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Next Topic: Gear Failures

November 8, 2010

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Gears
Advantages of using gears high power to size ratio, rigid, no slip, accurate low expense for the amount of torque transmitted can run at high speeds Disadvantages require lubrication require precise alignment can be quite noisy
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Gears

Example Gearbox Monitoring Application


Helicopter Gearbox Health Monitoring
These gearboxes operate at near peak capacity Critical application and failure mode Significant amount of industry interest

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Gears Automotive Transmission


Contains planetary gear arrangement

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Gears

Planetary Reduction Gearbox

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Gears

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Gears

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Gears Parallel Shaft Arrangement

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Gears

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Types of Gears
Spur gears:
used in parallel shaft boxes straight teeth parallel to gear shaft axis contact along entire length of tooth two pairs in contact for 1/2 the time, one pair in contact for 1/2 the time maximum stress capability limited by capability of individual teeth variation in tooth profile (poor design, manufacturing, deflection) occurs across the entire tooth this may cause very high tooth mesh frequency vibration

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Types of Gears
Helical gears:
cylindrical gears with spiral (helical) teeth teeth cut on parallel axis line of contact is a slanting line contact starts at one end of the tooth and goes to the other smooth running due to averaging effect on tooth profile errors higher stress capacity (higher loads) axial force developed due to slanting line of contact (may cause high axial vibration) lower radial vibration. double helix (herring bone) axial thrusts cancel
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Types of Gears
Worm gears: screw thread teeth lots of sliding wear non-intersecting (right angle) shafts high gear ratio

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Types of Gears

Bevel gears: conical in shape intersecting shaft axes straight, axially aligned teeth low ratio right angle drives spiral bevel - equivalent to helical gears
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Gear Failures
Pitting Scuffing Tooth breakage Tooth damage Cracking General wear However, the most common failure mode in a gearbox is associated with bearing failure Other problems: Alignment, eccentricity, manufacturing defects

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Gear Failures

Local high spot causes uneven wear


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Gear Failures

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Gear Failures

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Gears Failures
age overloading of the gearbox lack of proper lubrication and contamination of lubricants (all problems which can be mitigated using established methods such as oil particle analysis, proactive lubricant changes and other preventative methods). Material and manufacturing defects can also lead to premature gear failures
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Condition Monitoring of Gears Oil Analysis


Ferrographic analysis Different types of faults result in specific types of particles Size or shape can reveal the fault type

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Condition Monitoring of Gears Vibration Analysis


Torsional Vibration
Oscillation of shaft relative to casing at input &/or output shafts Can be a better detection and diagnostic tool Difficult to instrument

Bump Test
Mechanical changes in gear shape can influence resonant frequencies

Gearbox Casing Vibration


Most common method

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Condition Monitoring of Gears


Obtain Drawing or Draw Sketch of Gearbox Calculate
Gear-meshing Frequencies Shaft Speed Frequencies
Frequenc y 269.2 Hz 19 Hz 38.8 Hz

Characteristic Input Pinion Gear Mesh Frequency Planet Gear Mesh Frequency Sun Gear Mesh Frequency

Symbol Finputpin-gm Fplanet-gm Fsun-gm

Planet Passing Frequency Swing Pinion Gear Mesh

Fplt pass

1.5 Hz 6.3 Hz

Fswing-gm

Selected Gearbox Frequencies at 950 RPM Input


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Condition Monitoring of Gears


Schematic diagram of a double-reduction gearbox
GM 1553.5 Hz 26T

3585 RPM

31T 101T 97T

923 RPM

GM 476.8 Hz

295 RPM

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Condition Monitoring of Gears


Meshing frequency calculations Given input shaft speed = 3,585 RPM Intermediate shaft speed = (3,585 RPM) [(26 T)/101 T] = 923 RPM Output shaft speed = 923 x 31T/97T=295 RPM High-speed gear mesh = 3,585 RPM x 26T = 93,210 CPM (1,553.5 Hz) Low-speed gear mesh = 922.87 RPM x 31 T = 28,609 CPM (476.8 Hz)
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Condition Monitoring of Gears


