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MINISTRY OF COMMERCE OF CAMBODIA

ASEAN AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS DEPARTMENT

DISCUSSION PAPER TO PROPOSE IN


ESTABLISHING OF ASSOCIATION OF
RICE PRODUCING COUNTRIES

PREPARED BY Mr. CHAN BONNIVOIT

2007
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Table of Contents

A. Introduction

B. The Global Rice Trade

C. ACMECS rice trade in the global rice trade

D. Organization and mission of the Association of Rice Producing Countries (ARPC)

E. Conclusion

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A. Introduction
The world rice market is characterized by the small share of trade relative to total production.
Even though rice production is around 400 million tons, only about 25 million tons are traded
internationally (6 percent of total production). Most of rice production in the world occurs in Asia and
in most Asian countries rice produced is consumed domestically. Moreover, the US is the only major
exporter that is not in Asia. Base on USDA report Global rice trade is projected to increase 2.3 percent
a year from 2005/06 until the end of the baseline in 2014/15, reaching a record 34.5 million metric
tons in 2014/15. Trade is expected to account for nearly 8 percent of annual production by 2014/15.
Thailand is projected to remain the world’s largest exporter. Vietnam also is expected to remain a large
exporter - ranking number 2 from 1997 through 2004 - but exports are projected to dip slight below
those of India after calendar 2004. Burma is projected to expand exports after 1997 - and except for
2000 - through 2005. Similarly, Pakistan is projected to generally expand exports after 1998. Only
Australia, China, and the United States are likely to be viable long run sources of japonica rice to meet
Japanese and South Korean import requirements under the UR agreement.
Increased global rice trade is primarily driven by rising import demand from Indonesia,
Bangladesh, and Sub-Saharan Africa - the three largest rice import markets. Combined, these three
markets account for 50 percent of the increase in global rice imports projected over the baseline.
Rising imports by Indonesia and Bangladesh are driven by larger populations, limited ability to expand
rice area, and competition for arable land from substitute crops and nonagricultural uses. The Middle
East-major destinations for internationally traded rice-are also projected to substantially increase rice
imports too, because strong demand growth driven by rapidly expanding populations and rising
incomes confronts limited opportunities to expand production. Among smaller import markets, Central
America, the Caribbean, Mexico, the Philippines, and the United States are all expected to increase
rice imports during the baseline. However, imports are projected to rise only slightly to Other Asia and
Oceania, a result of increasing production in the region and stagnant per capita consumption. In
contrast to these expanding markets, imports are projected to decline over the baseline for Brazil as per
capita consumption declines slightly and production increases. Imports are projected nearly flat for
South Africa, a result of negligible growth in consumption. South Africa does not produce rice.
Global rice prices are projected to increase about 3 percent every year of the baseline, a result
of greater global rice trade and some shift to higher quality rice from lower quality imports by low
income buyers. The adjusted world price, a weekly announced rough rice price calculated by USDA
that is used to determine marketing loan benefits, is projected to increase from $6.45 per cwt in
2005/06 to $8.43 by 2014/15. And Despite greater market liberalization, many governments
worldwide-especially in Northeast Asia-continue to severely limit rice imports and protect their
producers. These policies limit the volume of world rice trade and depress trading prices.
Regarding ACMECS Countries, Thailand and Vietnam are projected to remain the world’s
largest exporter. ACMECS countries-Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Myanmar (except Laos PDR)-
account for around 50 percent of rice exports throughout the projection period. ACMECS rice exports

