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PART A: BOYLES LAW Data Processing: X: If the height of mercury in opened end tube is higher than the closed

end tube. Y: If the height of mercury in opened end tube is lower than the closed end tube.

Volume of gas = Height of gas Vg = hg Pressure of gas = P P = Px = Patm Phg = Patm + (Px1 Px2) Volume of gas = Height of gas V = hg = k x2

Pressure of gas = P P = Py = Patm Phg = Patm (Py1 Py2) Volume of gas = Height of gas V = hg = k- y2

(Px1 Px2) difference in height (Py1 Py2) 0.00 0.90 1.70 4.90 7.10

P, pressure of gas 72.915 73.815 74.615 68.015 65.815

V, volume of gas 16.8 18.0 18.3 15.2 15.4

PV 1224.972 1328.670 1365.455 1033.828 1013.551

From the above data, two sets of graphs can be obtained. The first graph is the plot of P versus V; the second is the plot of P versus 1/V
P versus V
23.5 23 22.5
30 25 20 15 10 5 0

P versus 1/V

22 21.5 21 24.5 25 25.5 26 26.5 27







Conclusion: From the results obtained, it is concluded that pressure decreases as the volume increases, at constant temperature. Discussion: 1. Since the diameter of the tube is assumed to be constant, the volume of gas sample height of gas column. 2. The apparatus used by Boyle in this experiment was very simple. The pressure exerted on the gas by the mercury level is adjusted so that the level is equally the same in both of the tube hand. Thus it is equal to the atmospheric pressure. Note that the tube is open at the top and it is therefore exposed to atmospheric pressure. As the opened end tube is moved further up, there is an increase in the pressure on the gas sample. This subsequently decreases the volume occupied by the gas. By moving up the opened end further (which increases the pressure), the volume occupied by the gas sample continues to decrease. 3. The shape of the graph for the P versus V should be of a half-meniscus line approaching V (X-axis) but the graph obtained was not perfect due to certain errors and limitation occurred while undergoing the experiment. To overcome the problems many improvements can be adapted.

Evaluation: Limitation Recommendation While conducting the experiment the Fold the rubber tube that needs to be closed end tube is not really air tight screwed. Instead of that, put any other causes leakage to happen. Thus the thing at the end of the rubber tube in order experiment results are not accurate. to decrease chances for outside air from getting into the tube. The ruler provided was not in the good Replaced the traditional wooden ruler with condition as there was certain figure that the latest one that made from plastic or has already disappeared. metal. It is more practical as they are in the good condition. Hence better result can be obtained.

PART B: CHARLES LAW Data Processing: Source Ice + methanol Ice Water Pipe water Warm water Temperature, T (C) 28.0 10.1 50.0 27.0 Height, h (mm) 80.0 74.0 87.0 79.0 T + 273.15 301.2 283.3 323.2 300.2 V/T 0.266 0.261 0.269 0.263

Conclusion: 1. From the result obtained we can conclude that volume is proportional to the temperature, the pressure being a constant. 2. The absolute zero from the graph is -270 C. Discussion: 1. The diameter of the tube is assumed to be a constant, therefore the relation between them are volume of gas sample height of the column. 2. The absolute zero is theoretically the lowest temperature achievable, which is -273.15C. The absolute zero is the starting point of the Kelvin temperature scale, K. 3. The absolute zero value is not accurately obtained to be -273.15 C, but is instead -270.0 C. This is caused by certain errors and limitations that occurred while doing the experiment. Many improvements can be adapted to the experiment to overcome the problems. Evaluation: Limitation While measuring the height of gas, the glass tube has to be taken out from the solution. This might cause changes of the height as the temperature changed and will result to an inaccurate result It is impossible to keep the temperature maintained while the mercury plug is still moving using the manual method, especially for temperatures that are higher than room temperature. Recommendation Carry out the procedure by taking the reading as soon as the glass tube is taken out from the solution. Avoid any possible delay while taking the readings. Use the electronic water bath to for the temperatures that are higher than room temperature rather than using manual water bath. It is because the temperature is digitally controlled and maintained by electronic device. The accuracy is higher.

PART C: IDEAL GAS LAW Data Processing: Measurements Mass of flask + foil + rubber band Mass of flask + foil + rubber band + condensate Mass of condensate, m Temperature of boiling water, T Barometer reading, P Volume of the flask, V Readings 67.2117 0.0001 g 67.3627 0.0001 g 0.1510 0.0001 g 100.00 0.1C 72.915 0.001 cm Hg 105 1 ml

In order to calculate the RMM of the unknown, the ideal gas equation can be used which is as below:

PV = nRT and it is known that n = ,

Manipulation of the equation gives:
PV =

m M

m RT M


P = Pressure, atm V = volume, dm3 m = the mass, g M = molar mass R = the molar gas constant; 0.082 atmdm3 K-1 mol-1 or 8.314 JK-1 mol-1 T = temperature, K

Before substituting the values, they must be converted to the proper units of measurement first. The table below shows the conversion of the values: Old Unit Value T = 100 C + 273.15 P = 72.915cmHg x 1atm 76cmHg New Unit Value T = 373.15 K P = 0.9594 atm

V = 105cm3 x 1dm3 1000

V = 0.105 dm3

The RMM is;

M = mRT PV

= (0.510g)(0.082atm dm3K-1mol-1)(373K) (0.9544atm)(0.105dm3)

Conclusion: The RMM of the unknown can be found by using the ideal gas law equation. Therefore the relative molecular mass for the unknown is 45.847g mole-1. The unknown substance is predicted to be ethanol (46.02g mole-1). Discussion: The ideal gas equation shows the relationship among the four variables P (pressure), V (volume), T (temperature) and n (number of moles). An ideal gas is a theoretical gas of which the pressure-volume-temperature behaviour can be completely accounted for by the equation. The molecules of an ideal gas do not attract or repel each other, and their volume is small (often negligible) compared to the volume of the container. Though ideal gas does not occur practically, discrepancies in the behaviour of real gases over a reasonable temperature and pressure ranges do not affect calculations. The unknown substance is identified as ethanol.