulatron if the control valve is out ot actron. The bypass valve is usually a globe valve ot the same size and pressure rating as the control valve. For manual reoulation in lines 6-inch and larger, a gate valve is otten the more economic cho~ce tor the bypass line-reter to 3.1.4. under 'Gate valve'. Figures 6.7-11 show other ways ot arranging control stations-many more designs than these are possible. These illustrations are all schematic and can be adapted to both welded and screwed systems. DESIGN POINTS For best control, place the control station close to the equipment it serves, and locate it at grade or operating plattorm level Provide a pressure-gage connection downstream ot the station's valves. Depending on the operation of the plant, this connection may either be fitted w ~ t h a permanent pressure indicating gage, or be used t o attach a gage temporarily (for checking purposes) Preterably, do not 'sandwich' valves. Place at least one ot the isolating valves inavertical line so that a spool can be taken out allowing the control valve to be removed If the equipment and plping downstream ot the station is of lower pressure rating than piping upstream, it may be necessary to protect the downstream system with a pressure-reliet valve Provide a valved drain near to and upstream at the control valve.Tosave space, thedrain is placed on the reducer. The drain valve allows pressure between the isolat~ng valveis) and control valve to be released. One (one each side drain isused i f thecontrolvalvetails open, and two dra~ns ot the control valve) i f the control valve tails closed Locate stations i n rack piping at grade, next to a bent or column tor easy supporting DRAFTING THE STATION I n plan view, instead ot drawing the valves, etc., the station is shown as a rectangle labeled 'SEE DETAIL "X" ' or 'DWG "Y"-DETAIL "X" ', it the elevational detail appears on another sheet. See chart 5.7.

A utility station usually comprises three service lines carrying steam, cornpressed air and water. The steam line is normally %-inch minimum, and the other two services are usually carried in i-inch lines. These serwces are tor cleaning local equipment-and hosing floors. (Firewater is taken trom points ted trom an independent water supply .) The steam line IS fitted with a globe valve andihe alr and water lines with gate valves. All are terminated with hose connections about 3% tt above floor or steel column tor grade. A utility station should be located at some conven~ent s to serve should be reachable w ~ t h a 50-tt hose. supporting, and all areas It 1 Most companies have a standard design tor a utility station. Figure 6.12 shows a design tor a standard station which canbe copied onto one ot the design drawings tor reterence, or otherwise supplied with the draw~ngs to the erectlng contractor who usually runs the necessary lines. A notatlon used on plan views to indicate the station and services requ~redis:
SERVICES: STEAM,AIR.WTER STATION SYMBOL:

AIRWATER

STEANIMTER

STEAM,AIR

S A W

A W

S W

S A
FIGURE 6.12

UTILITY STATION

L-,E~"~~"sLo""L"ss *,"m".,"-ms%.,>o".

~ ~ w " o ~ m # , D ~ ~ ~

11) (2) 13) 14) 15) 16)

G A T E V A L V E NPS 1 GLOBE V A L V E NPS 1 GLOBE V A L V E NPS 314 HOSE COUPLING NPS 31.1 HOSE COUPLlNG NP5 1 PlPE NPS 1 SCH 80 17) PlPE NPS 314 S C H 80 C8l T R A P i o i l i i o n a l l

If subiect to freezing condit~ons,utility station steam linesare usually trapped (otherwise, the trap can be omitted). Water issometimes run underground i n cold climates using an additional underground cock or plug valve with an extended key tor operating, and a self-draining valve at the base ot the riser. Another method to prevent treezing, is to run the water and steam lines in a commoninsulation.

THREADED CONTROL VALVES

ARRANGEMENTS FOR ANGLE CV's

IOUlOS HARMFUL TO PERSONNEL

ARPAW'C~~N(: ct I

D ~ ~ P T COR C

DIDI~IG

Pipe IS held either trom above by hangers or by supports ot various types on which i t rests. Hangers are also reterred to as supports. Reter to 2.12 tor typical hardware. In the open, single pipes are usually routed so that they may be supported by fixtures to buildings or structures. A group at parallel pipes in the open is normally supported on a piperack-see 6.1.2. Within a building, piping is routed primarily with regard to its process duty and secondarily with regard to existing structural steelwork, or to structural steel which may be conveniently added. Separat~ pipe-holding structures inside buildings are rare.
FUNCTIONS OF THE SYSTEM OF SUPPORT 6.2.1

ports ' ' nes si " than " i and ritica' ' are o !tt to the 'field' t o arrange, by notlng 'FIELD SUPPORT' on the piping drawmgs
LOADS ON SUPPORTS

Reter t o tablesP-1, which-list the weights per toot ot pipe and contamed water [see 6.1 1.2). Weights of fittings, flanges, valves, boltsand insulation are given in tablesW-1, compiled from suppliers' data.
ARRANGING POINTS OF SUPPORT

6.2.3

Pipe supports should be arranged bearing i n mind all five points in 6.2.1. Inside buildings, it is usually necessary to arrange supports relative to existing structural steelwork, and this restricts choice ot support points. The method ot support set out in 6.2.4 is ideal: In practice, some compromize may be necessary. The use ot dummy legs and the addition ot pieces ot structural steel may be needed to obtain optimal support arrangements.
CALCULATING PREFERRED POINTS OF SUPPORT 6.2.4

The mechanical requirements ot the piping support system are: (I) To carry the weight ot the piprng filled with water lor other liquid involved) and insulation i f used, with an ample satety margin - use a tactor ot 3 (= ratio ot load lust causing failure ot support or hanger to actual load) or the satety tactor specified for the project. External loading tactors to be considered are the wind loads, the probable weight of ice buildup i n cold climates, and seismic shock in some areas To ensure that the material trom which the plpe is made is not stressed . runs ot pipe, maximum tensile stress beyond a sate l i m ~ t l~continuous occurs in the pipe crosssections atthesupports.Table S-1 givesspans for water-filled steel and aluminum pipe at the respective stress limlts4000 and 2000 psi. Charts S-2 glve the maximum overhangs if a 3-tt riser IS lncluded in the span. The system ot supports should minimlze the introductlon ot twlsting torces in the p w n g due t o offset loads on the supports; the method ot cantilevered sections set out in 6.2.4 torces substantially eliminates tors~onal To allow tor draining. Holdup ot liquid can occur due to pipes sagging between supports. Complete drainmg is ensured by making adiacent supports adequately tilt the pipe-see 6.2.6 T o permit thermal expansion and contraction of the piping-see 6.1.1, under 'Stresses on piping' To withstand and dampen vibrational torces applied to the plping by compressors, pumps, etc.
6.2.2

(2)

Ideally, each point ot support would be at the center of gravlty ot an associated length ot piping. Carrying this scheme thru the entire piping system would substant~ally relieve the system trom twisting torces, and supports would be only stressed vertrcally. A method ot balancing sections ot pipe at single support pomts is illustrated tor a straight run ot plpe in figure 6.13.
BALANCING SECTIONS OF PIPE

FIGURE 6.13

(3)

(4) (5)

FIGUR~

PIPING SUPPORTGROUP RESPONSIBILITIES

A large company will usually have a specialist piping support group responsible tor des~gn~ng and arranging supports. This group will note all required supports on the piping draw~ngs (term~naljob) and will add drawings of any special details. The piprng support group works m cooperation with a stress analysis groupor the two may be combined as one group-which mvestlgates areas ot stress due to thermal movement, vibration, etc., and makes recommendat~onsto the piping group.The stress group should be supplied with preliminary layouts tor this purpose by the piping group, as early as possible.
1971

Consider hanger B associated with a length ot pipe b . This length ot pipe IS supported by B, located at its center ot gravity, which is at the midway point for a strarpht length o f uniform pipe. Hangers A, C, 0 and E are likewise placed at the respective centers ot gravity ot lengths at pipe a, c, d and e . I f any length of pipe is removed, the balance ot the rest at the line would be unaffected. Each of the hangers must be designed to adequately support the load ot the associated piping-see 6.2.1, point (1). The presence of heavy flanges, valves, etc, in the plping will set the center ot gravity away trom the m~dpointot the associated length Calculation of support points and loadings 1 s more quickly done uslng simple algebra Answers may be found by making trial-and-error calculations, but this IS much more tedious.

Fl&6.l3,.

u-..-

ot force'. Multiolvinq a torcn bv the distance of it<l;n* ot ac*'"- +.om a ""--' giv~ r..r 'man,,.,, ~f th. , U G La ~ b h at polu. H moment of force can be expressed in lb-tt (pounds weight times teet distance). The torces involved in support calculations either are the reactions at supports and nozzles, or are thedownward-acting forces due to the weight ot pipe, fittings, valves, etc. In figure 6.14(a), the moment about the support o i the two flanges is (30 + 20)(16) = 800 lb-ft, counter-clockwise. The moment of the 100-lb valve about the support is (100)(8) = 800 lb-tt, clockw~se.As the lengths of pipe each side ot the support are about the same, they may be omitted trom the moment equation. The problem is simplified to balancing thevalve end flanges.
USE OF MOMENTS

"..--" ..-..-.

v , y . . . z "" ryu..

-" -"."

",... "

FIGURE 6.14

Suppose it was required t o balance this length ot plping with a 120 lb valve on the right-where should the 120 lb valve be placed? Reterring to figure 6.14(b), if x represents the unknown distance of the 120 lb valve from the support, the piping section would be in balance if: That is, if l50)(16) = (120)(x). x = l50)(16)/(120) = /800)/(120) = 6 t t 8 in.

A more involved example follows:-

The x z terms canceled-this must be so, as there can physically be only one value tor x. The load on hanger F is /20)(15) + (360) or 660 ib. The support J should be at the center of the associated length of pipe, as already shown in figure 6.15. and the load on the support is (30)(15), or 450 lb. The hanger G is easily seen to be suitably placed, as there i s 5 f t ot 4-inch pipe overhanging each side. Only the load on the hanger need be calculated, which is ( 5 + 5 + 2 4 + 2)(15)+ (10). or 550 lb. The locatlon ot hanger H has to be found by a calculation like that for hanger F, except that the heavy terminal flange has also to be taken into account. The moment equatlon in lb-ft is:

Figure 6.15 shows a length ot Cinch piping held by the hangers F, G , and H, and support J. The lengths of associated pipmg are shown by dashed separation lines. The we~ghtsot pipe and fittings are shown on the drawing. The 4-inch pipe is assumed to weigh 15 lb per foot ot length. Welded elbows and tees are assumed to weigh the same as line pipe. First consider the section assoc~ated with hanger F. The weight of pipe to the lett ot F is (15)(20 -x) Ib, and as its center ot gravity is at (20 -x)/(2) tt, its moment on the hanger is (15)(20 - x)'/(2) Ib-tt. The heavy valve and flanoes are assumed t o have the~rmass center 5 t t from the end. and their moment i s ( x - 5)(360) Ib-ft. Ignoring the pipe 'replaced' by the valve, the weight ot pipe t o the right ot F is (15)(x) Ib and its moment about F is (15)(x)(x)1(2) Ib-tt. As the associated length is in balance

which givesy as nearly 2 t t 8 in. The load on hanger H isabout (220)+(3)(40)+(15)(10), or490 lb.

QSOBLSM OF

THE END

T h e supported length a t one e n d o t a r u n o t piping m a y b e c a n r ~ ~ e v e r e III d the same w a y as t h e other lengths, and this has the advantage t h a t ift h e piping terminates a t a nozzle t h e l o a d o n t h e nozzle is m ~ n i m a l .However. it m a y be necessary t o use o r arrange a support a t o r near t h e end of a piping run. If the e n d o f t h e run is vertical, t h e end support should b e designed t o carry the vertical run. T h e problem is usually m o r e complex when t h e e n d o t t h e run i s horizontal. T h e locations o t fittings and s u p p o r t points w i l l usually b e already defined, and t h e problem i s t o calculate t h e reaction o n the terminal support, and t o see t h a t t h e s u p p o r t is des~gnedt o w ~ t h s t a n dt h e load o n it. I n calculating t h e load o n t h e terminal support, it should b e made certain t h a t the load is d o w n w a r d - w ~ t h some arrangements, t h e piping w o u l d t e n d t o raise itself o f f the terminal support (negative load) and i f this t y p e of arrangement is not changed, t h e terminal support w i l l have t o anchor t h e piping. T h e sketch shows a horizontal end arrangement. Taking moments in lb-it about t h e support A:

- -

GRAPHIC METHOO FOR FINDING LOADS ON SUPPORTS

The followwg graphical msihod permits q v c k d c u l a t m of harang i s d l lor 'corner' P ~ P W arranamms.

PROBLEM To find the load t o be taken bv a r w p m to beplsred rt pomc '6 In the pipang arrangement shown:

(15)~10)0)2)(10) = (15)(18+2)(1h)(18+2) which glves

+(100)(18)

- (R)(18+2)

= 202% Ib.

I11

DRW shs plan v w to any convenhent v a l e lar above1 ndd che axis line Aa lshismunpau thm pomoal rupponl

121
13)

T h e reaction, F, o n t h e s u p p o r t A can b e calculated by taking m o m e n t s a b o u t the support B o r another axls, o r more s ~ m p l y b y equatmg v e r t ~ c a lforces:

F + 202% = (15)(1M18+2) + 1 0 0 = 550, w h i c h gives F = 347% Ib.


PROBLEM OF THE RISER
Supports tor lines changing i n direction can b e calculated b y t h e cantilever method. Sketch la) b e l o w shows t h a t the weight of t h e vertical p a r t o f t h e piping can be divided between t w o cantilevered sections in a n y p r o p o r t i o n su~ted t o t h e available support polnts. Sketches (b) and ic) s h o w thevertlcal t h e lett- or right-hand cantilevered sections. p l p i n g associated w h o l l y w ~ t h T h e p l p m g m a y b e supported b y means of a d u m m y leg, i f direct support IS not practicable.

Divide the mn o l p i p w tnio panr. Piping between fhs u p p a * (lomu A and B rr conrideredin shrce prrtr: Ill The value. 121 The lcnglh o l pipe BC. I31 Thc length 01 prpe AC-the rhon plm of line om,n8d far the valve s ignared, and $he e f k t ot the elbow neglected.

141

DID^

pemendiculan from midpomu M,

and MZ. the valve and tvppon po8ns E to

t h awl ~ line.

151

Take mamenrr about he ax(%line, meurunns the lanms of pcipendimlam M2P; ES. 00 and MI R directly Com the plan view ithesc lengths am noted on h e tkerrhl:
PlPE LENGTH CB

W E L E N G M liC
(2011181(61

"&LYE S Y .

L O W ON SUPPORT

115l1181161

12Wll91

IFll9.61

which g i v u h e laad an the ruppon 1 Ea :


F = 581 1 b

EXTENSION OF THE METHOD

he u m c method can be used i f the angle at she comer ir ditfercnt from 90 degrccr. or if v m a i lincf are included in lhc ~ipbng.
NOTES

DENOTES ENDS DF CaNTILEVERED SECTIONS OF


PIPING.

Ill I21

The axas line mun p r u thm porns of ~ u p p n . I f the a x s lioc a not hoozontal. the lengths of rhc pemendirvlrrr are n i l 1 mcaruilred directly from the plan view.

This melhod d o e not take mfo z~touniadditional moments doc to bending md tomon of pips. Howwer, ir a lcgitimarc to culsulrie #cadson r u p p m as i t theoipe
,I rigid.

li'

I nls prooiem onen occurs wnen running pipes rrom one plperacn to another, ,..,rh a -h---- In et-..-.. m, as -- "-ure f " '00 n ' m h a stre:

tne materlal ot the pipe beyond a sate l i m ~ near t one ot the supportsadiacent t o the bend, and the designer needs to know the allowable overhang. The stresses set up i n the material ot the pipe set practical limits on the overhangs allowed at corners. The problem is like that tor spans ot straight pipe allowable between supports. Overhangs permitted by stated limits tor stress are given i n charts S-2.
PIPE SUPPORTS ALLOWING THERMAL MOVEMENT

The nature-ot the conveyed meterlal, the orocess, and f l m ~ reqstwomqnts nine . luch . -,.. j can -, ~ d e p t e~ ~ .. ~ j i nis g ieuuted by oringing adjacent polnts of support closer. Pocketing of liquid due to sagging can be eliminated by sloping the line so that the difference i n height between adjacent supports is at least equal t o triple the deflect~on(sag) at the midpoint. Lines which requlre sloping lnclude blowdown headers, pressure-relief lines, and some process, condensdte and alr lines. (Air lines are discussed i n 6.3.2, and draining ot compressed-air lines in 6.1 1.4.) Complete dra~ningmay be required for lines used in batch processing t o avoid contamination, or where a product held i n a line may degenerate or polymerize, or where solids may settle and become a problem. In treezlng conditions, lines conveying condensate trom traps to drains are sloped; condensate headers may be sloped (as an alternative t o steam trac~ng), depending on the rate of flow. In the past, steam lines were sloped to asslst in clearing condensate, but the improved dralning is now not considered t o be worth the difficulty and expense involved.
SLOPED LINES ON PIPERACKS

6 . 2 . 5

Pip~ng subject to large temperature changes should be routed so as t o flex under the changes i n length-see figure 6.1. However, hangers and supports must permlt these changes in length. Figures 2.72 A & B show a selection ot hangers end supports able to accommodate movement. For single pipes hung trom rod or bar hangers, the hanger should be suffic~entlylong t o limit total movement to 10 degrees ot arc.
SPRING SUPPORTS

There are two basic types ot spring support: (1) Variable load. (2) Constant load-reter to 2.12.2. Apart from cost, the choice between the two types depends on how crit~celthe circumstances are. For example, if a vertical line supported on a rigid support at floor level is subject t o thermal movement, a variable-spring hanger or support at the top ot the line is suitable-see figure 6.16 {a) and (b). If a hot line comes down to a nozzle connected t o a vessel or machine, and it is necessary t o keep the nozzle substantially tree from vertical loading, a constant-load hanger can be used-see figure 6.16(c). Cheaper alternate methods ot supporting the load are by a cable-held weight working over a pulley, as illustrated in figure 6.161d). or by a cantilevered weight. VARIABLE- & CONSTANT-LOAD HANGERS & SUPPORTS
lbl V A R I A B L E
SPRING HANGER
LC1 CONSTANT

Sloped lines can be carrled on brackets attached t o the piperack stanchions [see figure 6.3). To obta~n the required change i n elevation at each bent, the brackets may be attached at the required elevat~ons;alternately, a sertes ot brackets can-be arranged at the same elevat~onand the slope obtained by using shoes of different s~zes-this method leads to fewer construction problems. Shoes ot graded slzes are also the best method tor slopmg smaller lines on the plperack. It is not usual or dewable to hang lines from the piperack unless necessary vertical clearances can be maintained.
SLOPED LINES I N BUILDINGS

FIGURE 6.16
COUNTER.
WEIGHT

LOAD HANGER

, a ) VARlAr3LE SPRING SUPPORT

Inside a building, both large end small sloped lines can rest on steel brackets, or be held with hangers. Rods with turnbuckles are used for hangers on lines required t o be sloped. Otherwise, drilled flat bar can be used. (Adjustable brackets are available trom the Unlstrut and Kindort ranges of support hardware.)
SUPPORTING PIPE MADE FROM PLASTICS OR GLASS

6.2.7

SLOPED LINES AVOID POCKETING A N 0 AID DRAINING

As plpe is not completely rigid, sagging between points ot support must occur. In many instances, sagging is acceptable, but in others i t must be restricted.

Pipe made either trom flexible or r i g ~ d plastics cannot sustaln thesamespan loads as metal pipe, and requires a greater number ot support points. One way ot providing support is to lay the pipe upon lengths ot steel channel sections or half sections ot plpe, or by suspending it from other steel pipes. The choice of steel sectlon would depend on the span loads and the size and type of plastic pipe. For glass process and drain lines, hangers tor steel pipeare used, provlded that they hold the plpe without causing local stralns and are padded so as not to crack the pipe. Rubber and asbestos paddings are suitable. Uninsulated horizontal lines trom 1 to 6 inch in sue containing gas or liquid at specific gravlty less than 1.3 should be supported at 8 to 10 tt intervals. Couplings and fittings should be about 1 i t trom a point ot support.

Chvk the co40 nprtinent t n the p r n w t as it mav prohihit 'nartial' welub jut suppu~rb-that 4 4 VYC tlm I~S uu not G I N L the ~ ~ pva Terms such as 'dummy leg', 'anchor'. 'shoe', etc., used in detailing supporting hardware are explained in 2.12.2. Refer to chart 5.7 for symbols.
GENERAL

Provide slots in shoes to accept the straps or wires used to hold insulation to pipe Provide guides for long straight pipes sublect to thermal movement, either by guiding the shoe or by guiding pipe support saddles attached to the pipe, a s shown:

Design hangers tor 2 k n c h and larger plpe to permlt adiustment after installation
0

If piping IS to be connected to equipment, a valve, etc., or plpmg assembly that w ~ l require l removal for maintenance, support the piping so that temporary supportsare not needed
Base load calculations tor var~able-springand constant-load supports on the operating conditions ot the piphng (do not include the weight ot hydrostat~c test fluid1

If necessary, suspend pipes smaller than 2-inch nominal size trom 4inch and larger plpes

DUMMY LEGS

For bener stress distribution in the plpe wall, pipe support saddles are usually used on large lines. They can also be used tor lines that may twist over when moving
SUPPORTING VALVES

Table 6.3 suggests sizes tor dummy legs. The allowable stress on the wall ot the elbow or line pipe to which the dummy leg is attached sets a maximum length tor the leg. The advice ot the stress group should be sought.
APPROXIMATE SIZES FOR DUMMY LEGS

Provide support as close as possible to heavy valves, or try to get valves moved close to a suitable point where support can be provided Large valves and equipment such as meters located at grade will usually require a concrete toundation for support

TABLE 6.3

WELDING PIPE.SUPPORT & PLATFORM BRACKETS TO VESSELS. Etc.

a
ANCHORS

Anchors are required as stated in the tollowing two points. However, advice trom the stress andlor plping support groups should be obtained:

Instruct the vendor to add brackets required on pressure vessels prior t o stress-relievmg and testing-otherwise, retesting and recertification may be obligatory I t is permissible to specify brackets to be welded to non-pressure vessels prov~ded that the strength of the vessel is not degraded

Prov~deanchors as necessary to prevent thermal or mechanical movement overloading nozzles on vessels or machinery, branch connections. cast-iron valves, etc. Provide anchors to control direction ot expansion; for example, at battery limits and on piping leaving units, so that movement is not transm~ttedto plping on a piperack

SUPPORTING PIPE A T NOZZLES

SHOES, GUIDES,

5 SADDLES

Do not use shoes on un~nsulatedplpes, unless required for sloping purposes. For reduced t r ~ c t ~ o where n lines are long and subiect to movement, slide plates are an alternatwe-see 2.12.2. Use of wye-type shoes enables pipes to be placed on the shoe betore welding and makes construction easier - see figure 2.72A Welding the pipe directly to shoes is not alwaysacceptable; tor example w~th rubber-lined pipe. Bolted or strapped shoes are more suitable
r7n11

Ensure that nozzles on machinery, compressors, pumps, turbines, etc.. are substantially tree trom loads transmitted by the pkpmg, which may be due to the weight ot the piping, or to movement in the piplng resulting trom contraction, expansion, twtstmg, vibration or surglng. Equipment suppliers will sometimes state maximum loadings permissible at nozzles. Excessfve loads applied to nozzles on machinery can force it from alignment and may cause damage. Piping to pumps, turbines, etc., should be supported adequately, but should allow the equipment t o be removed. Supports tor this pipmg are best made integral with the concrete toundations, especially if thermal movement occurs and should be on the same level as the base of the equipment, so that on heating or cooling, vertical different~al expansion and contraction between supports and equipment will be min~mized.

FI.-

FIGURE

o e

E-TABLE

PIPING T O PUMPS & COMPRESSORS

fi

Most ---'-tfugal - -2s h~ - ieplai ' 11 col i y le from pump. Ihe baseplate will have a threaded connectton which ts ptped to the dram hub Waste seal water 1 s also ptped to the dram hub-see figure 6.19.

PUMP EMPLACEMENT & CONNECTIONS TYPICAL PIPING FOR CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

6.3.1

o o

In outstde tnstallatms in tre'ez~ng climates, prov~de a valved dram from the pump's caslng Prov~dea short spool for a 314-inch dram between the onloif valve and the check valve, to dram the discharge line. If the valve is large enough, the dra~ncan be made by drilling and tappmg a boss on the check valve. as shown in figure 6.17, note (3). tn which Instance no spool is requtred.

Most pumps used in mdustry are ot the centrifugal type. Figures 6.17and 6.18 show typ~cal ptptng and fittmgs requtred at a centrifugal pump together w~th the valves necessary to solate the pump trom the system. The check valve 1s required to prevent possible flow reversal in the discharge line. A permanent in-line strainer 1 s normally used for screwed suctlon pipmg and a temporary stratner for butt-welded/flanced ptptng. The temporary strainer is installed between flanges-see figure 2.69. A spool is usually requlred to facilitate removal. Although centrifugal pumps are provided wtth suctton end discharge ports ot cross-secttonal area large enough to cope wtth the tull rated capacitv ot the s often necessary with thick fluids or wtth long suction lines to use pump, tt 1 an tnlet ptpe ot larger size than the inlet port, to avotd cavitat~on.Cavitation 1 s the pulling by the pump ot vapor spaces in the pumped liqutd, caustng reduction of pumping efficiency, noisy runntng, and possible impellor and bearing damage. Reter to 6.1.3, under 'Which stze valve to use?'^ Most pumps have end suction and top discharge. Limitations on space may require another configuration, such as top suction with top discharge, side suction wtth side discharge, etc. Determination ot nozzle orientatton takes place when equtpment layout and pipmgstudiesare made.
AUXILIARY, TRIM, ar HARNESS PIPING

INSTALLATION

Do not route plplng over the pump, as this lnterteres wtth matntenance. It IS better to brtng the ptptng toward ot the pump as shown ~nfigure 6.17 Leave vertical clearance over pumps to permtt removal tor servicing -sufficient headroom must be lett tor a mobile crane tor all but the smaller pumps, unless other handling IS planned If pumps posttioned close to supply tanks are on separate foundations. avoid rigtd piptng arrangements, as the tanks will 'settle' in the course ot ttme Locate the pump as closely as practicable to the source of liquid to be pumped from storage tanks, sumps, etc., wtth due consideration for flexibility of the piping
a

Pumps, compressors and turbines may require water for cooling bearings, tor mechanical seals, or tor quenching vapors to prevent their escape to atmosphere. Piptng for cooling water or seal fluid is usually reterred to as auxiliary, trim, or harness piping, and the requirement for this ptping is normally shown on the P&ID. This piping is usually shown in isometric view on one of the piping drawings. In order to cool the gland or seal ot a centrifugal pump and ensure proper sealing, tt is usually supplied w ~ t h liqu~dtrom the discharge of the pump, by a built-tn arrangement, or p~ped trom a connection on the pump's castng. The gland may be provtded wtth a cooling chamber, requtrtng ptped water. If a pump handles hot or volatile liqutd, seal liqutd may be ptped trom an external source.
DRAINING

Posltton valves for ease ot operatton placmg them so they are unlikely to be damaged by traffic and will not be a hazard to personnel-see table 6.2 and chart P-2 The toundatlon may be ot any matertal that has rtgtdity suffic~entto support the pump baseplate and wtthstand vibratm. A concrete foundatton built on solid ground or a concrete slab floor ts usual. The pump IS postttoned, the height fixed (ustng packing), and the grout is then poured. Grout thickness is not usually less than one tnch-see figure 6.17 A pit in which a pump is installed should have a drain, or have a sump that can be drained or pumped out Make the concrete foundation at least as large as the baseplate, and ensure that concrete extends at least 3 inches from each bolt

VALVES

o a o

Each pump 1 s usually provided wtth a dram hub 4 to 6 tnches in diameter, postttoned about 9 tnches in tront ot the pump foundatton on the centerline ot the pump. The dram hub 1s p~ped to the correct sewer or effluent line-see 6.13. If two small pumps have a common foundatton, they can share the same drain hub.

Valves are 'line size' unless shown otherwtse on the P&ID. See 6.1.3 under 'Which stze valve to use? Use tilttng disc orswtng check valves tor preterence Do not use globevalves tor tsolat~ng pumps Suct~on and discharge line tsolatmg valves are usually gate valves, but may be other valves offertng low reststance to flow

,."".

PUMP WITH SIDE SUCTION

COMPRESSOR PIPING

6.3.2

COMPRESSOR &PIPING LAYOUT

Refer to 3.2.2 for a description of compressors and essoclated equipment. A Compressor supplies compressed alr or a gas to process or other equipment. A compressor is usually purchased as a 'package unit', which includes coolers, end the designer is lett with the problem of installing it and plplng auxiliaries to it. These various auxiliarces are shown in figure 6.23. Compressors may be installed in the open, or within a plant or separate compressor house. An arrangement of compressor, ancillary equipment and distribution lines i s shown in figure 6.22 (derwed from an illustration by Atlas Copco).
COMPRESSOR HOUSE

If the compressor 1 s handling a gas heavier than air, eliminate p i n or trenches in the compressor house to avoid a suffocetlon or explosion risk Provide elr entry louvers i f a compressor takes air trom within a compressor house or other building Provide maintenance tacilities, including a lifting rail or access tor mobile lifting equipment. Allow adequate floor space tor use during maintenance. Additional access may be required tor installation Prevent transmission ot vibration by providing a foundation tor the compressor, separate trom the compressor-house toundation Consider the use of noiseabsorbing materials end construction tor a comDressor house The vendor's drawings should be exemlned t o determine whet auxiliary piping, valves and equipment covered in the following design points are to be supplied wlth the compressor by the vendor:

Install the compressor on a concrete pad or elevated structure. Piling is often a necessary part of the toundation Large reciprocating compressors are otten installed on an elevated structure to allow access to valves and provide space tor piping. Provide a platform tor operatlon and maintenance-of such an instellat~on Keep piping clear ot cylinders ot reciprocating compressors and provide withdrawal space at cylinder heads Use long-radius elbows or bends, not short-radius elbows or miters If the compressor and the pressurized gas are cooled wlth water, route cooling water first to the attercooler, then to the intercooler (for a two-stage machine), and lastly to the cylinder jackets (or casing jacket, if present, in other types of compressor) Arrange an air compressor, associated equipment and piping so that water is able t o drain continuously trom the system Pipe a separate trapped dram tor each pressure stage. Ensure that the pressure into which any trap discharges will be lower than that of the system being drained-less the pressure drop over the trap and i t s associated piping. Do not pipe different pressure stages thru separate check valves to a common trap If a toxic or otherwise hazardous gas is to be compressed, vent possible shatt seal leakage to the suction line to avoid a dangerous atmosphere forming around the compressor Do not overlook substantial space required for lube oil and seal oil control consoles for compressor; Discuss piping arrangement with the stress group
FIGURE 6 2 2

KEY

check when cleanlng or replacement

IS

neeoeo

, ,
I

Use

temporary screen at the compressor inlet at startup-we 2.lu.r

low points i n suction lines where moisture and d i n can collect. (f low noins cannot be avoided, provide a clean-out -see figure 6.24

if the suction line is taken trom a header, take it from the top of the header to reduce the chance of drawing off moisture or sediment
A linesize isolating valve is required for the suction line if the suction line draws from a header shared with other compresson

SUCTION LINESTO AIR COMPRESSORS

FIGURE 6.24

6 11 mm.

RAINCOVER &SCREEN

-,"

---. . .

gases, lndustrlal operations, or bv traffic tor efficiency the air supply should be taken from the coolest Source such as the shaded s~deof a building, keeplng to building clearances shown i n figure 6.24 supply is from outside the building, locate the SUCtlOn point lf the above the roofline, and away trom walls to avoid excessive noise K~~~ suction pipmg as short as possible. If a line IS unavoidably long and condensate likely to form, provide a separator at the Compressor make Provide a ram cover and screen as shown i n figure 6.24

Filters must have capacity to retain large quantities ot impurlties with low Drassure drop, and must be rugged enough to withstand pulsations trom reclprocatlng compressors

iting'

'

n the

"

'

lrge I'

'inesi-

' Q n l

4TING VALVES FOR COMPRESSOR

I n ii

Provide discharge piping with connections tor temperature and pressure gages Provide an unloading valve and bypass circuit connected upstream ot the discharge ~solatmgvalve, and downstream ot the suction isolating valve, so as to ensure circulation thru the compressor durlng unloading, and to permit equalizmg pressure in the compressor-see 3.2.2, under 'Unloading' Normally locate a receiver close t o the compressor. (Auxiliary receivers may be located near pomts of heavy use.) For drarning compressed-a~r discharge lines, reter to 6.1 1.4

Compressors operatlng in parallel should be provrded with rsolatrng valves arranged so that any compressor in the group may be shut down or removed. An lsolatmg valve at the discharge should be placed downstream ot the pressure-reliet valve and any bypass valve connectron. The rsolatrng valve at the suction should be upsfream of the bypass valve connection. Isolating valves are not requ~red for a single compressor in_stallation.
PRESSURE-RELIEFVALVES

The use of dampeners and volume bottles in the discharge i s discussed in 3.2.2, under 'Equ~pmenttor compressors'.
LOADS & VIBRATION

Pressure-relief valves should be ~nstalled on interstage piping and on a discharge line trom a compressor to the first downstream lsolat~ngvalve. A pressurereliet valve may be vented to the suctlon line-see figure 6.23. Each pressurereiiet valve should be able to discharge the tull capacity ot the compressor.
CHECK VALVE

The design ot supports tor piping to large compressors (especially tor recrprocatrng machines) requires special knowledge. Usually, collaboration 1 s necessary wlth the p p n g support group, the stress group, and the compressor manutacturer's represeritative. A malor problem 8 s that the compressor may be torced trom alignment with its drrver if the piping and supports are not properly arranged. It a diesel or gasoline engine IS used as driver, a flexibleloint on the engine's exhaust pipe will reduce transmission ot vibration, and protect the exhaust nozzle. Flexible connections are sometimes needed on discharge and suctlon piping. Pulsation in discharge and-to a lesser extent-suctlon lines, tends to vibrate plping. This effect is reduced by using bellows, large bends and laterals, instead of elbows end tees.
INSTRUMENTATION & INSTRUMENT CONNECTIONS

Unless supplied w ~ t h (or ~ntegral with) a compressor, a check valve must be provided to prevent backflow of stored compressed air or other gas.
DISTRIBUTION OF COMPRESSED AIR

Headers larger than Binch are often butt welded. Distribution lines are screwed and usually incorporate malleable-iron fin~ngs, as explained in 2.5.1. Equipment used i n distribution piplng is described in 3.2.2.
A moreefficlent layout tor compressed air lines is the ring main with auxiliary receivers placed as near as possible to polnts of heavy intermittent demand. The loop provides two-way air flow to any user.
COMPRESSED AIR USAGE

Figure 6.23 shows the more usetul locations ior pressure and temperature gages, but does not show tnstrumentatlon tor starting, stopphng and unloading the compressors. Simple compressor control arrangements using pressure switches have long been used, but result in trequent starting and stopping ot the compressor, causing unnecessary wear to equipment. Automat~ccontrol using an unloading valve is superior: table 3.6 gives the working princ~ples-see 3.2.2, under 'Unloading'. Further intormatinn can be tound in the 'Compressor rnstallat~onmanual' (Atlas-Copco). Unloading valves are allocated instrument numbers. The a~r-pressure signals tor unloading, starting, loading and stoppmg a compressor should be tree tram pulsations. It is best to take these signals from a connection on the receiver or a little downstream of it. Details ot constructton of instrument connecttonsare given in 6.7. Instrument branches should be braced to withstand transmission of line vibration.

The compressed arr prov~dedfor use in plants i s designated 'instrument air', 'plant a d or 'process a d Instrument alr IS cleaned and dr~ed compressed air, used to prevent corrosion in some instruments. Plant air is compressed air but is usually neither cleaned nor dried, although most ot the moisture and oil, etc., can be collected by a separator close to the compressor, especially if adequate cooling can take place. Plant air is used tor cleaning, power tools, blowmg out vessels, etc: i f used tor air-powered tools exclusively, some s advantageous tor lubrication, although filterilube units are suspended oil 1 usually Installed in the alr line to the tool. Process air is compressed air, cleaned and diled, which may be used in the process stream tor oxidizing or agitation. The trend is to supply cleaned and diled air for both general process and instrument purposes. This avoids runnrng separate lines tor process and instrument air. Process and instrument alr for some applications requrres to have an oil content less than 10 parts per million. As almost all oily contaminants are present as extremely small droplets (less than 1 micron in diameter) mechanical filtration may be rneffectrve, adsorption equipment can efficiently remove the oil.

A , eI "- line f wing mica' r (rot shetr' the expansion of a gas or vapor lusually alr or steam, in lndustrlal plants).
Steam turbines are Used where there is a readily-available source of steam, and are also used to drlve standby process pumps in critlcal service in the event of an electr~calpower failure, and emergency standby equipment such as firewater pumps and electric generators. Figure 6.9 shows a schematic arrangement ot plplng tor automatic operallon. There are s~milaritiesbelween steam-turbine and pump and compressor plping. Their common requirements are'-

(1)

To limlt loads on nozzles from welght oi plping or trom thermal movement (2) To provlde access and overhead clearance (3) To prevent harmful materlai trom entering the machine
(1)

KEY^
121
13)

INLET [STEAM FEED)

6.4.1

In order to guard agalnst damage to a steam turbine, protective piping arrangements such as those mentioned in table 6.4 ere needed in the steam feed. PROTECTIVEPIPING FOR FEEDING STEAM TO TURBINE TABLE 6.4

Exhaust I s dlYhdlged dlrectiy t o atmosphere. Sultablc lor rmrll turblne In mtermlticnt use. Exnau~tB tsuen to a low-prprsurc header lor use elrewncrc. S u l O b l ~for ~~ntlnu~~~iy-ope turbine, r l l n g t o avoid wasting steam. Exhaust 13 condensed t o increase prcrrure drop vcrou tne turblnc.

