Purdue ePubs
International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Conference
School of Mechanical Engineering
2010
A Steam Expander for a Waste Heat Recovery
Cycle
Hyan Jin Kim
University of Incheon
Hyun Jae Kim
University of Incheon
You Chan Kim
University of Incheon
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Kim, Hyan Jin; Kim, Hyun Jae; and Kim, You Chan, "A Steam Expander for a Waste Heat Recovery Cycle" (2010). International
Refigeration and Air Conditioning Conference. Paper 1071.
htp://docs.lib.purdue.edu/iracc/1071
, Page 1
International ReIrigeration and Air Conditioning ConIerence at Purdue, July 1215, 2010
(1)
3 4
( )
s
e
s
L
m h h
q =
(2)
II the actual eIIiciency oI the Rankine cycle is deIined as the ratio oI the shaIt power (L
s
) oI the expander to the heat
energy (Q
steam
) supplied to the water, it is (h
2
h
1
)(h
3
h
4
) and thus the actual eIIiciency oI the Rankine cycle
becomes equation (3).
3 4
,
3 4
( )
( )
s s s
R R i e
steam steam s
L m h h L
Q Q m h h
q q q
= = ~
(3)
Considering the pressure resistance and heat expansion property oI the expander structure, a steam pressure
P
3
3.5Mpa and temperature t
3
300
o
C
at the inlet oI the expander will be used as design operating conditions.
Expander outlet conditions depend on the expansion ratio oI the expander and iI a swash plate type expander
structure is adopted, an expansion ratio oI around 10 can be obtained. In this case, the expander outlet conditions
will be P
4
0.35Mpa and t
4
138
o
C
and the steam will be in a two phase state with an approximate mass Iraction
x
4
0.9.
3. SWASH PLATE TYPE STEAM EXPANDER DESIGN
3.1 Expansion ratio and expansion commencing angle
II the crank angle and the piston position when the piston is at the top dead center are set to 00
o
and x0,
respectively, the piston position and the volume in the cylinder at a crank angle oI 0 will be as equation (4).
0
tan (1 cos ),
sw c p
x R J A x J o u = = + (4)
Here, A
p
a/4d
c
2
is the cross section area oI the piston, V
0
is the clearance volume, R
sw
is the radius oI the swash
plate and o
is the inclination angle oI the swash plate. In this case, the piston displacement volume becomes
V
p
A
p
(2R
sw
tano). In this design, considering the path oI rotor valves etc, the volume ratio oI the gap was
determined as cV
0
/V
p
0.05
and the expansion commencement angle as 0 40.5
o
. In this case, the expansion ratio
, Page 3
International ReIrigeration and Air Conditioning ConIerence at Purdue, July 1215, 2010
becomes 10.5.
3.2 Steam flow rate and displacement volume
Relationships between the steam Ilow rate m
s
and the expander output L
s
, and the expander displacement V
th
are
given by equations (5) and (6) respectively.
3 4
( )
s e s
L m h h q = (5)
4
( / 60)
e s
th
m
J
N
q
=
(6)
II the overall eIIiciency and the volume eIIiciency oI the expander are assumed as
0.75
e
q =
and
0.9
v
q =
and its rated
driving speed is determined as N1200 rpm, the steam Ilow rate and the expander displacement necessary to
generate an expander power output oI 3kW under the design operating conditions established earlier become
m
s0.0088kg/s and V
th
208cc, respectively.
3.3 Determination of major expander dimensions
To minimize leaks through the gap between the piston and the cylinder, piston rings should be applied. Since the
temperature oI the inhaled steam is as high as 300
o
C , it is desirable to use existing commercialized piston rings Ior
small engines and the smallest diameter oI currently available small engine pistons is 30.2mm oI pistons used on
engines Ior grass cutters. ThereIore, the diameter oI pistons is Iixed as d
c
30.2mm. II the number oI cylinders is
determined as n
c
8 considering the structure oI inhaling valve ports and the continuity oI steam inIlows, the stroke
necessary to make the given displacement is 36.4mm. II the router and swash plate are designed reIlecting
appropriate distances between cylinders necessary to secure structural stability and considering the mechanical
stability and mobility oI the swash plate, the eIIective diameter and inclination angle become R
sw
50mm
and
o20
o
respectively. Figure 2 is a crosssection diagram oI the swash plate type expander designed as such.
