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Andhra Pradesh (Telugu: , Urdu: , [andr prde] (


is one

of the 28 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of India. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city by population is Hyderabad.The total GDP of Andhra Pradesh is $100 billion and is ranked third among all states in India.[4] The State has the second-longest coastline of 972 km (604 mi) among all the States in India.[5] The primary official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu and Urdu is the secondary official language in some places,[2] while other languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh are Hindi, Marathi, Tamil, Kannada, Oriya. 10281 persons declare English as their first language in Andhra Pradesh according to the 2001 census.[6] Andhra Pradesh lies between 1241' and 22N latitude and 77 and 8440'E longitude, and is bordered by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the East, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west. Andhra Pradesh is historically called the "Rice Bowl of India". More than 77% of its crop is rice; Andhra Pradesh produced 17,796,000 tonnes of rice in 2006.[7] Two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna, run across the state. The small enclave (30 square kilometres (12 sq mi)) of Yanam, a district of Pondicherry, lies in the Godavari Delta in the northeast of the state. On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganization Act formed Andhra Pradesh by merging Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad State and the already existing Andhra State .[8]

[edit] Ancient and Medieval History

Main article: History of Andhra Pradesh A pillar at Ahobilam temple in Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh

Rock-cut Lord --Buddha-- Statue at Bojjanakonda near Anakapalle, Visakhapatnam

An Andhra tribe was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana (800 BCE) and Mahabharata (400 BCE).[9] The Natya Shastra written by Bharatha (1st century BCE) also mentions the Andhra people.[10] The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district[11] and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the 5th century CE.[12] Megasthenes, a Greek traveller and geographer who visited the Court of Chandragupta Maurya (322297 BCE), mentioned that the region had three fortified towns and an army of 100,000 infantry, 200 cavalry, and 1,000 elephants. Buddhist books reveal that Andhras established their huts or tents near the Godavari River at that time.[13] Inscriptional evidence shows that there was an early kingdom in coastal Andhra (Guntur District) ruled first by Kuberaka and then by his son Varun, with Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu) as the capital. Around the same time, Dhanyakatakam/Dharanikota (present day Amaravati) appears to have been an important place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha. According to the ancient Tibetan scholar Taranatha: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following his

enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of 'The Glorious Lunar Mansions' (Kalachakra)".[14][15] Literary evidence shows that long before Bhogala's, a legendary king named Bhogala Hari Siva Kumar Reddy ruled in and around the Diviseema region of Andhra Pradesh. After his reign, people came to believe that he had an amsa of the divine savior Lord Maha Vishnu himself. Perhaps in his honor, people dedicated a new temple now located at Srikaku?am, Krishna District. The lord of the temple is known as Andhra Vi?h?u or Srikaku?andhra Vi?h?u. The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in the 4th century BC. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BC, the Satavahanas became independent. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, the Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Rashtrakutas, Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas, and Cholas ruled the land.[16] During this period, Telugu emerged as a popular language, supplanting Prakrit and Sanskrit.[17] Telugu was made the official language by the Vishnukundina kings (5th and 6th centuries), who ruled from their capital city of Vengi. Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas; their capital was also Vengi. As early as the 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals and chieftains under the Satavahanas and later under the Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler Rajaraja Narendra ruled Rajahmundry around 1022 CE.[18] The battle of Palnadu (1182) resulted in the weakening of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty and led to the emergence of the Kakatiya dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas were at first vassals of the Rashtrakutas, and ruled over a small territory near Warangal. Eventually all the Telugu lands were united by the Kakatiyas. In 1323 CE, Delhi Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and captured Warangal. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate in 1326 CE and ruled for fifty years. Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal.[19] In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century.[20] Although Hyderabad was founded less than 500 years ago, archaeologists have unearthed Iron Age sites near the city that could date back to 500 BC. Approximately over 1000 years ago this region was ruled by Kakatiyas until 1310 AD, and fell under Delhi sultanate from (13101345), when the central sultanate became weak the Bahmani Sultan revolted against the Sultan of Delhi Muhammad bin Tughluq and established an independent state in Deccan within the Delhi Sultanates southern provinces and ruled until 1518 AD. Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, governor of golconda, declared Independence from Bahmani Dynasty, and announced himself a sultan of golconda in the year 1518 AD, and founded the Qutb Shahi dynasty.[21] Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a fifth Sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (the ruling family of the Golconda Sultanate, previously a feudatory of Bahmani sultanate that declared independence in

