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2 edio

Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

SOMESB
Sociedade Mantenedora de Educao Superior da Bahia S/C Ltda.

Presidente
Vice-Presidente
Superintendente Administrativo e Financeiro
Superintendente de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extenso

Gervsio Meneses de Oliveira


William Oliveira
Samuel Soares
Germano Tabacof

Superintendente de Desenvolvimento e>>


Planejamento Acadmico Pedro Daltro Gusmo da Silva

FTC - EaD
Faculdade de Tecnologia e Cincias - Ensino a Distncia

Coord. de Softwares e Sistemas


Coord. de Telecomunicaes e Hardware
Coord. de Produo de Material Didtico
Diretor Geral
Diretor Acadmico
Diretor de Tecnologia
Gerente Acadmico
Gerente de Ensino
Gerente de Suporte Tecnolgico

Waldeck Ornelas
Roberto Frederico Merhy
Reinaldo de Oliveira Borba
Ronaldo Costa
Jane Freire
Jean Carlo Nerone
Romulo Augusto Merhy
Osmane Chaves
Joo Jacomel

EQUIPE DE ELABORAO/PRODUO DE MATERIAL DIDTICO:

PRODUO ACADMICA

Gerente de Ensino Jane Freire


Autores (as) Jussiara Gonzaga e Clese Correia
Superviso Ana Paula Amorim

PRODUO TCNICA

Reviso Final Carlos Magno


Equipe Ana Carolina Alves, Cefas Gomes, Delmara Brito,
Fbio Gonalves, Francisco Frana Jnior, Israel Dantas, Lucas
do Vale e Marcus Bacelar
Editorao Delmara Brito dos Santos
Ilustrao Francisco Frana Jnior
Imagens Corbis/Image100/Imagemsource
copyright

FTC EaD

Todos os direitos reservados e protegidos pela Lei 9.610 de 19/02/98.


proibida a reproduo total ou parcial, por quaisquer meios, sem autorizao prvia, por escrito,
da FTC EaD - Faculdade de Tecnologia e Cincias - Ensino a Distncia.
www.ftc.br/ead

Sumrio

FUNDAMENTOS DA ABORDAGEM INSTRUMENTAL 0 7


ESTRATGIAS DE LEITURA

Background Knowledge: Ativando o Conhecimento Prvio


Prediction: Antecipando Informaes
Skimming: Explorando os Recursos
Scanning: Buscando Informaes Especficas
Atividades Complementares

NVEIS DE LEITURA

09

10
11
1 3
1 3

14
14

23

23

16
18
20
22

07

A Leitura Crtica
A Inteno do Autor
A opinio do Leitor
Comparao Texto / Realidade
Atividades Complementares
Atividade Orientada
Glossrio
Textos complementares
Referncias

AVALIANDO O TEXTO

SISTEMATIZANDO AS INFORMAES

O LEITOR EFICIENTE

Compreenso Detalhada
Detalhes Importantes e Secundrios
Esquemas de Texto
Resumos de Texto
Atividades Complementares

Lexical Guessing: Inferindo Significados


Uso do Dicionrio
Compreenso de Pontos Principais
Pargrafos Introdutrio e Conclusivo
Atividades Complementares

23
24
25
26
27

29

29
30
31
32
34
35
41
42
49

Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

Caro(a) Aluno(a),
Welcome to the world of English text reading!
Diz-se que quando lemos, as possibilidades de ampliar os nossos
horizontes se expandem. Podemos no s compreender melhor o nosso meio,
como tambm transform-lo, abrindo novos caminhos, despertando todas as
nossas faculdades mentais que ainda estejam latentes, pelo fato de estarmos
desvelando algo que era, por ns, desconhecido.
Portanto, nosso foco, nesta disciplina, ser a leitura e compreenso de
textos em lngua estrangeira como um processo ativo, com base no desenvolvimento
de estratgias globais de leitura, necessrias para que voc possa alcanar a
competncia que lhe permitir o acesso literatura acadmica, sugerida pelas
diversas disciplinas do seu curso.
O mdulo est dividido em dois grandes blocos temticos:
Fundamentos da Abordagem Instrumental e O Leitor Eficiente, cada bloco
ser trabalhado durante duas semanas e sero subdivididos em quatro temas:
Estratgias de Leitura, Nveis de Leitura, Sistematizando a Leitura e
Avaliando o Texto. Alm dos textos apresentados como exemplificaes das
estratgias, este mdulo apresenta uma seleo de textos complementares que
devero ser utilizados de acordo com o seu interesse e necessidade.
Esperamos que este material didtico promova a dedicao e o entusiasmo
necessrios ao seu aprendizado, bem como o seu aprimoramento pessoal e
profissional.
Desejo-lhe disposio, compromisso e muitas realizaes.
Lets go for it!

Professora Jussiara Gonzaga

Apresentao da Disciplina

O ensino da Lngua Inglesa, que vem sendo efetuado nas salas


de aula das escolas brasileiras, reclama urgentes modificaes. Para
comear, pode-se partir da viso do aluno cidado, o que h de
favorecer a percepo de que a aprendizagem dessa lngua pode
viabilizar um engajamento discursivo desse ser humano de forma mais
consciente e coerente com as exigncias de um mundo social, cada
vez mais diversificado e complexo.
Nesse sentido, urge a necessidade de se desenvolver um curso
que priorize a formao de futuros professores de Lngua Estrangeira,
atendendo a tais exigncias, sobretudo quando se pretende
desenvolver uma concepo terico-prtico-metodolgica
referendada pelos Parmetros Curriculares Nacionais.
Com essa finalidade, a abordagem de ensino denominada
ESP (English for Specific Purposes), voltada para a leitura e
compreenso de textos, a indicada. Esta baseia-se no pressuposto
de que a aprendizagem da lngua inglesa um instrumento para se
atingir os objetivos especficos, e no um fim em si mesma, sendo
por este motivo tambm chamada de Ingls Instrumental.
Desta forma, o educando estuda a Lngua Inglesa porque
precisa da lngua com a finalidade de estudo ou trabalho, e a
abordagem instrumental busca atender, por sua vez, necessidade e
interesse premente do aluno.

Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

FUNDAMENTOS DA ABORGAGEM
INSTRUMENTAL
ESTRATGIAS DE LEITURA
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Adapted from Strategies that Work by Stephanie Harvey
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http://www.mtnbrook.k12.al.us/academy/5thgrade/tools/s
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What is a
Reading Strategy ?

A strategy is a tool that helps people.


Reading strategies are tools that help us understand what we read. When you
need to hang a picture, you use tools such as a hammer and a nail. Those tools
are essential for the picture to hang correctly on the wall. We need tools to help
us in our reading.
When we learn how to use more tools, our reading understanding will improve.

Uma leitura eficiente pressupe a aplicao prtica de estratgias ou tcnicas de


forma gradual, correspondendo aos nveis seqenciados do processo de compreenso de
textos: compreenso geral, que diz respeito ao reconhecimento do tpico e do
encaminhamento que o autor d a esse tpico; compreenso dos pontos principais, que se
refere compreenso das idias principais do texto; e compreenso detalhada, que prev
a percepo dos detalhes que desenvolvem as idias principais.
Com a finalidade de compreender o texto a um nvel geral, o leitor poder, inicialmente,
levantar hipteses referentes ao contedo do texto, com base nos seus recursos no-lineares
(ttulo, ilustraes, legendas, grficos, dados bibliogrficos, sinais
tipogrficos e gnero textual).
Podemos comparar esta estratgia a uma situao comum,
quando vamos, por exemplo, ao cinema, olhamos o cartaz do filme
que vamos assistir, e deduzimos o que vai acontecer.
O prximo passo realizar uma leitura superficial do texto,
atentando para as palavras que despertem a sua ateno, ou por
j fazerem parte do seu repertrio, ou por se assemelharem s
correspondentes em sua lngua materna, ou por se repetirem ao
longo do texto.
Neste caso, ns assistimos ao filme e confirmamos, ou no,
o que deduzimos ou o que antecipamos com relao ao seu
contedo.
Foto Divulgao
7

Algumas vezes, fazemos um


outro tipo de leitura superficial, que
aquela realizada apenas para buscar
informaes especficas.
Princpios da
A ento, voc encontra um
Lngua Inglesa amigo curioso que no assistiu ao filme,
ainda, e comea a fazer uma srie de
perguntas acerca das cenas do filme e voc procura se
lembrar, apenas remetendo-se s partes que esto sendo
questionadas.
Alcanar cada um dos nveis de leitura depende,
ento, do objetivo do leitor, do
seu conhecimento da lngua e
do assunto tratado no texto.
Cabe, portanto, ao leitor
decidir, com autonomia, quais
estratgias devero ser
utilizadas, a depender do texto
e do seu propsito ao l-lo.
Analisando a leitura de
textos em uma lngua estrangeira, verifica-se que todo o
conhecimento lingstico e textual que o leitor j possui: as suas
experincias com vrios gneros textuais; o seu conhecimento
com relao estrutura de textos e de pargrafos; e o domnio
das leis de combinao de sua lngua
materna, pode tornar a tarefa de ler um texto em uma lngua estrangeira
muito mais fcil.
importante destacar que chamamos TEXTO toda unidade
lingstica com sentido e intencionalidade comunicativa. Pode ser
formado apenas pela linguagem verbal, apenas pela linguagem visual,
pelas linguagens verbal e visual. Gestos, desenhos, movimentos, smbolos, palavras, silncio...
So vrios os tipos de linguagens que o ser humano utiliza para se comunicar com o mundo
e com as pessoas.

Background Knowledge: ativando o conhecimento prvio


Observe a ilustrao abaixo. Que lembranas ela lhe provoca? Que tipo de sentimento
ela lhe desperta?