BYPASS STEAM & OTHER PIPING FOR TURBINES

6.4.3

FOREIGN MATTER & WATER I N THE STEAM FEED

DRIPLEG & STRAINER. or SEPARATOR, I N THE FEED LlNE lSee figure 6.9) PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE &/OR CONTROL VALVE I N THE FEED LlNE

An orifice plate IS used as a 'bleed' bypass to ensure that steam constantly passes thru the turbine. An orifice plate is used rather than a stra~ght plpe, as a changeable constrrctlon is needed. Alternately, the small amount ot steam needed to keep the turbine warm can be admitted by a cracked.openvalve in a bypass-a wasteful and uncartaln practice. A trap IS fitted to the casing of the turbine to remove condensate. Piping is provided to supply seal liquid to the turbine's bear~ngs-refer to 6.3.1. under 'Auxiliary, trlm, or harness ptplng'.
SWARTWOUT HEAD

I I

EXCESSIVE PRESSURE I N STEAM FEED CAUSING OVER-FAST RUNNING OR CASING RUPTURE THERMAL SHOCK. DUE TO TOO RAPID HEATING ON STARTUP

I
6.4.2

FIGURE 6.26

ORIFICE BYPASSTO FEE0 SMALL AMOUNT OF STEAM TO TURBINE AT ALL TIMES

,
6
mini

SWARTWOUT EXHAUST HEAD

EXHAUST (STEAM DISCHARGE)

Figure 6.25 shows three methods for dealing with the turbine's exhaust. Steam trom an intermittently operated turbine may be run to waste and all that IS required is a slmple run ot pipe to the nearest outside wall or up thru the root. Exhausts should be well clear of the building and arranged so as not to be hazardous to personnel. The turbine discharge will include drops of water and oil trom the turbine, which are best collected and run to dram. A devlce sultable tor this purpose is a Swartwout 'exhaust head' shown in figure 6.26. Alternately, steam discharged from a continuously running turbine may be utilized elsewhere, in a lower-pressure system.

PlPF FLEXIRI V'TO Nn72i.ES Provide additional flexibility in lines to a vessel trom pumps and other equipment mounted on a separate foundation [if liable to settle) VESSEL CONNECTIONS
6.5.1
6

' n 1'

,b

5.2

--

Vessel connections are otten made with couplings [for smaller lines), flanged or welding nozzias, and pads fitted with studs, designed to mate with flanged piping. Nozzle outlets are also made by extrusion, to glve a shape like that ot the branch of a welding tee-this gives a good flow pattern, but is an expensive method usually reserved tor such items as manifolds and dished heads. Weldolets, sockolets and thredolets are suitable tor vessel connections and are available flat-based for dished heads, tanks, and large vessels. Almost any type ot connection may be made to open vessels or vessels vented t o atmosphere, but tor pressure vessels, the applicable design code will dictate requirements tor connections (and possible reinforcement-see 2.11). PRESSURE VESSELS With exceptions and limitations stated in section 8 ot the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, vessels sublect to internal or external operating pressures not exceeding 15 PSI need not be considered to be pressure vessels. A vessel operating under full or partial vacuum and not subiect to an external pressure greater than 15 PSI would not require Code certification. VESSEL DRAWING & REQUIRED NOZZLES Preliminary piping layouts are made to determine a suitable nozzlasarrangement. A sketch of the vessel showing all pertinent intormatian is sent to the vessel tabricator, who then makes a detail drawing. The preliminary studies tor pressure vessel piping layouts should Indicate where pipe supports and platforms (if required) are to be located. In the event that the vessel has t o be stress-reliwed, the tabricator can provide clips or brackets-see 6.2.8, under 'Welding pipesupport and platform brackets to vessels, etc.' Figure 5.14 shows the type ot drawing or sketch sent to a vessel tabricator. NOZZLES NEEDED ON VESSELS Nozzles needed on non-pressure vessels include inlet, outlet, vent (gas or air), manhole, dram, overflow, agitator, temperature element, level instrument, end a 'steamout' connection, sometimes arranged tangentially, for cleaning the vessel Nozzles needed on pressurevessels include inlet, outlet, manhole, drain, pressure relief, agitator, level gage, pressure gage, temperature element, vent, and tor 'steamout', as above Check whether nozzles are required tor an electric heater, coils for heating or cooling, or vessel jacket. A iacket requires a drain and vent Check special nozzle needs, such as tor flush-bottom tank valves (see 3 1 9)

Be cautious in making rigid straight connections between nozzles. Such connections may be acceptable if both Items of eouioment are on the . same toundation, and are not subiect to more than normal atmospheric temperature changes lsee figure 6.1)

NOZZLE LOADING
e

Ensure that a nozzle can take the load imposed on it by connected piping-see 6.2.8, under 'Supporting pipe at nozzles'. Manufacturers otten can provide nozzle-loading data tor the~rstandard equipment Check all connections to ensure that stresses due to thermal movement, and shock pressures ('kicks') trom opening pressure reliet valves, etc., are sately handled

FRACTIONATION COLUMN PIPING (OR TOWER PIPING) As columns and their associated equipment take different forms, according to process needs, the following text gives a simplified explanation of column operation, and outlLnes basic design considerations. THE COLUMN'S JOB A tractionation column i s a type ot still. A simple still starts with mixed liquids, such as alcohol and water produced by fermenting a gram, etc.. and by boiling produces a distillate in which the concentration ot alcohol is many times higher than in the teed. In the petroleum industry in particular, mixtures not of two but a great many components are dealt with. Crude oil IS a typical fead for a fractionation column, and from it the column can form simultaneously several distillates such as wax distillate, gas oil, heating oil, naphtha and fuel gases. These tractions are termed 'cuts'. COLUMN OPERATION The teed is heated (in a 'furnace' or exchanger) betore it entersthe column. As the fead enters the column, quantities ot vapor ere given off by 'flashing'. due to the release ot pressure on the teed. As the vapors rise up the column. they come into intimate contact with downflowing liquid-see figure 6.29. During this contact, some ot the heavier components ot the vapor are condensed, and some ot the lighter components ot the downflowing liquid are vaporized. Thls process is termed 'refluxing'. I f the composition of the teed remains the same and the column is kept in steady operation, a temperature distribution establishes in the column. The temperature at any tray is the boiling point of the liquid on the tray. 'Cuts' are not taken from every tray. The P&ID shows cutsthat are to be made, including alternatives-nozzles on selected treys ere piped, and nozzles for alternate operation are provided with line blinds or valves.

DAVIT (for hondling


troyr, valves, etc.)

SAFEN-RELIEF VALVE

RELIEF LINE INSTRUMENT SPACE (gages for temperature GUIDE


I

r;

LIGHT CUT (LIGHTER FRACTIONS) 'CUTS' ARE TAKEN FROM SELECTED TRAYS I N COLUMN

INTERMEDIATE CUT

ELEVATION
FIGURE 6.27

~ r @ are s nf rmrious rlesinns. Their nurpose is to collect a certaln amount of , d i bu, . . ~ w vapu, UI pass .,!ru th.,., that ...w and WL. corn. Into contact. (Reter to figure 6.29, which shows simple bubblecap trays -many tray designs are available.)
TRAYS & BUBBLECAPS

.,

..

Idi-2

FIGURE 6.29

NOZZLE FOR REMOVING A FRACTION. or 'CUT lsr %.it1


TRAY 23

TRAY 22

To produce the requ~red'cuts', a column operates under steady temperature. teed, and product removal conditions. Start~ng from cold, products are collected-atter steady conditions are reached, and the column is then operated continuously. All materials enter and leave the column located close to piperacks. Figures 6.27 Products trom the column are piped to 'accumulators', etc.) and held tor turther thru pipes; therefor columns are and 6.28 show an arrangement. collecting tanks (termed 'drums', processing, or storage.

If the vapor trom the top ot the column IS condsnsihle, i t is piped to a condenser to torm a volatile liquid. The condenser may be mounted at grade, or sometimes on the side ot the column. Product trom the top ot the column may be gaseousat atmospheric pressure atter cooling; if the product liquefies under moderate pressure, i t may be stored pressurized in containers.

2 n

6 C E FOR MANHOLES AND 'DROPOUT' (troy ond valve hodling)

In addition to the condenser tor the top product, a steam-heated heat exchanger, termed a 'reboiler', may be used to heat materlal drawn trom a selected level III a column; the heated materlal is returned to the column. Reboilers are requlred tor tall columns, and tor columns operated at high temperatures, which are subject to appreciable loss ot heat. Mounting the reboiler on the side of the column mmimlzes piping.

Material trom fhe bottom of a column is termed 'bopms', and must be I . -,., d .,, an., ,ati&-.. *.27).nater.-. --;lsists -. ..?avier ,...a. ler molecular weight) liquids which either did not vaporize, or had condensed, plus any highly viscous material and solids in the teed. COLUMN ORIENTATION &REQUIREMENTS Srmultaneously with orientating nozzles and arranging plping to the column, the piping designer decides the positions of manholes, plattorms, ladders, davit, and instruments.
COLUMN ORIENTATION

SPARGER

UNIT

rv-un=

~7.s~

FIGURE 6.30

LADDER

SPACE

'

PIPERACK-

If the cuts are to be taken either from even-numbered trays, or trom oddnumbered trays, all nozzles can be located on one side of the column, facing the piperack. It cuts are to come trom both even- and odd-numbered trays, ~t will almost certainly be impossible to arrange all nozzles toward the p~perack.(See 'Arranging column piping', thls section.) PLATFORMS & LADDERS Plaitorms are required under manholes, valves at nozzles, level gages, controllers if any, and pressure relief valves. Columns may be grouped and sometimes rnterconnecting plattorms between columns are used. Individual plattorms tor a column are usually shaped as circular segments, as shown in iigure 6.30. A plattorm is required at the top ot the column, tor operating a davit, a vent on shutdown, and tor access to the safety-reliet valve. This top plattorm is oiten rectangular. Usual practice is to provide a separate ladder to go trom grade past the lowest plattorm. Ladders are arranged so that the operator steps sidevvays onto the plattorms. Ladder length 1s usually restricted to 30 t t between landings. Some States allow 40 t t (check local codes). If operating plattorms are turther apart than the maximum perm~ssibleladder he~ght, a small intermediate plattorm is provided. Ladders and cages should contorm to the company standard and satisty the requirements of the US Department ot Labor (OSHA), part 191010).

Manholes are necessary to allow installation and removal ot tray parts. Plattorms and ladders are required for personnel access to valves on nozzles, t o manholes, and to column instruments. A davit is needed to raise and lower column parts, and a dropout area has to be reserved. MANHOLES & NOZZLES For a particular prolect or column, manholes are preferably ot thesame type. They should be located away trom piping, and within range at the davit. I f required, manholes can be placed off the column centerlines (plan view). The manhole servlng the sparger unit (figure 6.31) should permit easy removal ot the unit, which may be angled to place the teed connection in a desired position. The portlons ot the column wall available tor nozzles are determ~nedby the orientation and type ot tray-see figure 6.29. Elevations ot nozzles are taken trom the column data sheet (normally in the torm ot a vessel drawing).

ririiuu-run

nrHt

cntmniuucna

6.6

DESIGN POINTERS
rrngmeermg ,voter:

Heat exchanoers are discussed in 3.3.5.


D A T A NEEDED T O PLAN EXCHANGER PIPING

6.6.7
I

Provide the shell with a pressurerelieving device to protect against excessive shell-side pressure in the event ot internal failure Put touling and/or corrosive fluids inside the tubes as these are (except U-type) easily cleaned, and cheaper to replace than the shell Put the hotter fluid in the tubes to reduce heat loss to the surroundin@ However, if steam is used to heat a fluid in an exchanger, passing the steam thru the shell has advantages: tor example, condensate is far easier to handle shellside. Insulation of the shell is normally required to protect personnel, and to reduce the rates of condensate formation and heat loss Pass refrigerant or cooling liquid thru the tubes, if the exchanger is not insulated, tor economic operation If heat transter i s between two liquids, a countercurrent flow pattern will usually give greeter overall heat transter than a paralleled flow pattern. other tactors being the same Orientate single-tube spiral, helical and U-tube exchangers (with steam ted thru the tube) to permit outflow ot condensate
FIGURE 6.32

Preliminary exchanger intormation should be given early to the piping group. so that piping studies can be made with special reference to orientation ot nozzles. Betore arranging heat-exchanger piping, the tollowing intorrnation is needed This will show the fluids that are to be handled by the exchangers, and will state their flow rates, temperatures and pressures.
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM EXCHANGER D A T A SHEETS One of these sheets IS compiled tor each exchanger design by the prolect group. The piping group provides nozzle orientation sketches (resulting trom the piping studies). The data sheet intorms the rnanutacturer or vendor ot the exchanger concerning pertormance and code stamp requirements, maternis, and possible dimensional limitations TEMA CODING FOR EXCHANGER TYPE

The Tubular Exchangers Manutacturers Association (TEMA) has devised a method tor designat~ngexchanger types, using a letter coding. The exchanger shown in figure 6.32 would have the basic designation AEW. See chart H-1.
SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER WITH REMOVABLE TUBE BUNDLE

Arrange nozzles to su~t the best plplng and plant layout. Nozzles may be positioned tangentially or on elbows, as well as on vertical O r horizontal centerlines (as usually offered at first by vendors). Although a or elbowed nozzle 1 s more expensive, lt may permit econo- tanaentlal . . mies in plping multiple heat exchangers Make condensing vapor the descending stream Make vaporizing fluid the ascending Stream