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(except Myanmar) increase each year, reaching 14,350,000 MT by 2007 (April), more than 4.6 percent
above the 2005 record. Furthermore, the volume of ACMECS rice exports can be projected to increase
more than current volume of exports in the global rice trade, because ACMECS Countries, in
particular Cambodia, Myanmar and Laos, have a high potentials to further increase rice production as
well exports. It still has a lot of idle land that can be converted to cultivated area and there is room to
increase productivity and export through increased use of appropriate technology, improved irrigation
systems, reformed and managed domestic legal framework, and liberalized the market access etc.
Regarding rice imports, ACMECS Countries account only 2 percent of the world rice import per year
from 2005 to 2007. However, those imports can be projected to increase only slightly, a result of
increasing production in the region, stagnant per capita consumption and exchange of consumer’s
taste.
Regarding to the recommendation of H.E. Samdech Hun Sen, Prime Minister of the
Kingdom of Cambodia, and the view above, this paper will try roughly to study the reasons and the
possibilities concerning in discussion of establishing the Association of Rice Producing Countries
(ARPC). Base on these objectives, in first part of the paper will be studied the global rice trade which
will be tried to identify the trend of global rice exports and imports, and global rice price. Second part
is a significant component for the study because of concerning with the research of rice productions
and rice trade of ACMECS countries, which are key countries in establishing of ARPC. The third part
of the paper will be assessed the mission and the organization of ARPC which are a basic principal in
continual discussing to build up the framework of ARPC in the reality sense.

B. The global rice trade


The world rice market is characterized by the small share of trade relative to total production.
Even though rice production is around 400 million tons, only about 25 million tons are traded
internationally (6 percent of total production). Most of rice production in the world occurs in Asia and
in most Asian countries rice produced is consumed domestically. Moreover, the US is the only major
exporter that is not in Asia. Fifteen years ago, the trade share for rice was barely 4 percent. Increased
market access has accounted for much of the increase in the trade share for rice. This is especially true
for much of Latin America, where countries began to open their markets in the late 1980s. Despite
greater market liberalization, many governments worldwide-especially in Northeast Asia-continue to
severely limit rice imports and protect their producers. These policies limit the volume of world rice
trade and depress trading prices.

World rice export


Exports from many of the major rice producers are projected to increase as demand for rice
rises and nominal prices strengthen. Thailand is projected to remain the world’s largest exporter, but
with export growth - projected around 2 percent a year - slower than in the 1980’s. India is expected to
eventually recover from its recent drop in exports from its peak of 4.2 million tons achieved in 1995,

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with exports starting to expanding again by 1999, and then reaching nearly 3.3 million tons by 2005.
India is projected to rank number 3, after Thailand and Vietnam from 1998 to 2004, and then overtake
Vietnam as number 2 after 2004. Vietnam also is expected to remain a large exporter - ranking number
2 from 1997 through 2004 - but exports are projected to dip slight below those of India after calendar
2004. Burma is projected to expand exports after 1997 - and except for 2000 - through 2005. Similarly,
Pakistan is projected to generally expand exports after 1998, rising from 1.5 million in 1999 to over
1.6 million by 2005. Both countries will slip slightly in importance as India’s importance rises. Only
Australia, China, and the United States are likely to be viable long run sources of japonica rice to meet
Japanese and South Korean import requirements under the UR agreement. At the same time, new
exporters such as Cambodia and Myanmar might start to play a more important role in the world rice
export.

World rice import


In contrast to exporters, there are many importers, each with a small share of total imports.
Importers are distributed in many different parts of the world. In addition, rice import growth will be
fueled by the needs of China, Indonesia, the Middle East, and Central America and the Caribbean.
Indonesia is expected to be a steady net rice importer, but its imports are projected to decrease over
time as consumption growth slows and yields continue to rise. China is also projected to be a net
importer of rice. Developing countries, particularly in Asia, will continue to account for the bulk of the
gains in import demand.

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Global rice prices
Global rice prices are projected to increase about 3 percent every year of the baseline, a result
of greater global rice trade and some shift to higher quality rice from lower quality imports by low-
income buyers. The adjusted world price, a weekly announced rough rice price calculated by USDA
that is used to determine marketing loan benefits, is projected to increase from $6.45 per cwt in
2005/06 to $8.43 by 2014/15, still 2 cents below the 1997/98 level. After 2005/06, the adjusted world
price is projected to remain above the U.S. average rough rice loan rate of $6.50 per cwt for all three
classes of rice each year, resulting in no marketing loan benefits to U.S. rice producers.