Certamente, as lembranas e sentimentos despertados em voc no sero,


necessariamente, os mesmos em outra pessoa. Cada ser nico, em vivncias, lembranas
e experincias.
A decodificao de um texto extrapola, ento, os signos grficos, alcanando no s
o que est posto nas linhas e nas entrelinhas, mas tambm informaes no-visuais do
universo cognitivo do leitor.
Neste processo de interao entre o autor e o leitor, h a busca do entendimento
tanto de quem escreve, quanto de quem l, e o nvel da proporo da compreenso vai
depender da habilidade do autor na sua produo textual e, no que diz respeito ao leitor,
cabe o conhecimento prvio que possui quanto ao assunto. De acordo com Kato1 (1995:80),
para Goodman e Smith, esta interao das pistas visuais com o conhecimento armazenado na memria do leitor que lhe possibilita antever, ou predizer, o que ele ir encontrar
no texto.
O conhecimento de mundo do leitor , assim, essencial para que ele possa iniciar
uma interpretao de um texto e estabelecer algum sentido para o que vai ler. Podemos
dizer que os mundos textual e real so distintos pelo fato da amplitude dos conhecimentos
de mundo das partes envolvidas na produo e na leitura do texto como tambm o objetivo
do autor e do leitor em relao ao sentido do texto.
Koch e Travaglia 2 (2003:61) afirmam que o conhecimento de mundo visto como
uma espcie de dicionrio enciclopdico do mundo e da cultura arquivado na memria.
Os autores classificam o conhecimento de duas formas: o conhecimento
enciclopdico e o ativado. O conhecimento enciclopdico diz respeito a tudo que conhecemos
e est arquivado na nossa memria. E o ativado o conhecimento que trazemos para a
nossa memria no momento presente.
Todo este conhecimento agregado no dia-a-dia ou atravs do conhecimento
cientfico. exatamente a ausncia destes conhecimentos que pode influenciar na sua
compreenso, criando problemas em relao construo do sentido do texto.
O processo de compreenso de um texto, ento, depende, no somente, do que
este apresenta mas, tambm, do que o leitor j traz em seu conhecimento de mundo
(memrias, lembranas, vivncias, experincias) a respeito do tema
em questo.
1

KATO, Mary. O Aprendizado da Leitura.


So Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1995.
KOCH, Ingedore Grunfeld Villaa &
TRAVAGLIA, Luiz Carlos. Texto e
Coerncia. So Paulo: Cortez, 2003.
9

Princpios da

Lembre-se: o que voc leva para o texto geralmente


to importante quanto o que dele retira!

Lngua Inglesa

Prediction: antecipando informaes


Imagine-se lendo um jornal. Procure se lembrar da
maneira como essa leitura normalmente realizada. Por
acaso, voc o l da primeira palavra da primeira notcia da
primeira pgina do primeiro caderno at a ltima palavra da
ltima notcia da ltima pgina do ltimo caderno? Claro que
no! No haveria nem tempo, nem necessidade, nem disposio
para isso.
Diariamente, folheamos o(s) jornal(is) passando os
olhos pelas notcias e reportagens. Lemos as manchetes, os
subttulos, olhamos as fotografias e assim vamos identificando
os assuntos tratados em cada uma. Quando nos deparamos
com algo que de nosso interesse, paramos um pouco mais.
Fazemos, ento, uma leitura mais linear e, caso a consideremos
realmente interessante e til, partimos para uma leitura mais
completa.
Assim, em nossas atividades dirias de leitura, na lngua materna, nem sempre lemos
detalhadamente os textos. Dependendo do nosso objetivo, do nosso conhecimento da lngua
e do gnero do texto, muitas vezes, uma compreenso geral suficiente. Voc no l um
manual de instrues do mesmo modo que l uma propaganda. Cada gnero de texto
pressupe um propsito diferente e, conseqentemente, um enfoque diferente na leitura.
Ser que, ao lermos textos em lnguas estrangeiras, no podemos agir da mesma
forma? Se queremos apenas escolher um texto para ler a partir do assunto tratado, por que
no lermos apenas os seus recursos visuais e anteciparmos o seu contedo?

Fazer uma PREDICTION pensar antecipadamente no


assunto tratado no texto, criando hipteses acerca do seu contedo, o
que facilitar a sua compreenso. Para tanto, pode-se utilizar todos os
recursos no-lineares disponveis no texto: ttulo, sub-ttulo, lay-out,
ilustraes, tabelas, grficos, dados bibliogrficos, etc.

10

Ao identificar o tema do texto, voc acionou o seu conhecimento anterior background


knowledge a respeito do assunto em questo e ativou seus esquemas de mundo
(memrias, lembranas, vivncias, experincias) e est preparado para intertextualizar com
mais segurana e familiaridade.

Skimming: explorando os recursos


Caso alguma notcia do jornal tenha despertado o seu
interesse, voc pode desejar confirmar as impresses iniciais
resultantes de sua prediction. Nesse caso, voc pode
complementar a sua anlise dos recursos no-lineares
com uma leitura linear e superficial do texto, sem se
preocupar com detalhes ou com palavras desconhecidas.
Em um texto em lngua estrangeira, voc precisa
explorar todos os recursos disponveis. Alm dos no- lineares e
da identificao do gnero textual, voc pode fazer uso das
palavras transparentes palavras conhecidas e/ou semelhantes ao
portugus.

Voc sabia ?
que, aproximadamente, metade do patrimnio
vocabular do ingls estimado em 750.000 palavras 3,
transparente para os falantes de lnguas latinas?

Observe quantas palavras conhecidas voc encontra no texto , a seguir.

Alcohol and Society


The social consequences of drinking are related to the character,
nervous instability, and physical constitution of the person who drinks.
The social problems that follow the use of alcohol include, among others,
accidents, crimes of violence, neglect of family obligations, poverty,
dependency, invalidism, and insanity.
Estas palavras so chamadas de cognatas, ou seja, tm a mesma origem que suas
correspondentes em portugus e, conseqentemente, a mesma raiz, o que as tornam
facilmente compreendidas.
Outro recurso que voc pode explorar o reconhecimento
das palavras repetidas no texto. Considerando que essa repetio
LIMA, Denise. UFScar. In Revista Nova
3

Escola, Junho 1996 (p.49)


4

BROOKS, S. and N., The C.V. Mostly


Company. London.
11

no acidental, podemos afirmar que a sua recorrncia resulta da necessidade


do autor de retomar idia central em toda a extenso do texto.
Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

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SKIMMING
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789

uma estratgia que explora a caracterstica seletiva


da leitura, permitindo que o leitor busque no texto o que for
relevante, ignorando o que no puder compreender e extraindo
o sentido global - idia central - do texto, ao invs de fazer
uma leitura palavra por palavra. Ao identificar a idia central
do texto, leitor atingiu o primeiro nvel de leitura.

Lembre-se! Se o seu objetivo identificar a idia central do texto, basta


seguir os passos e fazer um SKIMMING.

1
2
3
4
5

6
7

Analise o ttulo e (os)subttulo(s)

Relacione-os s ilustraes e legendas

Perceba o layout do texto

Identifique o gnero textual

Verifique se a fonte especfica

Leia o texto grifando as palavras transparentes

Circule as palavras repetidas

8
Sintetize em, apenas, uma sentena o assunto desenvolvido no texto

12

Scanning: buscando informaes especficas


Imagine que voc est procurando um nmero de telefone no catlogo telefnico.
Lgico que voc no vai ler todo o catlogo! A sua organizao em ordem alfabtica
determina a busca.
O mesmo pode acontecer quando voc procura uma informao especfica em um
texto. A depender do gnero a que pertence, dos seus recursos tipogrficos e da informao
desejada, voc pode localiz-la facilmente, sem necessidade de uma leitura do texto na
ntegra. Ou seja, voc pode fazer um scanning no texto.
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789
SCANNING
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12345678901234567890123456789012123456789
12345678901234567890123456789012123456789

uma estratgia de leitura que explora o visual e a


riqueza grfica do texto para auxiliar na localizao de
infomaes especficas - nomes, localizaes, datas, citaes,
etc. para resolver problemas imediatos.

Outro recurso que facilita a leitura de textos a identificao de keywords (palavraschave) palavras especficas e relacionadas a um assunto, ou repetidas com freqncia
em um determinado gnero textual que se constituem a chave para a sua compreenso.
Prediz-las e busc-las no texto pode agilizar a sua leitura.

Atividades

Complementares

1.

Embora no tenha lido o texto, apresentado a seguir, na ntegra, um amigo lhe informou
que este muito interessante. Na sua opinio, qual a estratgia de leitura utilizada por ele
para chegar a esta concluso? Explique de que forma ele pode t-la aplicado neste texto.

13

2.

Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

Suponhamos que voc tambm tivesse considerado o texto


interessante, aps usar os mesmos procedimentos de seu amigo. Qual a
etapa seguinte, para que se confirmem apenas as impresses iniciais do
texto, desde que seu tempo no lhe permite um aprofundamento no assunto
em foco? Explique, passo a passo, o que voc faria para obter esta
confirmao.

NVEIS DE LEITURA

Lexical Guessing: inferindo significados

O que acontece quando voc est lendo um romance e surge uma palavra que voc
desconhece o significado? Voc corre at a estante, pega um dicionrio e procura o significado
para, em seguida, continuar a leitura?
Possivelmente, no esse o seu
procedimento, pelo menos na maioria das vezes.
Primeiro, porque quebra o prazer da leitura.
Depois, porque voc pode conseguir entender
a seqncia dos acontecimentos sem precisar
saber exatamente o que aquela palavra
desconhecida significa. Ademais, romances
possuem regionalismos que nem sempre so
encontrados em dicionrios. Nesses casos, o melhor a fazer prosseguir a leitura, buscando
compreender a mensagem do autor, desconsiderando ou adivinhando as palavras
desconhecidas.
Analisar o contexto tanto interno quanto externo ao texto para descobrir o
significado de palavras desconhecidas a forma mais sensata de agir. O conhecimento
prvio do assunto, a experincia na rea de atuao do texto e as dicas grficas e
contextuais que ele oferece podem ajudar nessa tarefa, tornando a leitura mais gil e
gratificante.

14

Este procedimento tambm pode ser aplicado quando voc se depara com palavras
opacas que no so transparentes ao ler textos em lnguas estrangeiras.
Experimente descobrir o significado das palavras destacadas no texto5 abaixo:
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901
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123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234567890123456789012123456789012345678901

Belz is a peaceful country in Central America. As a free


and open democracy, we welcome support and cooperation
which will contribute to our development. Our small nation
experiences the frustrating ill effects of underdevelopment. Our
future economic development as an underdeveloped country will
depend on attracting investments.

Com base em seus conhecimentos dos processos de derivao de palavras (sufixos


e prefixos), na repetio da palavra e no campo semntico do qual faz parte, voc,
certamente, reconheceu as palavras desenvolvimento, subdesenvolvimento e
subdesenvolvido.
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234
LEXICAL GUESSING
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234
1234567890123456789012345678901212345678901234

a estratgia de leitura utilizada quando se busca compreender


o desconhecido a partir do conhecido, como um jogo de advinhao
lingstico. Para realizar essa tarefa, todo o conhecimento prvio referente
ao assunto deve ser acionado, juntamente com uma precisa anlise do
contexto onde a palavra est inserida.

bom lembrar que, muitas vezes, o significado exato da palavra no necessrio


para entender o texto: apenas o significado aproximado, o que ela representa, suficiente
para a leitura.
Assim, toda vez que encontrar uma palavra desconhecida:
verifique se o conhecimento do seu significado importante para o entendimento
da mensagem;
examine o contexto da palavra, isto , a sentena onde est inserida;
observe se ela repetida;
analise a formao da palavra (raiz e afixos);
descubra sua classe gramatical;
apresente um sentido, mesmo que aproximado, da palavra nesse contexto.