Posltlon exchangers so that plping 1 s as direct and simple as possible. TO achieve this, consider alternatives, such as reversing flows, arranging exchangers side-by-side or stacking them, to minimize PiPlng Elevate en exchanger to allow piping to the exchanger's nozzles to be arranged above grade or floor level, unless piping i s to be brought U P thru a floor or trom a trench Exchangers are sometimes ot necessiP/ mounted on structures, procen columns and other equipment. Special arrangements tor maintenance and tube handling will be required
(b)

~~~h~~~~~~ arranged wtth 2 ti 0 in. mamtenance space between pasred u


and 2 ti 6 in. oeeratlng space between PIPW

PIPING T O NOZZLES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

I I I iiLLDWZPliCE FOR /

opentins and Maintenance Rwluirsments:


I

s
a

Access to operating valves and instruments (on one side only suffices) Operating space tor any davit, monorail or crane, etc., both for movement and to set loads down Access to exchanger - space is needed tor tube-bundle removal, tor cleaning, and around the exchanger's bolted ends (channelcover and rear head) and the bolted channel-to-shell clo~ure Access for tube bundle removal is otten given on manufacturers' drawings, and 1s usually about 1% tlmes the bundle length. 15 to 20 i t oimr.nrp chnlM be allocated from the outer side ot the last exchang . . er in a row for mobile lifting equipment access and tube handling
,L".o",",,""
~

Threaded Thermowells in Straight Runs

Threaded Thermowells in Elbows

Flanged Thermowells in Straight Runs

Flanged Thermowells in Elbows

Screwed Connections for Pressure Instruments

Socket-welded Connections for Pressure Instruments

Xaphragm Isolated Instrument Connections (for welded lines)

NIPPLE. I,,". Y

PRIMARY CONNECTIONS TO LINES & EQUIPMENT

6.7.1

Locate a liquid level controller (float type, tor example1 clear ot any turbulence trom nozzles More than one level'gage, level switch, etc., may be required on a vessel: consider installing a 'strongbackl to a horizontal vessel on which instrument connections have t o be made-see figure 6.34(c)
FIGURE 6 . s
{b) CONNECTIONS FOR A GAGE GLASS

Connections will usually be specified by company standards or by the specifications tor the proiect. I f no specificat~onexists, tull- and half-couplings, swaged nipples, thredolets, nipolets and elbolets, etc., may be used. Chart 6.2 illustrates instrument connections used tor lines ot various sizes. The fittlngs shown in chart 6.2 afe described in chapter 2. Orifice flange connections are discussed in 6.7.5.
CHOOSING THE CONNECTION

LEVEL.GAGE CONNECTIONS
(a)
LEVEL GAGE ASSEMBLY

6.7.2

,I~I,Y,I*~~IO.DILP1..*II

The choice ot instrument connection will depend on the conveyed fluid and sometimes on the required penetration of the element into the vessel Or pipe. Instrument connectionsshould be designed so that servicing or replacement ot instruments can be carried out without interrupt~ng the process. Valves are needed to lsolate gages tor maintenance durlng plant operation and during hydrostatic testing at the piping system. These valves are shown in chart 6.2 and are referred to as 'root' or 'primaiy' valves.
TEMPERATURE &PRESSURE CONNECTIONS

,,

[ORVALVE1

LEVELGLAS

6.7.3
TEE

Chart 6.2 illustrates various methods tor making temperature andpressure connections. ~t the bottom ot chart 6.2 a method ot connectlna a diaphragm flange assembly (diaphragm isolator) is shown. Corrosive, abrasive Or viscous fluid i n the process line presses on one side ot the flexible diaphragm, and the neutral fluid (glycol, etc.) on the other side transmits the pressure. I f the conveyed fluid is hazardous or under high pressure a branch fitted wlth a bleed valve is inserted between the gage and its isolating valve. to relieve pressure andlor dram the liquid betore servicing thegaga. The bleed valve can also be used t o sample, or tor adding a comparison gage. Position connections tor instruments so that the instruments can be seen when operating associated valves, etc. Pressure connections tor vessels containing liqu~dsare usually best located above liquid level A temperature-measuring element is inserted into a metal housing termed a 'thermowell'. Place thermowells SO that they are i n contact wlth the fluid-an elbow IS a good location, due t o the Increased turbulence
CONNECTIONS
ON STRONGBACK

x IX((SWG.TBE
X'(

VIIIVE

PLUG

UNlON

F I
FIGURE
SWG 21". x 3/41". BLE-TSE V A L V E 3/41", PLUG 3/41",

THERMOWELL CONSTRUCTION (EXAMPLE)

ELEMENT, li4.inch

diameter

0.260.inch

bare
Oral"

MEASURING FLOW-ROTAMET~HS iY u n l r ~ ri-lro ~c

u.z.~
'

.". --- ......

A rotameter consists ot a transparent tube with tapered and calibrated bore,


arranged vertically, wide end up, supported in a casing or tramework with end connections. The instrument should be connected so that flow enters at the lower end and leaves at the top. A ball or spinner rides on the rising gas or liquid Inside the tapered tube the greater the flow rate, the higher the ball or splnner rides. Isolating valves and a bypass should be provided, as in figure 6.35

lressu ' the rr ' cturi 'L' met, ithat '- ".e p ~ p ~ - 'iffarc in which the orifice plate is to be installed1 must correspond with the piping used to calibrate the orifice plate-the readings will be In error if there isvery much variation i n these two piping arrangements. Sometimes the orifice assembly Includes adiacent piping, ready tor welding In place. Otherwise, lengths of stralght pipe, free tram welds, branches or obstructlon, should be provided upstream and downstream at the orifice assembly. Table 6.6 shows lengths ot stralght pipe required upstream and downstream ot orifice flanges (for different plping arrangements) to sufficiently reduce turbulence m liquids tor reliable measurement.
PIPING T O FLANGE TAPS

ROTAMETER
(a) PIPING T O ROTAMETER

FIGURE 6.35
(b) l N O U S T R l A L ROTAMETER

Figure 6.37 shows a suitable tapping and valving arrangement at orifice flange taps. In horizontal runs, the taps are located at the tops of the flanges in gas, steam and vapor lines. An approximately horizontal pasition avoids vapor locks in liquid lines. Taps should not be pointed downward, as sediment may collect in pipes and tubes. CONNECTIONSTO ORIFICE &INSTRUMENT
FLANGES

FIGURE 6.37

ORIFICE PLATE ASSEMBLY

An 'orifice plate' IS a flat disc with a preciseiy-made hole at its center. It offers a well-defined obstructlon to flow when Inserted in a linesee figure 6.36. The resistance of the orifice sets up a pressure difference in the fluid either side of the plate, which can be used to measure the rate of flow. ORIFICE PLATE ASSEMBLY &GAGE (MANOMETER)
GAGE

FIGURE 6.36

The orifice plate IS heid between spec~alflanges havlng 'orifice taps'-these are tapped holes made in the flange rims, to wh~chtubing and a pressure gage can be connected, as in figure 6.36. A pressure gage may be termed a 'manometer'

The h,,d~yamenr u~ urifice p d l e assenwea shouio oe made i n consular~on s preterred t o locate orifice plate wlth the Instrument anglnaer. Usually. it 1 assemblies i n horizontal lines. F l o w condit~onsconsistent w l t h those used t o calibrate the Instrument are ensured b y providing adequately long stra~ght sections o t pipe upstream and downstream ot the orifice. Table 6.6 gives lengths that have been found satisfactory t o r liqulds. STRAIGHT PIPE UPSTREAM & OF ORIFICE ASSEMBLY
DOWNSTREAM

Clear space should be left around an orifice assembly Figure 6.38 shows m m m u m clearances required f o r rnount!ng instruments, seal pots, etc.. and t o r maintenance. CLEARANCES TO ORIFICE ASSEMBLIES FIGURE 6.38

TABLE

6.6

CLEARANCES FOR LINESCONVEYING AIR OR OTHER GAS

II

PLANS -

=access space

ELEVATIONS

To ensure continuity of plant operations it is necessary to maintain some process, servlce and utility lines within a desired temperature range in order to keep materials in a fluid state, to prevent degradatron, and to prevent damage caused by liqulds treezlng i n cold conditions. Piping can be kept warm by insulation, or by applying heat to the insulated prprng-this is 'iackating' or 'tracing', as discussed in 6.8.2 and 6.8.3. THERMAL INSULATION
6.8.1

Car Py-n-?I prrrn-+q ~nplaf'-) shpd.' he prodd up tp 2 hqght nt about ti tt above operating floor level Alternately, wire mesh guaros can be provided The tollowlng more detailed table gives insulation thickness for heat conservatron, based on 85% magnesia to 600 F, and calcium silicate above 600 F

INSULATION RE(1UIRED FOR PIPE AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES

TABLE 6.8

NOhlll&%L PIPE SIZE

INCHES THICKNESS OF iNSULililON F O R S i A i E O iiMPERAiURE RWGE

I in. J

oelav 400 400-549

Temuerature Ran e i n Degrees Fahrenheit


150-689
700.899
900-1049

TWO-IZOO

INSULATION 'Insulation' is covering material havrng poor thermal conductivity applied externally ta pipe and vessels, and is used: (1) To retain heat in a pipe or vessel SO as to marntain process temperature or prevent treezing. 12) To minimize transter ot heat trom the surroundings Into the line or vessel. (31 To sateguard personnel from hot lines. The choice of insulation is normally included with the piplng specification. The method ot show~nginsulatlon on piping i s included in chart 5.7. draw~ngs Installed insulatlon normally consists ot three parts: (1) The thermal insulating mater~al. (2) The protect!ye covering for it. (3) The metal banding to tasten the covering. Most insulating materlals are supplied in tormed pieces to fit elbows, etc. Formed coverings are also available. Additionally, i t is customary to paint the installed insulation, and to weatherproot i t betore painting, if for external use. The principal thermal rnsulating materials and their accepted approximate maximum line temperatures, where temperature cycling (repet~tiveheating and cooling periods) occurs are: asbestos (1200 F), calcium silicate (1200 F), cellular glass [foamglasj (800 F), cellular silica (1600 F), diatomaceous silica plus asbestos (1600 F), mineral fiber (250-1200 F, depending on type), mineral wool (1200 F). magnesla (600 F),and polyurethane toam (250 F). Certaln toamed plastics have a very low conductivity, and are suitable tor lnsulatlng lines as cold as -400 F. Rock cork [bonded mineral fiber! is satislactory down to -250 F, and mineral wool down to -150 F. HOW THICK SHOULD INSULATION BE 7 Most insulatlon in a plant will not exceed 2 inches In thickness A rough guide to insulation thicknesses ot the more common materlals required on plpe to 8-inch slze IS
GUIDE TO INSULATION THICKNESS
PPPLICATtON
TYPICAL INSULATING MATERIAL

JACKETING &TRACING

6.8.2

The common methods by which temperatures are maintained, other than by slmple insulation, are jacketing and tracing (with insulation). JACKETING Usually, 'iacketing'reter;todouble-walledconstruction ot pipe, valves, vessels, hose, etc.. deslgned so that a hot or cold fluid can circulate in the cavity between the walls. Heating media include water, oils, steam, or proprietary high-boiling-point fluids which can be circulated at low pressure, such a s Dowtherm or Therminol. Cooling media include water, water mixtures and varlous alcohols. Jacketed pipe can be made by the piping tabricator, but an eng~neered system bought from a speclalist manufacturer would be a more reliablechoice. The umpovvr lines connecting adjacent ~ackets,thru which the heatrng or cooling medium flows are factory-made by the specialist manufacturer wlth less jolnts than those made on-site, where as many as nrne screwed joints may be necessary to make one jumpover. Details ot the range of fittings, valves and equipment available and methods o t construction tor steel jacketed piping systems can be tound in Parks-Cramer's and other catalogs. Another type of iacketing is 'Platecoil' (Tranter Manutacturing Inc.) which is a name given to heat transter unlts fabricated from embossed metal sheets, lolned together to form internal channeling thru which the heatrng lor cooling) fluid is passed. The term 'iacketlng' i s also applied to electric heating pads or mantles which are tormed to fit equrpment. I t also sometrmes reters to the spiral winding ot electric tracing and fluid tracing lines around pipes, vessels, etc.

TABLE 6.7
USUAL TH'CKNESS OF INSULATION

Thi? IF a w i d ~ l v - ~ ~ ww wl nf k e e p " i w s u \ . r u r p l r -'--m is "y typical tracing arrangements rigure o . 4 ~ shows av~wkr tor LIII:, purpose. A stearmaacing system consists of tracer lines separately fed from a steam sgpply header lor subheader), each tracer terminating with a separate trap. Horizontal pipes are commonly traced along the bottom by a single tracer. Multiply-traced pipe, with more than W o tracers, is unusual. STEAM PRESSURE FOR TRACING Steam pressures in the range 10 t o 200 PSIG are used. Sometimes steam will be available at a su~tablepressure tor the tracing system, but if the available steam is at too high a pressure, it may be reduced by means ot a control (valve) station-see 6.1.4. Low steam pressures may be adequate if tracers are fitted with traps discharging to atmospheric pressure. If a pressurized condensate system 1 s used, steam at 100 to 125 PSlG IS preferred. SlZlNG HEADERS The best way to size a steam subheader or condensate header serving several tracers is to calculate the total internal cross-sectional area ot all the tracers, and to select the header size offering about the same flow area.Table 6.9 allows quick selectm if the tracers are all ot the same size.
NUMBER
OF

Ixpai :an b~ .mmo--..by ic-,.,., the toeb.~ dtelbovwa a~jdlor pruviding horizontal expansion loops in the tracer. Vertical downward expansron loops obstruct draining and will cause trouble in treezing climates, unless the design includes a drain at the bottom of the loop, or a union to break the loop. I t is necessary to anchor $racers to control the amount of expansion that can be tolerated in any one direction. Straight tracers 100 i t or longer are usually anchored at their midpoints. where no loop is used and excessive Expansion at elbows must be lim~ted movement ot the tracer could lift the insulation. In such cases the tracer is anchored not more than 10 to 25 f t away trom an elbow which limitsstart-up expansion to 112 to 314 inch in most cases. The distance ot the anchor from the elbow is best calculated from the ambient and steam temperatures. EXAMPLE: System traced with copper tubing: coefficient of linear expansion of copper = 0.000009 per deg F. Steam pressure to be used = 50 PSlG (equivalent steam temperature 298F). Lowest ambient temperature = 50 F. If the anchor is located 20 f t trorn the elbow, the maxlmum expansion in inches is (298-50)(0.000009)(20)~12) = 0.53 in. This expansion will usually be tolerable even for a small line with the tracer construction tor elbows shown in figure 6.40.
20<1

TRACERS PER
....

HEADER

TABLE

6.9
0 % irrh EXPIINSION

.,

5OPSlG $TEN4 PRESSURE WCOPPERTRACER

LOWEST MIBIENTTEMPERATURE 50 F

PIPE,TUBE & FITTINGS FOR TRACING SCH 80 carbon steel pipe, or copper or stainless steel tubing is used for tracers. Selection is based on steam pressure and required tracersize. In practice, tracers are either 112 or 318-inch size, as smaller sizesinvolve too much Pressure drop, and larger material does not bend well enough for customary field installation. 112-inch OD copper tube is the most economic material tor tracingstra~ght piping. 318-inch OD copper tubing is more usetul where small bends are required around valve bodies, etc. Copper tubing can be used for pressures up to 150 PSlG lor to 370 F). Table T-1 gives data for copper tube. Supply lines trom the header are usually socket welded or screwed and sealwelded depending on the pressures involved and the company's practice. A pipeto-tube connector is used to make the connection between the steel pipe and tracer tube - see figure 2.41. TRACING VALVES & EQUIPMENT Different methods are used. Some companies require valves to be wrapped with tracer tubing. Others merely run the tubing in a vertical loop alongside and against the valve body. i n either method, room should be lett moving flange bolts, and unions should be placed in the tracer so valve or equipment can be removed.

MAXIMUM LENGTHS & RISES The rate at which condensate forms and fills the line determines the length ot the tracer in contact with the pipe. Too many variables are involved to give useful maximum tracer lengths. Most companies have their own design figure lor figures based on experience) for this: usually, length ot tracer in contact with pipe does not exceed 250 ft. 1 PSI steam will lift condensate about 2.3 ft. and theretor vertical rises will present no problem unless low-pressure steam is being used. Companies preier t o limit the vertical rise i n a tracer at any one place to 6 t t (for 25-49 PSIG steam) or 10 tt (for 50-100 PSlG steam). As a rough guide, the total height, in feet, ot all the rises in one tracer may be limited to one quarter oi the initial steam pressure, in PSIG. For example, if the initial steam pressure is 100 PSIG, the total height of all risers in the tracer should be limited to 25 tt. The rise for a sloped tracer is the difference in elevations between the ends of the sloping part of the tracer.

TRACER AT FLANGES

M SUPPLY

fYriLL

ruviorovarvrr,

TRACING VESSELS

Ensure that the temperature limit tor process materlal is not exceeded by the temperature of the steam supplytng the tracer. Hot spots occur at bands-see 6.8.2, under 'Getting heat to the process line' Run a steam subheader from the most conventent source if there isno suitable existtng steam supply that can be used etther directly or by reducing the pressure ot the available steam Take tracer lines separately from the top ot the subheader, and provide an isolating valve in the hortzontal run Feed steam first to the highest point of the system ot lines to be traced, so that gravity will assist the flow ot condensate to trap(s) and condensate header Do not split (branch) a tracer and then r e l o w t h e shorter limb would take most of the steam Preferably, absorb expansion ot the tracer at elbows. If loops are used in the line, arrange them to drain on shutdown Keep loops around flanges horizontal or overhead, and provide unions so that tracers can be disconnected at flanges If possible, group supply points and traps. locattng traps at grade or plattorm level Do not place a trap at every low point ot a tracer (as is the practice with steam lines) but provide a trap at the end ot the tracer Do not run more than one tracer to a trap Increased heating may be obtained: (1) By using more than one tracer (2) By winding the tracer in a spiral around the line (3) By applying heat-transfer cement to the tracer and line (4) By welding the tracer to the line-refer to 6.82, under 'Getting heat to the process line' Reserve spiral wlnding ot tracers for vertical lines where condensate can drain by gravity flow In treezing conditions, provide drains at low pointsand at other points where condensate could collect during shutdown Prov~deslots In insulation to accommodate expansion ot the tracer where it loins and leaves the line to be traced Indicate thickness of insulat~onto envelop line and tracer, and show whether insulat~onis also required at flanges Indicate limits for insulatton tor personnel protection-see 6.8.1, under 'How thick should insulation be?', end chart 5.7 Provide crosses instead ot elbows and flanged joints at intervals in heated lines conveying materials which may solidify, to permit cleaning if the heatmg fails

S T E A M & LOW-PRESSURE H E A T I N G M E D I A
EXPLANATIONS OF STEAM TERMS HOW STEAM IS FORMED

6 . 9
6.9.1

SUPERHEATED STEAM

--

-:

Steam is a convenient and easily handled medium tor heating, tor driving machinery, for cleaning, and for creating vacuum. After water has reached the boiling point, turther additiort of heat will convert water into the vapor state: that is, steam. During boiling there is no further rise in temperature of the water, but the vaporization of the water uses up heat. This added heat energy, which is not shown by a rise in temperature, is termed 'latent heat of vaporization', and varies with pressure. I n boiling one pound of wateratatmosphertc pressure 114.7 PSIA) 970.3 BTU is absorbed. If the steam condenses back into water (still at the boiling temperature and 14.7 PSIA) it will release exactly the amount of heat it absorbed on vaporizing. The term 'saturated steam' refers to both drysteam and wetsteam, described below. Steam tables give pressure and temperature data applicable to dry and to wet steam. Small amounts of air, carbon dioxide, etc., are present in steam trom industrial boilers.
STEAMNVATERIICE DIAGRAM

If heat is added to a quantity ot dry steam, the temperature of the steam will rise, and the number of degrees rise in temperature is the 'degrees of superheat' Thus, superheat is 'sensible' heat - that is. it can be measured bv a thermometer.
EFFECT OF PRESSURE CHANGE

lbil J

. 8 . 3 .92

Under normal atmospheric pressure 114.7 PSIA) pure water boils at 212 F. Reductton ofthe pressure over the water will lower the boiling polnt. Increase in pressure raises the boiling point. Steam tables give boiling points corres ponding to particular pressures.
FLASH STEAM

Suppose a quantity of water is being boiled at 300 PSIA icorresponding to 417 F). If the source ot heat is removed, boiling ceases. I f the pressure over the water is then reduced, say trom 300 to 250 PSIA, the water starts boiling on its own, without any outside heat applied, until the temperature drops t o 401 F (this temperature corresponds to 250 PSIA). Such spontaneous boiling due to reductton in pressure is termed 'flashing', and the steam produced, 'flash steamr. The data provided i n steam tables enable calculation of the quantity and temperature of steam produced in 'flashing'.
CONDENSATE -WHAT I T IS & HOW IT FORMS

CHART 6.3

Steam in a line will give up heat to the piping and surroundings, and will gradually become 'wetter', its temperature remaining the same. The change ot state ot part ot the vapor to liquid gives heat t o the pipingwithout lowering the temperature in the line. The water that torms is termed 'condensate'. If the line initially contains superheated steam, heat lost to the piping and surroundings will first cause the steam to lose sensible heat until the steam temperature drops to that of dry steam at the line pressure.
AIR IN STEAM

CHANGE OF STATE

DRY STEAM

Dry steam is a gas, consisting of water vapor only. Placed in contact with water at the same temperature, dry steam will not condense, nor will more steam torm-liquid and vapor are in equilibrtum.
WET STEAM

With both dry and wet steam, a certain pressure will correspond to a certain temperature. The temperature ot the steam at various pressures can be found in steam tables. If air is mixedwith steam, this relationship between pressure and temperature no longer holds. The more air that is admixed, the more the temperature is reduced below that of steam at the same pressure. There is no practicable way to separate air from steam (without condensation) once ~tis mixed.

LOW-PRESSURE HEATING MEDIA

6.9.2

Wet steam consists of water vapor and suspended water particles at the same temperature as the vapor. Heating ability ('quality') vartes with the percentage ot dry steam in the mixture (the water particles contain no latent heat of vaporization). Like dry steam, wet steam is in equilibrium w ~ t h water at the same temperature.
11271

Speaal liquid media such as Dowtherms (Dow Chemical Co.) and Therminols (Monsanto Co.) can be boiled like water, but thesamevapor temperatures as steam are obtained at lower pressures. Heating systems using these liquids are more complicated than steam systems, and experience wtth them is necessary in order to design an efficient installation. However, the basic principles ot steamheating systems apply.

. 7 ,

L-8.S

.*

0,"-

".."
...1 L I N ~ ~ 6.

REk.-

...JG Al.. . ..OMS.-.

Air in steam lines lowers the temperature for a given pressure, and calculated rates of heating may not be met. See 6.9.1 under 'Air in steam'. The most economic means for removing atr trom steam lines isautomatically thru temperature-sensitivetraps or traps fitted with temperature-sensitive airventing devices placed at points remote from the steam supply. When full line temperature is attained the vent valves will close completely. See 6.10.7 under 'Temperaturesensitive (or thermostattc) traps'.
WHY PLACE VENTS A T REMOTE POINTS 7

",".",,,", .,.*,* llr",,, Or," * Y I I " V I I I O L ~ dter thru ~c~=trnm coils 8s stmm ?wasmpral%c tc9nted +n +h? opep atr. Later, rtle wasreiuiness ot rnts resulteo tn closed sream lines rrom which only the condensed steam was removed and then re-ted to the boiler. The removal of condensate to atmosphertc pressure was effected wtth traps-special automattc discharge valves-see 6.10.7.
111

""..,".""...

..""

"VIIIIYCIYUII

..Yllr

"I

This was a much more efficient s y s t k , but tt still wasted flash steam. On passtng thru the traps, the depressurtzed condensate boiled, generatmg iowerpressure steam. In modern systems, this flash steam ts used and the residual condensate returned to the boiler.
STEAM SEPARATOR OR DRYER 6.10.3

On start-up, cold lines will be filled w ~ t h air. Steam issutng trom thesource will mix w ~ t h some of this air, but will also act as a plston pushing air to the remote end ot each line.
WHY REMOVE CONDENSATE 7 6.10.2

In heating systems ustng steam with little or no superheat, steam condenses to torm water, termed 'condensate', which is essentially distilled water. Too valuable to waste, condensate is returned tor use as boiler feedwater unless it is contaminated wtth oil iusually trom a steam engtne) or unless it i s uneconomic to do so, when tt can either be used locally a s a source of hot water, or run to a drain. If condensate i s not removed:a e

This is an in-line device which provides better drying of steam betng immediately fed t o equtpment. A separator ts shown in figure 2.67. It separates droplets entrained in the steam which have been picked up trom condensate in the ptpe and from the pipe walls, by means of one or more baffles (which cause a large pressure drop). The collected liquid is ptped to a trap.
SLOPING &DRAINING STEAM & CONDENSATE LINES 6.10.4

Slop~ngof steam and condensate lines is discussed in 6.2.6, under 'Sloped lines avotd pocketing and aid draining'. Condensate IS collected trom a steam line either by a steam separator (some times termed a 'dryer'ksee 6.10.3 above-or more cheaply by a drtpleg (drip pocket or well - see below) from where i t passes to a trap for pertodic discharge to a condensate return line or header which will be at a lower pressure than the steam line. The header is either taken to a boiler feedwater tank teeding makeup water to the boiler or to a hotwell tor pumping to the boiler feedwater tank.
DRIPLEGS COLLECT CONDENSATE 6.10.5

Steam with entratned watei'droplets will form a dense water film on heat transfer surfaces and interfere wtth heating Condensate can be swept along by the rapidly-moving steam (at 120 ftlsec or more) and the high-velocity impact ot slugs at water with fintngs, etc. (waterhammer) may cause erosion or damage
FIGURE 6.41

LFTlLIZlNG CONDENSATE

It is futile to provide a small drtpleg or drain pocket on large lines, as the condensate will not be collected efficiently.

Drtplegs are made from ptpe and fitttngs. Figure 6.42 shows three methods of
construction, and table 6.10 suggests drtpleg and valve stzes.
DRIPLEG CONSTRUCTIONS
SCREWED O R SOCKET-WELDED PIPING BUTT-WELDED PIPING

FIGURE 6.42

RECEIVER

INE SIZE

xeam rraps are oestgneo ro react ro cnangei lrl rernperarure, pressure or 1Slty
TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVE tor 'THERMOSTATIC') TRAPS are ot two

nll 10
L

U il . l 0 . 9L J

types: The first type operates by the movement ot a liquid-filled bellows, and the second uses a bimetal element. Both types are open when cold and readily discharge air and-condensate at start-up. Steam IS in direct contact with the closing valve and there is a ttme delay with both types in operating. A large dripleg allowing tlme tor condensaie to cool tmproves operation. AS these traps are actuated by temperature differential, they are economic at steam pressures greater than 6 PSIG.The temperature ratlng ot the bellows and the possibility ot damage by waterhammer should be cons~dered-refer to 6.10.8.
PIPING T C TO TRAP

IMPULSE TRAPS are also reterred to as 'thermodynamic' and 'controlled

disc'. These traps are most su~ted to applications where the pressure downstream ot the trap IS less than about half the upstream pressure. Waterhammer tor steam pressures over 8 PSIG. does not affect operation. They are su~table
DENSlTYSENSlTlVE TRAPS are made in 'float' and 'bucket' designs. The

Figure 2.70 shows dripleg construction

STEAM LINE P R E S S ~ ~ FORCES E CONDENSATE INTO RECOVERY SYSTEM

6.10.6

In almost every steam-heattng system where condensate is recovered the trapped condensate has to be lifted to a condensate header and run to a boiler teedwater tank, either directly or vla a receiver. Each PSI of steam pressure behind a trap can lift the condensate about two feet vertically. The pressure available tor lifting the condensate ts the pressure difference between the steam and condensate lines less any pressure drop over pipe, valves, fitt~ngs, trap, etc.
STEAM TRAPS 6.10.7

float trap is able to discharge condensate continuously, but this trap will not discharge air unless fitted with a ternperature-sensitive vent ithe temperature limitatton ot the vent should be checked). Float traps sometunes may fail trom severe waterhammer. The inverted bucket trap (see 3.1.9) IS probably the most-used type. The trap is open when cold, but will not discharge a temperature large quantities ot air at startup unless the bucket ts fitted w ~ t h sensitwe vent. The actton in discharging condensate IS rapid. Steam will be discharged if the trap loses its priming water due to an upstream valve being opened; reter to note (9) in the key to figure 6.43. Inverted bucket traps will operate at pressures down to 114 PSIG.
FLASHING 6.10.8

The purpose ot fitting traps to steam lines is to obtain fast heatmg of systems and equipment by freemg the steam lines of condensate and atr. A steam trap i s a valve devtce able to discharge condensate from a steam line without also dischargtng steam. A secondary duty is to discharge atr-at start-up, lines are full of atr which has to be flushed out by the steam, and in continuous operation a small amount of air and non-condensible gases introduced in the boiler teedwater have also to be vented. Some traps have built-in strainers to give protection from dirt and scale which may cause the trap to lam in an open position. Traps are also available with checking teatures to sateguard against backflow ot condensate. Reter to the manutacturers' catalogs tor details. Choosing a trap trom the many des~gns should be based on the trap'sability to operate wtth m~nimal maintenance, and on its cost. To reduce inventory and atd maintenance, the minimum number ot types ot trap should be used tn a plant. The assistance of manutacturers' representativesshouldbe sought betore trap types and sizes are selected.

Reter to 6.9.1. When hot condensate under pressure IS released to a lower pressure return line. the condensate tmmediately boils. This IS referred t o as 'flashing' and the steam produced as 'flash steam'. The hotter the steam line and the colder the condensate discharge line, the more flashing will take place; tt can be severe if the condensate comes from high pressure steam. Only part of the condensate forms steam. However, if the quantlty ot flash steam the header IS Inadequately stzed to cope w ~ t h produced and backpressure builds up, waterhammer can result. Often, where a trap is run to a drain, a lot of steamseems to be passing thru the trap, but this is usually only trom condensate flashing.

DRAINING SUPERHEATED STEAM LINES

6.10.9

Steam lines wtth more than a few degrees of superheat will not usuallyform condensate tn operatton. Dur~ng theharmtng-up permd etter stantng a cold clrcult, the large bulk ot metal in the ptptng will nearly always use up the degrees of superheat to produce a quanttty ot condensate.

TABLE

)FOR DRAINED COhOENSATE

FIGURE 6.44

Start-ups are infrequent and with more than a few degrees of superheat it is , to systi ich is iuou: , ., ? r a m ?se s i , . unnei heated steam lines can operate with driplegs only, and are usually fitted with a blowdown line havmg two wlves so that condensate can be manually released from the dripleg atter startup. A superheated steam supply to an intermittently operated piece of equipment will require trapping directly betore the controlling valve tor the equipment, as the temperature will drop at times allowing condensate to form.

it IS nnt nnssible 'Syphon' removal ot condensate In wnain instanr~c Je a r o u . h ~ dra& f ~ . r n - lui sample, wmre cormensate is to ...,., formed mside a rotating drum. The pressure of the steam is used to force ('syphon') the condensate up a tube and into a trap. Figure 6 45 shows such an arrangement

LC-

TRAPPING ARRANGEMENT FOR ROTATING DRUM

FIGURE 6.45

PREVENT TRAPS FROM FREEZING

6.10.10

ln~ulation and steam or electric tracing 01 the trap and its piping may also be required in treezing environments. Temperaturesensitiveand impulse traps are not subiect to treezing trouble if mounted correctly, so that the trap can drain. Bucket traps are always mounted with the bucket vertical and a type with top inlet and bottom outlet should be chosen, unless the trap can be drained by fitting an automatic drain.
8

+'

Stnun

ROTAnNG DRUM
a=cae

",- , ,

-.

'Sparset

- .-

GUIDELINES TO STEAM TRAP PIPING

6.10.11

Figures 6.43 thru 6.45 are a guide to piping traps trom dr~plegs,lines, , : . vessels, etc. Try to group traps to achieve an orderly arrangement Unless instructed otherwise, pipe, valves and fittings will be the same size as the trap connections, but not smaller than 314 in. Traps ere normally fitted at a level lower than the equipment or dripleg that they serve Trap each item of equipment using steam separately, even if the steam pressure is common Provide driplegs (and traps on all steam lines with little or no superheat) at low points before or at the bottom of risers, at pockets and other places where condensate collects on starting up a cold system. Table 6.10 gives dripleg sizes Locate driplegs at the midpoints of exchanger shells, short headers, etc. If dual driplegs are provided it is better to locate them near each end For installations in freezing conditions, where condensate is wasted. preferably choose traps that will not pocket water and which can be installed vertically, to allow draining by gravity. Otherwise, select a draining device by the manutrap that can be fined with an automat~c facturer Avoid long horizontal discharge lines in treezing conditions, as ice can form in the line trom the trap. Keep discharge lines short and pitch them downward, unless they are returning condensate to a header For efficient operation ot equipment such as heat exchangers using large amounts of steam, consider installing a separator in the steam feed

If condensate is continuously discharging to an open drain i n an inside installation a personnel hazard or objectionable atmospheremay be created. To correct this, discharge piping can be connected to an exhaust stack venting to atmosphere and a connection to the main drain provided, as in figure 6.46

CONDENSATE VENT STACK

FIGURE 6.46

RAINCOVER

of Condensate vent Stack

Condenlate tiom

VENTS & DRAINS ON

LINE> & VcaaELa

V..I

WHY VENTS ARE NEEDED

6.11.3

Vents are needed to let gas (usually air) in and out ot systems. When a line or vessel cools, the pressure drops and creates a partial vacuum which can cause syphoning or prevent draining. When pressure rises in Sorage tanks due to an increase in temperature, ~t i s necessary to release excess pressure. Air must also bereleasedfrom tanks to allow filling, and admitted to permlt draining or pumplng out liqu~ds.
Ilnlprr alr . I? r~mnved trnm fuel lines to burners. flame tadino can result. In steam lines, air reduces heating efficiency.

the system to a After piping has been erected, i t is often necessary to sub~ect hydrostatic test to see if there i s any leakage. In compliance with the applicable code, this consists ot filling the lines with water or other liquid, closing the line, applying test piessure, and observing how well pressure is ma~ntainedtor a specified time, while searchmg for Leaks. As the test pressure is greater than the operating pressure of the system, it is necessary to protect equipment and instruments by closing all relevant valves. Vessels and equipment usually are supplied with a certificate ot code compliance. After testinq, the valved drains are opened and the vent plugs temporarily removed to allow air into the piping tor complete draining.

YENTI AND DRIIINS FOR HIDROSIATIC TEST ARE I N O I C A X O ON PiPlNC DRX-WINPI W THE SYMBOLS* II THE Y E W OR O R U N I L F O R i W D i H E R PURPOSE iT1SDRalLEIlONTIlL PlPiNDORliWiNG ORTHE DESiijN

rostttons or tne require0 vent ano oratn potnts are establtshed on tne piping (P&In' ill sh lly pt vents as v brec drat and process dratns.) Refer to ftgure 6.47 for constructton details. VENTING GASES
6.11.3

RELIEVING PRESSURE-LIQUIDS

6.12

I ne buttoup ot pressure in a llquto is halted by discharging a small amount of liquid. Relievtng devtces having large ports are not required Reliet valvessee 3.1.9-are used, and need to be piped at the discharge side, but the piping should be kept short. See 6.1.3 under 'Piptng satetv & reltet valves'.