1512) founded the city of Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591[20] to relieve a water shortage the dynasty had experienced at its old headquarters at Golconda city(11 kilometers west of Hyderabad city on the other side of Musi). He also ordered the construction of the Charminar. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb captured kingdom of Golconda including the city of Hyderabad in 1687 and, during this short Mughal rule, Mughal-appointed governors of the city soon gained autonomy.[22] In 1724, Asaf Jah I, who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk ("Governor of the country") by the Mughal emperor, defeated a rival official to establish control over kingdom of Golconda renamed it as Hyderabad state. Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that ruled Hyderabad State until a year after India's independence from Britain. Asaf Jah's successors ruled as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth of Hyderabad city both culturally and economically. Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the kingdom (Hyderabad state) and Golkonda city was almost abandoned. Huge reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabhadra, Osman Sagar, and Himayat Sagar, were built. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begun during this time; the actual work was completed by the Government of India in 1969. The wealth and grandeur of the Nizams is demonstrated by the fabled Jewels of The Nizams, which is a tourist attraction. The state was the richest and the largest among the princely states of India. The land area of the state was 90,543 mi; its population in 1901 was 50,073,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of 90,029,000.[23][24]

Charminar at Hyderabad

[edit] Modern history

Vizag skyline See also: Andhra State, Vishalandhra Movement, and Telangana Rebellion

In Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State.[25] Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954. India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.[26] In an effort to gain an independent state based on the linguistic and protect the interests of the Andhra (Telugu-speaking) people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted until death in 1952. After his death, Andhra attained statehood on 1 November 1953, with Kurnool as its capital.[27] On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganization Act merged the Telugu-speaking areas of the former Hyderabad state with the Telugu-speaking areas of the former Madras state to form the state of Vishalandhra, which is named as Andhra Pradesh. The city of Hyderabad, the former capital of the Hyderabad State, was made the capital of the new state. There were several movements to disintegrate Andhra Pradesh into two states viz. Andhra and Telengana in the late 1960 which are continuing till date. On 9 December 2009, it was announced that a separation proposal for Telangana would be introduced to the state assembly.[28] Controversy arose as to the future status of Hyderabad City, part of one of the ten districts of Telangana region.[29] This move was opposed by protesters from

Kosta and Rayalaseema regions. On 23 December 2009, the government decided to put the decision of bifurcating the state on hold until a consensus is achieved among the different political parties. This agitated supporters of a separate Telangana state.[30] On 5 January 2010, the Central Government represented by Home Minister P Chidambaram conducted a meeting by inviting all the recognised political parties of AP and recorded their stand on the issue. The Government of India appointed a committee, headed by B. N. Srikrishna, to guide the central government to settle the issue of Telangana amicably.[31] The committee submitted its report on 30 December 2010, a day before its term was to expire.[32]

[edit] Geography and climate

The Mouth of the Godavari River (East) emptying into the Bay of Bengal

Greater Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus roseus) taking off Pocharam lake

Aerial view of Visakhapatnam port

Ethipothala Falls

Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is composed of most of the eastern half of the Deccan plateau and the plains to the east of the Eastern Ghats. Andhra Pradesh is divided into three regions. The northern part of the plateau is the Telangana region and the southern part is known as Rayalaseema. These two regions are separated by the River Krishna. The third region is Coastal Andhra.[33] The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Kadapa Basin[34] formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral rich area. The coastal plains are for the most part delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penner rivers. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. The Eastern Ghat region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The west and southwest parts of Andhra Pradesh have semi-arid conditions.

Indian Space Research Organisation's Satish Dhawan Space Centre is located at the Barrier Island of Sriharikota, in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of the state. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 C and 41 C.[35] July to September is the seasons for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavy rainfall from Southwest Monsoon during these months. About one third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh is brought by the Northeast Monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the Northeast Monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 C to 30 C.[35] Hyderabad is the capital and, along with the adjoining twin city Secunderabad, is the largest city in the state.Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh's main seaport, is the second largest city and is home to the Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command. Due to its location and proximity to major rail and road routes, Vijayawada is a major trading center and is the third largest city of the state, Guntur is the fourth largest city of the state, followed by Warangal, Tirupati, Rajahmundry, Kakinada. Other important places of the state are Nellore, Srikakulam, Kurnool, and Kadapa.