OLIVEIRA, S.R. DE F. Estratgias de


Leitura para Ingls Instrumental.
UnB.Braslia, 1994 (p.61)

15

E lembre-se:
Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

Em um jogo, quanto mais se


joga, mais prtica e habilidade
adquire-se.

Uso do Dicionrio
O que fazer quando no for possvel inferir o significado de uma palavra
importante para a compreenso do texto?
Nesse caso, se a situao o permitir, o mais correto consultar um dicionrio. Mesmo
assim, voc sabe que vai precisar da anlise do contexto para selecionar, dentre as opes
apresentadas e as classes gramaticais possveis, aquela que melhor se adapta palavra
no texto.

Voc sa
be como usar um dicionrio?
sabe
Para a sua utilizao de uma maneira
rpida e eficiente, necessrio conhecer sua
organizao.

CLASSE
GRAMATICAL
SIGNIFICADOS
VOCBULO
VERBETE

SINNIMOS

charge, v.t. carregar, encarregar, confiar, acusar,


atacar, assaltar, cobrar, v.i. comprar a crdito.
Sin. Load, command, accuse, attack. - s.carga,
taxa, encargo,cuidado, preo, acusao,ataque,
despesa. - prepaid: porte pago. Free of - grtis.
Under my - ao meu encargo. - account: conta
corrente. - card, plate: carto de crdito. - er, s.
carregador. - able, adj. carregvel.

DERIVADOS

16

COMPOSTO

Analise agora o texto6 abaixo. Existem, certamente, palavras opacas. Experimente


inferir seus significados. Caso no seja possvel, consulte um dicionrio e selecione o melhor
significado para cada uma delas, de acordo com o contexto.

What is a dictionary?
When I ask this in class, I often receive the answer A dictionary tells you the
meaning of a word. This is basically (essentially) correct; one of the main goals of
the dictionary is to let you know what words mean. However, the dictionary does
much more than this.
Here's a list of what a dictionary can help with:
1. The Meaning of words: as noted, this is one of the main tasks of the
dictionary. However, you will notice that sometimes words have more than
one definition (or denotation). When this is the case, dictionaries will list the
definitions, usually by number, with the first being the most widely accepted
use of the word. When reading, however, you will come across words that are
used for the second, third or even fourth definitions listed in the dictionary.
You will need to decide which definition fits the context of your reading.
2. Spelling: the dictionary indicates the correct spelling.
3. Syllables: each word has one or more syllables or parts of a word.
4. Pronunciation: the dictionary indicates how to pronounce (speak) each
word. This is indicated by accent marks and pronunciation syllables.
5. Derivation: this is where the word comes from or the history of the word.
English is composed of words from many languages, chiefly Latin and German.
Many English words also derive from Greek. Some words are built on roots
from Latin, German or Greek.
6. Part of speech: the dictionary will indicate the part or parts of speech or
how the word is used.
This is important because some words can be used differently, for example,
the same word may be used as either a noun or a verb, and you will need to
be able to distinguish its usage.
7. Usage example: dictionaries also provide an example of proper usage.

O USO DO DICIONRIO uma estratgia muito til


tambm, para o enquecimento de vocabulrio. Deve ser
utilizada quando o leitor no consegue, atravs do prprio
contexto, inferir o signficado de palavras, as quais se constituem, assim, um obstculo ao entendimento da mensagem.

http://www.americanenglishexpress.com/
subpage203.html

17

Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

O dicionrio um recurso de uso


limitado: voc no tem acesso a ele, por
exemplo, quando est respondendo a uma prova
em um concurso. Por isso, voc deve ter
cuidado para no se tornar dependente do seu
uso.

Compreenso de Pontos Principais


Como j dissemos, o processo de compreenso de um texto acontece em vrias
etapas. Aps a compreenso geral do texto, o leitor pode dar prosseguimento tarefa de
leitura, se for do seu interesse, em busca dos pontos principais que desenvolvem a idia
central. Para tanto, torna-se necessrio o conhecimento acerca da estrutura do pargrafo.
Com esse objetivo, analise os textos abaixo:

Texto 1
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Link UK - Nov/Dec-2004 / Jan/Feb-2005
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Digital inclusion helps change peoples lives. It can raise their selfesteem and even their employability. In the view of Kevin Harris, Information
Maganer at Community Development Foundation, such results are already
being achieved with the spread of new technologies.

Texto 2

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The Young Scientists Companion, Souvenir Press, London, 1961
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1. An atom is made up of electrons, protons and neutrons.


2. The tom is electrically neutral.
3. The atomic number states the number of protons in atom of that
element.
4. The atomic weight is the relative weight of an atom of the element.
5. The matter of the atom - in other words, its mass - is contained in
the nucleus, which is extremely small.
6. The diameter of an atom is about ten thousand times its nucleus.

18

Texto 3

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Moore. 1980
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It is well known that cats are more intelligent than dogs. For exmple
three out of every four motorists die of heart disease before they are fifty.
Another example is the commonly observed ability of dolphins to understand
human speech. In conclusion I should like to emphasize that whereas girls
learn mathematics equally quickly.

Qual dos trs textos representa um pargrafo?


Certamente voc notou que apenas o texto 1 se contitui um pargrafo, pois apresenta
as caractersticas que o identificam.

Af
inal, o que um parg
o?
Afinal,
pargrraf
afo?
O pargrafo uma unidade de composio constituda por um ou
mais perodos em que se desenvolve determinada idia central, ou nuclear,
a que se agragam outras, secundrias, intimamente relacionadas pelo
7
sentido e logicamente decorrentes dela.(Garcia, 1980:203)
Observe abaixo, porque o texto 1 se constitui um pargrafo:

Ponto pricipal:
O fato:
A incluso digital ajuda
a mudar a vida das
pessoas.

Tpico Frasal
Digital inclusion helps
change peoples lives.

Sentenas de Apoio
It can rise their selfesteem and even their
employability. In the view of
Kevin Harris, Information
Manager at Community
Development Foundation,
such results are already
being achieved with the
spread of new technologies.

GARCIA, Othon M. Comunicao em


Prosa Moderna: aprender a escrever,
aprendendo a pensar. 2. ed.Rio de
Janeiro: FGV, 1973.

Desenvolvimento:
Porque:
Aumenta a auto-estima
e a empregabilidade

Assim, podemos afirmar que o pargrafo uma unidade do


texto, constitudo de um tpico frasal, frase principal ou frase ncleo,
posicionada normalmente no incio, que introduz o ponto principal,

19

ou tpico, nele desenvolvido e, ao qual, esto agregadas as sentenas de


apoio que o desenvolvem.
Todo pargrafo, seja longo ou curto, deve relacionar-se a apenas uma
idia central ou principal. Todas as suas sentenas devem estar relacionadas
Princpios da
a esta idia principal, que vir expressa em uma orao absoluta ou em um
Lngua Inglesa perodo composto: o tpico frasal.
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A identificao e, conseqentemente, a compreenso
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dos tpicos frasais - topic sentences - do texto uma tarefa
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importante para o leitor eficiente, constituindo-se, assim, no
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segundo nvel de leitura
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Pargrafos Introdutrio e Conclusivo


Prosseguindo anlise dos pargrafos, vale destacar que, embora tenham
basicamente a mesma composio (tpico frasal e sentenas de apoio), os pargrafos
no tm a mesma funo no texto.
Podemos, assim, classific-los em trs tipos, a depender de sua funo:
introdutrio, de desenvolvimento e conclusivo.
Como j do seu conhecimento, a introduo de um texto apresenta o assunto que
ser nele abordado, cabendo ao pargrafo introdutrio a tarefa de transmitir o objetivo do
autor e preparar o leitor para o que vir a seguir nos demais pargrafos.
Os pargrafos de desenvolvimento formam o corpo do texto e a concluso, por
sua vez, reafirma os pontos principais ou tpicos frasais que foram desenvolvidos nos
pargrafos anteriores, reunindo, assim, em um nico pargrafo, os tpicos abordados nos
demais.
importante observar que, os pargrafos introdutrio e conclusivo representam
uma sntese das informaes do texto. Comprend-los, ento, fundamental para uma leitura
eficiente.
Veja o texto a seguir. Nele esto apresentados os recursos no-lineares (ttulo,
subttulo, ilustrao, bibliografia e informaes sobre o seu autor) e seus pargrafos
introdutrio e conclusivo. Inicialmente, tente inferir o significado da palavra flunk no ttulo.
Em seguida, leia os dois pargrafos e identifique seus pontos principais.

20

Why Kids
Flunk
Kinder
gar
ten
Kinderg
arten
Too many kids are being
held back. Heres
whyand what you
can do about it.
By Jean Marzollo

he mere idea of a child


flunking kindergarten is laughable. How
can you flunk playing with blocks? How can
you flunk playing dress-up in the
housekeeping corner? How can you flunk
easel painting? How can you flunk listening
to the teacher read Peter Rabbit?

As June Solnit Sale, director of


Child Care Services for the University of
California at Los Angeles, observes,
Parents should not be made to feel that
either they or their children are incompetent.
Children shouldnt have to fit the needs of
the school. It should be the other way
around: Schools should fit the needs of the
children.

Jean Marzollo, a contributing


editor of Parents Magazine, is
author
of
The
New
Kindergarten and editor of
Lets Find Out, Scholastics
kindergarten magazine.

Agora, reflita: Que informaes devem estar contidas nos pargrafos de


desenvolvimento?

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A partir da compreenso dos pargrafos


introdutrio e conclusivo do texto, o leitor eficiente pode
antecipar e predizer as informaes contidas nos demais
pargrafos, agilizando, assim, a sua tarefa.

21

Atividades

Complementares

Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

1.

Conversando com um amigo, por telefone, ele pede que voc lhe transmita os pontos
principais de um texto. Considerando a extenso do texto solicitado, qual o mais gil e
eficiente procedimento nesse caso?

2.

Aps realizar o procedimento indicado no texto abaixo, reflita sobre a sua


aprendizagem e responda: Para realizar a atividade voc se concentrou no seu objetivo?
Utilizou as estratgias de leitura estudadas? Aproveitou o que j sabia sobre o assunto do
texto? Leu palavra por palavra, querendo entender todas elas, mesmo sem necessidade?
Inferiu o significado de palavras desconhecidas importantes para a compreenso? Procurou
no dicionrio apenas aquelas cuja inferncia no foi possvel?