Cluick-opening vents of ample slze are needed for gases. Satety and safetyrelief valves are the usual venting means. See 3.1.9 tor pressure-reliev~ng dev~ces,and 6.1.3, under 'Piptng satety and reliet valves'. Gases which offer no serious hazard aiter some dilution wtth air may be vented to atmosphere by means ensurtng that no direct inhalation can occur. If a (combustible) gas is toxic or has a bad odor, tt may be piped to an Incinerator or flarestack, and destroyed by burntng. DRAINING COMPRESSED-AIR LINES
6.11.4

Rarely will the relie~ed'li~uid be sufficiently non-hazardous to be piped directly to a sewer. Often the liquid IS simply to be reclaimed. Relieved liquid is trequently piped t o a 'knockout drum', or to a sump or other recetver tor recovery. The ?&ID should show what 1 s to be done with the relieved liquid. RELIEF HEADERS
6.12.1

Air has a moisture content which is partially carrted thru the compressing and cooling stages. It is thts motsture that tends to separate, together with any oil, whtch may have been ptcked up by the alr in passing thru the compressor. It air for distribution has not been drted, distribution lines should beslaped toward points ot use and drams: lines carrying dried air need not be sloped. Sloptng is discussed in 6.2.6.

Headers should be sized to handle adequately the large amounts of vapor and liquid that may be discharged during major mtshap. Relief headers taken to knockout drums, receivers or incinerators, are normally sloped, Refer to 6.2.6 and figure 6.3, showlng the preferred locatton ot a reliet header on a piperack.

WASTES & EFFLUENTS

6.13

If the compressed-air supply is not dried, provide:(1) Traps at all drains trom equipment forming or collecting liquid-such as intercooler, aftercooler, separator, receiver. (2) Driplegs with traps on distribution headers (at low points betore rises) and traps or manual drains at the ends ot distributton headers.
LlOUiD REMOVAL FROM AIR LINES FIGURE 6.48

Manutacturing processes may generate materials that cannot be recycled, use. These matertals are termed 'waste and tor which there is no commerc~al products', or 'wastes'. An 'effluent' is any material flowing trom a plant stte to the envtronment. Effluents need not be polluting tor example, properly-treated waste water may be discharged w~thoutharmmg the envtronment or sewagetreatment plants. Restrtctions on the quantities and nature ot effluents discharged into rivers. sewers or the atmosphere, necessitate treatment of wastes prtor to discharge. Waste treatment is increasingly a factor in plant destgn, whether wastes are processed at the plant, or are transported tor treatment elsewhere. For Inplant treatment, wastetreatment facilittes are described on separate P&ID's (see 5.2.4) and should be designed in consultation with the responsible local authority. Liquid wastes have to be collected wtthin a plant, usually by a spec~al dratnage system. Corrostve and hazardous properttes ot liqutd wastes will affect the choice and destgn of ptpe, fittings, open channels, sumps, holding tanks, settling tanks, etc. Because many watery wastes are acidic and corrosive to carbon steel, collectton and drainage piplng is often lined or made of alloy or plastic. Sulfates frequently appear In wastes, and spectal concretes may be necessary tor sewers, channels, sumps, etc., because sulfates deterlorate regular concretes. Flammable wastes may be recovered andlor burned in smokeless tncinerators or tlarestacks. Vapors from flammable liquids present serious exploston hazards in collectton and drainage systems, especially if the liqutd is tnsoluble and floats. Wastes may be held permanently at the manutacturing site. Solid wastes may be piled in dumps, or buried. Watery wastes contatning solids may be pumped into artificial 'ponds' or 'lagoons', where the solids settle.

SAFETY GUIDELINES F O R F L A M M A B L E LIQUIDS .


REFERENCES

6 14

SOME GUIDELINES

'Fire hazard properties ot flammable liqulds, gases, volatile solids'. 1984. NFPA 325M 'Flammable and combustible liquid code'. 1987. NFPA 30 'Flammable and combustible liquld code handbook'. Tnird edition. 1987. NFPA 'Fire protection in refineries'. Sixth edition. 1984 American Petroleum Institute. APE RP 2001 'Protection agatnst ignitions arising out ot stattc, lightntng and stray currents'. Fourth editlon. 1982. API RP 2003 'Inspection tor fire protection'. First edition. 1984. API RP 2004 'Welding or hot-tapptng on equlpment containtng flammables'. 1985. API RP 2201 'Guide tor fighting fire in and around petroleum storage tanks'. 1980 API publication 2021 NFPA address: Batterymarch Park. (lutncy MA 02269
TANK SPACINGS INFPAI

Apply the recommendations relattng to the prolect ot the NFPA. API or other advisory body Check insurer's requirements. Isolate flammable liquid facilities so that they dc not endanger important buildings or equtpment. I n main buildings, tsolate trom other areas by firewalls or fire-reststive partitions, wtth fire doors or openings and wlth means ot drainage Confine flammable liquid in closed containers, equipment, and ptping systems. Sate destgn of these should have three prlmary obiecttves: (11 To prevent uncontrolled escape ot vapor trom the liquid. (2) To provide rapid shut-off i f liquid accidentally escapes. (3) To confine the spread ot escaping liquid t o the smallest practicable area I f tanks containing flammable material are sited in the open, it is good practice to space them according t o the minimum separations set out in the NFPA Code (No. 395. 'Farm storage ot flammable 1iquids')and to provide dikes (liqutd-retaintng walls) around groups ot tanks. Additional methods tor dealing with tank fires are: (1) To transter the tank's contents to another tank. (2) To stir the contents to prevent a layer ot heated tuel tormtng Locate valves tor emergency use i n plant mtshap or fire-see 6.1.3 Valves tor emergency use should be ot fast-acting type Provide pressure-reliet valves t o tanks containing flammable liquid lor liquefied gas) if exposed t o strong sunlight andlor high ambient temperature, so that vapor under pressure can escape Consider providing water sprays tor cooling tanks containtng flammable liquid which are exposed t o sunlight Provide ample ventilatton i n buildings for all processtng operations so that vapor concentratton IS always below the lower flammability limit. Process ventilatloil should be interlocked so that the process cannot operate without tt Install explosion panels i n buildings t o relieve exploSion pressure and reduce structural demege Install crash panels tor psrsonnel i n hazardous areas

TABLE 6.11

CONDITIONS

88

MINIMUM INTER-TANK CLEARANCE

FLAMMABLE or COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID STORAGE TANKS (Not exceedins 150 tt. dia.1 CRUDE PETROLEUM 126,000 gal max tank size Nonconsested locale UNSTABLE FLAMMABLE and UNSTABLE COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID STORAGE TANKS LIOUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS COhTAlNER from Flammabls or Combstible Liquid Storage Tank LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS diked area 'ONTAINER =ontalnw Flammable or Combuslibk liquid Storage Tankc4

Whichever 8s greater:3ft (Sum of diameters of adjacent tanks116

I
i

[Sum of diameters ot adjacent tanks112

10 ft from centerline of dike wall


NOTE: If LPG contamer is matter than 125 [US)and each liquid norage tank IS m a i l e r than 660 gal, exernpt~on applier

Ensure that the bastc protection, automatic sprtnklers, isto be installed Some hazards require special fixed exttnguishing systems-foam, carbon dioxide, dry chemical or water spray-in additton to sprinklers. Seek advice trom the fire department responsible tor the area, end trom the tnsurers

DlNC SPACE BETWEEN FLOORS 6.15.1

FTS I

ERV

To avoid Interferences and to simplify design, adequate helght IS necessary between floors In buildings and plants tor plplng, electrical trays, and alr ducts i f required. Figure 6.49 suggests vertlcal spacings:
VERTICAL SPACING BETWEEN FLOOR & CEILING FIGURE 6.49

Provision ot a services shatt or 'chase' In multi-storied buildings greatly simplifies arrangement of vertlcal piping, ductlng and electric cables communlcatlng between floors. Conceptual arrangements ot services and elevator tan room tor alr-condit~on~ng andlor process needs, are shown shatts, w ~ t h In figure 6.50. Servlces shatts can be located iriany positlon suitable t o the process, and need not extend the whole helght of the building.

SUGGESTED BUILDING LAYOUTS


SPACE FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL

FIGURE 6.50

----

SPACE FOR OUCTING

---SPACE FOR ELECTRIC CONDUIT, ctc.

---SPACE FOR PIPES

----

SPACE FOR EOUIPMENT. ACCESS & PERSONNEL

INSTALLATION OF LARGE SPOOLS & EQUIPMENT

6.15.2

[ 1 1 . ( 1 0

FIGURES

Large openlngs In walls, floors or the root ot a building may be needed for installing equipment. Wall and roof openings are covered when not i n use, but sometlmes floor openmgs are permanent and guarded with railings, etc.
BUILDING LAYOUT RELATION TO PROCESS 6.15.3

Different processes require different types ot buildings. Some processes are best housed in s~ngle-ston/buildings with the process beglnnlng at one end at the other end. Other processes are better asslsted by gravlty, and fin~shing startlng at the top a t a building or structure and finlsh~ngat or near grade.

rTABLE

WHAT ARE STANDARDS ..- & CODES ?

7.1

13) A lawsu~twhich may tollow a plant mishap, possibly due t o tailureot


some part of a system, is less likely to lead t o a punltive tudgment if the system has been engineered and built to a code or standard

Standards are documents which establish methods tor manutacruring and testing. Codes are documents which establish good destgn practices, including the tactors ot satety and effictency. The documents are prepared and periodically updated by commlnees whose members may include representatives from industry, government, univers~ties, institutes, protess~onal societies, trade associations, and labor unlons. Proven engineering practices form the basts ot standards and codes, so that they embody mlnlmum requirements tor selection of material, dimensions, design, erection, testing, and tnspectton, t o ensure the satety ot piping systems Periodic revisions are made t o reflect developments i n the industry The terms 'standard' and 'code' have become almost interchangeable, but documents are termed codes when they cover a broad area, have governmental acceptance, and can torm a basts tor legal obligat~ons.'Recommendations' document advisable practtce. 'Shall' in the wording of standards and codes denotes a requtrement or obligat~on,and 'should' implies recommendat~on.

(4) Codes otten supply the substance tor Federal, State, and Municipal
satety regulations. However, the US Federal Government may, as needed, devise its own regulat~ons, which are sometimes in the torm at a code.

WHO ISSUES STANDARDS ?

7.3

The American Standards Asociatton was founded i n 1918 t o authorize national standards originating trom five malor engineering societies. Previously a chaotic sltuatlon had arisen as many societies and trade associations had been issuing individual standards which somettmes overlapped. In 1967, the name ot the ASA was changed t o the USA Standards Institute, and in 1969 a second change was made, to Amertcan National Standards Institute. Standards previously issued under the prefixes 'ASK and 'USASI' are now prefixed 'ANSI'. Not all USA standards end codes are issued directly by the Institute. The Amertcan Society of Mechan~calEngineers, the Instrument Soctety ot America, and several other organlzatlons Issue standards and codes that apply sources. to piping Table 7.1 lists the princ~pal ANSI makes available manv such standards trom other standards.issuing organizations ("sponsors"). Each ot these standards is identified by the sponsor's designation (where one exists) preceded by ANSI's and the sponsor's acronym ---tor example, the ASME Code tor chem~calplant and

FOUR REASONS FOR T H E I R USE

7 . 2

(1)
(2)

Items ot hardware made according t o a standard are tnterchangeable and of known dimensions and character~st~cs Compliance w ~ t h a relevant code or standard guarantees performance. reliability, quality, and provides a basts tor contract negotiations, tor obtaining insurance, etc.

rei~r pmg ' gnatr ' ""'SI/Ac"' 331.3 " "le spr---- does --' prov~de a des!gnat~on. A N S I assigns one li an AmerlcanStandardscomm~ttee developed the standard, t h e c o m m ~ t t e edes~gnatlonIS used National Standards Institute, The A N S l catalog IS available t r o m the A m e r ~ c a n 1430 Broadway, N e w York, N Y 10018 Other countries also issue standards. T h e B r i t ~ s h Standards Institution (BSI) I n the U K , the Deutscher Normanausschuss ( D I N ) i n Germany, a n d c t h e Swedish nat~onalorganization (SIS) Issue many standards. Copies o f forelgn standards can be obtained directly, o r f r o m the American National Standards Institute. 7.4 I D E N T I F Y I N G THE S O U R C E S OF S T A N D A R D S T h e tables i n 7.5.6 give the ~ n ~ t iletters al o t the standards-issu~ng organ~zations precaeding the number o t t h e standard, thus: 'ASTM N28'. Table 7.1 ~ncludes the ~ n ~ t i aused l s i n tables 7.3 t h r u 7.14, and glves the t u l l titles o t t h e organIzatlons. (Table 7.1 IS n o t a comprehensive listmg.)
PRI NCiPAL ORGANIZATIONS 1% UlNG STANDARDS

ANSI CODE 831 FOR PRESSURE PIPING

TABLE 7.2

TITLE

SECIION

APPLiCAiiON

corrosion cantrot power


Piping

831 Guide -1984 831.1-1989


831.3-1987

Chenical Pian: and Petrowurn Refinery PlOing Lioma Petroleun


lT3"SpOTtdtlll"

831.4-I989 831.5-1987

Refrl9rrat>an
DlDiii9

Gas Transnlrrlon ma o i ~ t n ~ u t w n Piping Systems auiiaing s w i c e s Piolng Code Piping sation l u r p lransniirt-

831.8-1989 831.9-7988 831.11-1986

Guidelines l o r protecting 831 DlDinQ systems from corrosion ~ i ~ i fno g r inaustriai piants and marlne a .m . li~ation~ Design of chemical and Detrochemlcai plants and reflnerles ~rocessln9chemicals and h y a r m r t m s , water and steam Liquid transnortation systems l o r hydrocarbons. LPG, anhydrous amnonu and alcohols P r i n ~ i ~ describes ~ i l ~ tne piolnii of DdEkWed Unit5 Principally describer overland conveyance o f rue! gases and feeartock gases
~

High-DTeZ6Ure connerclal/sanitarY pioln9 Design, construction. insnection, security ustenis rewiremenis of slurry ~ l p l n g
7.5.2

A M E R I C A N P E T R O L E U M INSTITUTE'S S T A N D A R D 2510
TABLE 7.1

INITIALS
AIA

F U L L T I T L E OF ORGANIZATION American Insurance Asroc~ation' American National Standards Institute t A m e n c a n Petroleum Jnstrtute Amencan S o c ~ e t yof Mechanical Engmeers Amencan S o c ~ e t y t a r Testing and Materials Amencan Welding Soclety Amencan Waterworks A s s o c m o n F l u i d Controls Institute General Serv~ce Adm~nistratlon Instrument Soctety of A m e r ~ c a Manutacturers' Standardization Society ot the Valve and Fittmgs Industry National Fire Protection Association Pipc Fabrvcation Institute U n i t e d States Department of Commerce

This Standard covers design a n d construction o t liquefied petroleum gas installat~onsat marlne and p ~ p e l i n eterminals, natural gas processing plants, reiiner~es,petroleum plants and tank farms

ANSl API ASME ASTM AWS AWWA FCI GSA I SA MSS NFPA PFI USDC

The t w o t o l l o w ~ n gcodes are n o t directly related t o plplng, b u t trequently are ~nvolvedi n the plplng des~gner's work: A P I 510, PRESSURE VESSEL INSPECTION C O D E 7.5.3

This code applies t o repalrs and alterations made t o vessels I n petro-chemlcal serv~ce constructed t o the tormer API-ASME Code for Unfired Pressure dn s d Gases, S e c t ~ o n8 o t t h e A S M E Boilerand Vessels t o r Petroleum L ~ q u ~ a Pressure Vessel Code, and t o other vessels. ASME B O I L E R &PRESSURE VESSEL C O D E 7.5.4

T h e A S M E Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 1s mandatory i n many states w i t h regard t o das~gn, mater~alspecification, fabricat~on, erection, and testing procedures. Compliance is required i n t h e U S A and Canada t o qualify for insurance. T h e Code consists o i t h e t o l l o w m g eleven sections:
ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE Power boilen . . . . . . . . Mateml rpecificetsonr . ~ ' Nuclear power plant components . . ~ . , . . Heatmg boilerr . . , Nondestructive exammation . , . , . , . Recommended ruler tor care snd operation of heating boilen. Recommended ruler for care of power boilen ~ ~
~

PRINCIPAL DESIGN-ORIENTATED CODES A N S I CODE 831


7.5.7

T h e most important code t o r land-based pressure-pip~ngsystems 8 s A N S l 831. Parts o t this code w h i c h apply t o v a r ~ o u stypes o t plant plplng are listed i n table 7.2.

. i . . . . . . . ~ ~ , ~. 2 . . . . . . . , 3 . . 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . , . 6 . . 7 . . . . . 8 Preuureverselr . . . , , , . . , . . . ~ . ,. ~ Welding quallficationr . . , . . , , , . ~ . . ~ . .9 Fiberglarr-rctnforced plast~c~presure veneln . . . . . . . . 10 11 Rules tor hiemice lnrpection ot nuclear reactor coolant systems . . . .
~

section -

C O D I - - - R ML-" Requlfemenis standards

PIPI"" contained

7CE

tor merchant and naval vessels are

in the t o l l o w l n g

e e i or ,ran

(11 -Ameracan B u r e a u of Shtppmg: 'Rules t o r b u i l d i n g and classing vessels 121 Lloyds' Register of Shipping: 'Rules' US Coast Guard: 'Marme engmeerlng regulations a n d ma:er~al specl13)
fica:ions

(4)

US Navy, B u r e a u of Ships: 'General s p e c i i i c a t ~ o n st o r b u i l d i n g naval


vessels'. 'General machinery specificatlons'

S ~ e c l f ~ c a t l ofor n r e l a m and sean~ess steei o w e soecificatmn f o r senmwss c a r ~ o n - s t e e loloe roc nigh-teanerature service spec~f~~atl for o n electric-f~~ionldrci-ueioed steel m e . NPS 16 and aver soeclflcatlon f o r electrtc-res~stance-velded s t ~ e pipe l Speclflcatton f o r seamleis and welded austenltlc s t a i n w s steel DID^ S p e ~ l f l ~ a t l ofn o r seamless r e r r l t l c alloy-steel plee f o r nlgh-temperature service S p e ~ l f ~ c a t l of no ~ seamless caroon-steel aloe for atsospherlc and lover temperatures S~ecIf?~at for m ~lne DIPC 15L and SLXI

ASTH A53
ASTH A106

ASTH A134
ASTH A135 ASTH A312

ASTH A335 ASTMA524 API 51

SELECTED STANDARDS

7.5.6

The t o l l o w i n g tables are not comprehensive: a selection has been made t f o m standards relat~ng to p l p l n g des~gn and technology. Sources of these standards m a y be tound tram t a b l e 7.1. Addresses of the issulng organizations may be tound t r o m the current edit~onot 'Encyclopedia of associations: Vol I, Nat~onalo r g a n z a t l o n s ot the Un~tedStates' (Gale Reseafch Company).

I
mierrour \lloy

W~IGBP and seamless wrought-stell o w e st21n1ess stsilt pine

r san pa w -e llhd c emolds n t r i r u for qally water cast.and I nother letai omolds u c t l l eo Iron
llwlds

A S M E 836.1Cb NSI 836.19

ANSIIAWA5l Cl5llAZl.5l ANSI A21.52 A S T M 8241 ASTM842


ASTM a43

Ductile l i o n olpe, c e n t r l f u a l l " cast. I n metr'l molds or sand-lined molas ?or bas S p e c i ~ i c a t l o nroc a',ilmlnum and ajunlnun-alloy seamlers proe and extruded seamless tube Spec1f1cdtlof8 f o r seamiess comer m e . standard s ~ z e s s p e d f l c a t l o n f o r seanlers red brass D i m . m n a a r d s1zes s p e c l f m t l o n f o r seamless cower a l l o y pipe and t u o e S p e ~ i f l c a t l i l nfor SeUnieSS nickel oloe and tube

STANDARDS FOR SYMBOLS A N D DRAFTING ~lplno for p w e fittings. valves and p l ~ l n g Grdenlc ~ m o o l s f o r ~ l u a o l n gf i x t u r e s Graphic ZY~OOIS fcr f l u l a f over ~Iagrams F l m power alagramI Grdmfc S Y ~ D O K f o r p r o c e ~ flow ~ Glagrams I n petroieum and chemKai tnaustries
G T ~ D ~ T SWOOIS C

TABLE 7.3 ANSI/ ASUE Y32.2.3 ANSI Y32.4 ANSI Y32.10 ANSI Y14.7 1astlcs

A S T M 8315 1518 8161

Process En9lneeilng

ANSI Y32.11

soeclftcatlon f o r celluiose acetate butyrate A S T M 01503 ICABl Dld5tlC DIE. SCH 40 Speclricatlon for acrylonltrlle-butadleneASTM 01527 styrene 1 ~ 8 8 1 ~lastfc p ~ p e .SCH 40 and 80 IYY IPVCI I~Y~ s p e c i f ~ a t l o nf o r D O cnlorlde A S T M 01785 i l ~ a s t i c DID^ S C H 40 80 and 120 spcciricatlon'ror ~ o i ~ e t h y l e nIPE) e plastic ASTM 02104 plpe. SCH 40 Speclflcatwn for acry~onltrlle-OutadleneA S T M 02282 styrene IABS) p l a s t i c DID? ISOR-PRI s p e ~ ~ f x a tf m o r n o l y ~ l n y ichlorlae IPVCI ASTR 02241 D I ~ S ~ I C DID^ csoa s e r t e s , Speclflcatfon f o r polyetnylene IPEI p l ~ t l c PlDe A S 1 1 1 02239 ISIOR-PRI tk35ed on controlled inside diameter POIYVIIIYI NPS 4 thru cnlorlde NPS 12 IPVCI pressure pine f o r water AWA C900 PO'IyethYlene IPEI DrezSure pipe. tub1119 and AwA c901 f l t t l n g s f o r water NPS 112 t n r u NPS 3 PO8ybUtYlene (Pa) pressure ~ l p e tuolng and AWA C902 ritt~ngr f o r water NPS 112 tnrb NPS 3 A W W A C950 G W I, f l o w reinforced pme

'

STANDARDS FOR HANGERS A N D SUPPORTS AilpllCdtion PlPe hangerr and suomrtz ap~11~atlon Plpe nangers and supports and manufacture

TABLE 7.6

Production
STANDARDS FOR PIPING (DESIGN A N 0 FABRICATION) De51gn POYW ~ l p l n g code l r e f e r t o Taole 7.2) netnoa f o r dlmenslonlng ~ i ~ l arsemblles n g Mlnlnum length and spdclng for welded nozzles TABLE7.4 A S N E 831 PFI ts-2 P i l ES-7
F

- seoectlon and - materlais, deslon

6 s SP-69 M S S SP-58

STANDARDS FOR GASKETS netdlllc Ring-jolnt gaskets and grooves for steel Dine flan e i ~ e t s gaskets ~ ? ~ t o r ratsea-race pipe Tianger and flanged connecttons ldouble-jacket corrugated and S D I T ~ I - Y O U ~ ~ ~ Nonmetallic f l a t gaskets f o r pipe flanges amper gasket 301nt5 f o r d u c t l l e - I r o n and graytrm pressure W e and f i t t l n g r Gasketed j o l n t s f o r a u c t l l e l r o n and and orsY Iron pressure DIP^ and f i t t l n g s f o r f i r e erotectlon servlce Standard s p e d f l c a t l o n f o r dense e l a s t w e r slllcone rubber gaskets and accessories

TABLE 7.7 AS% 816.20 &PI 601 AWE 816.21 Am4 C l l l

oraftln9

~ a b ~ l c a t l o n euttveldlno ends f o r plpe. vasves. flanges

an

.... -.,PFI ES-5

I ! :
Nanmetalllc Teitlnli Cleanlno Coior Coding Hydm~tatic t e s t l n g of fabricated PIP^ Cleanlng o f fabricated DIDIW Scheme f o r the l d e n t l f l c a t l a n of ~ i o l o g SYitemS Rpr~p~:d eractlce f o r color codtns of DlDlnQ PFI ES-4 AliSI Al3.l PFI ES-22

UL 194
ASTU C l l 15

INDA

OR F I

iS IAl

Tabla-."

TABLE 7 n

S T ~ N D A R D SFOR U N F I R E D VESSELS A N D T A N K S

TABLE 7 1 0

STANDARDS F O R VALVES'. GenWd'l ~ace-to-fa~e and end-to-end dimensions of ferrous v a l v e s . classes 125 t h w 2500 (gate. globe. o ~ u g 1 and check valves1 ~ ~ a n u s i operated ly m e t a l l i c gas valves for use 3n gas o i o l n g systems up t o 125 PSIG i s l z e s NPS 112 t h r u NPS 21 V ~ I Y ~ Iflanged and b u t t v e l a i n g e n d steel. n i c k e i a l l o y . and other special a l l o y s specincat~on f o r p i e c l i n e valves ( s t e e l gate. D I U ~ , o a l l m a check valves) ~ a r t n ~ ~ ac kt ie v a t e d automatx gas shutoff s y s t l n

T A B L E 7.9

At4sl 816,10

S T ~ N D A R D S FOR F L A N G E S

T A B L E 7.11

--

816,33
A S M E 816.34 API 60 A G A 221.70 API 597 API 600 APl 602 APl 603 API 604
ArdA C500

rjate v a ~ v e s

s t e e l v e n t u r i gate valve%. flanged ana b u t t u e l d l n g enas s t e e l gate Y a ~ ~ flanged e ~ . and b u t t - v e l d l n g ends chnpact s t e e l gate valves c l a s s 150 cast. c ~ r m s i o n - r e s i s t a n t flanged en0 9dW V a I V B S ~uctile-iron gate valves. flanged ends Gate vaivez. NPS 3 t h r u NPS 48. f o r water an0 s e w e systems Resilient seated gate valves. NPS 3 t h r u NPS 12, f o r water and sewage systems B u t t e r f l y valves Rubber seated b u t t e r f l y v a l v e s B u t t e r f l y valves, lug-type and w a f e r - t ~ P e swing check v a l v e s f o r vateruorks service. NPS 2 t h r u NPS 24 safer c h m valves c a s t - i r o n swing check valves. flanged and threaded ends 8all 8a11 for Ball values-flanged and butt-weldlng ends vaive5 w i t h flanged o r buttweldin9 ends general service valves. NPS 6 t h r u NPS 48

C509
M S S SP-67 AWA C504 API 609 A W d A C508 API 594 NSS SP-71 API 608 M S S SP-72 AWA C507 AS1iE PIC25 API 526 ISA RP75.O ISA S75.03 ISA 571.011 ISA 575.1) Dryseal pipe Threads Hose Threads

o~ttwrly check vawes

STANDARDS FOR SCREW T H R E A D S F O R PIPING. NUTS A N D BOLTS T A B L E 7.12

Genera I

Bail vs~ves

u n l f f e d tnch screw threads IUN h UNR thread form) Pipe threads. general purpose l i n c h l Nomenclature. d e t l n l t i o n s and l e t t e r SMnbols f o r SCWY threads Dryseal p i l i e threads 1 inch1 threads i m e t r i c t r a n s l a t i o n of Dryseal o l ~ e ANSI 81.20.31 Hose c o u v l l n g screw threads f o r a l l connections hose l i n i l a e r alaneters of 112. having 518, 314. 1 . 1 114. 1 112. 2. 2 112. 3, 3 112 and 4 lnches l e x c e ~ tf i r e hose1 screw threads and gaskets f o r f l r e hose connection;

MI 81.1 ANSI 1 ASNE 81.20.1


ASME B1.7,i

Relief
CO~~FOI

safety m a relief valves Flanged s t e e l s a f e t y - r e l i e f v a m s c o n t d g valve mdnlfold a e i i g n ~ recornended prdctlce face-torracp dimensions f o r flanged globe-style ~ o n t r o lw i v e b o o l e i (ANSI classes 125. 150. 250 300 and 6001 ~ & t ~ - r a c d~~ p e n ~ i o for n ~ f i a n g e i e i s controt valves $ANSI classes 150. 300 and 6001 face-to-face d7nenSlons f o r buttveld-end globes t y l e c o n t r o l valves IAN51 c l a s s 45001

ANSI 81.20.3 ANSI 81.20.4

--

ASK 81.20.7
1

NFPA 1963-851

sr

E~...~..,ers

I-TUDF'

ir he, anger. emica 15 lce m s l 8w.1 Shell-and-tune exchanger5 f o r general r e f i n e r y services API 660 S v e c i f l c a t l o n f o r m m m s COIO-dram I O Y - C ~ ~ D O ~ s t e e l heat exchanger ana condenser tunes ASTn A119lM S ~ e c l f a ~ a t l i ifn o r s e m e i i c o l a - a r m internedl a t e a l l o y s t e e l neat exchanger and condenser tunes ASTM A l 9 9 l n Sve~ifi~atlo fo n r reamiesr f e r r l t i c and aurtenl t i c a l l o y s t e e l D o l l e r , s u v t r h e a t e r an0 heatexchanger tunes ASTM A2131N S v e c l f l c a t i o n f o r seamiens n l c k e l and n i c k e l a l l w c o n a e n ~ e rand heat exchanger tunes ASW 8163
API 661 API 632 ASUE PTCI2.1 ASIIE PTC4.3 ARI 470-80

.-.

~ i Exchdngen r AIT coolea n e s t exchangers for genera! r e f i n e r y service W l n t e r i i l n g o f a l r - c a o i e d heat erchangers

Heaters

Closed feedwater heaters Performance t e s t cooe a i r heaters Deiuverheater/vdter heaters

--

S T A N D A R D S F O R P R I M E MOVERS
GenWd i

TABLE 7.14
APl 11E API 614 API 675 UL 343 ASME PTC8.2 ASElE 873.1M AS~IE873.2M API 610 ASNE PTC7. 1 ASllE Pic7 ASElE PIC9

S ~ e c l f l c a t i o nf01- v~!nving u n i t s P o s i t i v e a~sn'la~ernen vumvs t -- r e c i v r o c a t l n g P o s i t i v e aisolacement v u m -- c o n t r o l l e a volume P U ~ fS o r o l l nurning anvliances Centyifum VU~PS S v e ~ l f l ~ a t l ofor n ~ h o r l l o n t a ' l end s u c t i o n c e n t r i f u g u a l v u l v r f a r chemical process SneClfiCatiOnS fop v e r t i c a l i n - l i n e c e n t r l f u g u s l vunvs f o r chemical vroces c e n t n r u m t m m s f o r &dl r e f i n e r y servtce

centrffugd! P~PI

~011tlve D l ~ v l a c e m e n tD U ~ P Si v e r f a m a n ~ et e s f cocel 0 1 5 ~ l d ~ m nR t e ~ i ~ r o ~ d t l n g ~ ~ t e a m ~ ad rli ~vvel n d~ehen vumvs t Dlsvlacement COnvreSSOrs. vacuum vumnr and O l w e r s CDRW~SIO~S. ezhdusteri an0 e l e c t o r s

Safety standara f o r ~ o m v r e s ~ o rf s o r iimce~i inaustrles ASME 819.3 l n s t a l l a t l o n o f blowers and exhaust systems IIFPA 91 Centrifugal COnvreSSors f o r genera, refinery SeTYlCBS API 617 CO~PT~SSO and T S e ~ h a ~ s t e r s verformmce t e s t code Asili PTcto Ejectors verformance t e s t cooe ASI~E ~ 1 ~ 2 4

8.1
ABBREVIATIONS USED O N PIPING DRAWINGS, DOCUMENTS, Etc. A
(11 Air (2) Absolute Absolute ABS American Gas Association AGA Amerlcan lron and Steel Institute AlSl Amertcan National Standards Institute ANSI Amerlcan Petroleum Institute AP I tor Testing and Materlals ASTM American Soc~ety American Welding Soclety AWS AWWA American Waterworks Associatlon A

E
E ECN EFW ELL ERW East Englneerlng change number

Electric-tus~on-welded

Elbow Electric-resistance-welded Fahrenhett Faced and drilled Fahrenheit Furnace-butt-welded Field change number Faced, drilled and Spotfaced Flanged end (I)Flat taceld) (2) Full face l o t gasket1 (3) Flange face Idimens~oningl Flange Flanged 111 Flat on bottom. llndicates orientatton ot eccentric reducer1 (2) Fre~ghton board. llndicates locatton ot supply of vendor's trelght at the stated price1 (31 Free on board. llndicates locatlon ot supply ot vendor's tre~ght] Flat on top. llndicates orwttatlon ot eccentric reducer] (Glass-] fiber reinforced plpe Forged steel Field weld

F
F F&D FAHR FBW FCN FD&SF FE FF FLG FLGD FOB

IMP IPS IS IS0 IS&Y

(1) lnssde diameter (2) Internal diameter Imperial. IBritlsh unltl lron plpe size Inside screw. [Of valvesteml lsometr~c drawmg lns~de screw and yoke Kilo, tunes one thousand, xlOOO Kilogram Liqu~d Pound we~ght Light-wall lot Pipe] Long radius. [Of Elbow1

B
BBL BC BLE ELK BLVD BOP BS BTU BW Barrel Bolt ctrcle Beveled large end Black Beveled Bottom l o t outside] o t pipe. Used tor plpe support locatlon Brit~shStandard British thermal Unlt (1) B u n weld (2) B u n welded

- .

C
C CENT CFM CHU CI CM Cr CS CSC (1) Centigrade. or Celsius 2 Condensate Cent~grade Cubtc teet per minute Centtgrade heat unlt Cast lron Centimeter Chromium (1) Carbon steel 121 Cold sprlng Car-sealed closed. Denotes a valve t o be locked in the closed posltton under all rmumstances other than repair to adjac-ent piping Car-sealed open. See CSC Center Cubic Degree Diameter Deutsche lndustr~e Norm IGerman standard 1 Drawmg office Drawing. lNot preterredl Drawing FOT FRP FS FW

G
G

Ill Gas
121 Grade 131 Gram Gallon Galvanized Gallons per hour Gallon per minute (1) Horizontal (21 Hour Hexagonlall Mercury Hose-pipethread Hour invert elevation
11411

Meter Mega, tunes one million. 1 000000. [On old drawings, xlOOO1 MACH Machlned MATL Material MAWP Maxvmum allowable working pressure Maximum MAX Motor control center MCC Machine MIC Manutacturer MFR Malleable lron MI (I)Minmum MIN (2) Minute. lOf tlmel mm Millimeter Molybdenum Mo Manufacturers' Standardization Society MSS of the Valve and Fittings Industry M

(1) (2)

CSO CTR CU

GAL GALV GPH GPM


H HEX Hg

N
N NC NEMA Ni NIC NO NPSC NPSF NPSH North Normally closed Natlonal Electrical Manutacturers' Assn. Nickel Not in contract Normally open 2.5.5 2.5.5 1 1) Net positlve suction head.13.2.11 (2) 2.5.5 NPSl 2.5.5 NPSL 2.5.5 NPSM 2.5.5

D
DEG DIA DIN

HPT
HR

00
DRG DWG

I
IE

I"""
7.1 3 -7.1 4

NPTF

SCH SF SKT SM LS Si SO SP

0
0
OD

0s
OS&Y

Oil Outside diameter Outside screw. lValve stem1 Outside screw and yoke. lvalvesteml

P
P&ID PBE PE PFI POE PS Pla~n end. IPipe, etc.1 Pipe Fabricatton lnstltute Plaln one end. I N i p ~ l ee ,t c . 1 lli Pipe support. !Anchor, guide or shoe. OF items combined t o t o m the 12) Pre-sprtng Pound lwe~qhtl oerwruare ~nch. IPressurel Pound per &ware inch absolute Pound ber square inch gage Reducmg Ralserl face

PSI PSlA PSIG

SR SST ST STM STD STR SW SWG SWG ) NlPP I Steam working pressure SWP

-. . .Schedule. [Of nlnel . . Sc. Spot-faced Socket Seamless Silicon Slip-on ( 1 ) Sample point 12) Standard practice. [MSS term) Short radius. [Of elbowi Stainless steel Steam trap Steam Standard ~tratght Socket welding Swage Swaged nipple

"
,,"+ UNF UNS

2.L.d 2.6.3 2.6.3

v
V

11) 121

Vertical Vanadium

W
W WGT WLD WN WOG W P (1) West 121 Water Wetght Weldled) Welding neck Water, oil and gas (1 1 Workpomt or reference point (21 Markings wtth this prefix destgnate certain steels and are used on ptpe, fin~ngsand plate. Example: 'WPB' marked on torged fiRings denotes A181 grade 2. Reter to ASME SA234, tables 1 and 2. Weight Extra-heavy. [See Index! Extra-strong Oouble-extra-strong Centerline Diameter

T
T T&C TEMA TGT TOE TOS TPI TSE TYP (1) Temperature (21 Trap Threaded and coupled. IPipel Tubular Exchanser Manufacturers' Assn. Tanoent ~hreaded one end. [Nipple or Swagei Top of support Threads per inch Threaded small end Typml. IUsed t o avoid redrawing similar WT

R
RE0 RF RJ RPM RS

X
XH XS XXS
OTHER

s
S 1 (2) South Steam

$
@

ABBREVIATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL CHEMICALS


ABBREVIATION CHEMICAL NAME AREA OF USE

8 . 2

D
OAP DCO DMC DMF DMU DNA DNM DNP DNT DDP OOV DSP DTBP DVB DPG DOPA Diammontum phosphate Dehydrated castor oil Dimethylammonium dimethyl wrbamate Dimethyl tormamide Dimethylurea Oinonyladipate Dinonyi maleate Dinonyl phthalate Dinitrotoluene Dioctvl ohthalate . 96?& sulfurtc acid ('distilled oil ot v~treol'l Disodium ~hosphate ~itertiaw-butyl peroxide Divinyl benzene Oiphenyl guanidine 3.4-dihydroxyphenylaniline Agriculture Pant Refining

ADA AEA ANW

Acetone dicarboxylic acid Air-entratntng agent 83% ammonium nitrate !n water

Drugs Concrete

BHA BHC BHT BOV BzH BZOH

Butyiated hydroxyanisole Benzene hexachloride Butylated hydroxytoluene 77.78% sulfuric acid ('blown oil of vitreol') Benzaldehyde Benzotc actd

Fuel Food General Food General General General

Plastics Plastics Plastics Explosives Plastics General General Plastics Plastics Rubber Rubber

co cov

Carbon monoxide

95.96% sulfuric acid


I'concentrated oil of vitreol') Carbon dioxide

General General

EA EOTA

Ethylidene aniline Ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid

Rubber Food

'B OPE 02

Octamethvl ovrophosohoramide . . . robip ., Octylphenoxyethanol Oxygen Ozone

Agriclllture P I ; .. " " Refining General

F
FA FGAN FPA FREON Furturyl alcohol Ammonium nttrate Fluorophosphortc acid One of a large number ot chloro- or fluoro- substituted hydrocarbons General Agriculture Retrigeratlon. General

P
PAS PB PBNA PDB PE PETN PTFE PVA or PVAL PVAc PVB PVC PVM p-arnmosalicvlic acid Poiybutene Phenyl beta-naphthylamine p-dichlorobenzene Penta-erythrltol Penta-erythrttol tetranttrate Polvtetrafl~orethylene Drugs Plastics Rubber Agrtculture Exploslves Plasttcs

HCN HET HMDT HMT HNM HTP

HZ0

Hydrocyantc acid, hydrogen wanide Hexa-ethyl tetraphosphate Hexamethylene trtperoxide Hexamethylene tetramtne Mannitol hexanltrate 100%hydrogen peroxide ('high test peroxide'). Branched aliphattc alcohols of high b.pt. Water

Plating Agriculture

Explosives Rocketry. General

~ol;vin;l chldrtde Polyvmyl methylbethel

R
RNV General S SAP SDA SO2 Sulfur Sodium acid pyrophosphate Specially denatured alcohol Sulfur dioxide General General General Sulfurtc acid ['refined oil ot v~treol'l General

IMS IPA IPC IPS

Commerctal ethyl alcohol tBrit.1 Jsophthalic acid lsopropyl n-phenyl carbonate lsopropyl alcohol (Shell Oil CO.)

General

LOX LPC LPG

Liquid oxygen Lauryl pyridinium chloride Liquefied petroleum gases, mainly butane and propane

Rocketry Soaps Fuel

T
TCA TCE TCP TEG TE L TEP TFA TNA TNB TNG TNM TNT TNX TOF TPG TSP Sodium tetrachloracetate 1,l .I-trtchlorethane Tricresyl phosphate Triethylene glycol Tetraethyl lead Tetraethyl pyrophosphate Tetrahydroturturyl alcohol Trinttroaniline Trinttrobenzene Trin~troglycerlne Trinitromethane Trinetrotoluene Trinitroxylene Trioctyl phosphate Triphenyl guantdine Trisodium o-phosphate Tetrasodium phosphate Agriculture Dry cleaning Fuel. Plastics Refining Fuel Agriculture Exploslves Explostves Explostves Explosives Explosives Plastics Rubber

MBMC MEK MEP MlBC MlBK MNA MNPT MNT MSG

Monoteritary butyl-methyl-cresol Methyl-ethyl-ketone 2-methyl. 5ethyl pyridine Methyl isobutyl carbinol Methyl-isobutyl-ketone Methyl-nonyl acetaldehyde m m t r o p-toluidine Mononitro toluene Monosodium glutamate

General Paint. General

Exploslves Food

NBA NBS NCA NH powder

n-brornacetamide n-bromosucc~namide n-chloracetamide n-chlorosuccinamide Explosive powder Nitrogen

Vinyl acetate

Zinc methylarsenate

Timber

A
ASB~ViRllOPIS. B R85LUTE TE~ERRTURE. lit absoiute zero tenperature a l l movemml of matter ceases. This t e r r e r a t u i e is t h e o i e t i c z l l y unattainable. fibsolute zero: Celsius s c a l e . . . . . . -273.lSC -459.677 Fahienheit scale... nCCE55 T O VCLUE. E.1 . i n F w c c o L i n . 3.2.2 RGITRTOR. t a b i e 3.7 RIR N I siinin. 6.9.1. 6.10.h nIR LIME. L i q u r d ieiravar 6.1i.b ALLOYS. For P i p e 2.7.4 R'iiIEMT. P e r t a i n i n g t o the suriaundings. u . 1 ~ 1 1 i~ e f e i s t o temperature WERICRN STRMJRROS R550CIRTIOEI 7.3 R ~ H I R . 2.12.2, 6.2.~. A p i p e f i r t v i e used LO mid p~ping i i g x d i y a t r chrsen p o i n t . p o s i t i o n where prping i s r e s t i a i n e d i s tenred the 'anchor po:ntS R R G L E VALVE. 3.1.5 na51. 7.3 nRCHIUE. Place where drawings. sp=cificirt i m s etc., may be p e r w n e n t l y stored ,R5n. 7.3 LTIRIIIOPI. See 'Change of P a i t i c l e Size', 3.3.U RUTOCLRV~uessci in which material or icactmt+ are h e l d under c a n t r o l i e d conditions

BRA5iQCK URL'IUE. 3.1.11. Value machined from a l l i d metai M IT I. a r b i t r a w l i n e shown on drauBXilERY L ~ngs t o define an-plot and o f f - p i o t areas. n i s n used t o define l i m i t s of c a n t i a c t u a i i e r p n n s i b l l i t v w i t h i n an o n - p l o t area

