Você está na página 1de 26

Hanger Sizing

Spring Selection Procedure in CAESAR II

Introduction

Vertical supports for deadweight piping loads are easily located and sized. Differential (thermal) growth between the support structure and the pipe complicates the support selection. A choice must be made between rigid, variable load, and constant effort restraints.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

Deadweight Only
DW

With no thermal growth, a weight analysis with a Y restraint at the support location will produce a load (DW) that can be used to size the rod.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

Deadweight Only
DW

The rod diameter is selected to carry the calculated deadweight (DW) at the support location.

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Add Thermal Effects

As pipe heats up the load on the rod shifts to the pipe, increasing the primary (and secondary) stress and increasing the anchor load.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

What If This Is Unacceptable?


The pipe may lift off the support. The support may hold the pipe down. Redistributed pipe stress may be excessive. Support loads, too, are redistributed and they may be excessive elsewhere in the system.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

A Force Can Replace That Hard Restraint


DW DW

Installed Position

Operating Position

A Perfect Support
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

How Do You Do That?

DW

DW

DW DW

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

But That May Not Be Practical


2*DW

The structure now carries twice the load Maintenance may be troublesome

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

A Constant Effort Hanger Approximates This Ideal Support

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

So Whats Wrong With That?

Constant effort supports are not cheap. They allow position drift if the load is not accurate. Internal friction requires a greater load to start movement

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Is There a Compromise?

Between a rigid restraint to carry the deadweight and an applied force to carry the deadweight through a thermal travel? Rigid support has k approaching Constant force has k approaching 0 How about a spring support and its finite k?
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

A Spring Hanger

Min. Load

Max. Load

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Only One Balance Point

You can pre-set the ideal design load (assumed DW in our example) for only one position. At other positions, the load will change as a function of the spring rate, k, and the position. This imbalance is usually acceptable.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

So we can tolerate some inaccuracy


DW
(factory preset)

DW - k
(close enough?)

Installed Position

Operating Position

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Or maybe we can be smarter about it


DW + k
(factory preset)

DW
(hits the target!)

Installed Position

Operating Position

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Introducing Hot Load and Cold Load

Hot Load (HL) is the target load which the hanger should support in the operating condition. Cold Load (CL) is the intentionally incorrect load at which the spring is pre-set, in order to get to the Hot Load after moving.

CL = HL + k
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

Load Variation

Load Variation = Load Change relative to Hot Load.

| HL CL | | k | LV = -------------- = -------HL HL
Often limited by spec, to 10-25%.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

How Can You Select the Correct Spring?


It is a matter of load and deflection. The spring size (using Grinnell terminology) indicates a range of loads that can be carried by a spring. The spring figure number (again Grinnell) relates to support travel.

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

The Grinnell Spring Table

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

10

Hanger Size vs. Load


Increasing Load

Increasing Capacity

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Recommended & Maximum Load & Travel


Min. Load Rec. Min. Load Max. Travel Rec. Max. Load Max. Load
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

Rec. Travel

11

Mid Range

Spring Travel

Short:Mid:Long::1:2:4

Short Range Long CAESAR RangeII Seminar


20 October, 2004

Spring Rates for the 3 Sizes

Short

Long
CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Mid

12

How Can Differing Travel Limits Provide the Same Load Limits?

By changing the spring rate.

(F=k)

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Relating k &

=4:2:1

k=1:2:4

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

13

How Do You Select the Correct Spring Support?


Its a matter of load and deflection. Basic input required:


Support load to be carried; Required vertical travel of the support.

Assume balancing load (DW) to be carried in the operating position. Installed load will be DW+k.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

Determine Data to Pick the Spring


1) Calculate DW by adding a rigid vertical restraint at the hanger location and run a weight analysis.

This will estimate the natural load carried by a support at each selected location It can be adjusted to suit design We usually call this the Hot Load
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

14

Determine Data to Pick the Spring


2) Calculate by replacing that Y restraint with a vertical force equal to DW and run an operating analysis.