Main article: Economy of Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh's GSDP for 2010 was estimated at $100.35 billion in current prices. The state ranks third in terms of overall Gross State Product among all the states of the Indian Union.[44] In terms of per capita GSDP the state compares very favorably with other large states. In the 2010 list by Forbes Magazine, there are Seven from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest Indians.[citation needed]

Coconut fields in East Godavari

Srisailam Dam - Hydro Electric Power Source

Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Andhra Pradesh is an exporter of many agricultural products. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra flow through the state, providing irrigation. Rice, sugarcane, cotton, Chili pepper, mango, and tobacco are the local crops. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.[45][46] The service sector of the state accounts for 43% of the gross state domestic product (GSDP) and employs 20% of the work force.[46] Andhra Pradesh economy has registered over 5.5% annual economic growth rate during the last two decades.[citation needed] The state is one of the most industrially developed states of India.[citation needed] Andhra Pradesh ranks second in India in terms of mineral wealth. The state has about one third of India's limestone reserves, estimated at about 30 billion tonnes. The Tumalappalli Uranium mine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes of ore and there are indications that it could hold reserves totalling three times its current size, The Times of India quoted Srikumar Banerjee as saying. The mine's proven reserve is enough to support a 8,000 mega watts nuclear power plant for 40 years, the report added. The Krishna Godavari Basin has huge reserves of natural gas and petroleum. The state has a large amount of coal reserves.[46] The state ranks first nationwide in hydro electricity generation, with a national market share of over 11%. Andhra Pradesh has the second largest power generating utility in the country, with an installed capacity of around 10,650 MW. The two cheapest sources of thermal power generation coal and natural gas are in abundance.[citation needed]

Andhra Pradesh is promoted by its tourism department as the "Koh-i-Noor of India." Andhra Pradesh is the home of many religious pilgrim centres. Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is according to believers the abode of Hindu god Venkateswara. Srisailam, nestled in the Nallamala Hills is the abode of Mallikarjuna and is one of twelve Jyothirlingas in India. Amaravati's Shiva temple is one of the Pancharamams, as is Yadagirigutta, the abode of an avatara of Vishnu, Lakshmi Narasimha. The Ramappa temple and Thousand Pillars temple in Warangal are famous for their temple carvings. The state has numerous Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda, Bhattiprolu, Ghantasala, Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Bavikonda, Thotlakonda, Shalihundam, Pavuralakonda, Bojjannakonda(Sankaram), Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.[51] The Vijayanagara Empire built number of monuments, including the Srisailam temple and Lepakshi temples.

Araku Valley

North View of Bhimili beach The golden beaches at Visakhapatnam, the one-million-year-old limestone caves at Borra, picturesque Araku Valley, hill resorts of Horsley Hills, river Godavari racing through a narrow gorge at Papi Kondalu, waterfalls at Ettipotala, Kuntala and rich bio-diversity at Talakona are some of the natural attractions of the state. Kailashagiri is a park near the sea in Visakhapatnam. Visakhapatnam is home to other tourist attactions such as the INS Kursura S20 Submarine

museum (the only one of its kind in India), the longest beach road in India, Yarada Beach, Araku Valley, and Indira Gandhi Zoological Gardens. The Borra Caves are located in the Anatagiri Hills of the Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam. They are at an altitude of about 800 to 1300 metres and are famous for million-year-old stalactite and stalagmite formations. They were discovered by British geologist William King George in 1807. The caves get their name from a formation inside the caves that looks like the human brain, which in the local language, Telugu, is known as burra. The Belum caves were formed due to erosion in limestone deposits in the area by the weakly acidic water of the Chitravati River millions of years ago. The Papi Hills are located in Khammam district, near Bhadrachalam. Boat cruises are available on the river Godavari. The Belum Caves in Kurnool District have a length of 3,229 metres (10,594 ft), making them the second largest natural caves on the Indian subcontinent. The Belum Caves derive their name from Bilum, the Sanskrit word for caves. In Telugu, the caves are known as Belum Guhalu. The caves have long passages, spacious chambers, freshwater galleries, and siphons. The caves' deepest point is 120 feet (37 m) from the entrance and is known asPatalganaga. Horsley Hills, elevation 1,265 metres (4,150 ft), is a summer hill resort in Andhra Pradesh, about 160 km (99 mi) from Bangalore and144 km (89 mi) from Tirupati. The town of Madanapalle lies nearby. Major tourist attractions include the Mallamma temple and the Rishi Valley School. Horsely Hills is the departure point for the Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary at a distance of 87 km (54 mi). Nirmal is famous for its handicrafts and paintings. Kuntala waterfall, at 45 metres (148 ft), is the biggest in the state. Charminar, Golconda Fort, Chandragiri Fort, Chowmahalla Palace, and Falaknuma Palace are some of the monuments in the state. Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada in Krishna district, Venkateswara Temple in Dwaraka Tirumala, West Godavari District, and Surya temple in Arasavelli in Srikakulam District are also places to see in Andhra Pradesh. The Annavaram Satayannarayana Swami temple is in East Godavari, near Kakinada.Konaseema is another place in East Godavari for nature lovers with scenic greenery of lush paddy fields and coconut groves. All along the banks of river Godavari and its canals.