Frequency Range
Choose accelerometer suitable for expected Gear-mesh Frequency

Measurement Direction
Radial for Spur Gears Axial for gears that are loaded in axial direction

Measurement Location
As close to gear of interest as possible Consider transmission path of vibration Typically near bearing housing

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Vibration Transducer Location


Load zone measurement locations

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Gears
Difficulties Interpreting Gear Vibrations Often difficult to measure close to the gear of interest Poor signal to noise ratio due to other vibration sources: Other gears Bearings, adjacent machines, couplings etc. Debris passing through gears noise may not indicate a faulty gearbox noise increases when: transmission error increases, frequency of operation increases, tooth load increases, # of gears increases

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Gears
Factors (other than faults) Influencing Gear Vibrations Speed
Influences amplitude Influences frequency

Loading
Influences amplitude Gears must be loaded to transmit vibration Beware of backlash condition

Must be considered when analyzing signals

Ideal condition for measurement:


Steady load and steady speed
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Gears
Duty plays a major role in the vibration signal. Ex: Excavator Swing Transmission Vibration
Full Acceleration Full Deceleration (Braking) Backlash Coast Digging Dumping Idling

Full Bucket

Highest torque

Highest torque

Transition between reversing Light Load / Unloaded Transition between reversing Light Load / Unloaded

Low torque / backlash

Nominal or No load

Empty Bucket

High torque

High torque

Low torque / backlash

No load

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Gears Influence of Speed

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Gears
Gear-meshing Orders During Speed Ramp Up

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Gears
Influence of Load on Gear Signal
Load applied here

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Gears Duty Influence on Amplitude

Steady Acceleration Backlash Deceleration Coasting In ideal situation, monitor during steady load and speed
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Gears

Gear Vibration Analysis


Time Domain Frequency Domain Time-Frequency Domain

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Gears
Principal vibration frequencies: gear shaft bearing characteristic defect frequencies (and harmonics) rotational speed and harmonics (for both gear shafts) gear mesh frequency (# of teeth times shaft rotational frequency) harmonics of gear mesh side bands of gear mesh or harmonics (primary frequency + or - shaft speeds) wobble of the gear (disk resonance) tooth / shaft resonance bearing deflections due to loading on teeth
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Gears Time Domain Analysis Individual tooth faults result in peaks in the time waveform
At location of defect Kurtosis is a good indicator

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Vibration Signal Frequency Analysis (FFT)


Time domain averaging for Gear Vibration Allows defect to be accentuated efficient data reduction method (N segments down to 1) reduces random noise suitable for periodic/repetitive signals a trigger is necessary to mark the start of each segment
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Gears
Gearbox faults and symptoms
Fault eccentric gears gear-mesh wear Frequency gear mesh gear mesh Spectrum Time Waveform gear mesh with sidebands at frequency of eccentric gear gear mesh with sidebands at frequency or worn, scored, or pitted gear(s); sometimes , 1/3, harmonics of gear mesh gear mesh with orders and sidebands at frequency of pinion or gear pulses in time waveform; natural frequencies in spectrum gear mesh and orders in spectrum; varying gear-mesh amplitude in time waveform shaft frequency plus low-amplitude orders

improper backlash of end float

gear mesh

broken, cracked, or natural chipped gear teeth frequencies gearbox distortion gear mesh and/or natural frequencies

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Gears
Gear-mesh problems are attributed to uneven wear, improper backlash, scoring, and eccentricity. The characteristics in the spectrum are the appearance of gear-mesh with sidebands at the frequency of the speed of the faulty shaft. Badly worn gears will show multiples of gearmesh frequency with sidebands.