This vertical growth, , must be less the travel range of the support This is used with the Hot Load and proposed spring rate to calculate a proposed Cold Load
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

Test the First Possible Spring

Enter the hanger table with the balance load DW and the vertical growth at the support point . Find a smallest spring size that can carry the operating load (DW). Use the k of the short range spring (highest k) of this size and see if it can carry the installed load (DW+k).
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

15

Search for the First One That Works

If both operating load and installed load are within the recommended range for the spring, a workable spring is now identified. If not, try the midrange spring of the same size (divide k by 2). If not that, try the long range spring (once again dividing the k by 2).
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

Moving to Other Figures

And if that doesnt work, move up to the next larger figure and repeat until a spring is found. If this fails, divide the support load by 2 (DW/2) and restart the selection process. This time selecting two springs to support the pipe.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

16

Variations

The pipe grows down.


Installed

is negative Cold = DW+k Hot Load > Cold Load Cold Load = DW Hot Load = DW-k

Operating Op.= DW+k

Cold load design.


Inst.=DW
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

An Example

Using the Grinnell table, select a spring that will carry the balancing load (DW) in the operating position.

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

17

Compute Data (DW)

Run a weight analysis with a rigid vertical restraint at this location. The load on this restraint will be the balancing load for the support in the operating condition. For this example, let the load (DW) be 900 lbf.

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Compute Data ()

Now remove the rigid vertical restraint and replace it with an ideal support in the form of an upward force equal to DW. Run an operating analysis with this force and compute the vertical growth at this location. For this example, let the vertical thermal growth () be +1.2 inches at this location.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

18

Go to the Table

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Find the First Spring to Carry DW Size 9


works

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

19

Whats the Spring Rate?


The short range spring rate (k) is 400 lbf./in.

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Calculate the Installed Load

Operating load is 900 lbf. Op. = DW The installed load for a short range spring is 1380 lbf. Inst. = DW+k = 900 + 400(1.2)

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

20

Check If This Spring Can Carry the Load


Maximum recommended load for a Size 9 spring is 1200 lbf.

(The table shows only 3/4 inch travel available.)

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Continue the Search

Clearly a short range spring does not work. Move to a midrange spring. kmid = kshort/2 Try k = 200 lbf./in. Inst. = DW+k = 900 + 200(1.2) Inst. = 1140 lbf. This works; max. load is 1200 lbf.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

21

Check Load Variation

It is important to minimize the load shift at supports in moving from the installed position to the operating position. This is measured by Load Variation (L.V.) Load Variation = (Inst.-Op.)/Op.
Inst.

= Installed (usually Cold) Load Op. = Operating (usually Hot) Load


CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

Using Load Variation

With DW and given, L.V. can only change as k changes. Remember that k changes by 4:2:1 in going from short to long range springs. Moving to the next longer spring will halve the Load Variation and the load need not be checked.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

22

Check Load Variation


L.V. = load change / balance load L.V. = (Inst.-Op.)/Op. or = (Cold-Hot)/Hot L.V. = k/DW L.V. = 240/900 = 27% This load variation is excessive. Move from midrange to long range spring to cut L.V. in half L.V.long = L.V.mid/2
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

Review the Selection

We have a long range (Fig. 98), size 9 spring. It will carry a balancing load of 900 lbf. in the operating position, and carry 1020 lbf. [900+(100)1.2] in the installed position. The load variation for this spring is an acceptable 13.5%.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

23

CAESAR II Listing

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

Check the Spring Capacity


Maximum recommended load = 1200 Minimum recommended load = 700 At 900-1020, we are in the middle; OK

CAESAR II Seminar

20 October, 2004

24

Actual Installed Load

Spring support balances the design load (DW) in the operating position. This is the Hot Load Typically, the Theoretical Installed Load is DW+k. This is out of balance. The Actual Installed Load is a separate calculation to check for hanger deflection due to this imbalance.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

Actual Installed Load

Most spring hangers have little difference between the Theoretical and Actual Installed Load. A flexible system or a large load variation will cause the Actual Installed Load to differ. Look at the restraint loads in the installed position to check or run the extra load case in hanger design.
CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

25

CAESAR II Hanger Data


Node Info.

Design Data

Defined Hanger Data


CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

You can modify the support load


Set your own Hot Load

Shift load from existing supports


CAESAR II Seminar 20 October, 2004

26