Bapu's paintings, Nanduri Venkata Subba Rao's Yenki Paatalu (Songs about a washerwoman called Yenki), mischievous Budugu (a character by Mullapudi), Annamayya's songs, Aavakaaya (a variant of mango pickle in which the kernel of mango is retained), Gongura (a chutney from Roselle plant), Atla Taddi (a seasonal festival predominantly for teenage girls), the banks of river Godavari, and the Dudu basavanna (the ceremonial ox decorated for door-to-door exhibition during the harvest festival Sankranthi) have long defined Telugu culture. The village of Durgi is

known for stone craft, producing carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering.[citation needed] Kalamkari is an ancient textile art form dating back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Andhra Pradesh is famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, dry grass, and lightweight metal alloys. Tirupathi is famous for redwood carvings. Kondapalli is famous for mud toys with rich colors. The village of Etikoppaka, located in Visakhapatnam district, produces lacquered toys. Nirmal paintings are expressive and are usually painted over a black background. Story telling in Andhra Pradesh is an art form in itself. Folk dances unique to Andhra Pradesh include Yaksha ganam, Burra katha (usually done by three people, telling stories using three different musical instruments), Jangama kathalu, Hari kathalu, Chekka bajana, Urumula natyam (usually done at festivals, where a group of people dance in circles with loud music), and Ghata natyam (performances done with earthen pots over one's head).[citation needed] Andhra Pradesh has many museums, the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts, including the Archaeological Museum[53] at Amaravati near Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites, and the Visakha Museum, in Visakhapatnam, which displays the history of the pre-Independence and thotla konda which depicts the age old budhist stupa's and cultural style, Madras Presidency in a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow.[54] Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada has a good collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions. Other ancient sites include dozens of ancient Buddhist stupas in Nagarjunakonda which is now an island in Nagarjuna Sagar, an artificial lake that formed after the construction of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam. The Island has a large museum that houses many Buddhist relics.[55] Just like in other parts of the country, many festivals are celebrated in Andhra Pradesh, which include - Ugadi, Sankranthi, Dasara, Varalakshmi Vratham, Vinayaka Chavithi, Deepavali, Batukamma, Rakhi poornima, Christmas, Sri Rama Navami, Bonalu, Maha Shivaratri, Nagula Chaviti, Holi, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Muharram, Milad-un-Nabi etc.
Literature Main article: Telugu literature

Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu. Pothana is the poet who composed the classic SriMad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham, authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. Nannayya (c. 11th century AD), the earliest known Telugu author, was patronized by the king Rajaraja Narendra who ruled from Rajamahendravaram (now Rajahmundry). The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada. The Telugu poet Vemana, a native of Kadapa, is notable for his philosophical poems. Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848 1919) is termed modern literature. Known as Gadya Tikkana, Satyavathi Charitam was the author Telugu-language social novel, Satyavathi Charitam. Jnanpith Award winners include Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy. The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.[citation needed] Other modern writers include Gunturu Seshendra Sarma, the only person nominated from India for a Nobel prize in literature since Rabindranath Tagore. The West Bengal Government

conferred on him the title Rashtrendu ("Moon of the Nation"). Telugu University awarded him an honorary Doctorate in Literature in 1994. He received the Kalidas Samman award from the Madhya Pradhesh government, and he won the Central Sahitya Akademi fellowship in 1999. Puttaparthi Narayanacharyulu is one of the scholarly poets of Telugu literature. He wrote the books Sivatandavam and Panduranga Mahatyam. Other notable writers from Andhra Pradesh include Srirangam Sreenivasarao, Gurram Jashuva, Chinnaya Suri, Viswanatha Satyanarayana. [citation needed] Dr.vempalli gangadhar,popular telugu story writer.see web;www.vempalligangadhar.com,N.DHANUNJAYA RAO of vijayawada

