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Chapter 9 Genetics

I) What is genetics

A) Definition: study of heredity

B) Inherited: traits passed o from parents to their young.

C) Trait: a feature that a livig thing can pass on to its


young.

D) Heredity: the passing of traits from parents to their young.

II)Mendel’s early experiments

A) Gregor Mendel – 1822-1884 – monk – laid down the foundation


for the modern study of genetics

B) Used pea plants; they have a number of contrasting traits


that can be easily distinguished.

C) Developed a number of types of lines of plants that were


pure for each of the 7 pairs of traits.

1) Pure line: a group of living things that produce young


having only one form of a …

D) Parental generation (P1):

E) Smooth + wrinkled = smooth.

F) First filial generation (F1): offspring form a paarental


cross.

G) Hybrid: offspring of two parents that differ in one or more


inherited traits.

H) Monohybrid cross: cross that involves one pair of


contrasting traits (cross of F1 hybrids)

III)Second Filial Generation

A) Mendel used letters to represent the paired genes


controlling inherited traits.

B) 2 genes in a pair may be alike = Homozygous.

1) YY or yy
C) 2 genes in a pair which are different = heterozygous.

1) Bb or Yy

D) Hybrids of F1 generation, one gene determined the


expression of a trait while the contrasting trait did not
show up.

1) Dominance: in a hybrid organism (result of F1 cross) a


gene that prevents the expression of another gene.

2) Resessive: the gene that is NOT expressed.

E) Principle of Dominance: in a hybrid organism, one gene


determines the expression of a particular trait and
prevents the expression of the contrasting form of that
trait.

1) Y = yellow

2) y = green

F) Principle of Segregation: reason why traits disappeared in


F1 generation but reappeared in F2 generatioin.

1) In any cross, each parent gave only one gene to each


gamete.

2) Genes were segregated

G) Genotype: the genetic makeup of an organism.

1) RR = round – homozygous

2) Rr = round – heterozygous

3) rr = wrinkled - homozygous

H) Phenotype: outward appearance of an organism

1) Phenotype for genotype RR or Rr is round (dominant).

I) Allele: name for a chromosome in a pair that determines a


trait’s location.

J) Test Cross: a cross showing a dominant trait but of


uncertain genotype and a homozygous for a trait.
IV)Dihybrid Cross

A) cross with TWO factors or sets of traits.

V) Principle of Independent Assortment

A) During gamete formation, the genes for one trait are


separated and distributed to the gametes independently of
the genes for other traits.

VI)Incomplete Dominance

A) A condition in which a hybrid has a phenotype (outward


appearance) between contrasting traits of its parents.

VII)Multiple Genes: more than one gene determines a trait

A) EX: Blood types