Garbage can ruin paradise


Along with the growing interest
in environmental issues around the world,
there is also a growing number of visitors to
regions involved in ecological tourism. Yet a
lack of instruction and adequate facilities for
tourists is creating a serious problem in
Brazil: all accessible areas are polluted with
the litter of these ecological tourists. Scraps
of food, plastic, glass and cans are common
sights in nature reserves and the country once
again runs the risk of destroying its immense
ecotourism potential.
There are two types of garbage left
by the tourists.
22

According to Koiti Araki, professor of


chemistry at the Universidade de So Paulo,
several factors wield influence on the
degradation of garbage.

Travel agencies and environmental


groups, such as SOS Atlantic Forest, collect

garbage voluntarily, but the environmental


problem is everybodys business. Each
person has some kind of contribution to make:
researching, denouncing, demanding stricter
legislation or something very simple like not
littering our rich ecological heritage.
CARO VARIG INFLIGHT MAGAZINE

O LEITOR EFICIENTE
SISTEMATIZANDO AS INFORMAES
Compreenso Detalhada
Dependendo do gnero do
texto e do propsito da leitura, no
suficiente a compreenso dos
seus pontos principais. Assim, o
leitor poder sentir a necessidade
de aprofundar sua leitura,
incluindo o entendimento das
sentenas de apoio que os
desenvolvem.
Veja, ao lado, um exemplo
de gnero de texto, no qual os
pontos principais so destacados
em subttulos, o que torna a sua
identificao facilitada. Contudo,
apenas a compreenso desses
pontos no garante o propsito do
texto, que instruir o leitor com
relao execuo da tarefa.

Figura extrada do site:


http://www.macskinz.com/MACSKINZ/INSTRUCTIONS/wedgee_instructions.gif

23

Neste caso, torna-se necessria a compreenso das informaes


numeradas sob cada subttulo, que representam os passos a serem seguidos
para alcanar o objetivo esperado.
Vale ressaltar que outros gneros textuais (artigos e reportagens, por
Princpios da
exemplo) apresentam uma formatao diferenciada do manual de instrues.
Lngua Inglesa Neles, os tpicos frasais de cada pargrafo (normalmente posicionados no
incio) so seguidos de sentenas de apoio, as quais apresentam os detalhes
que sustentam direta ou indiretamente os seus pontos principais.

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Ser capaz de perceber a interligao entre as
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informaes
constantes nas sentenas que compem o
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pargrafo constitui-se o terceiro nvel de leitura.
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Detalhes Importantes e Secundrios


Nas sentenas de apoio esto apresentadas as informaes que desenvolvem,
sustentam, explicam e comprovam os pontos principais expostos nos tpicos frasais,
identificadas como detalhes. Entretanto, nem todas as informaes apresentadas nas
sentenas de apoio desenvolvem diretamente o ponto principal. Por questes de estilo, ou
da necessidade de contextualizar ou dar credibilidade a um aspecto apresentado, o autor
pode enriquecer o pargrafo com informaes adicionais. Essas informaes constituemse detalhes secundrios, pois no esto diretamente relacionadas ao ponto principal do
pargrafo.
Observe os detalhes importantes e os secundrios nas sentenas de apoio do
pargrafo a seguir :

24

Tpico Frasal
Digital inclusion helps change
peoples lives
Detalhes Importantes

Sentenas de Apoio

Detalhes Secundrios

Aumenta a auto-estima e
a empregabilidade

It can raise their self-esteem and


even their employability. In the
view of Kevin Harris, Information
Manager at Community
Development Foundation, such
results are already being
achieved with the spread of new
technologies.

De acordo com Kevin


Harris, Gerente de
Informao da Fundao
de Desenvolvimento da
Comunidade,
esses
resultados (aumento da
auto-estima e empregabilidade) j esto sendo
alcanados com a difuso
de novas tecnologias

Detalhes importantes so as informaes presentes nas sentenas que


desenvolvem o tpico frasal, tornando-o mais completo, mais compreensvel. Esse
desenvolvimento pode ser apresentado de vrias formas, tais como, exemplos, argumentos,
dados estatsticos, caractersticas adicionais, fatos anteriores ou subseqentes que
justifiquem o ponto principal, aes decorrentes do fato principal, explicaes, etc. J os
detalhes secundrios, tambm presentes nas sentenas de apoio, tornam os detalhes
importantes mais claros, mais vlidos.

Lembre-se!
O detalhe secundrio est para o detalhe
importante , assim como o detalhe importante est
para o tpico frasal ou ponto principal.

Esquemas de Texto
A esquematizao de um texto uma estratgia que visa a sistematizao da
compreenso detalhada de sua mensagem, bem como facilita a visualizao do leitor quanto
forma como as sentenas esto interligadas em um determinado texto, encorajando-o a
resumir as informaes principais nele contidas. Neste processo, faz-se uso somente dos
elementos necessrios para transmisso das idias principais (keywords), no sendo,
portanto, imprescindvel a utilizao de sentenas completas.
Observe, no exemplo de esquema a seguir como apenas as palavras-chave das
informaes mais importantes do pargrafo foram utilizadas:

25

Incluso Digital
Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa
Aumenta

Auto- estima

Empregabilidade

Como voc j conhece a estrutura do pargrafo (topic sentence, detalhes importantes


e secundrios), elaborar um esquema se torna uma tarefa mais fcil.

Resumos de Texto
Para sistematizar as informaes de um texto lido, o prximo passo, aps o esquema,
fazer um resumo.
Resumir significa distinguir o fundamental do secundrio, por isso, ao resumir, devese extrair, de cada pargrafo, as suas informaes mais importantes, ou seja, o ponto
principal, que est presente no tpico frasal, e os seus respectivos detalhes importantes.
Os detalhes secundrios no devero ser considerados.
Assim, poderamos resumir o pargrafo esquematizado em apenas uma sentena:

A incluso digital favorece a auto-estima


e aumenta o nvel de empregabilidade.

Para elaborar um resumo, sugerimos os seguintes procedimentos:

26

*
*

Faa uma primeira leitura (skimming) a fim de conhecer o texto como um todo.
Anote a idia central do mesmo;

Relacione estes pontos principais com as sentenas de apoio que melhor os


complementam;

Numa segunda leitura, mais devagar, mais atenta e mais analtica, procure
entender cada parte do texto, identificando e sublinhando os seus pontos
principais nas topic sentences;

*
*
*
*

Circule as palavras-chave;
Identifique as relaes entre os pargrafos;
Elabore o seu esquema;
A partir do esquema, elabore o seu resumo;

Atividades

Complementares

1.

Voc foi convidado a apresentar, em um seminrio, uma palestra sobre a poluio


em reas de preservao ambiental expostas ao turismo ecolgico. Tendo aceitado o convite,
qual deve ser o seu prximo passo?

2.

Considerando o texto abaixo como o escolhido para fundamentar a sua apresentao,


indique como voc esquematizaria as suas idias para orientar a sua apresentao.

Garbage can ruin paradise


Along with the growing interest in environmental issues around
the world, there is also a growing number of visitors to regions involved in
ecological tourism. Yet a lack of instruction and adequate facilities for tourists
is creating a serious problem in Brazil: all accessible areas are polluted with
the litter of these ecological tourists. Scraps of food, plastic, glass and cans
are common sights in nature reserves and the country once again runs the risk
of destroying its immense ecotourism potential.
There are two types of garbage left by the tourists. Organic (fruit
peels, food scraps, toothpicks, paper, cardboard and plastic) and inorganic
(cans and glass).
According to Koiti Araki, professor of chemistry at the Universidade
de So Paulo, several factors wield influence on the degradation of garbage.

27

It depends on the conditions under which the garbage is found,


he says. Factors include degree of aeration (exposure to the air),
humidity, temperature, quantity of microorganisms and the pH
of the environment. Food decomposes the quickest, though it
Princpios da
affects the ecosystems food chain. Paper dissolves quicker in the
Lngua Inglesa presence of water. The biggest problem is posed by cans, glass and
plastic, which remain intact for a much longer time. The iron in the
cans oxidizes and rusts, but not all cans oxidize easily. A beer can
takes up to 25 years to disintegrate. Glass, says Araki, is sensitive to
extreme heat or cold and to mechanical processes of breaking, tension
or impact. Thus a glass bottle can last indefinitely in the middle of a
forest. The various types of plastic also resist decomposition. A
disposable can may take up to 400 years to be absorbed by the
environment.
Travel agencies and environmental groups, such as SOS Atlantic
Forest, collect garbage voluntarily, but the environmental problem is
everybodys business. Each person has some kind of contribution to
make: researching, denouncing, demanding stricter legislation or
something very simple like not littering our rich ecological heritage.
CARO VARIG INFLIGHT MAGAZINE

3.

Elabore um resumo do texto que poder ser distribudo, como um handout, entre os
participantes do seminrio.

28

AVALIANDO O TEXTO
A Leitura Crtica

O principal objetivo da educao criar homens capazes de fazer


coisas novas e no repetir simplesmente o que outras geraes j fizeram,
homens que criem, inventem, descubram.
Seu segundo objetivo formar mentes que possam criticar
e verificar, no aceitar tudo o que lhes oferecido. Hoje, o grande
perigo so temas que se repetem, opinies coletivas, tendncias
de pensamentos j prontos.
Devemos ser capazes de resistir individualmente, de criticar,
de distinguir entre o que est provado e o que no foi. Da precisamos
de alunos que sejam ativos, que cedo aprendam a descobrir.

Jean Piaget

Completando o processo de leitura, cabe ao leitor avaliar a mensagem do texto, o


que chamamos de leitura crtica, dentro de uma viso existente em Piaget e ps-piagetianos
que defendem a faculdade de julgar, pensar e argumentar como uma potencialidade que
precisaria ser desenvolvida no decorrer da vida (Freitag,1993:22).
8
Apesar da tendncia que a maioria das pessoas
tem de acreditar que os livros contm
verdades incontestveis, o leitor deve sempre ter uma postura crtica diante do texto que l,
perguntando a si mesmo:
Concordo com isso?
Por qu?
Os argumentos so convincentes?
Os fatos so verdadeiros?
Quais as partes relevantes para mim?
Eu fao parte da clientela desse texto?
Mas no que se constituiria uma leitura crtica? Em linhas gerais, ler criticamente poderia
ser classificado atravs de uma explorao profunda do texto em seus aspectos materiais,
semnticos, bem como captar, o mais adequadamente possvel, as inferncias tacitamente
estabelecidas no texto pelo escritor. Ler criticamente seria o que Wallace9 (1996:59)
apresenta como reading between the lines, ler nas entrelinhas.
Assim, alm da identificao das informaes lineares, esta anlise busca a
percepo das informaes contidas nas entrelinhas do texto, envolvendo julgamento, reao
afetiva, transformao do pensamento ou comportamento. O seu resultado pode levar o
leitor a aprovar ou rejeitar o texto, a concordar ou discordar do ponto de vista do autor,
levando-o a uma tomada de deciso com relao ao assunto abordado.