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Gears

Gear Spectrum
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Gears

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Gears
Gear spectra for specific faults: Normal

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Gears
Gear spectra for specific faults: Normal

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Gear Failures

Normal gear set frequency spectra peaks are symmetrical (paired and equal)
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Gears
Gear spectra for specific faults: Normal (changing load)

Unloaded gear sets have much higher vibration levels than loaded gear sets
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Gears
Gear spectra for specific faults: Normal (changing load)

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Gears
Excessive Tooth Load

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Gears
Tooth wear

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Gears
Tooth wear

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Gears
Tooth wear

Gear tooth wear or excessive clearance changes sideband spacing


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Gears
Gear eccentricity and backlash

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Gears
Gear Eccentricity and Backlash

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Gears
Gear misalignment

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Gears
Gear Misalignment

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Gears
Cracked or broken gear tooth

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Gears
Cracked or Broken Teeth

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Gears
Cracked or Broken Teeth

A broken tooth may produce an asymmetrical sideband profile


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Gears
Cracked or Broken Teeth

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Gears
Gear Loose Fit

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Gears
Gear Assembly Problem

GAPF Gear Assembly Phase Frequency


(defines groups of teeth that come into contact during meshing)
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Gears
Gear Hunting Tooth Problem
Special tooth repeat problem on gear sets. A mating flaw on one faulty gear tooth and one faulty pinion tooth match up once every few revolutions. NA = Assembly Phase Factor defines the timing when given sets of teeth will come into repeated contact with one another. FHT frequency of Hunting Tooth = GMF x NA TGear x TPinion
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November 8, 2010

Gears
Gear Hunting Tooth Problem

FHT frequency of Hunting Tooth = NA = Assembly Phase Factor


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GMF x NA TGear x TPinion


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Gears
Gear Hunting Tooth Problem

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Gears (Background)
adjacent teeth on the same gear should share the same normal to common tangent a single line is normal to the common tangent at two adjacent contact points and this line passes through the pitch point all pitch points are in the centre of teeth when joined they form the pitch circle

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Gears (Background)
Geartooth shape involute curve curve traced by the end of a tight string as it is unwound from the circumference of a circle small errors in centre to centre distance do not violate meshing action low noise and vibration levels can be expected from gearboxes that have been well designed and manufactured

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Gears (Background)
Some definitions: Pitch circle diameter: diameter of pitch circle Diametrical pitch: # of gear teeth divided by the pitch circle diameter. Circular pitch: distance between teeth on the circumference of the pitch circle Normal pitch: distance along the normal to the common tangent between successive tooth surfaces Base circle diameter: diameter of circle from which involute curve is generated.
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Gears (Background)
Gear ratio: ratio of # of teeth on each gear.
# teeth driven gear ratio = # teeth driver

Lead: distance of travel axially along a helical gear for one tooth to rotate through 360. Line of action: distance along the normal to the common tangent during which one tooth is in contact with one tooth on the other gear Backlash: the clearance between the adjacent teeth when two teeth are in contact
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Gears (Background)
Working depth: radial distance from the point of tip contact on one tooth to the tip of the contacted tooth Contact ratio: average number of pairs of teeth that are theoretically in contact Addendum: difference between the pitch circle radius and the radius of the outside diameter Dedendum: difference between the radius of the root circle and the radius of the pitch circle

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Gears (Background)
Gear teeth in contact

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Gears (Background)

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Gears (Background)
Pitch circle

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Gears (Background)
Gearboxes generate high-frequency vibrations as a result of the gear-meshing function of the gear. The greater the number of gear teeth the smoother is the performance of the box. Gear-mesh frequencies with sidebands at operating speeds identify wear and gearbox distortion. Gear-mesh problems are attributed to uneven wear, scoring and eccentricity. Both axial and radial measurements can be used.
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Vibration Transducer Location


Load zone measurement locations

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Belt Drives

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Belt Drives

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Belt Drives

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Belt Drives

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Belt Drives

Frequency spectra showing resonance excited by a belt defect frequency


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Belt Drives

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Next Time
Machinery Vibration Testing and Trouble Shooting Fault Diagnostics Based on Forcing Functions Fault Diagnostics Based on Specific Machine Components Fault Diagnostics Based on Specific Machine Types Automatic Diagnostics Techniques Non-Vibration Based Machine Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis Methods
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