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bolting or welding the balance weight to reduce the unbalance. 3. Balancing Rotating Machines When any machine was assembled at the site, it must be working at its best efficiency so that the work could progress smoothly. If the eccentric or unbalanced mass in the rotating part or the rotor was presence, it might reduce the efficiency of the machine because the machine will start to vibrate and making noise when the vibration is exceeding the acceptable level. Rao (2011) [4] in his Mechanical Vibrations book emphasized that unbalance could be eliminated by adding an equal mass in such a position that it cancels the effect of it. This method might be useful if the amount and location of the unbalance is known. One of the causes for unbalance is the manufacturing error. This could be due to machines attributes such as density, porosity, error in bolts size, nuts, rivets and welds. Moreover, the unbalance might also cause by assembly and installation errors. Example given by Benaroya and Nagurka (2010) to illustrate the unbalance is the effect of automobile tire. Tire needed to be balanced to prevent form periodic forces develop during operation. The balancing is performed on a machine that rotates the tire at a very high speed and calculates the magnitude and location of the unbalance. When the magnitude and location is known, small leads of mass with suitable weight are attached on the tire. This procedure was repeated until the unbalance was eliminated. On the other hand, Rao (2011) mentioned that static unbalance can be determined by placing the shaft on two low friction bearings as shown in Figure 1. Rotate the disc until it comes to rest and then mark the lowest point on the circumference of the disc. Repeat the process and if the same location was marked again, the disc can be concluded as unbalance. If it is balanced, the mark will be randomly distributed on the disc. This procedure is known as static unbalance or single-plane unbalance.

1. Abstract


Muhamad Hanif Muqsit bin Azhar 13185 Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS - Mechanical Engineering

The aim of this project is to determine the procedures and methods that could be used in order to handle the unbalance of rotors. Problems in any machines could be prevented if the rotors are well designed in terms of its balancing and therefore the vibrations of the system are reduced. Several methods and examples are taken from the credited sources and the summary of them are combined in this project to produce the technique of how to balance a rotor. 2. Introduction The simplest meaning to understand what is rotor is any moving or rotating part that played as a main function in motors and generators. Since rotor is the main function in machines, it is crucial to prevent it from the imperfections in the manufacture of a rotating machine. According to Benaroya and Nagurka (2010) [1] in their book entitled Mechanical Vibration analysis, uncertainties, and control, imperfections can be classified as a heavy point of a machine because if there is unbalanced mass, cracking and failure might occurred since it can create unwanted stress that will grow higher when the rotating speed is increasing. The speed at which the failure occurred is term as the burst speed. Meanwhile based on Wikipedia website, rotating unbalanced is described as the uneven distribution of mass around rotation axis. Benaroya and Nagurka (2010) mentioned that the unbalanced force will distort the rotor and would cause the rotor motion to couple to the stationary structure that supports it. The supporting is caused by a bearing. The stationary structure received the unbalanced force when the bearing heats up in the rotating system. Usually, a large and heavy rotor is not really insensitive to unbalance because of its huge inertia and meanwhile the light rotor is more susceptible due to small inertia and need to rebalance more often. There are three types of unbalance which are static unbalance, couple unbalance as described before and dynamic unbalance. Static unbalance often occurs when the mass or the inertia is parallel to the shaft axis while dynamic unbalance happens due to intersection of mass or inertia with the axis of rotation. Besides that, rotor could be classified into two groups, one is rigid rotor and the other one is the flexible rotor. To handle the unbalance, usually it involves removing or adding the weight to the component. The most common method is adding the weight to the light position on the component by

Figure 1: Static unbalance of a disc. (Rao, 2011)

This type of unbalanced can be corrected by drilling to remove the weight of the component or by adding a weight at 180 away from the marks. Moreover, this method also called single-plane because the amount of the weight should be added or removed is based on trial and error. The unbalance force can be measured by rotating the disc at a known speed , radius of the disc r, then the centrifugal force will be . The reactions are , Rao (2011) also gave a brief explanation on two plane unbalance or dynamic unbalance. The single plane method can only be used for the rotors with rigid disc, while two plane is for an elongated rigid rotor as shown in Figure 2.

The equivalent unbalanced masses which are and can be added at the end of the rotor as shown in Figure 3(b). The forces exerted on the rotor by these masses are and with the equivalent force of

While the equivalent moments are considered at the right end so that

Solving the equivalent force and the equivalent moment, it gives and . 4. Whirling of Rotating Shafts Most of the mechanical applications and machines involve the rotating shafts or rotor that carrying disc. On some occasions, the shaft might be working under violent vibration. Meirovitch (1986) [3] in his Element of Vibration analysis book explained that if the shaft has some eccentricity or unbalanced, centrifugal force will be produced by the rotation shaft and causing the bent shaft about the bearings axis is known as whirling.

Figure 2: Dynamic unbalanced. (Rao, 2011) To figure out the unbalanced mass of the rotor, the equivalent unbalanced masses can be added in any of the two planes. Assume a rotor with unbalanced mass m at a distance of from the right end as in Figure 3. The force due to unbalance will be when the rotor was rotated at a speed of and R is the radius of the rotor.