FREITAG, B. Aspectos Filosficos e


Scio-Antropolgicos do Construtivismo
Ps-Piagetiano - I - Construtivismo
Ps-Piagetiano. Petrpolis: Vozes,
1993.
WALLACE, Catherine. Critical Literacy
Awareness in the EFL Classroom. In: N.
Fairclough. Critical Language
Awareness. Longman, 1996.

Em sua busca por uma compreenso crtica do texto,


o leitor eficiente preocupa-se em identificar o gnero do texto,
a sua origem, quem editou, quem escreveu, quando foi
publicado, para quem foi escrito e com que propsito.

29

A Inteno do Autor
Ler criticamente confere ao leitor uma viso do discurso, no qual um
Princpios da dado gnero textual est inserido. Analisar o discurso faz com que pensemos
Lngua Inglesa nos valores, crenas e concepes de mundo do escritor.
Assim, um dos primeiros aspectos a ser percebido pelo leitor eficiente
diz respeito intencionalidade do autor: qual o seu intuito ao escrever o texto,
quais so as suas intenes, o que ele pretende dizer.
A depender do gnero do texto (propaganda, carta, manual de instrues,
questionrio, receita, poema, etc), essa intencionalidade pode ser apresentada de modo
linear, no subttulo ou no pargrafo conclusivo, ou pode ficar subtendida ou implcita nas
entrelinhas do texto, a partir da anlise dos argumentos utilizados para afirmar ou negar as
informaes.
Responda: a partir dos recursos do texto abaixo, responda: Qual o ponto de vista
do autor com relao aos romances via internet?

ROMANCING THE COMPUTER


A cyberadultery suit shows the
risks of looking for love online.
TIME, FEBRUARY 5,1996

Vale lembrar que, na relao contextual, os elementos evidenciados so: o emissor/


autor, o receptor/leitor e o meio situacional (contexto externo) em que esto inseridos.
Portanto, para que a compreenso ocorra, necessrio que a experincia de cada
interlocutor, o papel social que ocupam, o meio social em que vivem, sejam apreciados.
Veja como o contexto externo pode transformar a percepo da mensagem nos
exemplos abaixo.

We are going to
talk about it later.

30

We are going to
talk about it later.

We are going to
talk about it later.

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Fique atento, pois os textos que lemos, muitas vezes, no


expressam apenas o nvel cognitivo do mundo, mas tambm a
viso de mundo do autor, denunciando o seu contexto histrico
quando da produo do texto, procurando, na maioria das vezes,
persuadir os leitores em relao a valores especficos.

Opinio do Leitor
Considerando que a construo do significado no feita, simplesmente, a partir do
texto como um processo de extrao, mas a partir do leitor, que no extrai do texto, mas
atribui ao texto um significado, no devemos esquecer que o leitor pode ter uma perspectiva
diferente em relao s formas de compreender um texto, mesmo porque cada leitor tem a
sua viso de mundo. Assim sendo, ele pode fazer mltiplas leituras de um nico texto.
Reflita sobre este assunto lendo o texto abaixo.

Todo ponto de vista a vista de um ponto

Ler significa reler, compreender, interpretar. Cada um l com os olhos que


tem. E interpreta a partir de onde os ps pisam.
Todo ponto de vista a vista de um ponto. Para entender como algum l,
necessrio saber como so seus olhos e qual sua viso de mundo. Isso faz da leitura
sempre uma releitura.
A cabea pensa a partir de onde os ps pisam. Para compreender, essencial
conhecer o lugar social de quem olha. Vale dizer: como algum vive, com quem
convive, que experincias tem, em que trabalha, que desejos alimenta, como assume
os dramas da vida e da morte e que esperanas o animam. Isso faz da compreenso
sempre uma interpretao.
Sendo assim, fica evidente que cada leitor co-autor. Porque cada um l e rel
com os olhos que tem. Porque compreende e interpreta a partir do mundo que habita.
Os antigos bem diziam: habent sua fata libelli, os livros tm seu prprio destino.
Tinham razo, porque o destino dos livros est ligado ao destino dos leitores.
Convidamos voc a fazer-se, junto com as foras diretivas do universo, cocriador ou co-criadora do mundo criado e por criar.
Esperamos que, atravs da leitura, voc desperte e voe, ganhando altura e
ampliando os horizontes de sua releitura e compreenso de voc mesmo e do mundo.
Texto extrado do Prefcio do livro: BOFF, Leonardo. A guia e a galinha: uma metfora de condio
humana. Petrpolis: Vozes,1997.

31

Agora, reflita:

Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

Com base na sua viso de m


undo
mundo
undo,, qual a sua opinio
com relao ao assunto abordado no texto
mencionado anteriormente:
voc concorda com o ponto de vista evidenciado
pelo autor no subttulo do texto?

Concordar ou discordar do ponto de vista do autor um direito do leitor e pressupe


um conhecimento do texto como um todo, avaliando entre outros aspectos, a validade e
confiabilidade das informaes, as informaes omitidas, o propsito dessas omisses,
os beneficiados ou prejudicados com a publicao do texto e a relao existente entre o
assunto apresentado no texto e a realidade do leitor.

ComparaoTexto/Realidade
Quando lemos um texto, provocamos uma mudana em ns mesmos e essa mudana,
por sua vez, provoca uma mudana no mundo. Por essa razo, a leitura considerada
como um processo interativo, onde vrios elementos se relacionam: leitor e texto, leitor e
autor, fontes de conhecimento envolvidas na leitura existentes na mente do leitor, como
conhecimento de mundo e conhecimento lingstico ou, ainda, leitor e outros leitores. No
momento em que cada um desses elementos se relaciona com o outro, no processo de
interao, ele se modifica em funo desse outro.
Portanto, a leitura deve constituir-se tambm de uma avaliao das informaes lidas,
a fim de se determinar onde se encaixam dentro do prprio sistema de crenas do leitor e,
conseqentemente, de uma tomada de deciso com relao aos pensamentos ou
comportamentos modificados com a leitura, buscando, enfim, contextualizar os
conhecimentos apreendidos para que, dessa forma, adquiram significado.
O leitor estar, assim, estabelecendo uma relao entre as informaes e a sua
realidade, o que, segundo Morin10 (1993:17) essencial para o desenvolvimento da
inteligncia:
O desenvolvimento da inteligncia est ligado ao sentido da
contextualizao e da globalizao. preciso ser capaz de inserir os
conhecimentos adquiridos no seu contexto, no seu global.

Dentro dessa perspectiva, verifique a relao existente entre o texto a seguir e a sua
realidade.

10

32

MORIN, E. A Construo da Sociedade


Democrtica e o Papel da Educao e
do Conhecimento para a Formao do
Imaginrio do Futuro - Construtivismo
Ps - Piagetiano. Petrpolis: Vozes,
1993.

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Daughters Math Dilemma

Parents of boys who do well in


math feel that its because their sons have
natural ability in mathematics. Parents of
girls who do well feel that their daughters
worked especially hard to get good
grades.
In studying several hundred
parents and their 10- to 17-year-old
children, psychologist Jacquelynne
Eccles and her colleagues at the
University of Michigan found that the
boys and girls actually had equal
mathematical skills, as measured by

standard
achievement
tests.
Nevertheless, the girls, apparently
sharing their parents perceptions,
believed that they were less competent
in math.
Reporting in Child Development
(Vol. 53, No. 2), Eccles says that parents
and school counselors allow more girls
than boys to drop out of mathematics
and science courses, thus excluding
them from a wide range of potential
careers.
John P. Murray

PSYCHOLOGY TODAY /APRIL 1993

No seu ponto de vista, implcito no pargrafo conclusivo, o autor revela a influncia


negativa de pais e conselheiros escolares sobre a maneira como as garotas vem suas
prprias habilidades matemticas, fomentando uma viso preconceituosa de inferioridade
da mulher na rea das cincias, chegando, inclusive, a influenciar suas escolhas
profissionais.

E voc? O que pensa a esse respeito?


Sua escolha pela rea de Letras foi,
de alguma forma, influenciada pela opinio
de seus pais ou pr
of
essor
es?
prof
ofessor
essores?

33

Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

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Resumindo
...
esumindo...

Ao ler um texto, procure analis-lo com relao aos seguintes aspectos:

Inteno do autor ao divulgar o texto;


Leitor ao qual o texto se destina;
Ponto de vista defendido pelo autor;
Opinio do leitor com relao a esse ponto de vista;
Validade e confiabilidade das informaes;
Favorecidos pela publicao do texto;
Prejudicados com esta publicao;
Informaes omitidas pelo autor;
Relao entre o assunto tratado e a realidade vivenciada pelo leitor;
Comportamentos e pensamentos modificados a partir da leitura.

Atividades

Complementares

1.

A leitura de um texto deve produzir transformaes no apenas no leitor, mas tambm


em outros leitores com os quais este compartilha suas experincias. Assim, organize com
seus colegas uma lista de sugestes de como proteger a sua comunidade do problema
apresentado no texto trabalhado nas atividades complementares.

34

2.

Transforme essa lista em um panfleto e distribua-o em sua comunidade. Se voc


tiver dvidas com relao eficcia de sua ao, leia a lenda chinesa apresentada a seguir
e, simplesmente, faa a sua parte ou, just do it!
Havia um incncio de propores gigantescas na floresta, e um BeijaFlor voava correndo at um riacho e voltava ao local do incndio com apenas
uma gota d gua em seu bico. Jogava a gota sobre a labareda e retornava ao
riacho para buscar mais uma gota. Uma sbia coruja, vendo o esforo do
Beija-Flor o repreendeu, dizendo:
- Para que todo esse trabalho? Voc realmente acha que vai conseguir
apagar este incndio trazendo uma gota d gua por vez no seu bico?
E o Beija-Flor respondeu:
- Eu estou fazendo a minha parte. No ajo de acordo com o que os
outros fazem ou no, simplesmente, cumpro com o meu dever sem analisar
se ele resolver o todo. Se todos fizessem o que estou fazendo, cada um
trazendo uma gota, com certeza ns apagaramos o incndio.

Atividade

Orientada
Etapa

Imagine que, por solicitao da disciplina Psicologia da Educao, voc dever


selecionar um texto sobre a pesquisa cientfica e a personalidade humana, e apresentar o
seu contedo em um frum de debates. Os recursos no-lineares apresentados abaixo
pertencem ao texto escolhido.
Responda: Que assunto voc acredita que o texto vai desenvolver? Faa predies
do seu contedo e justifique sua resposta com base nos recursos apresentados.