suit-welding. 2.3.3. f i g u r e 2.20 Thceaeed. 2.5.4. f i g u i e 2.54 f i g u i e 2.36 socket-welding. 2.4.h. C R R E O N STEELS are iron-based a l l o v s having piapeiLie~ c h i e f l y determrmd bv t h e r i carban content CRTCt3RSIN. Receptacle dssigned t o separate CRTCl;Slll. Reaervoxr oc basin CIilhnOIC PiOlECTION. B u r i e d prpe can be pi0tecti.d from c o r r o s i o n by v r r i n g b u i i e d 5 u c r i i i m a i anodes ( u s u a l l y c y l i n d e r s of zrnc) LO the pipe. Garvanxc coiraaian then ~ t h e z m r m s t e a d o f the tends t o C C C in steel. P r o t e c t i o n m y also b p i a v i d e d by means o f e l e c t r i c voltage* and ground current5 C R U I T A I O E I . 6.3.1 CELSIUS = C~ntigrade. R t etmosphcnc p r e i s u i i l a t sea l e v e l ) , an the Celsxus scale, zero i s thi! t w e r z t u z e a : which rce Foims; water b o i l 5 a t 100. t a b l e R-6. t a b l e fl-7 CENTRIFUGE. 3.3.5. t a b l e 3.8 CERTIFIED DRAUlCGfPRIPII. F i n a l vendor's p r i n t o f eempnent s h o u ~ n g dinens~ons which v i l l manuractuie be maintained d u r ~ n g CitlTlERIHG. 3.8 .ri CSCK V R L V ~ . 3.1.7 5.Y.i CH~CKER.u.,.z. CHIEF ORRFlSWN. 4.8.2 CHILL RING = Backing r i n g . c h a r t 2.1. f i g 2.7 CIVIL PIPlIG. 'b.1 CLEAVOUT. Rirangenant far creanlng out e l i n e
0:

EENT. 6.1.2 BEVEL. The end. of p i p e and b u t t - u e l d h g f i t t i n g s axe beveled ( s e e c h a r t 2.1) t i a i d

EIEED VRLVE. 3.1.11. f i g u i e 2.60 BLEWER. 3.3.2. t a b l e 3.7 BLIRO FLRKE. 2.7.1. 2.7.2. f i g v i e 2.51. Flange without c e n t i a l opening, used f o r c~asureof flanged terminations. Rated s l m i l a c i y t o a t h e i types of flanges see 'Flange Oata': P a r t I 1 BLOCK URLVE. 3.1.11 BLOinOW VRLVE. 3.7.11 BLoinown ~YSTEM. n (discharge) p i p i n g arrangerrent roc iermumg m a t e r i a l from a p r o ~ e s s . vessel, b o i l e r , etc.

B R C X SLD. I n piping, a Continuous Weld nade ?it the back o f a butt-meid. Possible only if there 15 access t o the i ' n t e r i o i enu(ctDCK. 5.u.i BRCKING RING = C h i l l i m g . c h ~ r 2.1. t f i g u r e 2.') BRLL FLOAT unLwi. 3.1.9 BRLL UCLUE. Check u a u e . 3.1.7 RCI Rotaiv. 3.1.6 . . .UIIIUE. BnR. i r a d i t i o n a l r r t r i c u n i t of Pressvie a p p r o x i w ~ eequal l~ t o 't atmosphere. 5ee l ~ l ~ I C - i' n t r o d u c t i o n , P a r t 11. t a b l e M-7 enawlnrc LEG. I f a pracsas u h i c h takes plIce below stmospher~cpiessuie r e q u i i e s wter or other i i q u l d t o be continuously diainpd from i t , t h i s m y be achieved bv c a v l e c t i n g the d r a i n t o a v e r t i c a l PIC? termed a ' b a r a a e t r i r re;'. the lover end of &ich rs l n a e r t c d in n seal pot. When the Leg and sea, are p r i e d w i t h l i q u i d , d m i n m g from r mu-piesauzc process can confinuousiy. 1 f the pressure or the pzoccss approaches zero iabsoiute), the l e g st be a t ,cast 34 f t i n h e i g h t BNISTOCK PLUG. 2.S.U. f i g u r e 2.55

BLOL".R. 3.2.2 BLO~WFSYSlER. P i p l n g hookup v ~ e d for blowma scale end f o r e i o n matter f r m tanks, b o i l e r s , etc. BLDLCFF VnLuE. :.1.9 6OILER FEEDMATER. 6.10.2 EONFEI. 3.1.2 BOTiDmi. See ' C o l t m Opeiatian'. 6.5.2 BSEEC~UXX. 5ee 'Bonnet', 3.i.2 B R E U K I N G ~ I h ' r 5 . f i g u r e 5.10 BRERTH~R wnLvE. ~ 1 . 1 1 B R S II H S i n m n m IEISTITU~IOEI. 7.3 BRUEIING 0.4.11 BUILDING LAYOUT. 6.15.: BUILDING5. I n r e l a t i o n Lo piping. 6.15. f i g u r e s 6.49 6 5.50 BMLHERO TEE. 2.3.2 m u . see 'DIKE' EURIED PIPE. Dimnsromng. t a b l e 5.2 BURSTING DISC = i u i l t u i e disc. 3.1.9 BUSHING, HEXQGON. Threaded. 2.5.1. f i g u r e 2.&2 BUTT-ELOED PIPE IDINTS. 2.3 BUTTERFLY URLUE. 3.1.6 BWRC5. Valved l e n g t h o f p l p m g t h a t allows f u l l ni p a r t i a l flaw, arranged around a w i v e , v a i v e assembly, equipment, etc. See f i g u r e s 5.6 t h i u 6.11 f o r exampies GYPRSS wnLuE. :.~.ii

i n s m e globe values ~sed COWRESSCR. 3.2.2 Piplog. 6.3.2 CommsqnIR L I N E S . D r a i n m g of. S.it.6 COMENSXTE. 5.9.1. 6.10.2 CONMCIOR pipe-to-twe. 2.5.1. f i g u r e 2.bl Ovrci comecto;. 2.6.1 CO~!~OLE. iin arrangeasnt of gages and controls mmnted i n z desk or cabinet, ficm which a process may be mcnitored and c o n t r o l l e d CONZlRNi L O R D H R P I G E R . 2.12.2 'Process S Service COElTINURTIOIl SKEI. 5 e . ~ines on P i p i n g Oraumgsr, 5.2.8. nny theat an which i n f o m t i o o i s c o n t i r u e d f i g u r e s 6.6 t h i v 5.11 COEIIROL 5TRiION. 6.1.4. 5wb01. c h a r t 5.7 CONIROL URLE. 3.1.10. figure 3 . 1 : COESEYED FLUID. This t e r n is used in the Guide f o r l i q u i d or gas c a r r i ~ d by Prplng COOLER. Heat exchanger used t o coor praccss fluld COOLING MUTER. Uater used t o csol process f l u i d or equipmnt COOROINRIE. 5.3.1 COPYING PROCESEE5. 4.b.11 CORRDSIOil. Conveyed f l u i d inav a t t a c k materLE~S f r m which p ~ p z and f i t t i n g s are wde. i h e deoreee o f corioaian w i l l dewno on the

vessel

c
cnp

CLERSRNE. 6.1.1. t a b i e 6.i. c h a r t P-2 CL05IBG DOLBi LINES. 6.7.3 CLOSURES. PerwnwnL. f i g u r e 2.20 Butt-welding. 2.3.: Threaded. 2.5.4 Socket-welding. 2.4.b CLOSURES. I m p o i a r y . 2.7. t a b l e 2.E COR51 ti GEOOEIIC SURVEY. 5.3.1 CORIIKGS. For p w e . 2.i.b COCK. S i r p i e piug valve in the smaller sizes COOE5. 7.5. REIS1 837. Cod. f o r pressure prpmg. 7.5.1 R5PZ B a i l e r and pressvie ues4ei code. 7.5.u C O L D 5PRIE:G. 6.1 f i g u r e 6.2 C O L O R COOING Nodei. L.4.32 Piping. nNSI R13.1 COLWN, F i a c t i a n a t i o n l O i s t i I i ~ t i i i . 6.5.2. t a b i e 3.8 CDLWSI PIPING. 6.5.2 i CDmRCITIL PIPIEIG. l . COPPRAlOli FLRIXE. H flange, or a f i a n g l n g arrangerent, custom-fabricated t o a t e wit,, a mn-standard f l a m e an a i t e m o f e a v ~ o ~ COPPOSITIDII DISC. 5.1.5. Nan-metallic d i s c COIlTCIWENI. 5ee DIKE

temperatvie and concentration, time of exposme, possible pieaence of water or a x , and ehethei galvanic a c t i o n is arso present CORROiION RLLOULltCE. R d d i t i a n a i thickness o f metal i n excess of t h a t c u l c v l a t e d fox stien;th COWLIRG Threaded. FML-. 2.5.1, 2.5.3. f i g u r e s 2.37. 2.09 Threadad. HRLF- 2.5.3. f i g u r e 2.69 ihieabd. REOUCER-. 2.5.1. f i g m e 2.38 5 e~-~ldin FULL-. ~. 2.li.l. f i r u r e 2.21 - e - k~ Socket-veiding. HRLF-. 2.11.3. f i g u r e 2.31 5mket-ueidirg. REDUCER. 2.4.1. f i g u i e 2.22 CRRZH PRkEL. BieakBble panel t h i u u h i c h peisamel nay escape rim a hazard in a b u i l d i n g C R O S S Butt-welding. 2.3.2. f i g u r e 2.17 Threaded. 2.5.2. f i g u r e 2.48 socket-welding. 2.4.2. f i g u i e 2.30 CRYOGENIC. ~ e f e r st o very raw teapeiatures and e q v r p r n t used a t these t w p e i a t u r e s . Tem usuallv a p p l i e i t o -2OOF and c o i d e i CYCLONE. 3.3.:-tabic 3.6

. .

n DRI'PECR. t For cmpressoi. 3.2.2 Hydiaulic. 2.i2.2

ORSrPUi. Piston-Lype ifevlce use0 Tor oaaping PIP' mi" l i r i i i i y ; m.cnnn~cairroumrnt oolirmwa. a lin= ,,diirh T D ~ ~~ do- ~i O U T L 'Ver eferei , .:.I ward OOiliHERPi. 6.9.:. See 'Jacketing'. 6.6.2 ORUIT. 6.5.2. f i g u i e 6.27 D A Y TANK. Term used f o r s t o i a g e tan*, hoiding ORRFlIhG Ccntioi s t a t i o n s . 6.1.4. c h a r t 5.7 l i m i t e d SUPPLY of f u e l , e t c . material*. 4.a DEADWEIGHTING. method of msasurmg pressuie of f l u e i n a l i n e . Oevrce havlng a platform Pinlno < 5.2.6 on which weights can be placed. t e n ~ o i a r i l y Synb0ll. 5.1 DRMTING PVICHINES. 4.4.6 f i t t e d Lo v e r t i c a l valved branch; e i g h t s balance l i n e p r c l s u i e . Used f o r c a l i b r a t i o n DRAFlSR4N. 4 2 . 2 ORAIN DEUOPVIN. R ~ h m permanently l e t m t o ground Location. 6.1.1. f i g u i e 6.67 f o r e r e c t i o n ourooles. Used f o r securmo On PbIO. 5.2.4 cablss On p w . 6.3.1 OERERRTOR. 3.3.3. t a b l e 3.6 synboi. c h a r t 5.7. c h a r t 5.26 OEFLECTIO$! O F PIPE. 6.2.6. See 'SPANS. For DR.318 HUB. F m w i f i t t e d m f l o o r and cnnPipes', P a r t I1 netted t o a dram l i n e DEFOAPER. 3.3.3. t a b l e 3.6 DEmiNERRLIZEO WATER. Uater v i t h a l l f a r m at DRAIN UULVE. 3.1.11 On~iNncE. 11) System of diarns. ( 2 ) Act or hardness i d i s s o ~ v e d mineiasl T ~ P L I Y E ~ process of d i a m l n g DESICCUFII. R d r v ~ n g agent, such a s cnncenORRINI% trated s u l f u n c a c ~ d or s i l i c a g e l R i i l i n e . 6.11.U OESICCATOR. Equrpmnt f o r renaumg water or 5Lsm l i n e . 6.10.4. 6.10.9 o t h e r l i w r d f i m a process i n a t s i a i by app~ymg uacuun, h e a t , or bv chenicai means 0RRWIl:G ENmER. 4.2.4 OESUPERhZRTER. Device f o r reduclng suacrheat OERLiItS PRPER. 4.4.1 Sizes. See 'Paper', 4.4.1. c h a r t S-6m lo steam. u a u z l l y bv adding watei t o the D R A W I N G REGISTER. Se= 'Draumg Control' steam 4.2.4 DEIAIL. s e e 'Eleuations ( S e c t i a m j & ORRUING SEE15 D e t a i l s ' , 5.2.6 5 i r r a . s e e 'Paper', 6.Y.r. c h a r t S-6W OEIIQOINT. Temperature a t which a vapor f o r m ORRUING5 l i q u l d ( ' d m ' ) on cooling Breaking l i n e s t o show 'hidden pxpmg' an DIAPtWAGW VALUE. 3.1.11 draumgs. f i g u i e 5.10 OIRZO. 4.4.11 Elevation. 5.2.6, 5.2.6. f i g u i e s 5.5 & 5.7 OIKE. Shaped w a l l oi errbankment surirunding Flov l i n e s on f l o v diagram. 5.2.3 one or moie s t o r a g e tanks t o form a basin a b l e t o hold t h e c o n t e n t s of tankls), m t h e Flaw l i n e s on PhID. 5.2.4 event o f rupture. I n t h s US, usvally 100% of Grid system. See 'P51D Lavaut': 5.2.4 t h e l a r g e s t tan* o r 10% of t h e t o t a i , uhich- I r i ~ t r m e n tconni)ctiona an piping drauings. ever 13 g r e a t e r 5.2.6 Iao. 5.2.6. f i g u r e s 5.6. 5.7 h 5.15 DIENSIONIhZ. 5.3. f i g u r e 5.13. t a b l e 5.2 Buried plpe. t a b l e 5.2 Issiiing. 5.4.3 E i s v a t i o n s . 5 c c 'Plan Vieu P i p m g O r i l ~ i ~ g s ' . Key plan. 5.2.7. f i g u r e 5.6 5.2.8, 5.3.3. f i g u r e 5.12. t a b l e 5.2 Oblique. 5.2.6. f i g u r e 5.7 F i t t i n g nukeup. 5.3.3 Orthographic. 5.2.6 P i c t a i l a l . 5.2.6 Gasket. 5 e c 'Dimensionmg t o Joints'. 5.3.3 Pipxng and instrvrrintation diagram. 5.2.4 15s. 5.3.4. f i g u r e 5.15 O i f s e t s f o r i s o . f i g u r e 5.16 Plan. 5.2.6, 5.2.6 P l o t plan. 5.2.7 Piping draumg. 5.3.2 Reference l i n e . f i g v c e 5.13 Process flow diagram. 5.2.3 matchline. s e e 'Piocess 6 Serulce L i m s on Spool. 5.3.5. f i g u r e 5.17 Piping 0rauingsr, 5.2.8. f i g v i e 5.8 To j o m t . 5.3.3 10n o z z l e 5.3.3. t a b l e 5.2 ~urb~iing 4.2.4, . 5.2.9 1 0p m . See ' P l o t p l a n ' , 5.2.7. f i g u i e 6.17 S c h e w t i c diagram. 5.2.2 To value. 5.3.3 S i t e plan. 5.2.7 Vessel. f i g u r e 5.14 S p b o l s . 5.1 DIRECTIDN OF FLDU LINE. See 'Flow Lines', Vessel. 5.2.7. f i g u r e 5.14 5.2.3 DRESSER COLPLIXG. 2.6.2 DRIP VALUE. 3.1.11. R d r a m v a l v e used on OISCHRRGE VALVES. 3.1.9 DISREO HERO. 2.3.3. dilplegs u o l u r r . c h a r t 1-2 5 i z e s on diipleps. t a b l e 6.10 DISTILLATION COLUFN. 3.3.3. t a b l e 3.6 ORIPLEG. 2.10.5. f i g u r e 2.70 Pipmg. 6.5.2 On PkID. 5.2.4 On piping draumgs. 5.2.8 DIVERTING VRLVE. 3.1.8 DOUBLE-BLOCK-RNU-BLEED. 2.7.1. f i g u r e 2.60. 5izes. t z b l s 6.10 s e e 'makc e m t e n s o c c S s f e ' , 6.1.3 DRIPSHIELD. 6.3.: DOUELE EXTRR 5TfiOS. 2.1.3. manufacturers' DRY 5TER"I 6.9.1. c h a r t 6.3 wekght d e s r g n a t i o n f o r w a l l thickness of DRYER. 3.3.3, 6.10.3. t a b l e 3.8

L..,aLnL.

-.

. .

.,

'taticn ' .:ELI=. ii I I,~EIPTEII. ~ ~ u e p e n d e a m w p l y o f varer f o r firefightiq FIRST-RIO STRTION. Location. 6.1.2 FITlIAG M E W . E L P 5.3.3 EDLCTDR. 3.3.2. t a b l e 3.7 Dimensioulmg foi. 5.:.5 EFFLUENT. 6.13 FITTINGS. 2.2.6 ELBOLE1 Butt-,elding. 2.3. c h a r t 2.1 Butt-ueiding. :.3.2. f i g u r e 2.14 Ordering. 5.6.3 Thiesded. 2.5. c h a r t 2.3 Threaded. 2.5.3. f i g m e 2.51 Socket-welding. 2.4.3. f i g u r e 2.33 Sccket-welding. 2.4. c h a r t 2.2 E L B O W = Eli FLAG. l o i d e n t i f y , or t o d r a u a t t e n t i o n t o , Butt-welding. :.:.I. f i g u r e 2.2 an i t m on a d r a w ~ n g by means of a svndl~i. note, panei ar o t h e r w i k mitered. 2.3.1. f i g u i e 2.5. t e b i e m-2 FLAC RflRESTW.. R device t o prevent a flame Threaded. 2.5.1. f i g u r e 2.M f r r n t f m n rmvmg upstream m a l i n e o i Sackot-welding. 2.b.l. f i g u i e 2.26 vessei. For small l i n e s , m y c o n s i s t of a ELEURTIOW vrir screen. For l a r g e r l i n e s , arrangements D h e w i a n s . 5.3.2. t a b l a 5.2 of r u l t i p i e p a r a l i e i p l a t e s or tubes are Uiews. 5.2.6. See 'Elevations (Sections) h ~ c t a i ~ s5 ' ,. 2 . ~ used. P r i n c i p a l l v used on vent l i n e s f i a ELL. See E L B O W t2nks. SWdOl. c h a r t 5.7 EJECTOR. R type of porp i n vhich a p a r t i a l FLRm*fiBLE LIIIUIO. Safety guidelines. 6.14 wcum is c r e a t e d by passing steam or other FLRllCE. 2.2.3. 2.3.1. f i g u r e s 2.6 t h r v 2.10. f l u d Under oressuie t h i v a neck o i venturi Bolt and s t u t b o l t f o r . 2.6.3. f i g u r e 2.57. v i t h a brailch a t t h e narrowest pazt. Suctablcs F t i o n rs c r e a t e d i n t h e b r e x h Bolt hole. 2.6.2. t a b l e s F EOUIPENl Eipmdei. 2.3.8. f i g u i e 2.9 I d a n t i f w l p cn f l c v diagram. 5.2.: Facing. 2.6.1. f i g u r e 2.56 Identifying an P5IO. 5.2.b Gasket. 2.6.4. f i q u i e 2.56. t a b l e 2.5 L i s t . 4.2.2 Lap j o i n t . 2.3.2. f i g u r e 2.10. t a b i e s F EOUIPPENT RRRANCERNT DRAWING. 5.2.7 P r e s s m e / T ~ n p e r a t u r e r a t i n g s . t a b l e F-9 EOUIPPENllINOEX. 4.2.2 Re&cmg. 2.3.1. f i g u r e 2.6 ERRSING. 0.4.b Thraaded. 2.5.1. f i g m e 2.45. t a b l e s F EVUPIKIRTOR. 3.3.:. t a b l e 3.6 Slip-on. 2.3.1. f i g u r e 2.7. t a b l e s F EXPAWER FLRffiE. 2.3.1. f i g u i e 2.9 Sacket-melding. 2.4.1. f i g u i e 2.27. t a b l e s F EXPAEl5ION. Tnermai m u e m n t . 6.b.1 Welding-neck. 2.3.1. f i g u r e 2.6. t a b l e s F Of s t e e l . c h a r t 6.1 FLAP VALUE. 3.1.11 LOOP. f i g u r e 6.1 FLUESTACK. A s t a c k l o c a t e d avav fram t h e EXPUNSION JOINT. 2.9.1. f i g v i c s 2.63 t h i v praeessmg erea, t o vhich re1i.r headers mav 2.66 be run f o r buinlng waste hydroceibons or EXTRR HEAVY. T r i d i t i o n a l term used f o r Class o t h g i f l a m a b l e vapors. 6.11.3 250 c a s t - i r o n f i t t i n g s FLRSN STEPm. 6.9.1 EXTRR STROh%. m n u f a c t u r e r s ' deslgnabion f o r FLUSHING wall t h i c k ~ s s of plpe and f i t t i n g s . '2.1.3 S t e m . 6.10.8 EXTRUDED NUZZLE. Hot-formed o u t l e t iwde m Building c a n s t m c t i a n . R p i e c e of metal or pipe oi vessei by p u l l i n g shaped d i e s t h r u o t h e r i w t e r i a i used t o cover or p r o t e c t a hold made m t h e wall f e r t a m j o i n t s f r m t h e upather, such as & w e a c h i m e " j o r n s a roof FLRSNPOINT of flamnable l i q u l d . T c w e i a t u r e a t which t h e asount of vapor grven o f f II FRN. t a b l e 3.3 s v f f i c ~ e n tt o form an l c n i t a b l e nvxtvre v i t h FAHRENHEIT. Scale of temperatwe formerly a i i . Highly f l v m a b l e l i q u i d s have l o u used i n t h e English-speaking c o u n t r i e s , ncu flaahpa~nts v i d e i v replaced by th* m t e r n a t i o n a l Celsius FLAT FREE. Flange. 2.6.1 l o r Centigiads) .scale. A t atrmspherrc Press- FLEXIBILITY. f i g u r e 6.1 uir 1st sea l e u e l ) , on t h e Fahrenheit scale, FLEXIBLE PIPINU. 2.9.2 32 is t h e t e m m t u i e a t uhich i c e fox-: Expansmn j o i n t . 2.9.1 water b o i l s a t 212. t a b l e m-6. t a b l e R-7 FLOTRTIDN TANK. t a b l e 3.8 FIELD. ( 1 ) Ccnstructian s i t e ( ' j o b s i t e ' ) FLOOR STRW. 5ce 'stem', 3.1.2 where p ~ p r n gr* e r e c t e d . ( 2 ) F i e l d engincei- FLOWOIRGRRPI. 5.2.3 m g office FLDU L I E FIELD ELO. We~gmade a t t h e time of e r e c t i o n on f l a j diagram. 5.2.: On PkIO. 5.2.b of p i p i n g a t t h e s i t e Svntiol for. c h a r t 5.3. f i g u r e 5.15 FLUID. nny m r t e n a l capable of flouing. I n FILING DRAWINGS. U.3, 4.4.10 t h e Gmde, term is used t o denote e i t h e r a FILLET MLD. c h e r t 5.9 liqu~d o r a gas. Pouders nay also be FINISHED GRUOE. 5.3.1 considered f l u i d s

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F O O T VALUS. 3.1.7 ! NRTT -a iteria enters a system fiem outsrde FOREIGN PRINT. P r i n t of a drawlno o r m i n r t i n q i n another group, dcsartment or canpany FOREIGN STANDARDS. 7 . : FRRCTIONATION COLW. 3.3.3. t a b l e 3.8 Pipmg. 6.5.2 FROST L I E . The l a v e s t depth i n the ground which c h i l l s t o 32F IOC) FULL-COLQLIRG. See COWLING

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f i g u r e 2.42

HEXAGDN BUSHING 2.5.1.

GAGE. a deuice f o r meassing or registering ~e~ei pieasuie, , tenpeiatuie, etc. GAGE GLASS. ~ 1 4 ~ s s~ ed t o show l i q u l d i e u e i , U S U ~ ~ m ~ the Y form o f a v e r t i c a l glass tube u i t n end connections GULUAIIIIIIIG. The coating of metal w i t h rim bv e i e c t i a p l a t i n g or hot-dipmog GRSKET. 2.5.b. t a b l e 2.5 ~ i r r e n s i a n m g . Sea 'Oimenslcning t o J o i n t s ' , 5.3.: GATE VALVE. 3.1.4 GIRT. R h o i z z o n t a ~ menber of a b u i l d i n g t o v h i c h t h o p a n r i s f a c r m q the sides of the Livilding are F i t t e d GLAND. H sieeve w i t h i n a s t u f f i n g box f i t t e d auer a s h a f t or valve s t e x and tiahtened a g r m s t compressible packing so as t o le:kage i r n i l e ai$aulng.he s h a f t - o i stcm t o iroue GLnss PIPE. 2.1.4 Supparting. 6.2.7 GLOBE VRLUE. 3.1.5 GRAOE. s$e ' U e r t i c a i Rcfererse', 5.3.1 G R A D E BEAN. Beam v h i c h rs used t o support a r i a o r a t ground level GSOU60 JOINT. F i n e f i r u s h on two metal SuZfaces foirmng face-to-face l e a k - t i g h t j o r n t GROW LEUDER. 4 t: .2 GROUT. R t h i n i a ~ e o r f concrete poured on s s e t concrete foundation, betvecn the founda t i o n and t h e baseprate of t h e equipment ~hich w i l l r e s t on i t . The baseplate 19 r i r m i y b d t c d davn on the l e v e l surface of the grout a f t e r i t has hardened GUIOE. 2.12.2. 6.2.8. f i g u r e 2.721 GUTLINE. See 'Trecmg', 6.8.2

H' :a1 FI. G R ~ E Vertic e t e w e T , 5.3. s HOLDING TUFIK. Tank in uhich l i q u i d l o r q u l ) 1s h e l d Fending f u i t h c i processing or t r e a t irent HOmCGENIZER. 3.3.U E 0 9 CONNECTOR. 2.B.i H O S E UILVE. 3.1.11 HOT TAP. H t e c h n l w e f o r branching znto a l i n e under pressure v i t h a v t having t o close the - l i n e dovn HDTuELL. u smp, tan*, n i other receptacie f o r h?idinQ d i s c h a q e s o f h o t l i ~ " ~ d * . 8.10.11 HYORAELIC ACCUWLRTOR. S t o i = l l i q u l d under P P ~ ~ S Y Z~ ~y . pxallv a device consisting o f a c v i i n d e r and p l s t a n which is actuatcd by a weight, spring, or empressed gas. On the a p p o d t r s i d e o f tho p ~ s t a n , t h e drrven f l u l d , s u h as water or o i l , IS s t o r e d HYORAULIC OUfFEbER. 2.12.2 Synbu. c h a r t 5.28 HYDRAULIC RESISlRh'E of pipe and f i t t i n g s
~

01nariwoie m i n t a i r e d in stack Ifi 2.1 IRON PIFE 5125. 2.i.3. 1 5 0 l n t e r m t i a n a i Sbndards Orgamiation. mtraductian. p a r t 1 1 see 'PETRIC' 150 = 1ametr:c. 5.2.6, 5.2.9. f i g u i e s 5.15 6 5.16. Ctecking. 5.4.4

LIM E ~ l h 0 .2.7.1

f~gvie 2.39 Syl hart L I M BLIEO VALUE. 2.7.7. :.l.& LlhE DESIGNATION 5i.EET. P.2.3. 5.2.5 LINE NUmER P6IO. 5.2.6 P i p i n g diaumgs. l e e 'Process l S c r v i c r ocauings'. 5.2.8 ~ i n on e ~iplng

HYOROSTRTIC TESTIKG. 5.11.2 HYGIENIC CONSTRUCTION. Pipe, uarves, pmps and other equipment used t o handle foods t u f f s and drugs shauid be h y g r e n l c a l l y -an* t h a t a l l surfaces c o n ~ t r ~ r - t e dv :hi~h cantacting the materrai nust be smooth. "on-toxic and corrosion piaof. P l a s t i c s and rubbers should n o t incorporate ( a s f i l l e r s ) substances t h a t mey ~ a n t a r m w t c . matersats WY be r e f e r r e d f r e e from s ~ contminants h t o as ' u h i t e ' ZubbDr, etc.

JACK S C R E W . 5 c i w pravlded m o i i f i c e flanges and scmatimea flanges for l i n e b l i n d s f o r the purpose of t c r n o r a r i l y holding flanges apart in oider t o mseitliemoue o r i f i c e p l a t e or l i n z blind. Two scrcwl me provrded (one per flange) piaced 180 degrees apart. r i g m e 2 . 9 JACKETING. 5.8.2 308 FUNCTIOPIS. 4.1.2 106 NUFBER. Cmqany account rider t o which on p~peiuork u i i i k 19 charged. ~ p p e a i a for a p i o ~ e c t JOIRL The u a i k done hen the p a n t of a p p i i c a t i o n of a force o f i rs displaced thravch a d k t e n c e of i meter m t h e d i r e c t i o n of the force IW'u?OWER. t a b l e A - i

the ~ ~ F P o i of t s tsnk5, etc. LDW-PRE55UPE tEATIhS PZOIA. 8.9.2 LUG. P r o j e c t i n g prece an a vesrel, frzne. etc., by ~ h i c h i t mav be h e l d or l i f t e d or used for an attachment

W I N . A p r i n c i p a l section of pipe s w p l y l n g s e r v i c e oi praceas f l u i d . I n a RlhS mRIN the f l u r d rs continuouslv c l r c u r a t e d around a closed m o p of p i p i n g and w y be d r a m off a t any p o m t . Usefm f o r h o t / c o i d line., or for siuirrcs and other f l u i d s w i t h suspended

IFICOI*EL. A high-mckei a l l o v contamrog chiourn and xan. Resistant t o o i l d a t i o n and


COrnlIlO"

INCREASER = Suaqe or reducer INSTRUI'ENT UIR. See ' C ~ p r e s s e d A i i Usage',

WILF-COWLING Threaded. 2 . 5 . : . f i g u i e 2.49 socket-ueiding. 2.4.3. f i g u r e 2.31 HRhORRIL. See RAILING IIREiGER. 2.12.2 canstant-laad hang2r. 2.12.2 s p r i n g hanger. 2.12.: HARNE55 PIPING. 6.3.1 ISAD. Pressure. 3.2.1 HEUOER. n pipe s c i v i n g as a p r i n c l p a i D L P P I Y or r e t u r n l i n e HEADER VULVE. 3.1.11 HEAT EXCHRElGER. 3.3.5. f i g u r e 6.32. chart H-8

t a b l e 7.3 INSTfiUmNTATIDN. 5.5 Coding. t a b l e 5.3 Function. 5.5.2 Rounting. 5.5.4 On flow diagram. 5.2.3 On P610. 5.2.4 s i g n a i lead. 5.5.6. chart 5.b INSULRTION. Thermal On Ph10. 5.2.6 Per~mne p~ m t ~ c t i o n . 6.8.1 Thickness. 5.8.1. tables 8.7 6 6.8 INTERCOOLER. 3.2.2 INTEfiCOtiNECTIIG PkID. 5.2.0 INTERFRCE. Baundary cornsan t o two eystels. see f i g 6.3 s pmt i sc [ i o l 6 (161 INUERT ELEVRTION ( ' I E ' ) i s the e l e v a t i o n of the b o t t o n o f the m t e i n a i surface of a b u r l e d pipe. tabla 5.2

s o l i d s t h a t may semrate NRKELP W A T E R . Mater i s l o s t i n many processes and operations. u a t e r inventory rs r e s t o r e d by adding mkeup v a t e r WLLERBLE-IRON. A d c c t i l e casf iron pioituced by c o n t r o l l e d annealing o f white cast l i o n MANWLE. t a b l e 5.1 k e l v i n . 51 u n i t o f tempe;atu:e. Defined as I n coiwn. 6.5.2 "the f i a c t i o n 11273.18 af the thermodynamic MANIFOLD. A chanber or pipe iheaderj havlng tempcrrtuie o f the t i i p l e p m n t of water." several biamhes (Tna t r i p r e p o m t o f u a t c i is the s o i i d , W~QETER. see ' o r i f i c e P l a t e Rssenblv', l i q u i d , vapor phase, as i c e begrns t o form 6.7.5 on cooiino.l. zero on th. t h e r m d v m n i c scale WNWACTURERS' EIGHT. 2.1.3 is 273.15 k e i v m s b e l w zeio on t h e C e l s u s InATCWIhC. See 'Process h Service L i n e s on scale. h k e l u l n 21 a teopcratuie ' i n t e r v a l ' ~ i p m Oraumgs', g 5.2.8. f i g u r e 5.8 or diffeience. k e i v i n i s n o t expressed m WlERIUL BALUNCE. R d e t a i l e d t a b v i e t i o n of degrees. One k e i u m : I equal t o one 'degree' process materxai f l a v l n g i n t o , t h i v and out cc~s~us ~ .h u s t i m t v degices on t h e Celsius o f the process, shoung the d i - t r i b u t i o n m i scaie 14 291.1%. t a b l e N-7 a l l s i g n i f i c a n t cornonents, including KNIFE-EDGE V U L W E . 3.1.11 mwrities KNDCK-OUIDRWPDT. A stieam o f gas c o n t a n NNERIUL TAKEOFF. Estinat=d q u a n t i t i e s f o i i n g drops o f l i q u r d is passed t h r u a knockm a t e n a s , taken from dravmgs o u t d c m in order t o s l o u d a m t h e f l o v and m x L . 5 w o r c h a r t 5.283 a l a u thi. l i q n d t o separate and c o l l e c t IIITER. 2.3.1. f i g u r e 2.5 MIXER. 3.3.2. tEble 3.7 NIXING. 3.3.2 RIXlElG VALVE. 3.3.11 LAND an beveled end. chart 2.1 EL o f plant. 6.U.12 LANTERN RIhG. See 'Bonnet', 3.I.2 ~ X Ln. l l o y s c o n s i s t i n g mamry of n r c k e i and LRP-3OINT FLANGE. 2.3.1. f i g u r e 2.10 copper, which have good resrstancs t o corroLATERAL smn. abrasion and heat Butt-uciding. 2.3.2. f i g u r e 2.16 PWNWEMT. 5.3.1. f i g u r e 5.12 Thrgaded 2.5.2. f i g v r e 2.47 IIILTIPORT VULUE. 3.1.8 f i g v i e 2.29 socket-welding. 2.4.2. RYLAR FILN. 4.4.1 LRTROLET 8utt-uelding. 2 . 3 . : f i g u r e 2.15 Threaded 2 . 5 . : f i g u r e i.SZ Socket-"siding. 2.U.3. f i g u i e 2.34 EEEOLE VRLUE. 3.1.5 LEROY. 4.li.5 REUICN. net;lc u n i t . he f o r c e t o acceleiate LETTERIK. b.b.6

kilci t h r.L" 1 m: 51 m . ,-.rzved;. Fnr sectisw, per NIPDIET. I n t e g r a l niplilelueldolet pisin. 2.U.:. f i g u r e 2.35 inreaded. 2.5.:. f i g u r e 2.53 NIPPLE 7hiesded 2.5.1. f i g u i e 2.39 ~ w p e d . 2.i.2. f i g v r e 2.19 wmI-RETURN VALVE. 3.1.7. 3.2.11 NOW-RISING 5TER. See 'Sten'. 3.7.2. Type of yeme s t e n uhich r o t a t e s but does not r1.e ~rcn v a i v e ~5 operated ~ R T H . ' P l a n t north' s ' t r u e north'. 5ee ' H o r i i o n t a i Reference', 5.3.1 and ' R i l o c a t i n g Space cn t h e 5h9:tL, 5.2.0. f i g u r e 5.11 ~IOZZLE, k pratruding p o r t of a vesser, tank, pmp, e t c . t o ~ i c piping h i s connected. Column. 6.5.2 Hear exihmger. 6.6.2 pmp. 5e. 'Typical Piprng f o r Centrifugal P u r ~ i ' ,5.3.7 S q p o r t l n g pipe a t . 6.2.0 Vessel. 6.5.1 wa. spacer b r o t w s r a n ) on a backing i m g or msert. NWSER or LIP&. See 'Flaw Lines on P ~ I D ' s ' ~ 5.2.b
B
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-.

of i r.n..llnn over 20 ' ? . . 'I 9maie "%tar . t i . . .. .2 E~ZIL. . PEN5TOCK. R c b ~ r n e ileading water t o a t u r bine or uateiufleel pH. R m a l u r e of khe a c i d or .alkaline 5 t i e n g t h of aweous s o w t i o n s . Neutrar H of 7. Acids have a pH s o l u t i o n s have e p beim 7. ~ i k a i i n e / c ~ u s t ilci q v ~ d s have a p H .bow 7. PliOlOGRWHIC AI05. U.d.13 PICTORIAL UIEd5. 5.2.6 PiECEcWK = nark m k e r . 5 c c 'Nmbeimg I s a s , Spool Sheets, b Speois', 5.2.9 PINCH URLVE. j.i.5
C .i l. i .

PIP:t& DfiRUIMX. 5 . 2 2 , 5.2.0


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Cenlerlinc. 5.3.:. chart 5.8 Checking. 5.4.2 Diwnslanmg. 5.: I e n t i f y i n g sections. 5ee 'Eleuatia"3 I 5 e c t i a w ) 6 O e t a i l s ' , 5.2.8. c h a r t 5.8 I o s t r m n t connections. 5.2.0. c h a i t L 2 1siuiog. 5.4.3 Line nu-er. 5% 'Ficu Lines on PSIO' : 5.2.4. 5.2.8 Paints t o check. 5.34.6

OBLIQUF. ORRWIEG. 5.2.6 OFF-PLOT. R e f e r s t o arcs o u t s i d e the an-plot r i e a . or t o area betveen on- lot a i e r l . 5es BRTTERY LIPlIT ON-PLOI Refers t o t h e area of a p a r t i c u l a r u n i t o i campiex. These can be nore than one on-plot aiea m t h e sane m n u f a e t u r l n g s i t e . See EATTERY LIPlIT ON-SITE n ! t h e f i e i d . OperntionI c a i r l e d t h e c o n s t r ~ t i o ns i t e are t e m r d on-site aperaticns OPEHRTOR f o r vaiue. 3.l.2 OPERRTIh% HEIGHT5 FOR VRLUES. 6 . 1 2 . t a b l c 6.2. c h r t P-2 ORIFICE PLATE R55EPBLY. 5.7.5. Figuie 6.35 Clearance around. f i g u r e 6.30 ORIFICE PIPE RUN. t a b l e 6.5 DRJFICE Tili. See 'Pipmg t o Flange Taps':

..-

~ ~ - ~ .

P ~ I O= ~ i p r n g and i n s t r m e n t a t i o n d i a g r m . 5.2.6 PACKIHG. CcrprcIsible m t e r i a i held i n the s t u f f i n g box of a s e a i PACKLESS URLVE. See ' S e r i e ' . 3.1.2 PUNTOGRAPH. U.4.0 PIIPER Used i n d t u f t i r q . 0.4.7. c h a r t 5-m PWER STOCK VRLUE. 3.1.11 PmT5 LIST. 5.6.3 Paschi. m t n c I511 u n i t of piessure. Tho pascal 3s the pre.swe produced by a force

T i t l e b10ck. 5.2.0. figv:e 5.9 PIPIP:G FR0RICRTIGtl (IRACIS. 5.2.9 PIDINT. CRCID .I ~ . &. .. Areas. t a b l e s P-i PIPIhs LRYOUT. Oasign notes. 5.i e u r s t i n g pressures. t a b l e s P-1 PIPING SPECIFICATION. 6.2.6 Data. t a b l e s P-l PIPILG U5E5. 1 . i Definition. 2.1.1 PLRM. Vie* f o r drawing. 5.2.6, 5.2.5 Oeilecticn. tubles P-, FLRFIIPETER. 4.6.5 D i a e t e r s . Z.i.3. tublcs P-l PLRNT. Building of. i.2. c h a r t 1.1 F i t t i n g s . 2.2.4. t a b l e s 0 PLANT RIR. 5 r c ' C q i e a s e d Rir Usage', 6.3.2 Hanger. 2.12 PLRNT CDEI5TRLICTIOtl. c h a r t 1.1 ncu t o specify. 5.6.: PUNT EiCRTH. 5 e 'Hoil;m?tal Refeicme'. 3oints. 2.2 5.3.1. f i g v i e 5.11 Lengths. 2.l.2. PLASTIC PIPE. 2.i.b ~ i n i n g s .2.7." Supporting. 5.2.7 Lugs r l d e d anta. 2.12.3 PLEh'LiV. D i s t r i b u t i o n ccrmnent of a irechamcR a t e r i a i s . 2.1.4. S t e e l s : t a b l e 2.1 a i system of v c n t i i a t i a n . Fresh alr is f a i c marmnwa seiulce p r e s s w e . t a b l e s P-b e d i n t o a box or chaobei f ' p i e r u n ' ) f o r manant of i r a t i u . t a b l e s P-'# d i s t r i b u t i c n m a building Drdenng. 5.6.3 PLOT PLRN. 5.2.7 Piperack. 6.l.2. f i g u r e 6.3 PLUG. B a i s ~ a c k . f i g u i e 2.55 Pressure l i m i t s . 2.1.5. t a b l e s P-6 PLUG GAIE VRLUE. 3.8.U Rcdius o f gyration. t a b l e s P-1 PLUG U A L L V E . 3.7.4 5ag. t a b l e s P-i PLWING. $ . I 5che0,le n ~ e * .2.i .3 PGCKETING I n l i n e s . 6.2.5 Section nad"lu5. t a b l e s P-1 POLYERIZRTION.Generally, chemical r e a c t i o n Sizes. 2.1.2. t a b l e s P-1 ~n i h i c n iroiecvles co-sine t o f o m i a r g e r wole~u~es Term . myrrtly applied t o r e a c t i o n s 5pacmg. t a b l e s h foin:ng p n t cham-iike irorecules, as m 5pans. t a b l r s P-i. t a b l e 5-1. c h a r t s 5-2 t h e pradvctian of p i a s t i c s S t e e l s . t a b l e 2.1 'POP' SAFETY URLUE. 3.1.3 Stock Iongths. 2.1.2 POTAeLE WRIER = Orirking water Suaoort. 2.12. 5.2 PORT of vaiue. Refeis t o t h e s e a t a p e r t u r e of lempsratuie limit;. 2.1.5 a vawe, but s o e t w s t o the vaive's ends Thieads. 2.5.5 PRESSWE, RBSDLUTE and CAGE. Pressure Wall thickness. 2.1.3. t a b l e s P-l expressed r e i a t i v e t o absoiute vacwn: pavnd Weights. t a b l e s P-, p e r sqvaie rnsh absolute, ubbieviuted P51R Welding to. 2.12.3 or P S ~ R ,1 s t h e i n i t n o r r a i i y used m t h e PIPE COPE. 5euling camound used f o r making USA. P I ~ I S U I ~ above a t m s p h e r i c 2% t e r n e d screned comectians. Teflon-based coapounds piessuie, usually erpisssed aa P51C or are MU usually s p e c i f i e d uniess t e r l o n tape p s q . Noma a t r m p h s r r c pressure 1s 14.7 2% Used on the threads P5iA. ~ d d i n g 14.7 t o the gage p i e s w i e grves PIPE SUPPORT. 2.12. 6.2 t h e absorute pressure C s i w i a t i a n 4 . 6.2.d PRE5SURE REGLUTOR. 3.7.10 O e s q n functions. 5.2.i PRES5UaE 5EL. Valve. 52? 'Barnet', 3.1.2 Expannon. 6.2.5 PRESiimE VE55EL. 6.5.1 Loading. 6.2.2 PRlmARI VALVE. 3.1.11 5pri"g hanger and support. 6.2.5 PIPE-TO-TUBE COWECTOR. figvril 2.41 PRIE = ~ r ~ m i n water, g etc. PROCE55 EOUIPaENT. E q u l p r n t bv which lor i n PIPERPTK. 6.1.2. f i g u i e 6.3 uhich) rs e f f e c t e d a physical or chermral PIPESAY. 6.1.2. t a b l e s R-1 PIPIE>G Butt-welded. 2.3. c h r i t 2.'I 5 c r e e d . 2.5. c h a r t 2.3 Socket-welded. 2 . h . c h a r t 2.2 PIPING S INSTRUENIPITION OIRGRRm. 5.2.4

VhUilORTIOhlhb YULUE. d . ~ . r t .able , ., PUP. 3.2.1 Piping 6.3.1 5 e r e c t i o n . c h a r t 3.3 P W PIPING. 6.3.1 PUKGIMZ. The flushing o u t of "wanted w t e r r a i from a s y s t ~ n . Examie: flooding p i p m g with n i t r o g e n t o r e a m atm';fheiic oxygen R m~itudina w~ d e r fixed exteroalPURLIFI. 3" t o t h e laof frame of a building t o vhich t h e roofing panels are f i t t e d oracmim. a device used roc measuiing highcr teweratures

QUICK-RCTINZ WERUTWS. For values. 3.1.2 WICK COWECTOR. 2.6.7 QUICK CDLFLIMG. 2.0.2

RRILIbG Dimensianmg. t a b l e 6.1. c h a r t P-2 5yndoi. c h a r t 5.8 RRI5EO FACE (of flange]. 2.5.1 RRkVOR LEffiTH l a f pips). 2.1.2 RAWINE. The R a a i o s scale assures ternerat u r e from a b s o l u t e reio. One degree Rankine one degree F a h r e m e i t . t a b l e PI-? [R) ; RRPIDOGRPPH. Pen. 6.4.6 RRTINGS OF FITTIEG5. t a b l c 2.2 RERCTION VESSEL. 3.3.5 REACTOR. Unit m vhich a c o n t r o l l e d cheucai r e a c t i o n or process occurs REBOILER. See 'Coluno Opetation', 6.5.2 RECEIVER. 3.2.2 REDUCER E u t t - w s d i n g . 2.3.1. f i g u i e 2.3 Threaded. 2.5.1. f i g u m 2.30 S o c k e t - r i d i n g . 2.4.1. f i g u r e 2.22 REOUER INSERT. 2.U.i. f i g u r e 2.23 REDUCING ELBOW. 2.3.1. f i g u r e 2.2 REDUCING FLUKE. 2.3.',. f i g v r e 2.0 REDUCING TEE. Hou t o order. 2.3.2. t a b l e 0-6 REGKRTINC URLUE. 3.7 .l1 REFERENCE ORRUNG. Rny disulng iwde bv t h e deslgn gmups t o vhich r e f e r e m e rs made. The c m p l e t e list of reference diavlng nvlbeis I* b e s t w r i t t e n on t h e N m arrangement d i a w q REFERENCE POINT. 5.3.1. f i g u r e 5.11 REFLUXING. 5ee 'Calm Dp*ration', 6.5.: REINFORCEPENT. 2.11 5ymbors. c h a r t 5.3 REIEaF3RCIbG RIhC. Shaped w t a i r l n g f o r remf e r c l n g stub-ma, vessel razrlrs, e t c . A W d metal cormensates f o i m t a l iamaved from pipe or vessel wall RELIEF HERDER. 0.12.b. f i g u i e 6.3 pornt ( 7 ) . 1 . 3 RELIEF URLUE. 3.1.9, 6 RELIEVING PRE55URE. Of l i q u r d s . 6.12 R ~ V R E LSPOOL. E 2.7.1. f i g v r e 2.61 RESISTRKE T O FLOW. I n prping. 6.1.1 RETLWN. 2.3.1. f i g u i e 2.2 REVRW. To i e - m z k oi m d i f y an e x l s t i n g

on PSIO. 5.2.u TRAN~PORTRTIO'I PIPING. i., TRW. 3.1.9. 6.10.7 nn PliO. 5.2.4 ..~ Piplng to. 6.10.11. figuzes 6.63 8 6.4h IRWPI% 51ERR L I E S 6.10.11 rmm. c r i r ~ c r imteina: s u ; f z c e ~ of a valve bod? are s c e z t m s r mace of ~ p e c l a i materlai ~ ~ as c st ha i n i e s s s t e r i . These wits nay ~ ~ ~ i tu h ed de i s c and s e a t , s t m ox other mteinal surfaces iRim PIPING. 6.3.1 iaffis. s t r ~ c t u r e fr ~e m based on the genn=tix rigid it^ a? the t r i a n g i e , cawqosed of C~mpresslcn and tension mnbers t e r r c d s t r u t s and t i e s TUBE. 2.1.1 TUiiEINE PIPING. 6.4 TURFWY PLAtIT. A p l a n t c o n s t i i x t s d and mads ready f o r c i i e n t ' s i m d i a t e operation

WIFIED S C i i i~ m o . 2.6.3 UmRncE. 5en ' ~ r a m n g ' : 6.8.2 WIION Thieaded. 2.5.1. f i g u r e 2.40 5acket-uel~ing. 2.4.i. f i g u r e 1 . 2 4 " url1ON BONNET. Valve constiuction a l l o r r n g quick ~ a u p l i n g and incoupling of uarve body and bonnef UPiIOli FITTIGG. R f i t t i n g with a unron a t one n i m r e ends uNLW3IMG. 3.2.2 "5 OEPRaTENT O i COimiRCE. Coast and Geadctir survey. 5.3.1 "SA5I. 7.3 UTILITY PIPIbIG. 'I .'I UTILITY 5rniioN. 6.1.5. f i g u r e 6.12 Syihai. 6.1.5

Pezts. 3.s.i 3.: >lac% Port. 3.,.2 sea:. 3.1.2 Seat. 3.1.2 S e l e ~ t i a n .3.1.3. c h a r t 3.2 Size. 6.1.3 V R L V E STEm. 3.1.2 arranging. See ' o r i e n t a t i n n of Valve Stems' 6.1.: B:n-rrslrg. 3.1.2. f i g u r e 3.3 Operati~g h e q n t . 6.1.3. t a b l e 6.2. c h m P-2 Piping s a f e t y 6 r e l i e f valves. 5.1.3 Risirg. Outsrdr screw & yoke. f i g u r e 3.1 and f i g u r e 3.2 VRti STOM FLANGE. 2.3.l. f i g u r e 2.10 VRRIP3LE 5FRIE:G H R N G E R or SUPPORT. 2.12.2. f i g u r e s 2.726 6 6.15 V E N T ~ a c a t i o n .5ee ' p i p m g nrrangement'r 6.1.1. f i g u r e 6.47 on i i n e s and uesscii. 6.11 On prplng. 6.11. f i g u r e 6.47 On P6IO. 5.2.b On tan*. Svmoi. c h a r t 5.7 VESCL COM6CTIOEI. 6.5.1 VESSEL ORBMIUG. 5.2.7. f i a u r e 5.1b ' thad VICTnULIc COL~LIEX.A ' q ~ t c k - ~ o n n e c t m of ~ o i n m g pipe, f i t t i n g s , vrives, and equipmnt; vanufactured by t h e V i c t a u l i c cmpun" of nrezica. 2.5.2. f i g u i 2.62 ~

VnCm. The d q r e e of vucum can be quoted i n PSI^, but more o f t e n e i t h e r t h e p r e s w m er the removed pressure is quoted as e 'head' ; usvsllv t h e height of a c o u m of m i c u i ~ (HQ) m R i l l i m e t e i s of r c r r v r y I n n H?). N O X ~ ~ atnospheric L piessure 1s 760 om Hg wncwn BEAKER. 3.1.11 v n L 6 3.7 hirangmg. 6.1.3, 6.1.L R m e s 6.1.3 6 e ~ w grade. s e e ' I f t h e r e i s no PUO'

~ l i l E a ~ m " Rk . cailcuss~rndue to: ( 1 ) Pressure saves t r a v e l i n g i n piplng and me4ting with o b s t r u c t i o n s . A unrve ciosing tam ;rpldiy u i i i c r e a t e a p r e s s u r e wave ( 2 ) ~ o ~ d e n s ah tu z rled a g a m s t obstructians bv hish-ueiacity steam. 5ee 6.10.2. 6.10.6 ELD GnP. s.:.$ c h a r t s 2.1 6 2.2 SIOIFIG-PECK FLRNGE. 5 e e 'Flanges'., 2.3.1. f i g w e 2.6. t a b l e s F ELDING 5YWOL. 5.1.6. chart 5.9 SIDING t o p l p e 2.12.3 LELWLEI. 2.3.:. f i g u r e 2.13 LET 5TEm. 6.9.1. c h a r t 5.3

BrnhDt. 5.k.2 Cmm operator. 3.1.2. c h a i t s 5.6 & P-2 Disc. 3.1.2. chart 3.1 Gear. 3 s : .2 Hanbheel. 3.1.2 On flow diaoran. 5.2.3

o t h e i f l u l d s exposed t o lou teirperatures. Insulation. 6.8.1. t a b l e s 6.7 6 6.8 Iarketing. 6.8.2. f i g u i e 6.39. c h a r t 5.7 Ti-acing. 6.8.2. f i g u r e 6.411. c h a r t 5.7 WISE DRRCIIIIG. Term d e s c r i b i n g t h e eloslon of vnwe s e a t s , u s u a l l y due t o t h e c u t t i n g a c t i o n of f a r e i g n p a r t i c l e s in hiah-ueiocitv flux& occuiing when flaw 15 t h r o t t l e d LWilK POINT. An a r b i t r a r v r e f e r e m e from which dimanslans are taken

YARD PIPIP!G. ~ip:ng w i t h i n t h s s i t e and external t o buildings YOKE. 5ee '5tem'; 3.1.2

irc1

laj

FLRNGES: WELDING NECK, SLIP-ON. REDUCING SLIP-ON T a v l o r F o r g e 1% EXPANDER FLRIlGE Tube Turn. ( D i v of Ch$ntian I r c ) FLnm - ~adish cqany I3 ) LRP-JOINT TEES - f&e T u i n s (Dl" o f Cbsqtrcn IN) ELDOLET Benney Focgz 110) SWEPDiET Bannev F o r g e BUTT-LELOiNG CROSS, LRTERRL. NIPPLE T i b e T v i n s ( O i " o f Chemtron i m ) I 1 1 1 BUTT-UiLOING CAP - Crane Ccrpany 1121 FULL-COLPrLING, REDUCER - Csane Cmpany SOCKET-btLOiNG REDLCER IIlSCRTS Ledish Ccmpa"" 11311 SDCKET-SLUING FLRNGE - T a y l o r Fozg. 1 % SOCKET MLDIFIG: ELBOWS, TEE, LATERRL and CROSS - Crane C m o m y 110) SOCKET-MLDING HALF-COLPLIEIG - C r m e Conpan" Bonney F o r g e SOCKOLET SEKET-LELDING cnp H ~ ~ o ~ g machine t~ Y co l l s l FULL-COWLING Crane C r p a n y 116) REomItiG COWLING - Crane Cmqeny UNION S t u n l e v G. F l a o < . o 6 Co i n c HEXRGON BUSHING Crane Cmpany 117) THREADED ELBDM5. 05 and 9 0 DEGREE Crane C w a n y T a y l o r Forgi. Inc IH-nEAOD FLRFIGE l l B l lHREADED LRTERAL, THREADED CROSS crane ccrpany THREDOLET, THREADEO ELBOLET, THREADED LATROLET - Bonney F o r g e THRERMD CRP - H e n i y Vogt Machine t o THREADED BRRSTCCK PLUG - L a d i s h Cmpany II~CHIR e m 6 EBJT. and STUDBOLT 6 I I - cran. c o r p m y VICTRUIC C O W i i i l l O N SLEEVE COWLING V i c t a v l i c Cmpany RE~MFORCINC snooms - crane cawany CUTE VRLVE 10S61, b o l t e d bonnet, i l s i n g

