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Summary of article 1: The Extinction Is Their Goal Charitable foundations were content to write ad-hoc cheques to disparate causes.

But a new movement is gaining ground. Proponents of effective philanthropy seek to tackle the root cause of a problem, rather than just symptoms, and foster self-reliance. To see how this works on the ground, the author travelled to Cambodia and Vietnam. In Cambodia, the author found that the poor hygiene and a lack of proper sanitation facilities have taken a heavy toll. Diarrhoea, especially among children is a frequent killer. Many families lost their children to the scourge.The World Health Organization said 2.2 million people die every year because of diarrhea, which is largely caused by dirty water. Nearly a billion people do not have access to clean water worldwide, and 2.7 billion do not have access to proper toilets. Fortunately a water treatment plant has just opened in this floating village, in Cambodia. This project will purify lake water, bottle it, and sell it at lower than market prices to the lanky Cambodian. Actually the source of Cambodians good fortune lies on the Lien Foundation, a privately funded, Singaporebased philanthropic organization. During this period, the foundation gave $10.5 million to these projects, most of which are in Cambodia, Vietnam and China.The organizations chairman, Laurence Lien was on Forbes Asia list of philanthropy heroesdetermine to practice radical philanthropy. The foundation has identified three areas where it can make a concrete difference: water and sanitation, elder care and education. The water treatment plant was built in consultation with the villagers withfund from Lien, but will be owned by the local community, A local entrepreneur will operate the plant, providing jobs for locals. In that way, the project will not only help meet an urgent need providing clean water but also bolster the local economy. Besides recruiting local partners, The Lien Foundation has roped in a strong team of partners made up of various Singapore organizations. Nanyang Technological University had helped to research new technologies and deploy their applications overseas. Meanwhile, Ngee Ann polytechnic has been training sanitation experts flown in from the three countries. And multinational plastic pipe maker Borouge has also sponsored free pipes and installation services worth more than $100000. This approach of enlisting key partners, both local and foreign, makes effective philanthropy stand out.Effective philanthropy helps communities build livelihoods and be self-reliant, rather than rely on continual handouts. This will requires long-term actions to achieve the target. Although that is far harder to do but its not impossible. The global movement was spearheaded by the pioneering philanthropic behemoth, the Bill and Melinda Gates

Foundation, started by Microsoft founder Bill Gates. The Gates Foundations ambitious initiative to eradicate malaria is an example of how anyone interested in doing good can successfully work their way up the philanthropic value chain. The Foundation has moved from providing treatment for malaria to rolling out preventative education to minimizing the spread of malaria. It is now at the highest level of sophistication, where it is working to eradicate the disease worldwide.