Heredity: Theyll Be the Same, But Different

Not so similar: Identical twins

35

Etapa

Princpios da

Dando seqncia ao estudo do texto que voc dever apresentar no


Lngua Inglesa frum de debates, so apresentados abaixo os pargrafos introdutrio e
conclusivo e os tpicos frasais dos pargrafos de desenvolvimento do texto.
Com base na compreenso desses recursos, voc confirma as predies feitas na etapa
1? Justifique sua resposta demonstrando entendimento dos pontos principais do texto.

Confirmao das predies:

SIM

NO

PONTO PRINCIPAL DO 1 P ARGRAFO:____________________________________


______________________________________________________________________

PONTO PRINCIPAL DO 2 P ARGRAFO:____________________________________


______________________________________________________________________

PONTO PRINCIPAL DO 3 P ARGRAFO:____________________________________


______________________________________________________________________

PONTO PRINCIPAL DO 4 P ARGRAFO:____________________________________


______________________________________________________________________

PONTO PRINCIPAL DO 5 P ARGRAFO:____________________________________


______________________________________________________________________

PONTO PRINCIPAL DO 6 P ARGRAFO:____________________________________


______________________________________________________________________

Reflita:
Voc j se considera preparado para participar do frum?
A compreenso dos pontos principais suficiente para garantir
a compreenso do texto?

36

Heredity: Theyll Be the Same, But Different


Suppose the day
comes when scientists
can clone humans. The
copies will be identical,
but will the people be
the same? Probably not.
For a century,
scientists have been
trying to figure out
which factors play the
most important role in
the development of the
human personality.

Raised together, twins


often are unusually
close, sometimes developing their own private
language.

Heredity may also


play a role in determining sexual orientation.

Not so similar:
Identical twins

Perhaps
the
superficial details of the
Springers parallel lives
were just a coincidence,
but scientists who study
twins like them say they
have discovered fundamental personality traits
that are the same no
matter how the twins
were reared.

While these studies do


reveal tantalizing clues
about how personalities
are born and bred,
theyre far from the
whole story. Some
identical twins turn out
very different from their
siblings.
One twin in the
Minnesota study, for
example, grew up to be
a stellar pianist even
though she was adopted
by a nonmusical family.
Her sister, adopted by a
piano teacher, never sits
down at the keyboard.
Genes may do the initial
programming, but a
lifetime of experiences,
unique for each person,
shape the soul.

NEWSWEEK NOVEMBER 8, 1993

37

Etapa

Sistematizando a sua leitura, voc, evidentemente, preparou um


Lngua Inglesa esquema do texto a fim de orientar a elaborao do resumo que ser
posteriormente apresentado no frum.
Apresente, no esquema a seguir a sistematizao do seu trabalho.
Princpios da

Pargrafo Introdutrio
Ponto principal:

Detalhes importantes:

Pargrafos de Desenvolvimento
Ponto principal:

Ponto principal:

Ponto principal:

Ponto principal:

Detalhes Importantes:

Detalhes Importantes:

Detalhes Importantes:

Detalhes Importantes:

Pargrafo Conclusivo
Ponto principal:

Detalhes importantes:

38

Concluindo, escreva o seu resumo no espao abaixo, com base nas informaes
apresentadas no esquema.

39

Heredity: Theyll Be the Same, But Different


Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa
Suppose
the day comes when
scientists can clone humans. The
copies will be identical, but will the
people be the same? Probably not.
For a century, scientists have
been trying to figure out which factors
play the most important role in the
development of the human
personality. Is it nature or nurture,
heredity or environment? The best
information so far has come from the
study of identical twins reared apart.
Like the embryo clones of the future,
their genes are identical because they
come from the same egg and sperm.
The fertilized egg splits in half shortly
after conception, forming two
identical embryos. (Fraternal twins
come from two separate eggs and
sperms and are no closer genetically
than ordinary siblings.)
Raised together, twins often
are unusually close, sometimes
developing their own private
language. But even when they are
reared apart, twins show amazing
similarities as adults. Twins Jim
Springer and Jim Lewis, separated
at birth in 1939, were reunited 39
years later in a study of twins at the
University of Minnesota. Both had
married and divorced women named
Linda, married second wives
named Betty and named their oldest
sons James Allan and James Alan.
More coincidences: both drove the
same model of blue Chevrolet,
enjoyed woodworking, vacationed
on the same Florida beach and had
dogs named Toy.
Perhaps the superficial
details of the Springers parallel lives
were just a coincidence, but scientists
who study twins like them say they

40

Not so similar:
Identical twins

how personalities are born and


bred, theyre far from the whole
story. Some identical twins turn
out very different from their
siblings. One twin in the
Minnesota study, for example,
grew up to be a stellar pianist
even though she was adopted by
a nonmusical family. Her sister,
adopted by a piano teacher,
never sits down at the keyboard.
Genes may do the initial
programming, but a lifetime of
experiences, unique for each
person, shape the soul.

have discovered fundamental


personality traits that are the
same no matter how the twins
were reared. In the same
Minnesota study, 350
pairs of identical twins reared
apart were put through a
battery of physical and NEWSWEEK - NOVEMBER 8, 1993
psychological tests. The results
showed that such characteristics as leadership ability,
imagination, vulnerability to
stress and alienation were
largely inherited. On the other
hand, the environment the child
was raised in seemed to
account for a whole host of
other traits, including aggression, achievement, orderliness
and social closeness.
Heredity may also play
a role in determining sexual
orientation. In a controversial
1991 study, researchers form
Northwestern and Boston
universities found that if one
identical male twin is gay, the
other is almost three times more
likely to be gay than if the twins
are fraternal. Earlier this year
the same scientists released a
study of 147 lesbians with
similar results.
While these studies do
reveal tantalizing clues about

Glossrio
BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE - Conhecimento prvio ou conhecimento de mundo.
O conhecimento de mundo visto como uma espcie de dicionrio enciclopdico do mundo
e da cultura arquivado na memria. Os autores classificam o conhecimento de duas formas:
o conhecimento enciclopdico e o ativado. O conhecimento enciclopdico diz respeito a
tudo que conhecemos e est arquivado na nossa memria. E o ativado o conhecimento
que trazemos para a nossa memria no momento presente.
COGNATO - Palavra que tem raiz comum com outra, que tem a mesma origem.
GNERO TEXTUAL - Segundo o dicionarista Aurlio Buarque, a palavra gnero
vem do Latim genus, eris e um dos seus significados um conjunto de espcies que
apresentam certos nmeros de caracteres comuns convencionalmente estabelecidos. Como
gnero textual, considera-se a estrutura que caracteriza cada tipo de texto e os aspectos
formais de carter lingstico prprios de cada tipo.
HANDOUT - Apostila, impressos distrtibudos em seminrios.
KEYWORD - Palavra-chave. Por apresentarem uma carga semntica significativa,
constituem-se a chave para a compreenso do texto.
LAYOUT - Traado ou disposio visual do texto.
LEITURA - Processo ativo em que o leitor participa interagindo com o autor, utilizandose no apenas de recursos visuais, mas de toda a sua experincia como um ser
comunicativo.
LEXICAL GUESSING - Inferncia do significado de palavras desconhecidas em
um texto. Para realizar essa tarefa, todo o conhecimento prvio referente ao assunto deve
ser acionado, juntamente com uma precisa anlise do contexto onde a palavra est inserida.
PALAVRA TRANSPARENTE - Toda palavra de significado conhecido para o leitor.
PREDICTION - Predio das informaes do texto a partir dos recursos nolineares - ttulo, subttulo, layout, ilustraes, fotos, legendas, grficos, tabelas, bibliografia,
gnero, etc.
SCANNING - Leitura rpida de um texto em busca de uma informao especfica.
SKIMMIMG - Leitura superficial para atingir a compreenso geral do texto, atravs
dos recursos no-lineares e lineares, tais como as palavras transparentes, as palavras
repetidas, os recursos tipogrficos, etc.

41

Textos Complementares:
Texto 1
Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

What is Distance Education?

Distance education is any learning experience that occurs when learner and instructor
are separated by time and space. Most learning already occurs at a distance. As we read
books, observe art, listen to music, view a play, movie or television program we are learning from a remote
author, actress, composer, or artist. We do not consider this learning experience in the same manner in
which we think of traditional institutional learning with an instructor, students, and a classroom. It is the later
that is under pressure for change and the former that offers a solution.
An explosion of technology, research, information, and a global economy with global intellectual
competition place ever increasing demands on our institutional learning model. Concurrently purchasers of
learning, parents, taxpayers, and industry and governmental leaders, demand greater efficiency and higher
standards of achievement. An additional demand is to produce a graduate who will become an intellectual
worker in tomorrows economy. A worker who is a, self-directed, independent life-long learner capable of
critical thinking and independent action is desired.
Technology, which is a major source of demands placed on institutional learning, offers solutions to
its problems. Technology enhanced learning environments will become common place for both traditional and
distant students. Technology enhanced distance education places a student in an environment similar to their
future habitat as an intellectual worker in the 21st century. They learn to use technology to seek, structure,
interpret, and assimilate information. Information is presented in all forms including direct lecture, media
enhanced lecture, conferencing, books, papers, videos, and simulations. In short, technology enhanced
distance education can use all forms of media and information transfer methods.
Distance education can provide far more students with an opportunity for quality education. Likewise
authors, instructors, media specialists, publishers, and institutions that provide these opportunities will have
greater recognition, increased stature, and financial rewards.
Within a context of rapid technological change and shifting market conditions, the American education
system is challenged with providing increased educational opportunities without increased budgets. Many
educational institutions are answering this challenge by developing distance education programs. At its most
basic level, distance education takes place when a teacher and student(s) are physically separated and
technology (i.e., voice, video, data, communications, and print is used to bridge the instructional gap. These
types of programs can provide adults with a second chance at a college education, reach those disadvantaged
by limited time, distance or physical disability, and update the knowledge base of workers at their places of
employment, their homes, or libraries.

When Is Distance Education Effective?


"Many educators ask if distant students learn as much as students receiving traditional face-to-face
instruction. Research comparing distance education to traditional face-to-face instruction indicates that teaching
and studying at a distance can be as effective as traditional instruction "when the method and technologies
used are appropriate to the instructional tasks, there is student-to-student interaction, and when there is
timely teacher-to- student feedback" (see Moore & Thompson, 1990; Verduin & Clark, 1991).
Teams of media specialists, content experts, editors, writers, instructional designers and software
engineers are currently working to develop distance courses across the country. The combined efforts of
these teams produce a high quality learning environment often superior to the classroom experience. Editors
and peers review materials and provide feedback to improve quality.
For successful experiences, technology must be easily accessible by teachers and students. VCRs,
televisions, and phones are commonplace in most households. If multi-media computers with CDs, speakers,
and Internet access are required of all students and faculty, then that technology is also available.
The needs of learners and different learning styles must also be addressed. For example, auditory
learners cannot succeed when provided only with print media and Internet documents without voice, video, or
multiple media presentations.
Distance Education is continually evolving. As more funds are applied to developing courses and
materials, the instructional delivery continues to improve. Another key factor is the Internet. The Internet
provides resources to distance students once only available in libraries and computer labs on campus. The
Internet also is providing access to industry experts and specialists who, as mentors and guest presenters in
conferences, provide real-world scenarios to enrich content and answer the big question of "why is this
important?".