sten). GLOBE VRLVE IOSkY, b o l t e d bonnet. r i s i n g &en). GRTE VRLVE ( I S , b o l t e d bonnet, ncn-;>sing stem) 3erkinc. Bros. V a u r O l a r u f a c t u i e i s Larii;Ra R I N G - u r n . ~ c v e lc lo lp:~ Crane Ca PACKLESS VRLVE Renrv U o g t SELLUUS-SEKL UPLUE A r c h i n e Co COCKS - ~ ; n . P o w a l l Ca Co WIIPPER-ELOU HANDWEEL Urn. P-11 /3 3 1 SiiUR-ERR OPERRiDR and BEVEL-GEAR OFERnTOR - Crane Cmpanv 1311 ELECTRIC AOTDR OPERATOR. PNElllATlC W m . P o w e l l Co OFERRTOR WICK-RCTING UPLUES: Je*inn RDTRTiNG STEn ON GLOBE VALVE Bros. v a v e M a n u f a c t u r e r s S L I o i f f i STEm ON GATE VALVE Laenhiilirei cmpanv / I S ] SOLID EDGE GATE VALVE Urn. Pave11 Co SIIIGLE-DISC PRRRLLEL-SERTS GRTE VRLVE Henry v o g t machine CO PLUG GRTE V k U E - Crane C m z n v 13% GLOBE VALVES - Henry Vagt Machin. Co, WE-BODY GLOBE VALVE ( i n c o i p o i a t i n g c m p a s i t i o n d i s c ) - J e r k i n s Bras. waive Asnvfacturers EEOLE VRLVE. ROTRSI-BRLL VRLVE5 L m k e n h e l ~ rcon pan^ 1371 BUTTERFLY VRLVE IWDFER TYPE) LmkeiVielinar Conpanv SWIIlG CFICK VALVES - Jenkins E m s . V a l v e O l a u f a c t u r e r s , W a l v o r t h Co. PISTON-CI-ECK VRLVE & STOP CKCK VRLVE Rack*ell m f g c o I%] SRFETY VALVE, RELiEF VALUE, BRLL FLORT VRLVE. B L O W F VALVE Crane Co FLUSH-EOTTDA T A M VRLVE IGLOBE TYPE) U71. P o ~ e l CD l 1%) INUERTEO-BLEKET TRW A r m t r o n g Machine works

I s l ] 08iPSHIELD - Ua. P a w l 1 Co I l l O ) SURRTkOUT HERD C r a m Co 1116) SELL-AhV-TUaE HEAT EXCHANGER MITH REmVABLE TUBE BIINOLE - B e l l h Gaaset and C a l i f o r i u a H y d r o n r c l c o r p a r a t i o n s ~ 1119) LEVEL GRGE RSSEWLY W m . P m u e l l Co I n s t r e n t s O i v s i o n of 1120) ROTRETER Sr5utte 6 Kaerting C q a w Paikea-Cramel I 1 2 3 1 JRCKETED PIPE 6 HOSE conpany

ALVE DATA - RUN LENGTHS

iobled Dimcnsian

FOR FLANGED VALVES THE TABLE DIMENSION INCLUDES ALLOWANC FOR BOTH RAISED FACES OF TH VALVE. FOR CLASSES 150 AND 301 VALVES. 1.6mm HAS BEEN INCLUDED FOR EACH RAISED FACE AN[ FOR VALVES OF CLASS 6 0 0 AN[ ABOVE. 6.4mm HAS BEEN INCLUDE1 FOR EACH RAISE0 FACE.

H a l f Tabled Dimension

'

[REPRESENTATIVE]

SHEET S I Z E AO: 8 4 1

NOTE: EACH SMALLER SHEET I S HALF THE LENGTH AND HALF THE WIDTH OF THE PRECEDING SHEET

I S 0 "A" SERIES

501 20
S(ll30

xi

API
Am

API API

MI API MI sa1 20 s API


SCli 30

MI MI

sai 120

SClllW

sffi 30

MI MI

MI
YS MI
s a i 40 sa1 w S a l 80 SM 1W sol 120 s a i 140 %I 160 sail0

MI

API
MI MI

MI

MI MI MI s a i 20 sm MI API

API
MI
s a i 30 YS MI m i 40

sai 80

SCl* 60

MI MI

SCll l W Sffi 120 Sa1 140 s a i 160

sac 20

MIl 2 7 3 . 1

2 6 0 . 3

6 . 3 %

sai 60 w API

MI

S C 2 I 80 S f f I1W MI S M '120 sat 140 xxs MI Sot 160

2 7 3 . 1 2 7 3 . 1 2 7 3 . 1 273.1 273.1 273.1 273.1

2M.8 247.7 2 4 2 . 9 2 3 6 . 5 2 3 0 . 2 222.2 2 1 5 . 9

ll.U 1 2 . 7 0

1 5 . 0 9
1 8 . 2 6 2 1 . 4 4 2 5 . 4 0 2 8 . 5 8

S M 20

API
MI

s a t 30
SO1 40

API MI API
SID M I

MI.
MI

W API SM 60 API API


SM 80

MI

API
Sol loo S M lu)XXS M I SM 140 API S M 160 MI

3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 323.9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9 3 2 3 . 9

311.2 m9.6 3 0 8 . 0 3 0 7 . 1 3 0 6 . 4 M4.8 3 0 3 . 2 3 0 1 . 6 2 9 8 . 5 2 9 5 . 3 292.1 2 8 8 . 9 2 8 5 . 8 281.0 2 7 3 . 1 2 6 6 . 7 257.2

6 . 3 % 737 7 . 9 2 5 8.382 8.73 9 . 5 2 5 1 0 . 3 1 ll.U 1 2 . 7 C 1 4 . 2 7

1 5 . 8 8
17.4 1 9 . 0 5
2 1 . 4

25.K 28.K 3 3 . 3 1

W API
SM60

API
S M 80 SM 1~ SM 120 S M 140 $ 3160 I

MI
MI

3 5 5 . 6 3 5 5 . 6 3 5 5 . 6 3 5 5 . 6 355.6 3 5 5 . 6 3 5 5 . 6 3 5 5 . 6

33.2 3 2 5 . 4 3 2 3 . 9 3 1 7 . 5 3 0 7 . 9 MO.0 2 9 2 . 1 2 8 4 . 2

1 2 . 7 1

1 5 . 0 1 1 5 . a
1 9 . 0 1 2 3 . 8 : 2 7 . 7 : 3 1 . 7 : 3 5 . 7 :
.nlcsa s t e e l pipes are the same a s for SCH 40 and 5CH 80 carbon steel pipes

Thru ON 250, wall thicknesses for 5CH 405 and 5CH 805

[991

SM 40 SID M I SM 80 XS M I S M 160

7 3 . 0 3 62.71 5 . 1 5 6 7 3 . 0 3 59.W 7 . 0 1 0 73.03 53.98 9 . 5 2 5

8.608 l l . 7 0 ll.38 1 4 . 1 2 1 4 . 8 8 17.17

Sdi 80 XS API SM 160

8 8 . 9 0 8 8 . 9 0

73.66 7.620 6 6 . 6 5 ll.U

1 5 . 2 4 21.28

1 9 . 5 0 2 4 . 7 7

sai 40

SID MI MI MI

1 1 4 . 3 1 0 2 . 3 6 . 0 2 0 1 1 4 . 3 1 0 1 . 6 6 . 3 % ll4.3 lW.O 7.U7

16.03 2 4 . 2 5 1 6 . 8 6 2 4 . 9 7 18.81 26.67

- -

au ON 250, wall Llnclmesses f o r 5CH 405

and

SCii 803 stamless steel plpes are the same

a5 f o r

SCH 40 and SCH 80 carbon steel plpes

Tables P-1M present calculated data as a guide only. Spans are for pipe arranged in pipeways continuous straight run with welded joints and two with the following assumptions: Bare pipe or more straight spans at each end.

SPANS SAG

calculated with lines full of water and a maximum bending stress of 4 000 PSI

- (deflection) calculated with lines empty (drained condition)


-

The following factors were not considered in calculating spans for these tables: Concentrated mechanical loads from flanges, valves, strainers, filters, and other. inline equipment - weights of connecting branch lines torsional loading from thermal movement sudden reaction from lines(s) discharging contents vibration - flattening effect of weight of contents in larger liquid filled lines - weight of insulation and pipe covering weight of ice and snow - wind loads - seismic shock - reduction in wall thickness of pipe from threading or grooving.

DESIGN PRESSURE

- calculated per ANSI 831.1 using allowable stress value of


for seamless carbon steel pipe

9 000 PSI

BURSTING PRESSURE is approximate, calculated on yield strength of 30 000 PSI


[C i n these Lables is For 'Exponentt, t h e power of 10 t o which t h e number must be raised. Example: 1.OE5 = 100 0001
RPI = Racricm Petrolewl I n s t i t u l c ' s standard SL, f o r 'Line p i p s ' . RPI pipe s i z e s : manufacturers' weights: Double-extra-stron (XXS). Cxtra-strong (XS). and Standard (STO), are included with schedule numbers i n standard nNSI 836.lOPl. Also refer t o 2.1.Q

.375

s a i 80 s a i I,O

xs NIL sm MI

SUi 160

s a i 160

i
Thru ON 250, wall thicknesses f o r SCH 405 ond SCH 605 s t a i n l e s s s t e e l pipes arc t h e same as for SCH 40 an, iCH 80 carbon s t e c l pipes

197 1

maximm iutings f u r flanges conforming Lo I50 Slandard 222% dimensions and material specification n5TR n-105

GAGE PRESSURE I N kilopascals (kPa) FOR FLANGE CLASSES 1 5 0 rEwPEmNRE~ F L A N G E CELSIUS C L A S S E S

2500

IS0 2229 flange dimensions a r e similar t o those of standard ANSI 816.5. Both standards l i m i t tfie prolonged use of flanges manufactured ??om carbon s t e e l s made t o material s p e c i f i c a t i o n ASTM A-105 a t elevated temperatures. ANSI 616.5 a l s o makes recommendations regarding the use of threaded and socket-welding flanges. Refer. t o footnote: Table F-9.
Ratings a r e f o r non-shock prevaii over. l i m i t a t i o n s impqsgd by codes, s t a n d a ~ d s , regulations o r other obligations which may pertain t o projects.

---

FOll USE ON OUTT-WELDING CLQOWS hS PERNITTEO BY THE P I P I N G SPECIFICATION FOR THE PRWECT

4 5 O ELBOW

LR = LONG RADIUS

SR = SHORT RADIUS

INDICATES NUMBER OF FLANGES WITHOUT INTERFERENCE

DATA FOR WELDING-NECK FLANGES

L=
G=

LENGTH THRU HUB OF WELDINGNECK FLANGE WITH RING JOINT GAP BETWEEN FLANGE FACES UNDER NORMAL COMPRESSION FOR OUTSIDE DIAMETERS OF FLANGES AND B D L T l l G REFER TO TABLES F-1M THRU F-6M

I*
I
DN
15 20

1
150 RING No 300

F L A N G E C L A S S E S
600 900

1500 RING No

2500 RING No R12 R 14 RING No

RING No 58 63 3 . 2 R 1 1
4

RING No 58 63 3.2R11 4 R 13 666 76 4


4

66

R12 R 14

4
4

79
85

R13 R 16

R 13

76

15

20 130

75

40 I78

50

80 267

100

150 394

200

250 584

300

350 749

400

450 914

500 984

600 1168

OUTSIDE DIAMETER

121

1 149

1 216

1 311

1 483

1 673

1 826

BOLTS PER FLANGE BOLT CIRCLE DIAMETER L T DIAMETER OF BOLT ( I N )


I

4
82 6 314

4 123.8 1 133 133


1

12

12

12

16 571.5 2
I

16 635
9

16

16

16

16

8 8 . 9 101.6 3/4
I

1 6 5 . 1 2 0 3 . 2 241.3 317 5 . 393.7 4 8 2 . 6 718 140 1 118 171 178


1

704.8 7 7 4 . 7 2 3/4

8 3 1 . 8 990 6 3
I

718 121

1 1/4 1 3 / 8 1 518
I

1 718 337 343

2 1 1 4 2 112 406 425 444

3 112 610 648

190

254 260

286

375

489 514

533

Inn-joint: N o t e 5

R J ~102

108

121

146

197

1 298

1 387

1 470

1 565

I S 0 STANDARD 2229 IDENTIFIES FLANGES I N CLASSES 1 5 0 THRU 2500. DIMENSIONAL DATA ARE SIMILAR TO FLANGES SPECIFIED BY ANSI STANDARD 816.5 EXCEPT FOR BOLT LENGTHS. ANSI 816.5 SPECIFIES LONGER BOLTS. SHORTER BOLTS ARE ACCEPTABLE PROVIOING FULL THREAD ENGAGEMENT I S OBTAINED WHEN FLANGES ARE ASSEMBLED. I S 0 2229 SPECIFIES BOLT DIAMETERS I N INCHES,,

NOI~lINAL0IAI.lETER: O N OUTSIDE DIAMETER

15

20 117

25

40 156

50

80 210

100

150 356

200

250 508

300

350 603

400

450 743

500

600 940

95

124

165

1 273

1 419
I

1 559

1 686
1

1 813
1

EN0 OF PIPE T O FACE OF JOINT STUB Ell0

SLIP-ON

Wall t h i c k n e s s o f p i p e + 2 mm

SOCKET

I
I

21

22

23

24

28

34

1
152 76 203 89

I
I

I
305 152 305 152
I

L-J STUB EN0

ANSI MSS
I

76 51

76 51

102 51

102 51

152 64

152 64

203 102

254 127

254 152

305 152

305 152

305 152

mi i: WELD-NECK & SOCKET


BOLTS PER FLANGE 8 0 L T I N G BOLT CIRCLE DIAMETEII DIAMETER OF BOLT ( I N ) STUOBOLTTHREAO length except 130-i0int:NoteS

Order t o match I n t e r n a l Diameter o f P i p e 4 66 7 1/2 76 76 4 826 5/8 83 83 4 889 5/8 89 89 4 114.3 3/4 102 102 8 127 5/8 102 108 8 168 3 3/4 121 127 8 12 12 16 20 489 20 527 20 20 24 24

215.9 292 1 349.2 431.8 7/8 140 146

603.2 654

723.9 838.2

1
165 171

18

11

11
216 222

18
229 235

1 1/2 1 5/8
248 254 267 273

1 5/8 1 7/8
286 292 324 337

RF RJ

190 197

210 216

NOMINAL OIAMETER: O N

15

20 130 76

25

40 178 89

50

80 241 108

100

150 381 146

200

250 546 190

300

350 641 219

400

450 787 235

500

600 1041 298

I :I
N

OUTSIDE DIAMETER

$ g
END OF PIPE T O FACE OF

WELD-NECK SLIP-ON SOCKET TtlnEADEo

121 66

149 79

1 216
108

1 292
120

1 470
168

1 610

1 705

206

222

1 857
254

12 1 I :I ?5F 1
--.
Y P E
STUB END *

Wall t h i c k n e s s of p i p e t 2 m m

i
/
1

Not a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s c l a s s 15 76 51 17 76 51 19 102 51 21 102 51 27 152 64, 12 152 64 16 152 76 22 203 89 24 203 102 24 254 127 26 254 152 305 152 305 152 305 152 305 152 305 152

sruo
EN0

L-J

ANSI MSS

DORE: WELD-NECK

Order t o match I n t e r n a l Diameter of Pipe 4 82 6 3/4 102 102 4 1 4 4 1 8 8

I I
L T I N G

I DOLTS PER FLANGE


DOLT CIRCLE DIAMETER DIAMETER OF DOLT ( I N ) STUDBOLTTHREAD length except lao-ioint: N o t e 5

12

112

16

120

20

20

20

20

20

88 9 / 1 0 1 6 3/4 108 108 7/8 121 121

123 8 i 165 1 190 51 235

317 5 /393 7

469 91533 4

558.81 616

685 81749 3 901 7

1
-

1
133 133

7/8 140 146

7/8 140 146

1 1/8 1 1/8 1 3/8


165 171 190 190 216 222

1 3/8 1 3/8
229 235 248 254

1 1/2 1 5/8
267 279 279 292

1 7/8
324 337

2 1/2

RF RJ

343 356

432 457

NO1,lINAL DIAMETER: O N

15

20

25

40

50

80

1 100

150

1 200

250

1 300

350

400

450

1 500

600

1n
G

-EN0 OF PIPE T O FACE OF FLANGE or LAP JOINT STUB END SLIP-ON U a l l t h i c k n e s s o f p i p e + 2 mm 9 2 76 51 15.8 4 60.3 1/2 57 7 2 76 51 21 4 698 1/2 57 7 0 102 51 26.2 4 79.4 1/2 64 76 8 5 102 51 40.9 4 98.4 1/2 70 83 1 0 7 152 64 52.5 4 120.6 5/8 76 89 12 4 152 64 77.9 4 5 152 76 102.3 8 9 203 89
1 1

N E
T

SOCKET
THREADED

1
I

12 254 127

15 254 152 304.9 12 305 152 305 152 305 152 305 152 305 152

Y P

L-J STUB EN0

ANSI MSS

203 102

BORE: WELO-HECK & SOCKET DOLTS PER FLANGE BOLT CIRCLE DIAMETER L T N DIAMETER OF BOLT ( I N ) STUDBOLT THREAD RF length except l a p - j o i n t : Note 5 RJ

154.1 202.7 254.5 8 8 12 362 7/8 114 127

[Order t o match p i p e 101 12 16 16 20 635 11 152 165 20 7493 1 1/4 171 184

152.4 1 9 0 5 2 4 1 3 298.4 5/8 89 102 518 89 102 314 95 108 3/4 102 114

4318 4762 718 114 127


1

5 3 9 8 577 8
1 11

127 140

133 146

146 159

PN reiercnccs are discussed under 'FLRNGE CLRSSES end PRE55URE N m E R 5 ' - page 15 (Part I11

NOI4INAL DIAMETER: D N OUTSIDE OIAMETER

15

20 117 57

25

40 156 68

50

80 210 79

100

150 318 98

200

250 444 117

300

350 584 143

400

450 711 159

500 775 162

600 914 168

95 52

124 62

165 70

254 86

381 1 1 1

1 521
130

648 146

III
1
N G E T .
Y

WELD-NECK END OF PIPE TO FACE O F FLANGE pr LAP SLIP-ON SOCKET THREAOED L-J STUB END ANSI MSS

I
15 2 76 51 16 2 76 51 17 0 102 51 26.2 4 16 5 102 51 40.9 4 1 152 64 52.5 8 127 518 18 1 25 6 152 64

Wall t h ~ c k n e s so f plee + 2 mm

P E

-lniNT . . ... STUB END '

9 152 76

15 203 89

18 203 102

19 254 127

19 254 152 304.9 16 305 152 1305 152 305 152 1305 152 305 152

BORE: WELD-NECK & SOCKET

15.8 21 4 66.7 1/2 4 826 518

j7.9

102.3 1 5 4 1 202.7 254.5 8 12 269.9 3/4 12 16

[Order t o match p i p e ID1 20 20 24 628 6 24 24

I
L T

OOLTS PER FLANGE

-LWLT CIRCLE 0,AMETER


DIAMETER OF DOLT ( I N )

8 8 9 1143 5/8 3/4

1 6 8 3 200 314 3/4

330,Z 3 8 7 4 7/8 1

450.8 514.4 5 7 1 5 1 1/8 1 1/8

685.8 812.8 1 114 1 114

1 114 1 114

DIMENSIONS I N MILLIMETERS

LAP-JOINT SOCKET WELDING

THREADED

1-

OUTSIDE DIAMETER

4 . 8 AND 12 BOLTS

WELDING-NECK

FOR RINGJOJKT FLANGES SEE TABLE F-7M

SLIP-ON WELDING

NOTES

[I]
[21

FLANGE DIMENSIONS: INTERNATIONAL STANDARD I S 0 2229, ANSI STANDARD 816.5 AND MANUFACTURERS' DATA BLIND FLANGES: DATA FOR FLANGE DIAMETERS AND BOLTING I N THESE TABLES ALSO APPLIES TO BLIND FLANGES
REDUCING

t31

FLANGES: AVAILABLE

I N SLIP-ON,

THREADEDAND WELDING-NECK

TYPES

[a]

LAP-JOINT STUB-ENDS: ANSI 016.9 (Long P a t t e r n ) & MSS SP-43 ( S h o r t P a t t e r n )

-FLANGE COMBINATION

STUDBOLT THREAD LENGTHS FOR LAP-JOINTS ->

. .

FLANGE pLASS
150 o r 300

INCREASE I N STUDBOLT LENGTH OVER LENGTHS I N TRBLES F-IN thru F-6N

Thickness o f l a p Thickness o f l a p minus 6.4 m m Thickness o f two l a p s

Lapped t o non-lapped Over 300 Lapped t o lapped Thickness o f l a p = 150

2500

Thickness o f p i p e w a l l

+ D m m + 1.6 m m

THREADED FITIMGS - MALL


PRESSURECLASS
N O M I N A L D I A M E T E R

CON]

' T (::;IRETURN BEND

RNK NIPPLE nnE 13rm LONG

OF SHORT AND LONG NIPPLES 70

AVAILABLE I N 50, 65, 75, 90, 100, 115, 125, 140 150, 180, 200, 230, 255, 280 & 305 mm LENGTHS (DN 15 and DN 20 n i p p l e s a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e 40 mm long) 76 89 114 165 203 70 76 89 114 165 203

ARBON STEEL

EDUCER
"IREAD ENGAGEMENT rn

32

37

43

59

71

94

43

44

51

68

81

103

13

14

<I7

17

19

25

13

14

17
i

17

19

25

DIMENSIONS I N TlllS TABLE ARE FOR BANDED FITTINGS AND CONFORM TO ANSI STANDARD 816.3. AND FEDERRL SPECIFICATION WW-P-521. UNIONS CONFORM TO ANSI 016.39. DATA FROM I T T GRINNELL CORPORATION AND STOCKHAM VALVES AND FITTINGS

DATA: SWITH VALVE CORPORATION GATE VRLVES: FULL PORT GLOBE VRLVES: CONVENTIONAL PORT

DN
D
G A

15

20

25

40

50

102 162 89 64

102 184 98

140 217 108 73

168 279 140 105

168
3 17

H L

T
E

144 106

'70

BOLTED

'Ti+ R:::r
o
'

o n t a l l i f t - c h e c k valves

DN
D
G

15

20

25

40

50

102 162 89

102 184 98 58

140 21'7 108 71

168 279 140 -

168 317 144 96

H
L

A T E

52

80

'R '

is the 'REWVED RUN' of pipe occupied by the valve

'R' dimensions include 2 mm expanslon gaps

HALF-COUPLING

REDUCER

l-2

LATERAL

[Eonney F o r g e h L a d i s h ]

DIAMETER

THREUOLET
(REOUCING) [Eonney Forge]

UNION
Eonney F o r g e ]

HEX BUSH

SWAGE

THREAO ENGAGEXENT

( 1 ) 'R' DINENSIONS ('REmVEO IIUN' OF PIPE) ARE BASE0 ON NORR'RL THREAD ENGAGERNI BETWEEN RRLE AND FEmRLE THREADS I 0 RAKE TIGHl IOINTS - ROUNDED TO 1.OO m ( 2 ) OIRENSIONS FOR FITTINGS ARE FROPI THE FOLLOWING SUPPLIERS' ORTR: BDNNEY FORGE, I T 1 GRINNEL. LROISH AN0 VOGT ( 3 ) UNLESS THE SUPPLIER I S STATED, 'L' & 'D' OIRNSIONS RRE THE LRRGEST QUOTED BY EDNNEY FORGE, I T T GRINNELL, LAOISH AND VOGT ( 4 ) FITTINGS CONFORN TO RNSI 816.11, EXCEPT LRTERALS, WHICH RRE NAOE TO RRNUFACTURERS' STANORROS. UNIONS CONFORN TO NSS-SP-03 (5) FOR SIZES RND AVRILRBILITIES OF PIPE NIPPLES, REFER TO 'RRLLERBLE-IRON PIPE FITTINGS' TRELE 0 - l l N (6) DIRNSIONS FOR XNSTllLLEO THREOOLEIS EXCLUDE THE 'ROOT GRP' REFER TO 'OIRENSIONINC SPOOLS (WELDED RSSEIBLIES)' 5.3.5

FULL-COUPLING
(REDUCINOI

HALF-COUPLING

HEXAGON BUSHING

I-----R1-'
LI

LR-I
UNION

LATERAL

PRESSURECLASS NOMINAL DIAMETER

45 ELL

FULL-COUPLING

3
FULL-COUPLING HALF-COUPLING

15 REDUCER INSERT, 20 R 25 Bonney F o r g e ]

40 R1 R2 -

LATERAL

L1 L2

R3

Bonney F o r g e 6 L a d i s h ]

DIAMETER

l
B R A N

15 -

SOCKOLET
( R E D U C I N G ) Bonney F o r g e ]

20 25

c H

UNION
Banney F o r g e ]

k
A

40

SWAGE

(1) 'R' DIRENSIONS ('REROUED RUN' OF P I P E ) HAVE BEEN ROUNDED TO 1.0 mn AN0 INCLUDE 2 m EXPANSION GAP(S) FOR WELDING. REFER . . TO 'SOCKET-WELDING PIPING' CHART 2.2 .,I ( 2 ) DIRENSIDNS ARE FROR THE FOLLOWING SUPPLIERS' DATA: BONNEY FORGE, I T T GRINNEL, LAOISH AND VOGT ( 3 ) UNLESS THE SUPPLIER I S STATED, ' L ' & ' 0 ' DIRENSIONS ARE THE LARGEST QUOTED BY BDNNEY FORGE, I T T GRINNELL, LADISH AND VOGT ( 4 ) FITTINGS CONFORR TO ANSI 018.11, EXCEPT LATERALS AND REDUCER INSERTS, WHICH ARE MADE TO MANUFACTURERS' STANDRROS ( 5 ) FOR INFORRATION ON TtlE BORE DIAMETER AND RATING OF FITTINGS, REFER TO 'SOCKET-WELDED PIPING' CHART 2.2 (6) UNIONS CONFORm TO R S S - 9 - 0 3 (7) DIRENSIONS FOR INSTALLED SOCI(0LETS EXCLUDE THE 'ROOT GAP' REFER TD 'DIRENSIONING SPOOLS (WELDED ASSERBLIES)' - 5.3.5

F L A N G E

C L A S S E S

SINGLE AND DUAL PLATES

N O M I N A L

D I A M E T E R

O F

M A I N R U N

[DNl

LENGTHS: 165

I 1

LENGTHS: 203

1 1

w 'W
LENGTHS: 203 LENGTHS: 229 LENGTHS: 279 LENGTHS: 305 LCNGTHS: 330 LENGTHS: 381 LARGE SMALL
Oimensions i n t h i s t a b l e are fur Niil. Iron WOTI<S S"IlgC5. a v a i l a b l e with ends p l a i n , threaded, b e v e l l e d , Uictiluiic grooved, and i n any co*in.tion of t h e a s terminvti0n1

O i n m s i o n ~conucrtcd from OONEY FORGE d a t a . Oi~iicnsioiis f o r E i b o i e t s arc nominal. S i z e O N 50 E l b o i c l s arc dcsigned L o f i t Lhc L l i f f c i c n t s i z e s of run pipe; i n s i l c s l a r g e r than O N 50, cnch s i z e of E l b o l e t i s designed t o f i t a runrjc nf run p i p e s i z e s . " Threaded and sockct-welding E l b o l e i s are not o v s i i a b l c i n s i z e s ON 150 and l a r g e r .

I
DIMENSION'A'
86

N O M I N A L

D I A M E T E R

O F M A I N

R U N

[ON]

I
343 381 432

105

143

178

216

254

279

305

P I P kW ES
6.10 All0 MANUFACTURERS DATA DINE!, 3118 FROM ANSI 816.5. B

DIMENSIONS FROM A!lSI

VALVES

IONS FROM AtiSI

;RANCH DIAMETER

X I S FROM R

e g 5
m m m + 7 w-

=-

0,-

O.
7

w m

F
7

45" JUMPOVEAS
B A S I C S P A C I N G '3' JUMPOVER LINE

45" RUNUNDERS
B A S I C
IlN

S P A C I N G RUNUNOER LINE

'R'

450 RUNUNUER

a/

NOTES FOR TABLES A-2M

&

A-3M

(1) SPACING SHOWN IN THE DIAGRAMS ALLOWS A MINIMUM CLEARANCE OF 50mm. COMPARE BASIC SPACING J ' or 'R' WITH APPROPRIATE 'C1 or 'CF' SPACING IN TABLE A-1M AND USE THE LARGER DIMENSION (2) 'Ha IS THE EFFECTIVE SHOE HEIGHT AND 'To IS THE THICKNESS OF INSULATION (WITH COVERING) (3) FOR SIMPLICITY, THE VALUE 1.5 HAS BEEN SUBSTITUTED FOR THE COEFFICIENT l/sin 45 ( 1 . 4 1 4
.. )

TABLES A-1M

TABLES GIVE THE MINIMUM SPACING INCREASE DIMENSIONS: 1 FOR INSULATION

PlPE WITHOUT FLANGES

D I M E N S I O N

PlPE WITH FLANGES

CLASS 300 & CLASS 300 FLANGES NOMINAL DIRMETER (ON) OF FLANGED PIPE
0 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 50 8

INSULATION OIblENSIONS IN THESE TABLES ARE SPACINGS FOR BARE PIPE. FOR INSULATED I INFZ A00 THF THICKNESS OF INSULATION AN0 COVERING TO THESE FIGURES

NOMINAL LINES SIZES Sizes of p i p e , f i t t i n g s , flanges, and v a l v e s a r e g i v e n i n nominal diameters - i n i n c h u n i t s as NPS (Nominal Pipe S i z e ) and i n m e t r i c u n i t s as DN (Diametre Nominale [Nominal Diameter]),, The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e g i v e s e q u i v a l e n t diameters i n nominal i n c h u n i t s and nominal m i l l i m e t e r u n i t s : CUSTOMARY NPS ( i n c h ) METRIC D N (mm) 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 ons; t h e y a r e n o t CUSTOMARY NPS ( i n c h ) METRIC O N (mm)

3/4

These s i z e s may be used i n speci appl i c r n o r m a l l y used i n new i n d u s t r i a l m s t r u c t :

FLANGE CLASSES and PRESSURE NUMBERS E a r l i e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of flanges f o r s t e e l p i p e (and f l a n g e d f i t t i n g s ) : 1 5 0 - l b , 300-lb, 400-lb, 600-lb, e t c . , r e f e r r e d t o ' P r i m a r y S e r v i c e Pressure R a t i n g s i n pounds (pounds-force) p e r s q u a r e - i n c h ' . (Flanges, however, a r e s u i t a b l e f o r s e r v i c e over a range of pressure, w i t h a c t u a l p r e s s u r e s depending on o p e r a t i n g temperatures, and m a t e r i a l s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . ) These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have been supplanted by Pressure r a t i n g c l a s s d e s i g n a t i o n s : Class 150, Class 300, e t c . , i n which each c l a s s i d e n t i f i e s a group of flanges conforming t o e s t a b l i s h e d dimensions, f o r a range of p i p e s i z e s . Standards p u b l i s h 'Pressure-Temperature R a t i n g s ' f o r each c l a s s of flange. These r a t i n g s a r e maximum a l l o w a b l e non-shock (gage), wovking ( o r s e r v i c e ) p r e s s u r e s over a range o f temperature f o r d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s of c o n s t r u c t i o n , i n c l u d i n g b o l t s and gaskets. I n a d d i t i o n t o c l a s s d e s i g n a t i o n s , f l a n g e t a b l e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e 'PIPING GUIDE' a l s o show 'PN' d e s i g n a t i o n s a c c o r d i n s t o ANSI 816.5-1981 ( u n t i l r e - i s s u e d 1988). and MSS-SP-86-1981 i~ r e-- i s s u e d 1987). -.~ ~ , which s t a t e s " . . . . t h e recommendation f o r m e t r i c p r e s s u r e d e s i g n a t i o n s i s t h e use of t h e p r e f i x PN, which may be t h o u g h t o f as ' P r e s s u r e Number'."
~~

Pressure Numbers (PN), s i m i l a r t o c l a s s d e s i g n a t i o n s , i d e n t i f y groups of f l a n g e s conforming t o establ i s h e d dimensions, and f o r each c l a s s of f l a n g e express t h e pressure r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e temperature range -20 t o +100F ( r e f e r t o Table F-9), as a nominal b a r * value. Class and corresponding PN d e s i g n a t i o n s a r e shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : CLASS PN 150 20 300 50 400 68 600 100 900 150 1500 250 2500 420

Bar i s n o t an S I u n i t ; pascal (Pa) i s t h e S I u n i t f o r p r e s s u r e (and s t r e s s ) . The p a s c a l i s a small u n i t . For s t a t i n g process o r s e r v i c e pressure i t i s used w i t h a p r e f i x such as kPa f o r k i l o p a s c a l (1000 p a s c a l s ) , o r MPa for megapascal ( 1 000 000 p a s c a l s ) , a l t h o u g h megapascal i s more s u i t a b l e f o r t h e g r e a t e r v a l u e s o f s t r e s s . Bar, equal t o 100 000 p a s c a l s , i s a t r a d i t i o n a l m e t r i c u n i t i n widespread use i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y i n i n d u s t r y and technology. U n t i l i t i s displaced, b a r i s i n temporary use w i t h S I u n i t s . (Temporary u n i t s a r e s p e c i f i c , w i d e l y used, t r a d i t i o n a l m e t r i c u n i t s whose use i n f u t u r e work i s discouraged ) J Contemporary references and s u p p l i e r s ' l i t e r a t u r e r e f e r t o b a r values and PN d e s i g n a t i o n s . t a b l e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n of t h e 'PIPING GUIDE' i n c l u d e PN r e f e r e n c e s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n l y . Flange

C*

I n t h e f o l l o w i n g pages, s e l e c t e d d a t a from PT 11 of t h e 'PIPING GUIDE' a r e presented i n S I u n i t s . For i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , these t a b l e s and c h a r t s a r e g i v e n t h e s u f f i x 'M'

The USA uses two systems o f w e i g h t and measures: t h e U n i t e d St+s m e t r i c system o f French o r i g i n .

system of E n g l i s h o r i g i n , and t h e

The E n g l i s h o r I m p e r i a l system was a customary system w i t h o r i g i n s i n Babylonian, E g y p t i a n , Greek, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, French (Norman) and o t h e r c i v i l i z a t i o n s and c u l t u r e s . The E n g l i s h system e v o l v e d over c b n t u r i e s from s i m p l e measures and p r a c t i c e s , e v e n t u a l l y a t t a i n i n g p r e c i s i o n through l e g i s l a t i o n and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . Although some s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n r e s u l t e d from reform (sometimes a r o y a l d e c r e e ) , t h e overwhelming p r e s s u r e came from expansion i n i n d u s t r y and commerce I m p e r i a l Rome e s t a b l i s h e d a system of w e i g h t s and measures used f r o m England t o A s i a . But, w i t h t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e Roman Empire, what was once an almost u n i v e r s a l system degenerated i n t o l o c a l customary systems i n c o n t i n e n t a l Europe and England. By t h e 1 7 t h and 1 8 t h c e n t u r i e s , t h r o u g h c o l o n i z a t i o n and dominance i n commerce, t h e E n g l i s h system had developed t o a p o i n t where i t was i n use i n many p a r t s of t h e w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g t h e American c o l o n i e s , The French, however, decided t o abandon t h e c o n f u s i o n of European customary u n i t s (which v a r i e d n o t o n l y from c o u n t r y t o c o u n t r y , b u t from p r o v i n c e t o p w v i n c e and sometimes, from c i t y t o c i t y ) , and t o c r e a t e an e n t i r e l y new system t o r a t i o n a l i z e w e i g h t s and measures - t h e M e t r i c System,. The m e t r i c system was t h e r e s u l t o f years o f s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n and recommendations f o r reform I t was adopted i n t h e l a t e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y by t h e p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y government o f France and, subseq u e n t l y , by o t h e r n a t i o n s The s t a n d a r d i z e d u n i t s and decimal base were p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l s u i t e d f o r s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g . By t h e m i d d l e o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y , p r i n c i p a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o u n t r i e s n o t u s i n g t h e m e t r i c system were B r i t a i n , t h e B r i t i s h Commonwealth c o u n t r i e s and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Although i n 1866 t h e U.S,. Congress l e g a l i z e d t h e m e t r i c system f o r use t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and, i n 1975 passed t h e M e t r i c Conversion Act, t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s t h e o n l y major i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n today, n e i t h e r t o have adopted n o r mandated use o f t h e m e t r i c system as i t s p r i m a r y system o f measurement. I n 1960, a t t h e General Conference of Weights and Measures (Conference Generale des Poids e t Mesures [CGPM]), t h e modern v e r s i o n o f t h e m e t r i c system was d e s i g n a t e d t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l System o f U n i t s ( L e Svsteme I n t e r n a t i o n a l d a U n i t e s l . and endorsed b v t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r u a n i z a t i o n f o r S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n SO) - a f e d e r a t i o n of n a t i o n i i s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n - b o d i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g most c o u n t r i e s of t h e w o r l d The i n t e r n a t i o n a l symbol for t h i s system i s S I . S I , now t h e p r i m a r y w o r l d system o f u n i t s o f measurement, i s a r a t i o n a l i z e d s e l e c t i o n of u n i t s f r o m t h e m e t r i c system w i t h which IS0 seeks t o e s t a b l i s h i n t e r n a t i o n a l standards, e s p e c i a l l y those f o r u n i v e r s a l i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y of components. S I s i m p l i f i e s measurement by l o g i c a l l y c o o r d i n a t i n g unique u n i t s f o r l e n g t h , mass, temperature, time, e t c . , i n a decimal system i n which t h e magnitude o f a u n i t i s changed by moving t h e decimal p o i n t ( o r , f o r example, by u s i n g a p r e f i x such as l l i w i t h meter f o r t h e f a c t o r 0.001) The customary system i s more complicated as i t uses t h r e e t y p e s o f s u b d i v i s i o n : duodecimal ( t w e l f t h s ) , decimal ( t e n t h s ) , and b i n a r y ( h a l v e s ) , and r e q u i r e s c o n v e r s i o n , f o r example, between d i f f e r e n t u n i t s of l e n g t h (such as i n c h e s , f e e t and y a r d s ) , o r o f mass (such as ounces, pounds and t o n s ) , , Changing f r o m customary u n i t s t o S l u n i t s i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , b u t changing f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l m e t r i c u n i t s t o S1 u n i t s i s more d i f f i c u l t i n c o u n t r i e s a l r e a d y u s i n g t h e m e t r i c s y s t e m Because o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t y , a l t h o u g h n o t i n keeping w i t h t h e g o a l s o f ISO, a l i m i t e d number o f t r a d i t i o n a l m e t r i c u n i t s a r e t e m p o r a r i l y b e i n g used w i t h S I ; one such u n i t i s bar, t h e u n i t f o r pressure, r e f e r r e d t o below under ' F l a n g e Classes and Pressure Numbers' W i t h o u t a l e g i s l a t i v e mandate, f u l l implementation o f SI i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s u n l i k e l y ; however, t e c h n i c a l and economic r e q u i r e m e n t s o f American companies o p e r a t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y a r e encouraging v o l u n t a r y t r a n s i t i o n ; f o r example, manufacturers of equipment and components a r e now p r e s e n t i n g dimensional and o t h e r d a t a i n S I u n i t s (and temporary m e t r i c u n i t s i n use w i t h S I ) i n a d d i t i o n t o U S . customary u n i t s

MATERIAL
Aluminum f 2 s ) Aluminum krohze Brasses : %Cu %Zn Red brass 85 15 Low brass 80 20 Cartridge brass 70 30 Muntz metal 60 40 Bronze, %Cu=80-95, %Sn=20-5 Copper Iron, gray-cast malleable wrought Lead Monel Nickel S t e e l , carbon stainless Fuel o i l Gasoline
LIQUIDS

Imp - - - -ft3
f t Z "in

Ib -

Ib KR m

tb

Ib gal

US 9 . 1

169 481 546 541 532 524 552 556 450 461 480 710 551 554 490 495 0.95 0.67 59 42 thru 47 56 51 62.3 64 0.0885 0.0087 0.0064 0.0064 0.0029 thru 0.0038 153 15.0 11.0 11.0 5.0

14.1 40.1 45.5 45.1 44.3 43.7 46.0 46.3 37.5 38.4 40.0 59.2 45.9 46.2 40.8 41.3

2710 7700 8750 8670 8520 8390 8840 8900 7210 7380 7690 11370 8830 8870 7850 7930

METALS & ALLOYS

- - -7.9 5 6 thru 5.3 7.5 5"8 9.33 9.6 9.5 6.7 thru 7.5 9.0 8.2 10.0 10.3

thru
Lube o i l J e t fuel Water, f r e s h s a l t (seawater) Abestos Cork Fiberglas (Owens/Corning "Kaylo" Magnesia (85%) P l a s t i c foam

0.75 0.90 0.82 1 .oo 1 .O3 2.45 0.24 0.176 0.18 0.08

12.8 1.25 0.92 0.92 0.42

2450 240 176 176 80

--

INSULATING MATERIALS

thru

0.10 Brick, comon Concrete, plain reinforced Earth, d r y , loose dry, packed moist, loose moist, packed Glass Gravel, dry wet Sand, drv 1.92 2.31 2.40 l"22 1.52 1 .25 1.54 2.50 1.60 1.60 1.92 0.13

0.069 0.083 0.088 0.044 0.055 0.045 0.056 0.090 0.058 0.069 0.058 0.069 0.0046

120 144 150 76 95 78 96 156 100 120 100 120 8

thru 6.5

thru

thru

0.54

104

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION

Snow,

wet

loose

BUTT-WELDING FITTINGS SCHEDULE No.: MFR'S WEIGHT: LR 90 ELBOW SR 90 ELBOW LR 45 ELBOW TEE REDUCER *** WELDOLET * * FLANGES FORGED STEEL WELDING NECK SLIP-ON THREADED LAP JOINT VALVES CAST STEEL 150 300 CLASS 600 1500 2500 CLASS 600 150 197 148 155 159 300 369 307 325 375 CLASS 600 690 612 612 604 1500 (refer to Mfr) 150 300 CLASS 600 1500 (refer 210 195 490 530 876 866 Mfr) 20 STD 320 210 160 30 XS 420 275 206 20 STD 460 298 238 XS 600 392 300

--

150

300

1500

2500

INSULATION TEMPERATURE RANGE deg F CalSil. in. Weight lb/ft

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t I I I I / I
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 90U 1000 199 299 399 499 599 699 799 899 999 1199 2.5 3 15 18 2.5 3 15 18 3 18 3 1.5 1.5 2 8.58.5 12 52 25 3.5 4 21 25 3.5 ' > 4 31 37 4 25 4 37 242 5 34 5 50 1.5 1.5 2 10 10 13 2.5 3 1'7 21 29 36 43 43 360 1.51.5 2 8.5 8.5 12 1.5 1.5 2 10 10 13 2.5 3 17 21 3 21 3.5 4 25 29 29

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 I00 199 299 399 499 599 699 799 899 999 ! I 9 39

H. T. C. in.
85% Mag in. Weightlb/ft BOLTS*

58

105

71

174

*Weights for bolts are for one complete flange set. **Weights are for reducing Weldolets. ***Weights for reducers are for one pipe size reduction. PSB indicates valves having pressure seal bonnets. All other weights for valves are for valves having flanged bonnets.

BUTT-WELDING FITTINGS SCHEDULE No.: MFR'S WEIGHT: LR 90 ELQOW SR 90 ELBOW LR 45 ELBOW TEE REDUCER *** WELDOLET *" FLANGES FORGED STEEL WELDING NECK SLIP-ON THREADED LAP JOINT VALVES CAST STEEL GATE-FLGD GLOBE-FLGD CHECK-FLGD GATE-BW GLOBE-BW CHECK-BW GATE PSB-FLGD GATE PSB-BW GLOBE PSB INSULATION TEYPERATURE RANGE dcg F CLASS
150 142 106 93 104 300 249 210 220 234 600 481 366 366 400 1500

I
I

30

STD

XS

STD

.. ,

CLASS
150 165 300 306 253 280 600 555 476 4'7 6 1500

(refer to Mfr)

(refer to Mfrl

1
1

CLASS
150 1120 1450 960 1250 300 1960 1650 1620 1220 2575 600 4375 3675 1500 2500

CLASS
150 300 600 1500 2500

I - I l I H I ( ( I 1
1 0 0 200 300 1 0 0 500 GOU 700 8 0 0 9 0 0 lOOU ' 9 9 299 399 499 599 G99 799 899 9 9 9 1 1 9 9
I

H. T. C. in. 85% Mag in. Weight lblft BOLTS*

2 1.5 1.5 6 . 9 6 . 9 9.3

2.5 12

3 15

3 13.51 20 25

.
'31

.
31

42

31

83

152

41

101

193

for bolts are for one complete flange set. **Weights are for reducing Weldolets. ***Weights for reducers are for one pipe size reduction. PSB indicates valves having oressure seal bonnets. All other weights for valves are for valves having flanged bonnets.

BUTT-WELDING FITTINGS SCHEDULE WO.: MFR'S WEIGHT: LR 90 ELBOW SR 90 ELBOW LR 45 ELBOW TEE REDUCER **" WELDOLET * * FLANGES FORGED STEEL WELDING NECK THREADED LAP JOINT VALVES CAST STEEL GATE-FLGD GLOBE-FLGD CHECK-FLGD GATE-BW GLOBE-BW CHECK-BW GATE PSB-FLGD GATE PSB-BW GLOBE PSB-BW INSULATION TEXPERATURE RAliGE deg F Cal Sil. in. Weight lblft H. T. C. in. 85% Mag in. Weightlb/ft BOLTS*
I

STD

XS

160

XXS

30 STD

XS

160

XXS

120 59

160 43.5 61

(refer to Mfr)

70

(refer to Mfrl

150

300

CLASS 600

1500

2500

300 206 159 164 184

CLASS 600 347 259 259 290

1500 (refer to Mfr)

139

240

749

1300 1262

85 77

150

300

CLASS 600

1500

2500

150

300

CLASS 600

1500

2500

1.5 1.5 6 6

2 8

2.5 3 11 13

3 13 3

3.5 4 4 15 1.8 18 3.5 22 4 27 4

5 24

1.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 6 6 8.1 11 13 49

18

2'7 35 622 22 62 118

91

306

*Weights for bolts are for one complete flange set. **Weights are for reducing Weldolets. ***Weights for reducers are for one pipe size reduction. PSB indicates valves having eressure seal bonnets. All other weiqhts for valves are for valves havina flansed bonnets.

BUTT-WELDING FITTINGS SCHEDULE No.: MFR' S WEIGHT: LR 9 0 ELBOW SR 9 0 ELBOW


40

*** REDUCER TEE LR 45 ELBOW


WELDOLET FLANGES

**

FORGED STEEL WELDING NECK SLIP-ON THREADED LAP JOINT VALVES CAST STEEL

-80 160

STD

XS

XXS

]1

40

STD

xs

60

160

XXS

5 15 3.3
23

18.8

11 3 10

3 16 20

37

(refer t o Mfr)

CLASS
600 112 97 97 112

CLASS
600

150

300 69

1500 273

2500 576

150

300

1500

2500

42 28 30 28

56

56 55

258 , 286

485 471

41 36

80 88

177 177 195

436 485

925 897

CLASS
600

300

1500

2500

CLASS
600

150

300

1500

2500

GATE-FLGD GLOBE-FLGD CHECK-FLGD GATE-BW GLOBE-BW CHECK-BW GATE PSB-FLGD GATE PSB-BW GLOBE PSB-BW INSULATION

BUTT-WELDING FITTINGS SCHEDULE No.: MFR'S WEIGHT: LR 9 0 ELBOW SR 90 ELBOW LR 45 ELBOW TEE REDUCER * A * WELDOLET ** FLANGES FORGED STEEL WELDING NECK SLIP-ON THREADED LAP JOINT VALVES CAST STEEL GATE-FLGD GLOBE-FLGD CHECK-FLGD GATE-BW GLOBE-BW CHECK BW GATE PSB-FLGD GATE PSB-BW GLOBE PSB-BW INSULATION CLASS 600 CLASS 600 37 33 33 31 CLASS 600
73 80 80 78

I
I
I

40 STD 9.00 6.25 4.50 12.0 3.38 6.30

80 XS 13.5 R.50 .-6.10 15.8 4.50 6.40


~

18-0 8.75 25.0 6.40 10.5

160

XXS

II
II

40 STD

80 XS

160

xxs

2- 0 . 0 7 1 10.8 25.0 9.00 10.5

"

150

300 26.5 23.5 24 24

1500 69

2500 146 12'7 122

150 26 17 19.5 18

300 45
36

1500 164

2500 378

16.5 13 13 12

73 75

36 38

164 170

323 314

150

300

1500

2500

1 1

300 150

CLASS 600

1500

2500

BOLTS*

'7 .5

12.5

34

61

11.5

30

76

145

*Weights f o r b o l t s a r e f o r one complete f l a n g e s e t . * * Weights a r e f o r reducing Weldolets. ***Weights f o r r e d u c e r s a r e f o r one p i p e s i z e r e d u c t i o n . PSB i n d i c a t e s v a l v e s having p r e s s u r e s e a l bonnets. All o t h e r weights f o r valves a r e f o r valves having flanged bonnets.