Figure 4: Whirling phenomenon on shaft. (Benaroya et al., 2010) From Figure 4 above, the shaft is rotating with constant speed that is relative to the inertial axes x and y. The shaft is supported at the both end with mass m at the center. This system consists of infinite number of degrees of freedom due to the shafts distributed mass. When the mass of the shaft is small relative to the mass of the disc, the displacement in x and y can be described as a motion of the system. This is quite similar to two plane unbalance but the x and y motions are independent and the solution can be calculated as for two systems with one degree of freedom each. Having said that, Benaroya and Nagurka (2010) indicated the disc cross sectional area as in Figure 5 below, where is the disc center of mass and is the geometrical center of the shaft. The distance between these two are the unbalanced or eccentricity , caused by the imperfections in the disc itself.

Figure 3: Representation of two equivalent masses. (Rao, 2011)

In the case of , therefore with , the equations of motion above can be added into complex parameterized equation, ( ) ( )

By using Eulers formula definition, the equation becomes Figure 5: Cross section of the eccentric disc. (Benaroya et al., 2010) Where The eccentricity is zero if the disc is perfect. Theoretically, the shaft does not having vibration at any speed but the whirling behavior may still occur because of the shaft imperfections. The position vectors are defined as the following ( |= where x and j are the unit vectors, is the rotational speed and = t. The angular position of by angle , and the rotation speed of the plane formed by the bent shaft and its axis denoted as . The governing equations of motions in the x and y directions are ( ( ) ) 5. Helicopter Rotor where and is the support stiffness in the respective directions. These two governing equations are uncoupled, and each of them is independent in theory. Move on with derivatives on the left hand side where is a function of time . ( ( Some example for the balancing of rotors in application is in helicopter. This example was taken from Vertical Aviation Technologies Inc. to discuss about how the company overcome the noise problem in the helicopters rotor. According to Clark (1998) [2], the president of the company himself stated that his company had designed a five-bladed helicopter rotor that makes one-third less noise than any other conventional three bladed helicopters. At the beginning of the company in 1988, the first product of the company is a helicopter kit consisting of a Sikorsky helicopter body with an aluminum block Chevrolet engine. Then, they took Sikorsky S-55 which is the larger version of their first product and replaced its piston engine with a Garret TSE33110 turbine engine. This engine produce much quitter noise compared to the others three bladed rotor at that time. This model is the main starting point to the company to design a helicopter specifically built for quitter than normal operation. This is because of competitive advantage could be gained in the market since most of helicopter manufacturers have never addressed the noise reduction challenge. ) ( )

The critical flexural speed is defined as the speed at which the frequency of rotation equals the natural frequency of the undamped system case. The previous equation can be recast if the z represents the rotation of the plane of the bent shaft about the bearing axis as ( ( Subcritical range, Supercritical range, If damping is added into the system, there is some possibility that unstable system could occurs when the energy is fed into the system by the damping. ) )

Two of the equations above would become as follow if assumption made as is constant and there is synchronous . whirl with and ( ( ) )

And dividing by m, the equations of motion are

The companys engineers made three major modifications on the Sikorsky S-55 model. The first modification was putting acoustic panels made of 0.5 inches deep honey comb material into the plenum where air enters the engine. Noise from engine compressor could be reduced by the inserted 0.5 inches chamber. Besides, the engineers also inserted a silencer on the exhaust system. This silencer function is same as the acoustic panel but it has deeper channels to silence the lower frequencies of the exhaust. Final modification was switching from a three bladed into five bladed rotor system. Five bladed rotor systems quieter because of several points: 1. Distributes the weight of the helicopter across more blades. 2. The blades cut through air with lower pitch angle due to lower loads.

6. Conclusion As a conclusion, the unbalance in rotors could be reduced by many methods and solutions depend on the type of the rotors. The vibration and noise in any mechanical application could be reduced if the rotor was kept in balance, and therefore it could help to increase the working efficiency. 7. References [1] Benaroya, H. & Nagurka, M.L.(2010). Mechanical Vibrations Analysis, Uncertainties, and Control 3rd edition. United States of America: CRC Press. Clark, B. (1998). Helicopter manufacturer test blade performance by attaching self-contained data collection system to rotor during flight. Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Volume 70 Number 3,206-208. Meirovitch, L.(1986). Elements of Vibrations Analysis 2nd edition. United States of America: McGraw Hill. Rao, S.S. (2011). Mechanical Vibrations 5th edition in SI Units. Singapore: Prentice Hall. Rotating Machinery Rotor Balancing. Retrieved April 13, 2013 from http://www.lifetimereliability.com Rotating Unbalance. Retrieved April 13, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotating_unbalance What is balancing? Retrieved April 13, 2013 from http://www.universal-balancing.com/en/balancinginformation/what-is-balancing

[2] For example, gross weight of a three bladed helicopter is 7200 pounds which each of the three blade need to carry 2400 pounds. Meanwhile, with five bladed systems each blade only carries 1440 pounds so it can operate at a lower pitch angle and reduces noise level. [3]





Figure 6: Five bladed rotor of helicopter. (Clark, 1998) Several tests had been conducted to prove that strain level for the five bladed system were equal to, or less than the conventional three bladed. From all the analysis and tests being done on the prototype, it was confirmed that the stress on the five bladed rotor were lower than those on the three bladed. Each blade in five bladed system had 40% less blade loading and reduction in vibration from 0.1-0.02g. Recorded noise level from ground microphone confirmed that the modified S-55 was much quieter than its competition.