Education and Research

Andhra Pradesh is served by more than 20 institutes of higher education. All major arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business, and veterinary science are offered, with first degrees and postgraduate awards available. Advanced research is conducted in all major areas.[citation needed] Andhra Pradesh has 1,330 arts, science and commerce colleges; 1,000 MBA and MCA colleges; 847 engineering colleges; 53 medical colleges, and one Indian Institute of Technology (in Hyderabad). The student to teacher ratio in higher education is 19:1. According to the 2001 census, Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 61.11% (as per Andhra pradesh Govt's official website). The male literacy rate is 70.3% and the female literacy rate is 67.4%.[citation needed] Andhra Pradesh is the home to Osmania University, it is one of the oldest modern universities in India. It is one of the largest university systems in the subcontinent with over 300,000 students on its various campuses and affiliated colleges.[62] The Government of Andhra Pradesh has established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies (RGUKT)[63] in 2008 to cater to the educational needs of the gifted rural youth of Andhra Pradesh. The Institute specializes in teaching and research in Information Technology and other emerging disciplines under the control of a common university Governing Council and following a common syllabus.
School children in an elementary school in Andhra Pradesh

The state has recently made strides in setting up several institutes. Andhra Pradesh is home to the Birla Institute of Technology and Science (Hyderabad Campus),Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad,[64] Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Hyderabad,[65] International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (IIIT-H),[66] National Institute of Technology NIT Warangal,[67] the Nalsar University of Law, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) Hyderabad, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad, University of Hyderabad, School of Planning and Architecture, Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies[68] and the Indian School of Business (ISB). The National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) and The Institute of Hotel Management, Catering Technology and Applied

Nutrition are also located in Hyderabad. Also Georgia Institute of Technology,[69] is in the process of setting up their campus in Hyderabad. Apart from this Andhra Pradesh was home to many more top class university's like English and Foreign Languages University, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,[70] Osmania University,[71] Andhra University,[72] Nagarjuna University,[73] Kakatiya University,[74] Sri Venkateswara University,[75] Sri Krishnadevaraya University,[76] Potti Sreeramulu Telugu University,[77] Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Rayalaseema university, Kurnool, [78] and private engineering colleges like Vasavi College of Engineering, Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology, MVSR Engineering College, GRIET to serve their people across Andhra Pradesh. The Government of Andhra Pradesh has established the first University of Health Sciences, fulfilling the recommendations of several committees. The Andhra Pradesh University of Health Sciences was established by Act.No. 6 of the Andhra Pradesh legislature and was inaugurated in 1986 by the late Sri N.T. Rama Rao, then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. After the death of its founder Sri N.T. Rama Rao the University was named after him as NTR University of Health Sciences, Andhra Pradesh.

[edit] Transport
[edit] By road Major road links of Andhra Pradesh

The railroad bridge between Rajahmundry and Kovvur

A total of 146,954 km (91,313 mi) of roads are maintained by the State, of which State Highways comprise 42,511 km (26,415 mi), National Highways 2,949 km (1,832 mi), and District Roads 101,484 km (63,059 mi). The growth rate for vehicle ownership in Andhra Pradesh is the highest in the country at 16%.[79] Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public transport corporation owned by the government of Andhra Pradesh that connects all the cities and villages.

APSRTC is in the Guinness Book of World Records for having the largest fleet of vehicles (approximately 21,000), and the longest distance covered daily. Vijayawada is the 2nd largest Bus-Standing in Asia.[80] Thousands of private operators also run buses connecting major cities and towns. Private vehicles like cars, motorised scooters, and bicycles occupy a major share of the local transport in the cities and adjoining villages.
[edit] By rail

The Secunderabad Railway Station, headquarters of the South Central Railway

Visakhapatnam seaport

Railways are a major means of transport connecting all major cities and towns. The history of railways in Andhra Pradesh dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad. This Railway Station is located in the heart of Telangana Region. Most of Andhra Pradesh falls under the auspices of the South Central Railway, founded in 1966 with its headquarters at Secunderabad. The East Coast Railway serves Srikakulam, Vizianagaram District, and part of Visakhapatnam district including Visakhapatnam City. Vijayawada Railway Station is one of the busiest railway junctions in India.5th largest Railway station in South.

[edit] By air

Hyderabad International Airport, also known as Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, is the international airport for the city of Hyderabad. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports nationwide. Other airports in the state are Visakhapatnam Airport, Vijayawada Airport, Rajahmundry Airport, and Tirupati Airport. The government also has plans to start airports in eight other cities: Guntur, Ongole, Nellore, Warangal, Kadapa, Tadepalligudem, Kurnool, Karimnagar, Ramagundam and Kothagudem.
[edit] By sea

Andhra Pradesh has two of the major ports of India at Visakhapatnam and Kakinada and three minor ports at Krishnapatnam (Nellore), Machilipatnam, and Nizampatnam (Guntur). A private port is being developed at Gangavaram, near Visakhapatnam. This deep seaport can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000250,000 DWT.

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