STD LR 90 ELBOW SR 90 ELBOW LR 45 ELBOW TEE REDUFER *** WELDOLET * * FORGED STEEL SOCKET WELD: 90 ELBOW 45 ELBOW TEE COUP/RED *** SOCKOLET ** FORGED STEEL THREADED: 90 ELBOW 45 ELBOW TEE COUP/RED * * * THmDOLET * * MALL. IRON THREADED: 90 ELBOW 45 ELBOW TEE COUPLING REDUCER *** FORGED STEEL: WELDING NECK SLIP-ON THREADED LAP JOINT SOCKET CAST STEEL: GATE-FLGD GLOBE-FLGD CHECK-FLGD GATE-BW GLOBE-BW CHECK-BW
GATE PSB- -~

XS
2.20

XXS
3.50

40 STD

80 XS

160

XXS

1.60

3.25

PRESSURE CLASS 3000 6000 10.9 19.3 10.5 14.3 12.5 23.5 3.88 6.63 "3.80
2000

PRESSURE CLASS 3000

6000

PRESSURE CLASS 150 300 2.16 4.00 1.82 3. 7 Y 1 2.81 5.35 1.48 3.60 1.47 2.88
150 6 300 8

PRESSURE 150 5.3'7 4.75

cms
300 9.46 8.54

CLASS 600 1500 10 24

2500 42

CLASS 600 84 90 70 '72 '78 55

GATE PSB-BW GLOBE PSBTEMPERATURE RANGE deg F


Cal S i l . in. Weight lb/Et

H. T. C. in.
85% Mag in. Weight lb/Et

BOLTS*

PRESSIIRLi CLASS SOCKET WELD: 90 ELBOW 45 ELBOW COUPIRED SOCKOLET 1.00 0.94 1.31 0.56 0.60 2.35 1.91 3.31 1.00 1.30 PRESSURE CLASS 1.13 1.06 1.36 2.2'7 1.99 3.03 0.63 0.62 PRESSURE CLASS 0.67 0.59 0.93 0.46 0.44 1.15 1.07 1.62 1.03 0.82 3.50 2.79 4.63 2.13 1.23 2.18 1.74 2.80 3.19 2.50 3.75 1.69 1.30 2.13 1.63 2.64 1.00 1.04 5.25 4.31 7.48 2.00 2.00 PRESSURE CLASS 3.00 7.04 2.19 1.00 PRESSURO CLASS 1.36 1.17 1.85 0.93 0..85 2.57 2.30 3.46 2.10 1.69 5.75 9.63 4,.38 1.96 6.69 4.81 7.88 2.19 2.00

*** **

FORGED STEEL THREADED: ,90 ELBOW 45 ELBOW COUPIRED * * * THREDOLET * * MALL. IRON THREADED: 90 ELBOW 45 ELBOW TEE COUPLING REDUCER *"*

WELDING NECK SLIP-ON THREADED 2 FORGED & CAST STEEL: GATE-FLGD GLOBE-FLGD CHECK-FLGD GATE-THRDISW GLOBE-THRD/SW CHECK-THRD/SW GATE PSB-SW GATE PSB-BW GLOBE PSB-SW

3.5 3.5 3.5

7.5 7.5 7.5

12

6.5 6.5 6.5

6.5 6.5 6.5

14 14 15

24

V A L V E S

150 12.1 11.9 9

300 15.4 15.6 13.7

C W S 600 17.2 17 16.3 12.7

VOGT VALVES CRANE VALVES

1500 41.3 43.6 30 24.7 26.9 15 22 21 20

2500

150 21.5 25 20.7

300 29.2 29.9 27.9

CLASS 600 30.0 33.5 33 12.7

VOGTVALVES CRANE VALVES

1500 80 80 57 58.4 59 49.1 39 37 45

2500

BOLTS * *Weights for bolts are for one complete flange set. **Weights are for reducing Sockolets and Thredolets. ***Weights for reducers are for one pipe size reduction. PSB indicates Valves h a ~ r i n nn ~ r r ; ~ sral , , ~ honnc+s. ~ other weiohts for valves are for valves havinq flanged bunnets.

NOTES
A factor
i n the design of p i p i n g supports i s t h e weight o f the p i p i n g t o be supported. C a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e l o a d i n g s i n v o l v e t h e weights o f p i p e , f i t t i n g s , flanges, valves, i n s u l a t i o n , t h e conveyed f l u i d , and o t h e r r e l a t e d items t h a t a r e a l s o t o be supported as p a r t of t h e p i p i n g system.

Tables show weights of p i p i n g components. Data are s u b j e c t t o v a r i a t i o n from manufacturing t o 1 erances. PIPE For Schedule numbers, Manufacturers' weights ( t r a d i t i o n a l designations: STD, XS, e t c . ) , weight per u n i t length, weight f i l l e d w i t h water, t h i c k n e s s o f w a l l r e f e r t o Tables P-1. VALVES Weights f o r valves do n o t i n c l u d e s p e c i f i e d f o r p a r t i c u l a r valves. from data a v a i l a b l e as i n d i c a t e d Crane Company. I n f o r m a t i o n h e r e i n o f valves a v a i l a b l e from e i t h e r having conventional p o r t s . weSghts of powered operators o r o t h e r devices Weights shown f o r valves i n these t a b l e s are from t h e Henry Vogt Machine Co. and from t h e i s n o t intended t o i n d i c a t e t h e complete range manufacturer. Weights shown are f o r valves

As v a l v e f e a t u r e s vary between manufacturers, a c t u a l weights o f valves should be obtained from t h e s p e c i f i e d manufacturer o r s u p p l i e r . INSULATION Weights of i n s u l a t i o n are shown f o r b o t h calcium s i l i c a t e and f o r conventional 85% magnesia ( a l o n e - o r i n combination w i t h diatomaceous s i l i c a ) . The assumed 1 pounds per cubic f o o t f o r caicium s i l i c a t e and 85% magnesia, d e n s i t i e s are 1 and 2 1 pounds p e r c u b i c f o o t f o r diatomaceous s i l i c a . I n s u l a t i o n weights assumed i n c l u d e estimated weights o f canvas, cement, p a i n t , w i r e and bands, b u t n o t weatherproofing o r o t h e r s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i o n . Pipe coverings o f o t h e r compositions ?ill have d i f f e r e n t d e n s i t i e s . Data f o r i n s u l a t i o n are based on conventional t h i c k n e s s recommendations and may n o t correspond w i t h i n s u l a t i o n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t . UNITS OF WEIGHT Weights i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s are i n pounds

- avoirdupois

: NPS

NOTES
DIMENSIONS IN THIS TABLE CON. FORM TO ANSI 816.10 AND APPL' TO'FLANGED VALVES AND VALVE: WITH ENDS BEVELLED FOR WELDINI AS SHOWN:

Tabled Dimension

FOR FLANGED VALVES THE TABLE DIMENSION INCLUDES ALLOWANC FOR . -.. ROTH - - ... RAI5FD FACES OF TH VALVE. FOR C L ~ ~ 150 E SAN0 30 VALVES, 0.06-inch HAS BEEN IN CLUDED FOR EACH RAISED FAC AND FOR VALVES OF CLASS 60 AND ABOVE. 0.25-inch HAS BEE INCLUDED FOR EACH RAISED FACE

W
Half Tablcd Dimension

FOR ANGLE GLOBE & ANGLE LIFT CHECK VALVES. HALVE THE TABLE DIMENSION TO OBTAIN CENTER-TO FACE DIMENSIONS. -

(US GALLONS]
IaB

The foilowing dimensional data for copper tube conform to A S T N 8-88, which specifies general requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper Alloy Pipe and Tube

TYPE K TUBE
Heavy h a l l thickness, hard or soft, i s furnished for interior plumbingand underground service; steam and hot water heating systems; fuel oil lines; industrial process applications carrying liquids, air and gases; air conditioning, refrigeration, and low pressure hydraulic lines. Hard copper tube i s used for gas service lines because its rigidity eliminates traps caused by sagging iines.

, ~aminai
Sire

NOMINAL DIMENSIONS Outside Diameter (Inches) 375 ,500 ,625 ,875 1.125 1.375 1.625 2 125 2.625 3.125 insida Diameter (Inches) ,305 ,402 ,527 .745 ,995 1.245 1.481 1.959 2.435 2.907 Wall Thickness (lnchos) ,035 .049 .049 "065 ,065 065 ,072 "083 ,095 ,109

% % ' h
1

lh

THEOI: ON N .~~ .~ Cross Sectional Aroa of Bore (Sq. Inches) "073 ,127 218 ,436 ,778 1.22 1.72 301 4.66 6.64

2 2% 3

1Y 4 1%

--.--

TYPE L TUBE
Medium wall thickness, hard or soft, is used for medium pressure interior plumbing and for steam and hot water house-heating systems, panel heating, plumbingvent systems, industrial and process applications.

NOMINAL DIMENSiONS Nominal Sirc Outside Diameter (Inches) ,375 500 "625 ,875 1.125 1375 1.625 2.125 2,625 3.125 Inside Diameter (inches) ,315 ,430 ,545 "785 1.025 1.265 1 505 1.985 2.465 2.945 Wall Thlcknoss (Inches) ,030 ,035 .040 .045 .050 "055 .060 .070 "080 .090

:2 'h
1 1S/n 1% 2 2'h 3

=A

THEORETICAL AREAS BASED ON NOMINAL DIMENSIONS Cross External Internal Sectional Surface Surface (Sq. Ft. (Sq. Ft. Area of Bare (Sq. Inches) Per Lin. Ft.) Por Lin. Ft.) "098 ,082 ,078 ,131 ,113 145 ,233 ,164 "143 ,484 229 206 .825 ,294 ,268 1 26 1.78 3.09 4.77 6.81 "360 ,425 ,556 587 ,818 "331 ,394 520 345 ,771

Theoretical Weight (Pounds Per Foot) 0.126 0 198 0 285 0.455 0.655 0.884 1.14 175 2.48 3.33

TYPE M TUBE
Light wail thickness, hard only, furnished fot applications requiring l i t t l e o r no pressure or tensions on the lines

n
0

m
x x x
Warn WOO

x * x
m 0 u

....
m

..

e+ rn

mmm
"7 "7 rn

....
. 000 000

000 000

~.

+..-NN N N N W WWW Wm , morn WWW m o rn- N

.k.g ..-

1
-a
SazZ
000

ZZK
009
NNN

PPP
00

000

000

0 0 0

1
mmm

NNN

mrnm
w W m mr W n

1
kk
WWW

.......I I I .

1
ffi

nm*,rr,oir ron . l r l ' E l i

,<O"IIEINTII Lihl" I W THE P1111115 A l l n l N E l h l l l l l BROW4 ANY

LENGTH O F UPPER L l M B (FT.)


45 40 35 30 25 20 15

10

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

LENGTH O F UPPER L l M B (FT.)

L E N G T H O F L O W E R LIMB (FT.)
0 h,

m
L ,

. . , 0
"2 h, b 0 , "2
0

..
u
a 0
0 m

L E N G T H O F L O W E R LIMB (FT.1
Lo

rn
c 0 . 4
, c . " 4

, ,
0

"
Lo

Lo

EEL PIPE.SCHE1 NOMINI\L PIPE51ZE

LE lG0 PIPE SPAN.


6,.

STEEL PIPE. SCHEDULE 20

I".

15 19 21 2 5-IllCIl 3 0-IINCH 11. 0 - 1 NCII 6 .O-IIICll 8 . 0-1 EIC11 10.0-INCII 12.0-INCll

8 77 3.28 6.79

iEEL PIPE. SCHEI NOMINAL PIPE SlLE

LE 10 PIPE WAN"
FI.

I&TER.FIlLEI ILbI 29 56 81 , 127 182 288 632 1,103 1 , 782 2, 5 9 2 3,809 4, 8 8 6 6, 0 8 7 7,1154 10,530
PIPE WAN
W l l G l i i OF

In.

1 O-INCH
. E 80 PIPE SPAN.
F,. I".

STEEL PIPE. SCHE NOMINAL PIPESIZE 1.0-INCII 1. 5 - 1 NCII 2 . 0 - I ElCtl 2. 5-IEICH 3.0-IEICII 1,. 0 - I F I C I I 6 . 0 - I EICII 8 . 0 - 1 INCH 1 0 O-INCH 12. 0-INCH 1 4 " 0-INCII 1 6 O-IIICH 1 8 . 0 - 1 NCH

16

1.05

1 5-INCH 2 0-INCIl 2.5-INCil 3.0-INCH 4.0-INCII 6 . 0- I NCtl 8 . 0 - 1 l4Ctl 1 0 , 0-ll4CIl 12.0-1I4Ctl 111.0-INCH 1 6 . 0-1 NCH 18.0-INCIi 20. O-INCH 24.0-INCH .UMINUM PIPE,: NOMINAL PIPESIZE

1 5 11. 1 4 1 8 5.62 19 11.77 2 1 7.211 22 10.63

iEDULE 80 PIPE SPAN. IPLECTION' 11n.1


MAXIMUM

0 1014 0 386 0.367 0 . 3711 0.357 0.336 0 3111 0.2911 0. 2 6 4

EEL PIPE.SCHE1 NOMINAL PIPESIZE MAXIMUM ELECTlON' llno 0.2184 0.237 0.230 0 . 2311 0.227 0.218 0.202 0.133 0.185 0.180 0.173 0.178 0.179 0.1711 0.171

6 . O-INCH 8 . 0 - 1 NCH 10.0-INCH


ALUMINUM PIPE, NOMINAL PIPESIZE EDULE 40
WEIGHT OF

PIPE SPAN

1. 0 - I N C H
l,5-ltlcll 2. 0-IEICII 2.5-INCH 3.0-INCII 11. 0 - , I NCII G. 0 - I I i C I I

0.381 0.339 0.313 0.327 0.305 0.278 0.2'42 0.223 0. 208

MAXIMUM lEFLECllON 11n.1

CLEARANCES TO MANUAL VALVES


AND SUGGESTED OPERATING HEIGHTS 3VERHEAD VALVES
FOR VALVE OPERATION ABOVE G'G or 2 m. REFER TO 6.1.3. UNDER 'OPERATING ACCESS TO VALVES G G'orZm----MINIMUM ABOVE FLOOR or PLATFORM
INYERTEDYAIVEI: REFERTOG.1.1, UNDER ' X I E N T A T I O N OF VllLVE ITEM-

CLEARANCES AROUND STAIRWAYS & LADDERS


I

7-

............................................................................................
VERTICAL VALVES HORIZONTAL VALVES

ZONES

NOTES
I11 TAKE CHAINS TO 3 . 0 (OR 900 mml FROM OPERATIN<

PREFERRED ELEVATIONS

I31 IF A RAILING IS PRESENT. COMFORTABLE OPERATIN<


131 5 5

- lpitoh unnlol301 If

lbl 1.68 -(pitch unnlol1001 m

TABLE 6.1 GIVES ADDITIONAL DIMENSIONS

COEFFICIENTS OF EXPANSION OF DIFFERENT

PIPING MATERIALS

(In lnchesldegreellnch of length)

~ b t ~ t ~ % C g t ; S C l . ~ g % g g ~ E : :g~ pg ur tr ;ggzFEbiG

bbbbbbbb &bbbbbbbbbbb o&&Bkbbbbbbb bbkkbbbbbb b

~ g " 7 r ~ l i ~ ~ C S l i l b t ~ ~ ~

sai 1 0

MI MI MI

m
MI MI MI

sai 20 m MI

S C l l 1 2 0 sai 1 4 1 1 SM 1 6 0

sat 1 0
sat

MI

MI

20

sm Am
MI MI

sai 160

sai m xs

MI

MI

MI

sai 20

MI

m API
SCIl40
/IPI

MI

API
XS API

saI M
S M 80

MI
MI API MI
)C(S

sai IW
SM 120

S M 140 3 3 1 160

MI API
API

API MI

MI

s a t 30 m MI
SM 40

API
r\Pr XS M I

SM M

SM 80 SM 1 W SQI 1lo SM 140 SQI 160

MI MI API MI 189.6 2 3 2 . 2
for SCH
1

Thru NPS 10, w a l l thicknesses

and SCH 805

ainless steel pipes are the same as for SCH 40 and SCH 80 carbon steel pipes

U L C C C ' GGC

;G%zY5s%B

Tables P-1 present c a l c u l a t e d data as a guide only. Spans are f o r p i p e arranged i n pipeways w i t h the f o l l o w i n g assumptions: Bare p i p e - continuous s t r a i g h t run w i t h welded j o i n t s and two o r more s t r a i g h t spans a t each end. SPANS
SAG

c a l c u l a t e d w i t h l i n e s f u l l o f water and a maximum bending s t r e s s o f 4 000 PSI

( d e f l e c t i o n ) c a l c u l a t e d w i t h l i n e s empty (drained c o n d i t i o n )

The f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s were n o t considered i n c a l c u l a t i n g spans f o r these tables: Concentrated mechanical loads from flanges, valves, s t r a i n e r s , f i l t e r s , and other. i n 1 i n e t o r s i o n a l loading from thermal movement equipment - weights of connecting branch l i n e s sudden r e a c t i o n from l i n e s ( s ) discharging contents v i b r a t i o n - f l a t t e n i n g e f f e c t of weight of contents i n l a r g e r l i q u i d f i l l e d l i n e s weight of i n s u l a t i o n and pipe covering - weight of i c e and snow wind loads seismic shock reduction i n w a l l thickness of pipe from threading or ,grooving.

DESIGN PRESSURE

c a l c u l a t e d per ANSI 031.1 using allowable s t r e s s value o f 9 000 PSI f o r seamless carbon s t e e l p i p e

BURSTING PRESSURE i s approximate, c a l c u l a t e d on y i e l d s t r e n g t h o f 30 000 PSI

API = Alnericvn Petrolem Institute's standard SL. f o r 'Line pipe'. API pipe sizes; manufacturers' weights: Oouble-extra-strong . 1 . 3 (XXS), Extra-strong (XS). and Standard (STD), are included with schedule numbers in standard ANSI 836.11)m. Also rcfsr to 2

l l . 5 l l . 3 1 2 . 9 12.7 1 2 . 3 l l . 5 1 4 . 4 1 4 . 3 1 3 . 9
XXT Am

. W
.217 .212 ,217 213 .I94 .203 .215 215 2 . 0 3 .199

1.050

13.3

1.~1 SM 40 SIDAPI

1 . 3 1 5

16.1 1 6 . 1 1 5 . 7 1 5 . 0 1 7 . 9 1 8 . 1 18.0 1 7 . 3 1 9 . 0 1 9 . 3 1 9 . 3 1 8 . 7

. W
216 .206 "187 207 2 6
.212

.I79 .202 .215

. W
.I64 .I93 .202

2 . 0 0

SM 40 Sm API / 2.375 2.067 sai 80 xs MI 2.375 1.939 M I 2.375 1.875


XYS

.I30

. a 8 0
.wx)

1 2,375

1 . 5 0 3

,4360

Thru NPS 10, wall thicknesses f o r SCH 4 1

---

9.051 9 . 8 2 0

89.54 5 6 . 6 6

1 . 7 7 4

2 . 6 5 6

1.3U

1.104 .7027

2 0 . 9 2 1 . 5 2 1 . 6 2 1 . 5 2 1 . 2

. W
2 3 . 7
steel pipes

and SCH 805

ainlese steel pipes are the s a w as for SCH 40 an

jCH a0 cart

Aluminum Asbestos Asphalt Carbon Carborpndum Cast i r o n Cellulose Cement, dry Cement, powder Chalk Charcoal Chromium Coal Coke Concrete Copper Cork Dowtherm A Dural umin E a r t h , dry Fuel o i 1 : s p g r 96 spgr91 spgr86 s p g r 81 Glass, p l a t e G l a s s , pyrex

0.214 0.20 0.40 0.165 0.16 0.13 0.37 0.37 0.20 0.215 0.24 0.12 0.37

G l a s s , wool Granite Graphite Ice:


.

0.16 0.19 0..201

Quartz Rocksal t Rubber

0.17 0..27

0.21 0 . 22 0.48

0.12

Kerosene Lead Limestone Lucite Magnesia Malleable i r o n Masonry, b r i c k Mineral wool Mercury Molybdenum Nickel Nylon Olive o i l

0.48

0.50 0.031 0.217 0.35

0.20 0,.24

0.20 0.20

0.50 0.23 0.30 0.40 0.44 0.45 0.51 0.12 0.20

0.22 0.12 0.22 0.20 0.033 0.06

S a l t , granulated 0.21 Sand 0.195 Sandstone 0.22 Seawater, s p g r 1.023 0.94 Silica 0.191 Silicon 0.123 Soda Sodi urn Steel Sucrose Sugar, bulk Stone Sulfur T a r , bitumino u s Tef 1on Tile Tin Tungsten Water Wood, f i r oak pine Wood shavings Zinc 0.35 0.25 0.15 0.056 0.04

0.35

0.47 0.33 1.14 0.039 0.53

Paper P l a s t e r of P a r i s Platinum 0.03 Polythene

0.467 0 . 52 0.095

GASES
Air Ammonia Argon Carbon d i o x i d e Carbon monoxide Carbon d i s u l f i d e Chlorine Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Hydrogen s u l f i d e

t Constant
Pressure

t Constant
Volume

GASES

--I--

t Constant A t Constanl
Pressure Volume

Methane Nitrogen N i t r o u s oxide Oxygen Steam: 1.0 w i a 14.7 p s i a @ 150.0 p s i a Sulfur dioxide
@

ILTIPLY

BY

TO OBTAIN

MULT IPLY ton (metric) o r tonne ton o f r e f r i g eration watt [w]

BY 1 000 2 204.623 0.984 206 5 1.102 311 12 000 200 3 517 3.412 141 3 0.737 562 2 1 3.412 141 3 0.914 4"

TO OBTAIN

~d ( s u r v e y I w a r e cm iuare meter

16.5" 5.029 2" 0.155 0.000 247 1 1.195 99 10.763 9 10 000 0.386 102 2 247.105 383 645.16'5 0.092 903 04" 144 0.836 127 36" 640 2.589 988 258.998 8 100 000 105 506 000 105 480 400 907.184 74" 2000 0.907 184 7435 0.892 857 1

feet meter s square i n c h acre square y a r d s square f e e t square c e n t i m e t e r s square m i l e acres square m i l l i m e t e r s square meter square inches square meter acres sq k i l o l n e t e r s hectares Btu joules joules kilograms pounds metric ton l o n g t o n (UKI kilograms pounds metric tons s h o r t t o n s (US)

k i 1ogr.ams pounds l o n g t o n (UKI s h o r t t o n s (US1 Btulhour Btulminute watts Btulhour. foot-poundlsec Joulelsecond Btu meter

I kilometer

luare i n c h luat'e f o o t iuare yard ware mile !em: Lurope (EEC) Jnlted States ~n (short-US, I s o n e t ton1

watt-hour Yard [ y d l

TEMPERATURE CONVERSION: Fahrenheit t o Celsius Celsius t o Fahrenheit Fahrenheit t o k e l v i n Celsius t o k e l v i n k e l v i n t o Celsius Rankine t o k e l v i n VISCOSITY: centipoise (dynamic I centistokes (kinematic) 0.001 0.000 001 pascal second (Pa 5 ) sq meter p e r second F K K C K
C

(F 32) I 1.8 = (C x 1.8) t 32 = ( F t 459.671 / 1.8 = c t 273.15 = K - 273.15 = R I 1.8


=

~n (long-UK, 1 016.046 91 I s o gross t o n 1 2 240 1.016 046 91 1.12"

Non-Sl u n i t s : T h i s table c o n t a i n s u n i t s combining k i l o g r a m i n u n i t s o f f o r c e k i l o g r a m i s t h e u n i t o f mess, 'newton' i s the u n i t o f f o r c e , and ' p a s c a l ' i s

and tho

pressure. I n 81. u n i t of pressurc

R U L E S

F O R

R O U N D I N G

V A L U E S

Reference: ASTM E

380
LAST RETAINED D I G I T

F I R S T DISCARDED D I G I T
? -

Ifless than 5
i t OTtlER tho"

1
0

NO CHANGE INCREASE BY

ONE UNIT

I f g r e a t e r than 5
Equal t o 5 and f a l l o w e d ONLY

I
by zeros

I F ODD:

I
INCREASE BY ONE U N l T

I F EVEN: NO CHANGE

FERENCES: US Department of CommercelNational I n s t i t u t e of Standards & Technology: National Aeronautics & Space Adrnini5tr.aon; American S o c i e t y far Testing M a t e r i a l s : The American Society o f Mechanical Engineers: N a t i o n a l Physical Laboratory-UK

lULT IPLY

B Y

T O OBTAIN

ULT IPLY

B Y

TO OBTAIN
mile Btu cubic centimeters cubic decimeter cubic meter cublc inches cublc f o o t g a l l o n ( l i q . US) p i n t s ( l i q . US) f l u i d ounces (US) inches feet yards mile millimeters centimeters kilometer millimeter inch inch millimeter meter kilometers meters feet yards furlongs cerltimeter meter inch k i logram-force pound-force pascal grams kilog.ram newton newtonfsq meter poundlsq i n c h f l u i d ounces (US) f l u i d ounces (UK) ounces grams kilogram newtons grains pascals f t o f water @ 60F inches o f Hg @ 60F pascals kglsq meter kglcu meter k g l c u b i c meter degrees

231 8 4 0.832 674 18 8.336 7 gallon (UK) -liquid 1.200 949 9 4.546 09' 4.546 09" 277.419 43 8 4 10.012
O.OOI* 0.035 273 96 15.432 36

cubic inches pints quarts g a l l o n (UK) pounds of water @ 15.6C 160F1 g a l l o n s (US) 1it e r s cubic decimeters cubic inches pints quarts pounds o f water @15.6C[60F1 , kilogram ounce grains feetlsecondlsecon m/second/second gram pound acres square meters square f e e t square m i l e Btulminute Btulhour foot-pounds/minute foot-poundslsecond watts Btulhour watts watts watts millimeters centimeters meter f e e t of water pascals pascals Btu foot-pound watt-second pounds grams pascals , lbflsq i n 1b f newtons pascals megapascals [MPal

tilometer tkml tilowatt-hour liter. t ~ 1

0.621 371 2 3 412.141 3 1 000 1 0.001" 61.023 744 1 0.035 314 67 0.264 172 1 2.113 376 42 33.814 022 7 39.370 079 3.280 839 9 1.093 613 3 0.000 621 4 1 000 100 0.001" 0.001* 0.000 039 37 O.OOlI+ 0.025 4" 0.000 025 4 '

neter tml

gram

gravity: std free f a l l grain hectare t h a l

32.174 9.806 65' 0.064 798 91 11700 0 2.471 053 8 10 000 107 639.1 0.003 861 42.407 219 2 544.433 1 33 000 550 745.699 87 33 471.439 8 9 809.5 735.499 746 25.4" 2.54" 0.025 4% 1.130 863 9 3 376.85 248.84 0.000 947 8 0.737 562 18 1 2.204 623 1 000 98 066.5" 14.223 344 1 000 4 448.221 615 6 894 757 6.894 757

micrometer (micron)

mile

horsepower

1.609 344" 1 609.344" 5 280 1 760 8

m i l l i m e t e r t m m l 0.1" 0.001+' 0.039 370 79 newton (N) 0.101 971 62 0.224 808 93

horsepower (boiler) horsepower (metric) horsepower (electric) inch i n c h (head) o f mercury @ 60F i n c h (head) o f water @ 60F joule tJ1

newtonlsq meter 1 ounce 28.349 523 12 0.028 349 5 0.278 013 85 1 0.000 145 04 16 20 16 453.592 37" 0.453 592 373 4.448 221 615 7 000 6 894.757 2 2.308 966 2.041 772 47.880 258 4.882 428 27 679.905 16.018 463 57.295 779

pascal [ P a l pint pound

kilogram [kg1 k g f l s q cm kip ksi (kip per sq i n )

poundlsq i n (psi) poundlsq f t poundslcu i n poundslcu f t radian t r a d l

u n i t ; C = Centigrade E l o r . C e l s i u s : Chu = C e n t i g r a d e heat u n i t : cu = cubic; EEC = European Economic Cammu n i t y ; F = Fahrenheit: f t = feet o r foot; Hg = Elercury; i n = inch(es): k = k e l v i n : k g f = kilogram-force: l b f = oound-force: l i o = l i o u i d : R = Rmkioe: so = rouare: UK = U n i t e d Kinadom: US U n i t e d S t a t e s .

i n d i c d t e s v a l u e i s exact. U n i t s i n pounds are a v o i r u p o i s . A b b r e v i a t i o n s

include: B t u

British

thermal

WLT IPLY

BY

TO OBTAIN

MULTIPLY

BY

TO OBTAIN

square f e e t square yards sauare meters hectare square m i l e w e foot cubic f e e t c u b i c meters g a l l o n s (US) square meters square Yards acre bar pascals m m of Hg @ 32F inches of ~g @ 32F ft of water @ 60F ~ o u n d s l s q u a r ei n c h pascals newtonslsq meter newtonlsq mm poundslsq i n c h g a l l o n s (US) cubic feet c u b i c meter foot-pounds kilogram-meters killowatt-hour joules joules Btulhour bushel [ b u l (US1 bushel [ b u l (UK) cable (US) Celsius Centigrade centimeter [cn c h a i n (gunter o r surveyors) chu ( o b s o l e t e unit foot-POUndlSeCO~d watt cubic feet c u b i c meter bushels (US) fathoms feet meters Centigrade Celsius inch millimeters

cubic decimeter 1 1 000 cubic i n c h cubic f o o t

liter cubic cm cubic cm liter cubic cm cubic meter cubic inches c u b i c yard 1it e r s g a l l o n s (US) g a l l o n s (uK)

16.387 064't 0.016 387 064 28 316.846 6 0.028 316 85 1 728 0.037 037 04 28.316 846 6 7.480 519 5 6.228 835 6 0.069 972 3 62.365 578 35.314 667 1.307 950 6 264.172 052 1 000 2 113.376 42 0.764 554 9 764.554 86 201.974 03 3.937 007 9 100 10 0.017 453 29

ire la1

itmos~here

cubic f t l a c r e cubic f o o t o f water c u b i c meter

Pounds @ 15.6C 160F1 cubic f e e t cubic yards gallons (US) 1it e r s p i n t s (US) cubic meter liters sallons(us) inches millimeters centimeters radian (meters feet meters meter lsecond meterlminute

c u b i c yard decimeter Cdml degree ( a n g l e )

dekameter [dam] 10

foot

0.304 811 304.8'1 12 2 986.08 0.433 094 62.365 578 660 201.168" 220 0.125" 3.785 411 3 785.411 0.003 785 0.133 680 78 78 4 56

meter mi 11imeters inches joules pascals poundlsq i n c h p o ~ n d s l s qf o o t feet meters yards mile

f o o t (head) o f water @ 15.6C C60F1 furlong

66 22 20.116 8" 1.8

feet yards meters

g a l l o n (US) -liquid

1it e r s cubic cms cubic meter cubic f o o t

-459.4 TO 0

"C.
-273 -268

Given Temp.
-4594 -450

Given

'F.

oC. Temp. 'F.


-17R
O

Given "C. Temp. "F.


10.0 50 122.0 1 0 6 51 1238 I l l 52 1256

27

Given "C. Temp. "F. PB i l n 730

Given "C. Temp. 'F. 371 filO 1130

Given "C. Temp. 'F.


504 1120 2048

1 1

Reproduced b y couttoly of Jenklns Bror.. valve manufacturarr. Flnd 10 doqroe~F, tho contlqrada a q u w l o n t h in the lest column; If I

tomperatwe i t lr rcqulrcd t o convert

In tho cental column. I f thlr temperature

tomnoratura ir in dogreor C, tho tahranhelt oqulvalont is In the right column,

[431

AC>N5 AN

-DEClMAl IUIVALENTS

CH

0052 0104

- - - - - - - -DECIMAL :AN

'AC3 N S

RAC-

UIVALENT!

ONS IFA

1CH

307

?ACON5 F AN YCH

DECIMAL

RACIONS

WIVALENT

31 A

007

RAC. ION! IF AE NCH

WIVALENT! 7552 7604

DECIMAL

XAC. 'IONS OF A

'OOT

2552 2604

1 %6'
3%

5052 5104

6%6" 6% 6% 6% 6% 6]/a 686 6%

9%6' 9% 9% 9% 9% 9% 936 9%

44

01 5625 0208 0260 03125 0365 0417 046875 ,0521 ,0573 ,0625 ,0677 ,0729 ,078125 .0833 "0885 .09375 "0990 ,1042 "109375 ,1146 ,1198 ,1250 1 302 ,1354
%a

265625 2708 2760

11/16 3% 3%6
3%
3 x 6

''A
1h '

515625 5208 5260 53125 5365 5417 ,546875 ,5521 5573 ,5625 ,5677 ,5729 ,578125 ,5833 ,5885

,765625 ,7708 ,7760 ,78125 ,7865 ,7917 ?44 "796875 ,8021 8073 ,8125 "8177 ,8229 .828125 3333 "8385 "84375 ,8490 "8542 ,859375 "8646 .a698

h2

? h

28125 2865 2917 296875 3021 3073 3125 3177 3229 328125 3333 3385 34375 3490 3542 359375 ,3646 ,3698 3750 ,3802 ,3854

3%
386
'34

!44

3% 3lM1
3% 3% 3%

6% 6% 6'%a 6% 6% 6% 6% 7 7x6 7% 7% 7% 7% 7% 7%6 7% 7% 7% 7'86 7% 7'%6 7% 7% 8 8x6 8% 8% 8% 8% 8% 8%a 8%

9% 9% 91% 9 3/a 91% 9% 9% 0 0%6 0% 0x6 0% 0x6 0% O%a 0 Yz 0%6 078 0%


0%

%a

% a

'%6

%4

?44

3% 4 4x6 4a /! 4%a 4% 4%6 4 =/a 456 4% 4%a 4% 41% 4% 4% 4% 4?4 5 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 586 5% 5 v 5% 519 5% 6
4%

'$64

' h

19h

,59375 ,5990 ,6042 .609375 ,6146 ,6198 "6250 ,6302 "6354 ,640625 "6458 ,65 10 "6615 "6667

1 7 h

'364

3%4

IM"

,8750 ,8802 "8854 ,890625 "8958 .9010 .90625 ,9115 "9167

%A

,140625 ,1458 ,1510


.I5625 "1615 "1667

'3.1

,390625 ,3958 ,4010 ,40625 ,4115 .4 167

'364

0% 0% 1 1 % ~ 1 % 1%6 1% 1%a 1 %
I % a

? h ,65625
"671875 ,6771 ,6823 ,6875 "6927 .6979
434

ov,

1364

.I71 875 .I771 1823 1 875 ,1927 .I979 ,203125 ,2083 ,2135 .21875 "2240 ,2292 ,234375 .2396 ,2448 ,2500

'%a

.42 1875 .4271 ,4328 ,4375 .4427 "4479 .453125 ,4583 ,4635 ,46875 "4740 "4792 ,484375 "4896 "4948 ,5000

'364

J%4

"92 1875 ,9271 "9323 ,9375 "9427 "9479 "953125 ,9583 .9635 "96875 .9740 ,9792 .984375 "9896 .9948

%6

%6

'%6

'3611

'%4

"703125 7083 ,7135 ,71875 7240 "7292 734375 ,7396 "7448 .7500

1 %
1 l%6

8%
8=/a 8IM1 8 '/a 8'%1 8% 8Y4,
9

Yn

" h

;I% I 1I%, 11 %
I l'%, 11% I i '94

%4

3364

Yl

1.000

12

COMPOUND ANGLES
ZIRCLE
iclm to irblol+4 lor numuviral vsluoi 01 circumlorcncoi mil orovi u l full circles F U L L CIRCLE CIRCUMFERENCE = 2 n r =62831053r AREA=nrx = 3 1415927r2 SECTOR (as shown) LENGTH OF ARC = I = = nrL1/180 = 0 0174533rO AREA= nr2L1/360 = 0 00872664rZ0 Tiopcroid: A lour sided tigUlC will two lisrollcl sidos, and lllc oillo iivo rides 81 m y angic T o m i ' I I B ~ C T ~ U I I ~ ill UK k O T E l n l S f-0iihlLi.A CIAY LIE AP?- E D T O CY.II.DH.C A h 0 RECTAhG-LAR T A R 6

PRISM
BASE O F A N Y SHAPE: UPRIGHT O R SLOPING

AREAOF SECTIDN=A DISTANCE BETWEEN PARALLEL SECTIONS'A' AND 'A' = b VOLUME = IIA

CONE
BASE O F A N Y SHAPE: UPRIGHT O R SLOPING

a --

hl6
i-f-i

S E G M E N T O F CIRCLE
OIAMETER=s t(bv44u) RADIUS-r = (a/2) 1. ib2/8al LENGTH OF ARC ' = I = (nr/90).arccad 1 i a h l l = (nd90l.ursinl612rI wiwo "190 = 0 03490659 \REA.= (rl-rbta6)/2 NOTE: uiccosf 0 1 = ''3ndO in dqjresi whase cosine is 0". und arcrin[Of = "unnlc in degrccr d,oio rinc i s 0'' 'Vulid foia paiilivaand loss lhan . 2 ,

1 1

AREA OF BASE-A HElGliT (mcaiuicd a1 iighl onglcs lo b a d =1 1 VOLUME = h A / 3

ARCA=rb+UR

I 1 J = 6 ibis loimula irpplioi i

any palilll~iogr~tn or rnclanglu

FRUSTUM O F C O N E
SECTION O F A N Y SHAPE: UPRIGHT O R SLOPING

TRIANGLE

ELLIPSE
AREA-i~~~a6I = 0 7053982ia61 CIRCUMFERENCE = n[(az t 6 2 ) / 2 ] ~ vppioximatl 2 1 , DISTANCE BETWEEN SURFACE 'A'AND'B = h VOLUME = (lr/3) [ A I B + i A B l '

FRONT END 'ATIONARY HEAD TYPES

SHELL TYPES

AND REMOVABLE COVER

0
CHANNEL

-*=a-*

FIXED TUBESHEET LIKE "8"STATIONARY HEAD nvOPASSSHELL WITH L O ~ ~ G ~ T U D BAFFLE ~NAL

FIXED TUBESHEET LIKE ti" STATIOtIARY HEAD BONNET INTEGRAL COVER

OUTSIDE PACKED FLOATING HEAD

DOUBLESPLIT FLOW CHAIIIIEL IIITCGRAL VIlTll TUBESltEET A l l 0 ICt.lOVAELt COVER

-FLOATING HEAD WITH BACKING DEVICE

FIXTO

DIVIDED FLOW

-r

PULL THROUGH FLOATING HEAD

CHANNEL INTEGRAL WITH TUBESHEET AND REMOVABLE COVER

KETTLE TYPE REBOILER

U-TUBE BUNDLE

SPECIAL HIGH PRESSURE CLOSUR

maxiinurn Ratings For flanges conforming to RNSI Standard 816.5 dimensions and material specification nSTm A-105

GAGE WORKING PRESSURE I N psi FOR FLANGE CLASSES 150 TEMPEWTURE F L A N G E FAHRENHEIT C L A S S E S

- 2500

Standard ANSI 016.5 does not recommend using flanges manufactured from carbon steels made to ASTM specification A-105 at temperatures in excess of lO0DF (538C) at any time, or their prolonged usage at temperatures ,over 800F (42712). [ASTM A-105 carbon steel i s included in material group 1.1. of ANSI 016.5.1
THERMAL GRADIENTS, THERMAL CYCLING and E X ~ E R N A LLUAUS The suitability of slip-on, socket-welding and threaded flange attachments at 540F (282C) and -50F (-46C) is discussed in ANSI 816.5, which also makes recommendations to prevent leakage from Class 150 flanged joints at 400F (204C), and other classes at higher tempatures, if the above operating conditions are anticipated, and expected to be severe.

Ratings are for non-shock conditions. Values in this table do not prevail over limitations imposed by codes, standards, regulations or other obligations which may pertain to projects.

FOR USE ON BUTT-MLOING ELBOWS RS PERRITTEO BY THE PIPING SPECIFICRTION FOR THE PROJECT

4 5 O ELBOW

LR = LONG RADIUS

SR = SHORT RADIUS

* INDICATES NUMBER OF FLANGES WITHOUT INTERFERENCE

MPS

CUSS 150 FLANGES

-2

OIEN5IONS IN INCHES

O I W N S I O N S I N INCHES

DATA FOR WELDING-NECK FLANGES

L
G

= LENGTH THRU HUB OF WELOINGNECK FLANGE W I T H R I N G J O I N T


= GAP BETWEEN FLANGE FACES W I T H R I N G I N COMPRESSION

I
NPS/

F L A N G E G L A S S E S

I RING^ 1 RING^ 1
No NO

I
RING I NO RINGI No

RINGI No

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE: NPS

1 112
1I 4
75 2 62

314 5 12 3

1 112

1
1I 8

2 5

3 10 5

10 23

12

14

16 132 5
I

18 36 13 12

20 138 75

24 46

1
:
1

OUTSIDE DIAMETER

1 5 88 I
3 12

7 3 5

&

WELD-NECK

4 25

112 25 15 5 I 4 88 5.12 7

1 19 I

126 5 29 5 I 1 38 12 8 62 10.25 1

12 5

14 25 16 25

END O F PlPE TO FACE OF FLANGE or LAP JOINT STUB END '

BOLTS PER FLANGE BOLT CIRCLE DIAMETER

BOR E: WELD-I

/ I

4 3.25

4 3 5

4
4

4 4 88

8 6 5

8 8

8 9.5

12 12 5

12

12 19

16

16 25

16

16

16

16 39

/I5 5

122 5

i 2 7 75 30 5

/ 3 2 75

length

except Note 5

RJI4

I
25 4.5

I
5 5 5

I
575 7

7 7 5 10.5

I 112.75 13.5

I I 115.25 16.75 118.5

20.75 122 25 25.5

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE: NPS OUTSIDE DIAMETER

112 5.25 3.12

314 5 5 3.38

1 112

2 9.25 5.25

3 12 688

4 14 775

6 19
11

8 2 1 75 12.75

10 26 5

12 30

14

16

18

20

24

6 25
3 75

8 4.62

END OF PlPE TO FACE OF FLANGE or LAP JOINT STUB END '

&

WELD-NECK SLIP-ON SOCKET THREADED L-J STUB END ANSI MSS

16.75 18.5

Wall t h i c k n e s s o f p i p e + 0 06-inch Not a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s c l a s s 0 31 3 044 3 2 0.31 4 2 0.69 4 2 0.88 6 0.5 6 0.62 6 3 0.88 8 3.5 0.94 8 4 1.06 10 5

1
10 6 i ~ e

2 5 2 . 5

BORE: WELD-NECK

'Order t o match I n t e r n a l Diameter o f ~

BOLTS PER FLANGE BOLT CIRCLE DIAMETER DIAMETER O F DOLT STUDBOLT THREAD length except Note 5

1
1I

4 3 5 314

4 3 75 314 5 5

4 4 25

4 5 75

1
I

8 6 75

8 9

1
I

1 12
17 25

12

12

I
I I
I

I
I

10.75 14 5 2 13 5 14

21.25 24.38 2 11212 314 I 19 25121.25


I

I R F4 ~75
I

1I 718 155

1 1/81
6 75 6.75

1
7 7

11 4 1 1
8.75 9

1 10
I

1I

2 15

I
I

RJ( 4 75

1 5.5

110'25

115 5

20

1 22

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE: NPS OUTSIDE DIAMETER

1/2

3/4

1 1/2

6 14

8 1165
I
t

10 20

12 122
I

14

16

18

20

24 37

1375 4621408

6 1 2 1 6 5

82511075
I

2375127
I

2925132
I

A
G

/ /
END OF T O P 1 , FACE OF
or LAP

,
SLIP-ON SOCKET
"

Wall t h i c k n e s s o f p i p e

0 06-inch I

I 0 81 I
0 38 3 2

0 88 0 31 3 2

1I 0.88
4 2

0 94

1I 1 06
0 69 6 2,5

1 31 0 50 6 2.5

1
0 62 0.88 8 3.5 6 3
I

I I
0.94 1 8
I

I
1 110
I

1I
12 6 112
I

I I
12 6 I12
I

THREADED L-J STUB EN0 ANSI MSS

0 3 1 0 44 4 2

0 94 10 5

END

12 6

BORE: WELD-NECK & SOCKET

I
4 2 62 1/2 4 3 25 5/B 3.5 3.5

Order t o match I n t e r n a l Diameter of o i o e

11
L T I N G

BOLTS PER FLANGE 8 0 CIRCLE D I E T E R

4 3 5 5/8 3.5 3.5

4 4 5 3/4 425 4.25


I

8 5 5/8 4.25 4 25

8 6 6 3/4 5 5

8 8 5 7/8 5.75 5.75

12
11 5

12 3 . 7 1 1/8 7.5 7.75

16 17
14

20

20

20

20

24

119 25 20 75 123 75 25 75 128 5


14

7
24
1 7/8

DIAMETER OF BOLT STUDBOLTTHREAD length except l a p - j o i n t : Note 5

1 6.75 6.75

1 3/8 1 1/2 9.25 925 10 10

1 5/8 1 5/8

RF RJ

3 3

8.5 8.5

8.75 8.75

10.75 10.75

11.25 11.5

13 13 25

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE: NPS OUTSIDE DIAMETER F L


A

1/2 4 75 2.62

3/4 5 12 3

1 1/2

2 8 5 4.25

3 9 5 4.25

4 11.5 4.75

6 15 5.75

8 18 5 6.62

10 21 5 7.5

12

14

16

I8 31 9.25

20 133 75 10

24 41 11.75

5 88 312

7 3.5

24 8.12

25 25 127 75 8.62 8.75

N
G

E T
Y

P
E

EN0 OF PIPE T O FACE OF FLANGE orLAP JOINT STUB END '

&

WELD-NECK SLIP-ON SOCKET THREADED L-J STUB END ANSI MSS

Wall thickness o f p i p e + 0 0 6 - i n c h Not a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s c l a s s 0.62 3 2 0.69 3 2 069 4 2 0.81 4 2 1.06 6: 2.5 050 6 2.5 0.62
6

088 8 3 5

0.94 8 4

1 10 5

1 10 6 12 6 12 6 12 6 12 6 12 6

BORE: WELD-NECK BOLTS PER FLANGE 8 0 L T I N BOLT CIRCLE DIAMETER DIAMETER OF BOLT 4 3.25 3/4 4 3.5 3/4 4.5 4.5 4 4 7/8 5 5 4 488 1 5.5 5.5

Order t o match I n t e r n a l Diameter of p i p e 8 .. , 6.5 7/8 5.75 5.75 B 7 5 7/8 5.75 5.75 8 12 12 155 16 18.5 20 21 20 22 20 24.25 20 27 20 20

9.25 12.5 18 6.75 6.75 18 7.5 7.75

29 5 3 5 5 2 2 1/2

1 3/8 1 3/8

1 3/8 1 1/2 10 10 10.75


1 1

1 5/8 1 7/8

I I

RF 4.25 STUDBOLTTHREAD length except l a p - j o i n t : Note 5 RJ 4 . 2 5

8.75 8.75

9.25
9 25

11.25 12.75

13.75 17.25 18

1 1 . 5 13.25 114.25

d NOMINAL PIPE SIZE:

NPS

1 1/2
1 3 5
I

3/4

1 1/2
5

3 7 5 2.751

1
9
I

10 16 4

1 12
I

14 21 5

1 16
1235
I

18 25 5.5

20 I275 5.69

24 32 6

OUTSIDE DIAMETER

1 :- &
a

A N G

END OF PIPE TO FACE OF

WELD-NECK S;IP-ON SOCKET

(1.88

3881425 I 2.06)2.19

1 6 I 2.44125

11
3 3.5

1135 I 1 4

119

14.5

1
I

Wall t h i c k n e s s o f p i p e

0 06-inch
I
I I

'*

I 0 I

3 1 0 25 0 06

THREADED

I 0 06
1

1I 0

25 0

0 31 0 25

1
I

1I 0 38

0.44 0.19

1I

0 31

I I
0 25 0 38

0 44

0 50

1 0 56
I

I I 80CE: WELD:NECK

I I E SOCKET 0 62
4 2.38 112

0 82 4 2.75 112 2.5

1I 1 05
4 3.12 112 2.5

1 61
4 3.88 112 2.75

1 2 07 I
4
4.75 518 3.25

3.07 4 6 51s 3.5

14
I

03 8

6 07 8 9.5 314 4

7 98 10 02 8 12

12 12 17 718 4.75

[Order t o match p i p e I 0 1 12 18.75 16 16 20 25 20 29.5

,
I

BOLTS PER FLANGE 8 0 L BOLT CIRCLE DIAMETER

7.5 51s 3.5

11.75 14.25 3 1 4 718

21.25 22.75

DIANETER OF OOLT

1
5.25

1
5.25

1I 18

1 1/4
6.75

;
N

STUDDOLTTHREAD

IRF 2.25

4,25 4.5

575

6.25

NOMINAL PIPE SIZE. NPS OUTSIDE DIAMETER

1/2

3/4 4.62

1 1/2

3 5 8 25

6 12 5

10 17.5

12 120 5

14 23

16 125 5

18 28

20 130 5

24 36 662

3 75 2.06

1 4.88

6 12

16

10

15

1:

A N G E T Y P E

% END OF
PIPE T O FACE OF FLANGE or LAP JOINT STUB END '

WELD-NECK SLIP-ON SOCKET TNREADED L-J STUB END ANSI MSS

2.251244

26912.75

3.1213.38

388)4.38

462)5.12 0.06-inch

5.621575

62516.38

Wall t h i c k n e s s o f p i p e 0.56 00 6 3 2 0.62 0 06 3 2 0.62 0 4 2 1.05 4 3.5 Sf8 3 3.5 0.62 025 4 2 1.61 4 4.5 314 3.5 4 0.69 0.44 6 2.5 207 8 5 5/0 3.5 4 0.94 q.25 6 Zz5 3.07 0 38 6 3 4.03 8 0 62 8 3.5 6.07 12

06 9 8 4

075 10 5

0.75 10 6 12 16 12 6 12 6 12 6 12 6 12 6

BORE: WELD-NECK & SOCKET BOLTS PER FLANGE 8 0 L T N


G

0 , 6 2 0 82 4 2.62 112 4 3.25 5/8 3 3.5

7 . 9 8 10.02 12 13 7/8 5.5 6 16 15.25

[Order t o match p i p e ID1 20 20 22,.5 24 24.75


14

8'
6.62 3/4 4.25 4.75

24 27

24 32

OOLT CIRCLE DIAMETER DlAElETER OF BOLT

7.88 10.62 3/4 4.5 5 3/4 4.75 5.5

17.75 20.25

1
6.25 6.75

1 1/8
6.75 7.25

18
7 7 5

11
7.5 8

14 8
8.75

1 1/2
9 10

STUDBOLT THREAD RF 2 . 5 length except l a p j o i n t : Note 5 I M 3

7.75 8.25

THREADED FI'TTINGS - WIALLEABLE-IRON

CARBONSTEEL

THREAD ENGAGEMENT %%
DIMENSlONS I N THIS TABLE ARE FOR BANDED FITTINGS AND CONFORM TO ANSI STANDARD 816.3, AND FEDERAL SPECIFICATION UNIONS CONFORM TO ANSI 816.39. DATA FROM I T T GRINNELL CORPORATION AND STOCKHAM VALVES AND FITTINGS WW-P-521.

SMITH VALVE CORPORATION GATE VALVES: FULL PORT GLOBE VALVES: CONVENTIONAL PORT

OAT^:

I
x

'R' dimensions a r e based on normal t h r e a d engagement f o r t i g h t j o i n t s


These dimensions a l s o apply to horizontal lift-check valves

' R ' is the 'REMOVED RUN' o f p i p e occupied by the valve

I
' R ' dimensions i n c l u d e 0.06-inch expansion gaps f o r welding. Refer t o t e x t : Chart 2.2

REDUCER

LATERAL

:Bonney F o r g e d L a d i s h ]

DIAMETER

B
THREDOLET
(REOUCING)

R A

/ H
Bonney Forge]

UNION
,Bcnney F o r g e ]

--

HEX BUSH

SWAGE

-THREAD ENGAGEMENT

(2)

(3)
(4)
(5) (6)

I) ARE BRS THRERO ENGRGEPZNT BETWEEN RRL? RNO FEMRLE THREROS TO MAKE TIGHT ROUNOCO 1 0 l f l 0 0 - i n c h JOINTS OIKNSIONS FOR FITTINGS RRE FROM THE FOLLOWING SUPPLIERS' OATR: BONNEY FORGE, I T 1 GRINNEL, LROISII RNO VOGT UNLESS THE SUPPLIER I S STATED. ' L ' 6 ' 0 ' OIPZNSIONS &RE THE LARGEST QUOTED BY BONNEY FORGE. I T 1 GRINNELL. LROISH RNO VCGT FITTINGS CONFORR TO RNSI 816.11, EXCEPT LRTERALS. WHECH RRE MROE TO RRNUFRCTURERS' STRNOAROS. UNIONS CON&R 1 0 MSS-SP-83 TRBLE 0-11 FOR SIZES AN0 RUAILABILITIES OF PIPE NIPPLES, REFER TO 'RRLLERBLE-IRON PIPE FITTINGS' OImENSIONS FOR INSlRLLEO THREOOLETS EXCLUDE THE 'ROOT GRP' - REFER TO 'DIMENSIONING SPOOLS (WELDED RSSEPBLIES)' - 5.3.5

R~RL

HALF-COUPLING

LATERAL

( 5 ) FOR INFORRATION ON THE BORE OIRNETER AND RATING OF FITTINGS, REFER TO 'SOCKET-WELOEO P I P I N G ' - CHRRT 2.2 (6) UNIONS CONFORR TO RSS-SP-83

FACE DIMENSIONS BY CLASS FOR VALVES CONFORMING TO API 594

'"

1 1 7

F L A N G E

600

TOO 1500
p -

C L A S S E S

. -

DUAL PLATES

N O M I N A L

P I P E

S I Z E O F M A I N R U N

CNPSI

I_/_/
LARGE SMALL

d
LENGTHS: 6.5

---I

LENGTHS: 7.0

LENGTHS: 8.0

1
at. provided by BONNEY FORGE. Oiinensions far E i b o l e t s are nominal. S i z e Z-Inch E l b o i e t s arc designed to f i t the d i f f e r e d

1-34 LENGTHS: 9 . 0

LENGTHS: 1 1

I
N O M I N A L N P S P I P E 8 S I Z E 10

O F M A I N R U N
12 14

CNPSl 18 20 24

$1

3 13.38

1
]

I 1
15 00

4 4.12

16

LENGTHS: 1 2 DIMENSION 'A'

5.62

7.00

8 50

10.00 ) 1 1 . 0 0 I 1 2 00 1 1 3 . 5 0

17 00

LENGTHS: 13

LENGTHS: 15 LARGE END

I Dimensions i n t h i s Lsbie are for mi115 Iron Works swages, uvaliabia " i l h ends p l a i n , threaded, beveilad, Uictnuiic grooued. and i n any coinbination o f these teiminations

SMALL END

2 n
2

" u
3

EXTRA-STRONG

I
OIMEIISIONS Ill 1 l l l S TABLE ARE IIOI,lIEIAL All0 FOR COllB

L S T L S T L S T - S T L S

9.5

11.5
~~~