42

Traditional Classroom Vs. Distance Classroom


In a traditional classroom, instructors are in control of the learning environment. The Instructor controls
the speed, sequence, and progression. Communication is often linear, one-way, one-dimensional, and static.
Although the traditional lecture is cost effective for faculty, most are considered ineffective for student because
they are not actively learning. The traditional lecture "sage on the stage" role is changing.
In a technology enhanced distance classroom, the students are in control of the learning environment.
The student controls the speed, sequence, and progression. Communication is non-linear, dynamic, and
collaborative. A different role for faculty facilitating on-line courses and creating materials has evolved. Scaling
up the potential, including distant students option of anytime anywhere learning is changing not only the
quality of the course being delivered, but also the quantity of material being digested. The role of "guide on the
slide" has not only changed the make-up of the course, it has altered the faculty activities in the development
and implementation of course work. An analysis of time might show the largest shift occurring in the lecture
to mentor relationship. Individual contact time increases dramatically.

How is Distance Education Delivered?


Wide ranges of technological options are currently available to the distance educator. They have
commonly been placed into four major categories:
Print - is a foundational element of distance education programs and the basis from which all other
delivery systems have evolved. Various print formats are available including: textbooks, periodicals, study
guides, workbooks, lecture notes, course syllabi, and case studies. Print is also delivered via Electronic mail,
fax, real-time computer conferencing, and World-Wide Web applications. Magazines, encyclopedias, reference
books, and periodicals are also available on CD and the Internet.
Voice - Instructional audio tools include the interactive technologies of telephone, audio-conferencing,
computer audio conferencing, and short-wave radio. Passive (i.e., one-way) audio tools include tapes, CD,
Internet audio, and radio broadcast.
Video - Instructional video tools include still images such as slides, pre-produced moving images
(e.g., film, videotape), and real-time moving images combined with audio-conferencing (one-way or two-way
video with two-way audio). Multimedia presentations combine slides with video and voice and can be delivered
on CD, DVD, or the Internet.
Data - Computers send and receive information electronically. For this reason, the term "data" is used
to describe this broad category of instructional tools. Computer applications for distance education are varied
and include:
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) - (also called computer-based training CBT) uses the
computer as a self-contained teaching machine to present individual lessons. Text combined with illustrations
and interactivity are commonly used to present new concepts and provide drill and practice quizzes and
tests.
Computer-managed instruction (CMI) - uses the computer to organize instruction and track
student records and progress. The instruction itself need not be delivered via a computer, although CAI is
often combined with CMI. Computer based testing and grade books are
Computer-mediated education (CME) - describes computer applications that facilitate the delivery
of instruction. Tasks performed include publishing course syllabi and course information to the world wide web
or to CD, student tracking, facilitating student interaction through email and computer conferencing, computer
based testing with instant feedback and automated grading, grade book, course evaluation, and reporting.

Which Technology is Best?


Although technology plays a key role in the delivery of distance education, educators must remain
focused on instructional outcomes, not the technology of delivery. The key to effective distance education is
focusing on the needs of the learners, the requirements of the content, and the constraints faced by the
teacher, before selecting a delivery system. Typically, this systematic approach will result in a mix of media,
each serving a specific purpose.

43

For example:
Interactive audio or video conferencing can provide real time face-to-face (or voiceto-voice) interaction. This is also an excellent to incorporate guests speakers and content
Princpios da experts. Electronic whiteboards used with computer conferencing can provide a means of
illustrating concepts and brainstorming sessions.

Lngua Inglesa

A strong print component can provide much of the basic instructional content in
the form of a course text, as well as readings, the syllabus, and day-to-day schedule. This print component
can be posted to a course web site (or placed onto a CD). The web URL is emailed to students who view and
print the documents.
Computer conferencing or electronic mail can be used to send messages, assignment feedback,
and other target communication to one or more class members. It can also be used to increase interaction
among students. List serves and newsgroups can be used to send messages to all students,
Pre-recorded videotapes or CD can be used to present class lectures and visually oriented content.
This is also an excellent and cost-effective way to incorporate guest speakers and experts.
Fax or Electronic Mail can be used to distribute assignments, last minute announcements, to
receive student assignments, and to provide timely feedback.
Computer Based Testing and quizzes with pre and posttests can provide students with feedback on
learning progress and provide measurement of meeting course objectives.
Student Tracking and Course Management systems can be used to facilitate the process, ease
the grading and paperwork burden, email grades to students, and free up more time to communicate with
students.
Using this integrated approach, the educators task is to carefully select among the technological options.
The goal is to build a mix of instructional media, meeting the needs of the learner in a manner that is
instructionally effective, economically prudent, and widely available to the majority of students. The resulting
course will be better than traditional and competitive course offerings.

http://www.collegecourse.com/sou/distance/whatis.html

Texto 2
WHAT IS STRATEGIC READING?
Reading is a process of constructing meaning by interacting with text; as individuals
read, they use their prior knowledge along with clues from the text to construct meaning.
Research indicates that effective or expert readers are strategic (Baker & Brown, 1984a, 1984b).
This means that they have purposes for their reading and adjust their reading to each purpose
and for each reading task. Strategic readers use a variety of strategies and skills as they
construct meaning (Paris, Wasik, & Turner, 1991).
A strategy is a plan selected deliberately by the reader to accomplish a particular goal
or to complete a given task (Paris, Lipson, & Wixson, 1983; Paris, Wasik, & Turner, 1991).
When students are able to select and use a strategy automatically, they have achieved
independence in using the strategy. Along with the strategies that expert readers use, they
also use a number of comprehension and study skills. It is clear from research that readers
develop the use of strategies and skills by reading and writing and being given the support
they need to grow in these processes (Wells, 1990).

44

The goal of all reading instruction is to help students become expert readers so that
they can achieve independence and can use literacy for lifelong learning and enjoyment.
Learning to use strategies effectively is essential to constructing meaning. Readers who are
not strategic often encounter difficulties in their reading (Paris, Wasik, & Turner, 1991). These
early difficulties in reading may influence the way readers learn throughout the rest of their
lives (Anderson, Hiebert, Scott, & Wilkinson, 1985).
http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/literacy/st_read0.html

Texto 3
BRAZIL - LITERATURE
The transfer, in 1808, of the Portuguese royal family to Brazil brought with it the spirit of the
incipient European Romantic Movement. Brazilian writers began to emphasize individual freedom,
subjectivism, and a concern for social issues. Following Brazil's Independence from Portugal,
Romantic literature expanded to exalt the uniqueness of Brazil's tropics and its Indians, concern
for the African slaves, and to descriptions of urban activities. Some of the best known literature
figures of the Romantic Period were poets, such as Castro Alves (1847-1871) who wrote about
African slaves and Gonalves Dias (1823-1864) who wrote about Indians. Manuel Antnio de Almeida
(1831-1861) is credited with initiating picaresque literature in Brazil. Jos de Alencar (18291877)wrote a number of popular novels including Iracema about Indians, O Guarani, a historical
novel, and novels on regional, social, and urban affairs. Among the novelists of the Romantic
Period two are still widely read in Brazil today: Joaquim Manuelde Macedo (1820-1882), who wrote
A Moreninha, a popular story, and Alfredo d'Escragnolle Taunay (1843-1899), the author of Inocncia.
The Parnassian school of poetry was, in Brazil as in France, a reaction to the excesses of
the Romantics. The so-called "ParnassianTriad" of Brazilian poets - Olavo Bilac (1865-1918),
Raimundo Correa (1860-1911), and Alberto de Oliveira (1859-1937) - wrote refined poetry in which
the poet's personality and interest in social issues were obliterated.
Machado de Assis (1839-1908) , widely acclaimed as the greatest Brazilian writer of the
19th century and beyond, was unique because of the universality of his novels and essays. Today,
Machado de Assis remains one the most important and influential writers of fiction in Brazil. His
works encompassed both the Romantic styleand Realism as exemplified in Europe by Emile Zola
and the Portuguese novelist, Ea de Queiroz. The prose of Euclides da Cunha(1866-1908), was
committed to a Brazilian literature portraying social realities. His famous work, Os Sertes (Rebellion
in the Backlands), about a revolt in the northeast led by a religious fanatic, was published in 1902.
At the turn of the century the Brazilian literary imagination was drawn to Symbolism,
represented by poets Cruz e Souza (1861-1893) and Alphonsus de Guimares (1870-1921). The
Symbolists were interested in mysticism and used metaphor and allegory to express their ideas.
Beginning in the 20th century, an innovative state of mind imbued Brazilian artists, culminating
in the celebration of the Week of Modern Art in So Paulo. This new way of thinking propelled an
artistic revolution what appealed to feelings of pride fornational folklore, history, and ancestry.
Participants in the Week of Modern Art resorted to experiments in writing and in finearts known
elsewhere as Futurism, Cubism, and Dadaism. Poet Menotti del Pichia summarized the aims of
the new artistic movement with these words: "We want light, air, ventilators, airplanes, workers'
demands, idealism, motors, factory smokestacks, blood, speed, dream in our Art." The most
important leader of the literary phase of this movement was Mrio de Andrade (1893-1945)who
wrote poetry, essays on literature, art, music, and Brazilian folklore, and Macunama, which he
called"a rhapsody, not a novel". Oswald de Andrade (1890-1953)wrote a collection of poems entitled
Pau-Brasil (Brazilwood) which evaluated Brazilian culture, superstitions, and family life in simple
language, economically, and, for the first time in Brazilian poetry, with humor.