= +
(10)
However, the saturated densities oI vapor state and liquid state p
4
and p
1
can be obtained only aIter knowing pressure
P
and thus eventually, equations (9) and (10) should be solved simultaneously.
4.2 Calculation of piston and rotor reactions
Figure 3 shows the Iorces applied to the piston and the reactions acting on the rotor. The balances oI the Iorces and
moments on the piston and the rotor are obtained as in equations (11)  (14).
1, 2, ,
tan
i i c i
F F F o = + (11)
2,
( ) ( ) tan
c i i p i c c
l x F l x l F o = +
(12)
8 8
1 2, 2 1,
1 1
0
i i
i i
R F R F
= =
+ + =
(13)
8
1 1 2, 2 2
1
( ) 0
mf c i i mf
i
l R l x F l R
=
+ =
(14)
Figure 3: Force diagram on piston and rotor Figure 4: Force diagram on valve body
, Page 5
International ReIrigeration and Air Conditioning ConIerence at Purdue, July 1215, 2010
II the Iriction losses at the piston, the bearing supporting the rotor and the shaIt, the bearing shoe caught by the
piston ball, and the angular bearing supporting the swash plate are named L
p
, L
RS
, L
shoe
and L
AB
, respectively, they
can be represented by equations (15).
8
1, 2,
1
2 2
1 1 2 2 2
8
,
1
8
,
1
1
( )
( )
/ cos
/ cos
p p s i i
i
R S BB
shoe shoe shoe com i
i
AB AB AB com i
i
v v v B
L x F F
L r R R r R
L R F
L R F
L r F
e
o
e o
e
=
=
=
= +
= + +
=
=
=
(15)
Figure 4 shows the Iorces on the distribution valve and the rotor in the axial direction. F
B1
is the Iorce due to the
high pressure gas at the expander inlet tube, and F
B2
is the gas reaction Irom the rotor port openings.
5. CALCULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Figure 5 shows the PV diagram obtained under the design operating conditions. The expansion power obtained
Irom this expansion line diagram is L
PV
3060W. Since the theoretical expansion power is L
th
th
(h
3

h
4
)3859.6W, the adiabatic expansion eIIiciency is q
ad
88.1. Figure 6 shows various kinds oI Iorces applied to
each piston and rotorshaIt supporting bearings. The average values oI individual components are as Iollows.
R
1y
785.5N, R
1z
2291.7N, and R
2y
704.1N, respectively. While R
1z
, axial component oI the angular bearing,
being the diIIerence between F
z
and F
B2
, is the largest one among various bearing loads, largest Iriction loss occurs
at the rotor Irontal surIace against the distribution valve body due to large Iriction coeIIicient oI the boundary
lubrication: L
v
71.6W. Average values oI the other Iriction losses are L
p
24.7W, L
RS
36.7W, L
shoe
14.2W,
and L
AB
28.7W. The total oI mechanical Iriction losses is L
mech
175.9W. ThereIore, the shaIt power oI the
expander is L
s
L
PV
L
mech
2884W and the mechanical eIIiciency is q
mech
94.3. The torque line diagram is
shown in Figure 8.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
P
[
b
a
r
]
V [cc]
0 90 180 270 360
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
R1y,
R2y
FB1
FComb,i
R1z
F
[
N
]
AngIe, u [deg]
Fz
Figure 5: PV diagram at P
3
35bar, t
3
300
o
C Figure 6: Various Iorces on piston and bearings
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International ReIrigeration and Air Conditioning ConIerence at Purdue, July 1215, 2010
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