14

19.5
GAP'

-~~~~

10 WELOOLETS DO NOT ItlCLUOE TilE 'II' ~ T l O l l SOF FITTINGS ARE ROUllDEO TO OIIUALLY-OPERATED CAST-STEEL VALVE j WITH v n L v f s ARE GIVEN IN SECTIOH

- REFER TO TEXT:

SECTIOtl 5 3 5

STANDARD AND EXTRA-STRONG CONCENTRIC I-r-4 REDUCERS , cccEmtc 6 g~ "' 1 90" LR ELLS REGULAR mmm
C N IP S

CC~NPS

RAISED-FACE FLANGE
"LI'IW,, m T l l " l l r tP3 2-24

DIMENSIONS ALSO APPLY TO GATE

GLOBE
DIMEtISIONS ALSO APPLY TO CLOBC VALVES WlTil BUTTWELDING ENDS

REFER TO TEXT: SECTION D WELOOLETS 0 0 llOT INCLUDE THE 'WELO GAP' TiONS OF FITT!llGS ARE ROUIIOED TO lIl00-inch

STANDARD AND EXTRA-STRONG

ma-n

o m m z ~ r nm o

Z a m

m a

O W

+ .
. . . a
C 0

, -

, -

NC

PN

?-

?YIP

.. .. ,.. ..
mm
C
4

..

, m
Yi
N
?- ?-

o w

..
N N C 0
NW P N

PIPE WITH FLANGES

CLASS 1 5 0 & C U S S 1 5 0 FUINGES

C U S S 3 0 0 & C U S S 300 FUNGES

150

L;'" I

NOMINAL P I P E S I Z E (NPS) OF FLANGED P I P E

10

12 1 4

16

18 20

24

INSULATION DIMENSIONS I N THESE TABLES ARE SPACINGS FOR BARE PIPE. FOR 14SULATEO LINES. ADO THE THICKNESS OF INSULATION AND COVERING TO THESE FIGURES

PIPE FITTINGS - Butt-Welding C l a s s 600 C l a s s '300 C l a s s 150 - Elbolets Malleable-Iron Classes 150 & 300 N i p p l e s : P i p e and Tank n i p p l e s - Socket-Welding. Forged S t e e l Classes 3000, 6000 & 9000 - S o c k o l e t s . Reducing - Swages Threaded. Forged S t e e l Classes 2000, 3000 & 6000 T h r e d o l e t s . Reducina " ' - W e l d o l e t s . Reducing refer to: PIPEWAY - Spacing i n pipeways Jumpovers a t 45-degrees Rununders a t 45-degrees Width. Formula f o r p l a n n i n g

Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table

0-1 0-2 0-3 0-5 0-11 0-11 0-8 0-8 0-4

Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table

0-1M D-2M D-3M 0-5M D-11M 0-11M D-8M D-8M D-4M

T a b l e 0-9 T a b l e 0-9 'PIPE FITTINGS Table Table Table Table Table Table A-1 A-2 A-3 A-1 F-7 M-7
S-1 S-2 M-8 S-3

7 8 8 7 24 46

T a b l e 0-9M T a b l e D-9M Butt-Welding' Table Table Table Table Table A-1M A-2M A-3M A-1M F-7M

RING-JOINT GASKET DATA ROUNDING VALUES. Rules f o r

SPANS. O f h o r i z o n a ' l p i p e Table with 3 f t rise or f a l l Charts SPECIFIC HEAT. V a r i o u s substances & gases T a b l e STAIRWAYS Chart STRUCTURAL STEEL Angle d a t a Tables Channel d a t a Tables W Shapes Table SWAGES Table

S-5 S-5 S-4 0-4 T-2 0-6 0-9 T-1 V-1 V-1 V-1 V-1 0-10 P-2

61 61 60 12 63 12 17 62 64 64 64 64 18 54 60 73 65

Tables Tables Tables Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table

S-5M S-5M S-4M 0-4M D-6M D-9M

TANK & VESSEL VOLUMES TEES REDUCING. B u t t - W e l d i n g THREAD ENGAGEMENT. For f i t t i n g s TUBE DATA (Copper: Types K, L & M)

Chart Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Chart

2500 VALVE DATA: ANSI Classes 150 - Check: L i f t , Swing & T i l t i n g - d i s c - Gate 5 - Globe - API C l a s s 800 Gate, Globe & L i f t - c h e c k Operating heights f o r valves

V-1M V-1M V-1M V-1M D-1OM


S-4M

W SHAPES. S t r u c t u r a l shapes WEIGHTS OF MATERIALS WEIGHTS OF PIPING

T a b l e S-4 T a b l e W-2 Tables W - 1

CONTENTS OF PART I1
ANGLES. Structural shapes ARRANGING LINES IN PIPEWAYS J3ENDS. Tangent length formula CHANNELS. Structural shapes CHECK VALVES - L i f t , Swing & Tilting-disc - Wafer-type CIRCLES. Diameter, Circumference & Area CONVERSIONS - Customary & Metric u n i t s - Decimals of an inch & of a foot - Millimeters/inches - Temperature: Fahrenheit/Celsius Formula: Fahrenheit, Celsuis, kelvin DECIMALS OF AN INCH & OF A FOOT DISHED HEADS. Volumes EXPANSION. Linear, of piping materials
FLANGE DATA: Flange Classes 150 - 2500 - Dimensions - Pressure/Temperature Ratings ' - Ring-joint d a t a , Welding-neck - Sl ip-on flanges on 8/W el bows FLDW OF WATER T H R O U G H SCHEDULE 40 PIPE F L O W RESISTANCE OF FITTINGS HEAT-EXCHANGER N O M E N C L A T U R E

U S units Tables S-5 Tables A - 1 Tables M-2 Tables S-5 Table V-1 Table 0-7 Table M-4 Table M-7 Table M-5 Table M-3 Table M-6 Table M-7 Table Chart M-5 T-2

Page

METRIC u n i t s
rables S-5M rables A-1M

Page

Tables S-5M Table Table

V-1M 0-7M

Tables Table Table Table Table Table Chart

F F-9 F-7 F-8 F-11 F-10


H-1

Tables Table Table Tables

FM F-9M F-7M F-8M

LAP-JOINT STUB-END: ANSI & M S S MEASUREMENTS - Areas & Volumes - Compound angles - Hypotenuse f o r 45-degree Triangles - Triangles. Formulas f o r METRIC. Introduction MILLIMETERS TO FEET & INCHES - Tables in f r a c t i o n s and decimals MITERS. Angles f o r
PAPER SIZES. Metric & American PERSONNEL CLEARANCES PIPE D A T A

Tables F Chart Chart Tables Chart


M-1 M-1 M-2 M-1

Tables FM

Tables M-3 Tab1 es M-2 Chart Chart P-2 Tables P - 1 S-6M

Tables P-1M

PART II CHARTS & TABLES BY PAGE NUMBERS Tables A-1 Table A-2 Table A-3 Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Chart Chart Tables Tables Table Table Table Table Table D-1 D-2 D-3 0-4 D-5 0-6 D-7 D-8 D-9 D-10 D-11 F-1 F-2 F-3 F-4 F-5 F-6 F-7 F-8 F-9 F-10 F-11 H-1 M-I M-2 M-3 M-4 M-5 M-6 M-7 M-8 Tables P-1M Tables A-1M Tables A-2M Tables A-3M Table D-1M Table D-2M Table 0-1M Table D-4M Table D-5M Table D-6M Table D-7M Table D-8M Table D-9M Table D-1OM Table D-11M Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table F-1M F-2M F-3M F-4M F-5M F-6M F-7M F-8M F-9M

I
77 78 78

Tables P-1 Chart P-2 Table Charts Chart Table Tables Table Chart Table S-1 S-2 5-3 S-4 S-5 T-1 T-2 V-1

97-102

Table S-4M Tables S-5M C h a r t S-6M

103 104 105

Table V-1M

106

Tables W-1 Table W-2

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Part ll tables produced by Carrneiita E. Bautista