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The transition to a more spontaneous literary approach is represented by


poets Carlos Drummond de Andrade (1902-1987), who used irony to dissect the
customs of the time, and Manuel Bandeira (1886-1968),who built language
associations around proverbs and popular expressions. Bandeira wanted his last
Princpios da poem "to be eternal, saying the simplest and least intentional things".
The modern Brazilian novel took on a new shape and social content after
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Jos Amrico de Almeida (l887-l969) wrote A Bagaceira, a pioneer story about the
harsh conditions of life in the backward northeast. He was followed by Jorge
Amado(1902-), Graciliano Ramos (1892-1953), Jos Lins do Rgo(1901-1957), and Rachel de
Queiroz (1910-), all noted for the power of their images in evoking the problems and hard ships of
life in the northeast region where they were born.
Jorge Amado's first novels, translated into 33 languages, were heavily influenced by his
belief in Marxist ideas and concentrated on the sufferings of workers on the cocoa plantations of
his homestate of Bahia and on humble fishermen at seaside villages. In the 1950's he opted for a
more jovial approach to the joys and sorrows of the middle classes of Bahia, producing a succession
of books which have received worldwide acclaim. Gabriela, Cravo e Canela (Gabriela, Clove and
Cinnamon) is perhaps the bestknown of Amado's books. Dona Flor e seus Dois Maridos (DonaFlor
and Her Two Husbands) has provided the scripts for films, plays, and television.
Arguably the most innovative Brazilian writer of his century wasJoo Guimares Rosa
(l908-1967). A career diplomat, he first captured the attention of the public and critics alike with a
volume of short stories, Sagarana, soon followed by his best known work Grande Serto:
Veredas,translated into English as The Devil to Pay in the Backlands. Delving deep into speech
mannerisms from the hinterland region of the eastern seaboard, Guimares Rosa started
something of a semantic revolution. He dared to present his readers with coined word combinations
and syntax so unrestrained as to constitute almost a new language
There are many other noteworthy Brazilian writers. Gilberto Freyre(1900-1987), a master
of style and a pioneer of the new school of Brazilian sociologists, is the author of Casa Grande
&Senzala (The Masters and The Slaves) a perceptive study of Brazilian society. One of the best
known Brazilian poets isJoo Cabral Melo Neto (1918-). His poetry is sober and he uses words
with the accuracy with which an engineer would use his building materials. Special mention must
be made of Vinciusde Moraes (1913-1980). His poetry became part and parcel of thebossa nova
musical movement which produced a new style of samba, that typically Brazilian rhythm. Vincius(as
he is known worldwide) also wrote a play, Orfeu da Conceio,which became internationally famous
as the film Black Orpheus.
Among the living or recently deceased novelists, mention should be made of: Orgenes
Lessa, Adonias Filho, ricoVerssimo, Dinah Silveira de Queiroz, Lygia Fagundes Telles, Herberto
Sales, Rubem Fonseca, Clarice Lispector, Dalton Trevisan,Nlida Pion, Osman Lins, Edgard
Telles Ribeiro, and Moacir Scliar; and among the poets: Raul Bopp, Murilo Mendes, Augusto Frederico
Schmidt,Mrio Quintana, Cassiano Ricardo, Jorge de Lima, Ferreira Gullar, Ceclia Meireles, Augusto
de Campos, and Haroldo de Campos.
http://www.un.int/brazil/brasil/brazil-literature.htm

Texto 4
What is a Good Teacher?
By Catherine Taylor, Lagos

What is a good teacher? Depending on ones perspective, this question has many valid
answers. A child might say that a good teacher makes learning fun, is fair, and assigns no homework.
A parent might say that a good teacher is organized, has good control of the class, and challenges
students. Administrators might say that a good teacher follows district guidelines, presents district
curriculum effectively, and contributes to the school community. The school building manager
might say a good teacher is tidy, has students clean up after themselves, and makes reasonable

46

demands on his/her time. In short, it would be difficult to describe a good teacher without
acknowledging all the people a teacher touches in the course of doing her* job as well as the varied
needs and expectations these people hold.
(* I use the feminine pronouns she and her to simplify. This in no way dismisses or
diminishes the many men who are good teachers.)
Good teachers come in a variety of sizes, shapes, colors, genders, and backgrounds.
Some are old, some young, some serious, some funny. Despite this broad range of individuals,
there are some characteristics common, some might say essential, for all good teachers.
A good teacher, first and foremost, sees each student as an individual with hopes, dreams,
strengths, and vulnerabilities. In her classroom, each student is treated as an invaluable, essential
member of the class, a person capable of success, a person with something important to contribute.
A good teacher works to create a classroom atmosphere in which every student sees every other
student in this light an atmosphere in which respect for each other is the guiding principle, an
atmosphere in which every student feels safe enough to share their thoughts and feelings, an
atmosphere in which making a mistake is seen as an opportunity to learn rather than an opportunity
to feel like a failure.
A good teacher knows her students on many levels. She learns all she can about their
academic strengths and needs, but even more about their interests, fears, hopes, and worries.
She helps her students learn these things about themselves. She helps her students to learn
some of these things about each other, especially the strengths and hopes!
A good teacher helps her students to develop, achieve, and maintain strong self-esteem.
She helps each student feel they are special, unique, and very, very wonderful. She looks beneath
a defeated, sassy, comedic, defiant, weird, or compliant attitude to find the real person inside the
behavior. She understands and accepts every childs need to try on a variety of identities and
doesnt allow clothes, hair, or other eccentricities to get in the way. She sees diversity as an
enhancing spice in the classroom and welcomes differences as a way to expand each class
members world.
A good teacher allows her students to see and get to know her real self. Rather than
hiding within her role, or maintaining an adult distance, she lets her hopes, dreams, fears, and
vulnerabilities show (when appropriate, of course) and lets her students in. If students see their
teacher as a person willing to be open and honest, they will be much more likely to be open and
honest with her. She makes herself available to her students, both her attention and her time.
A good teacher remembers that each of her students is somebodys precious child. She
knows that every parent has high hopes, valid concerns, and great expectations for that child. She
works to help the parents understand her goals, become comfortable with her style, and to develop
their confidence. She sees parents as an integral and vital part of the childs education not
intrusive, annoying impediments. She recognizes how much influence she has in a childs life
and how difficult it can be for a parent to trust their child to her.
A good teacher tries to see things through her students eyes as well as her own. She
works hard to be fair, empathetic, and encouraging. She strives to maintain high expectations for
each and every child to challenge them to reach for their best and aim for the stars. She is
strong, firm, and determined. She shows her students that learning and doing ones best are the
goals and that grades are not.
A good teacher is not afraid to try new things, to look a little silly, to show a little sadness,
to be a little angry, to get mighty excited, or to act really happy. Shes not afraid to play with her
students. Shes not afraid to say shes made a mistake, to apologize, or to change her mind. Shes
not afraid to bend a rule or to make a new rule. Shes not afraid to have standards, values, and

47

manners and to help her students see why those things are important and why
they should have them themselves, as well as why they must live up to hers.
A good teacher makes learning exciting. She helps each student find areas

Princpios da of interest to explore and master. She helps her students see that goals which are

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at first difficult may eventually become easy, and are often the most satisfying to
achieve. She helps her students to see new things as stimulating challenges rather
than dreaded obstacles. She shows them that perfection is not only unrealistic, but
undesirable as well.
A good teacher knows that no one can be a good teacher to every student every day, but
she continues to try knowing that if she can be a good teacher to every student many days that
she has been successful. A good teacher forgives herself for becoming discouraged or frustrated,
encourages herself to keep trying, pats herself on the back when she knows it worked, and allows
herself to feel proud when she sees a child grow, because she knows she was part of that growth.
A good teacher shares what she has learned about being a good teacher with other
teachers, for a good teacher wants all children, not just the ones in her class, to have the best
possible experience in school. She knows that teachers as well as students can always learn
from each other.
A good teacher becomes attached to her students, knowing it will be hard to say good-bye
at the end of the school year, hoping those students will come back to visit, realizing that even if
she never sees them again, they will carry her in their futures and remember her with their
successes.

Originally published in the KEA Katalyst, May 1998


http://www.kyrene.k12.az.us/kea/pdf/MembersSpeaktarticles/goodteach

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Referncias

Bibliogrficas
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BOFF, Leonardo. A guia e a galinha: uma metfora de condio humana. Petrpolis:
Vozes,1997.
BROOKS, S. and N.,The C.V. Mostly Company. London.
CEREJA, William Roberto & MAGALHES, Thereza Cochar. Texto e Interao: uma
proposta de produo textual a partir de gneros e projetos.So Paulo: Atual,2000.
______ Gramtica Reflexiva: Texto, Semntica e Interao, So Paulo: Atual, 1999.
FREIRE, Paulo. A importncia do ato de ler. 12. Ed. So Paulo: Cortez, 1986.
FREITAG, B. Aspectos filosficos e Scio-Antropolgicos do Construtivismo PsPiagetiano - I Construtivismo Ps Piagetiano. Petrpolis: Vozes, 1993.
GARCIA, Othon M. Comunicao em Prosa Moderna: aprender a escrever, aprendendo
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ICARO VARIG INFLIGHT MAGAZINE
INFANTE, Ulisses. Do Texto ao Texto. So Paulo Scipione, 1996
KATO, Mary. O Aprendizado da Leitura. So Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1995.
KLEIMAN, ngela. Oficina de leitura: teoria & prtica. Campinas, Pontes, 1998
KOCH, Ingedore Grunfeld Villaa & TRAVAGLIA, Luiz Carlos. Texto e Coerncia. So Paulo:
Cortez, 2003.
______. A coerncia textual: repensando a lngua portuguesa.11 ed. So Paulo: Contexto,
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LIMA, Denise. UFScar. In Revista Nova Escola, Junho 1996.
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MORIN, E. A construo da sociedade democrtica e o papel da educao e do
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Petrpolis: Vozes, 1993.
NEWSWEEK MAGAZINE NOVEMBER 8, 1993
OLIVEIRA,S.R.DE F. Estratgias de Leitura para Ingls Instrumental.UnB.Braslia,1994.

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PARENTS MAGAZINE FEBRUARY 1990


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PENTEADO, J. R. Hitaker. A Tcnica da Comunicao Humana. So Paulo:


Pioneira, 1997.
PSYCHOLOGY TODAY /APRIL 1993

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Textos. Petrpolis: Vozes, 2001.
TORRES, Dcio et al. Ingls.com.textos para informtica. Salvador: O Autor, 2001.
TERRA, Ernani; NICOLA, Jos de. Prticas de linguagem: leitura e produo de textos.
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TIME MAGAZINE, FEBRUARY 5,1996
TOTIS, V.P. Lngua Inglesa: Leitura. So Paulo: Cortez, 1991.
WALLACE, Catherine. Critical Literacy Awareness in the EFL Classroom. In: N. Fairclough.
Critical Language Awareness. Longman,1996
http://www.mtnbrook.k12.al.us/academy/5thgrade/tools/s
http://www.americanenglishexpress.com/subpage203.html
http://www.macskinz.com/MACSKINZ/INSTRUCTIONS/wedgee_instructions.gif
http://www.collegecourse.com/sou/distance/whatis.html
http://www.kyrene.k12.az.us/kea/pdf/MembersSpeaktarticles/goodteach
http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/literacy/st_read0.html
http://www.un.int/brazil/brasil/brazil-literature.htm

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Anotaes

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Princpios da

Lngua Inglesa

FTC - EaD
Faculdade de Tecnologia e Cincias - Educao a Distncia
Democratizando a Educao.

www.ftc.br/ead

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