C. ACMECS rice trade in the global rice trade


Rice Export
ACMECS countries-Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and Myanmar (except Laos PDR)-account
for around 50 percent of rice exports throughout the projection period. Thailand and Vietnam, the
world's largest rice-exporting countries, account for nearly half of all rice exports. ACMECS rice
exports (except Myanmar) increase each year, reaching 14,350,000 MT by 2007, more than 4.6
percent above the 2005 record. Exports are decreased 0.3% in 2006 and increased more than 4 percent
in 2007. After 2007, growth in exports is projected to increase slight, but it is not to take into account
about permanently increasing of exports from Cambodia and Myanmar. Rising production—mostly
due to higher yields—and declining per capita consumption account for the expansion in exports for
those Countries. Nonetheless, their share of global rice trade remains flat over the baseline (see figure
major exporting Countries above).
Cambodia: Since Cambodia's accession to the WTO on 13 October 2004, the Government
takes the effort to formalize the country's largely informal trade activities and create the legal, and

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reform the administrative frameworks necessary to ensure greater trade facilitation. This is to enable
the country to take greater advantage of its newfound access to international markets. The range of
products which Cambodia has available for export is limited, but to widened participation in
international trade it is likely to come only through the export of rice (Cambodia’s Pathways to
International Trade-www. aseanfocus.com). Cambodia has exported rice more than 1 million tons
every year ( Cambodian Prime Minister in the occasion host Vietnamese Prime Minister ), primarily in
exporting form through informal cross-border exchanges with Thailand and Vietnam, while
Cambodian producers and rice millers cannot effectively compete with the highly efficient and
subsidized rice markets of neighboring countries. Cambodia has produced a surplus amount of rice
reaching as much as 500,000 tons every year since 1995.
Thailand: Thailand is the world's largest rice-exporting country and has accounted for about
28 percent of global rice exports over the past decade. In 2007, Thailand is projected to ship 8.25
million tons (milled basis) of rice, up 950,000 tons from a year earlier, but well below the 2004 record
of 10.1 million tons. Record supplies in 2006/07 and tighter supplies in Vietnam and the United States
are the main factors behind the stronger export forecast for Thailand in 2007. At 7.3 million tons,
Thailand’s shipments in 2006 are virtually unchanged from a year earlier.
Vietnam: Vietnam is the world's second-largest rice exporter and is projected to export 4.7
million tons in 2007, down from a near-record 5.0 million in 2006. The weaker export forecast for
2007 is primarily due to tighter supplies. Vietnam is projected to produce 22.5 million tons of rice in
2006/07, up 2 percent from a year earlier. The 2005/06 crop of 22.0 million tons was 3 percent smaller
than the year earlier record, a result of pests, disease, and weather problems. Virtually all of Vietnam’s
rice exports are long-grain, mostly intermediate and low quality, mainly shipped to Southeast Asia,
Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and Cuba.
Burma: In 2007 Myanmar is projected to export 150,000 tons of rice, up 75,000 tons from a
year earlier. Exports in 2006 are the weakest since 1999. In May 2006, the government halted new
permits to exporters, partly in response to rising prices. Myanmar increased exports 46 percent in 2005
to 190,000 tons. Trade is strictly controlled by the Government of Myanmar. It is not clear what
Burma’s long-term trade policy will be.

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ACMECS Rice Export and Global Rice Export

35,000

30,000

25,000 World total


1,000 MT

Vietnam
20,000
Thailand
15,000 World total World total
World total Cambodia
10,000 Burma
5,000

0
ACMECS 2005 ACMECS 2006 ACMECS 2007
(April) (April) (April)

Exporting Countries

Source: FAS/USDA and Own Calculation

ACMECS Rice Production and Global Rice Production


1,000 MT
450000
400000
350000 World total
300000 Vietnam
250000 Thailand
200000 World total World total World total Laos
150000 Cambodia
100000 Burma
50000
0
ACMECS ACMECS ACMECS
2004/05 2005/06 2006/07

Producing Countries

Source: FAS/USDA and Own Calculation

Rice Import
Although Southeast Asia is the largest import market for rice in Asia, because the Philippines
and Indonesia are the two largest importers in the region, but the total rice imports by ACMECS
Countries account only 2 percent of the world rice import per year from 2005 to 2007. However,
imports are projected to rise only slightly to the region, a result of increasing production in the region,
stagnant per capita consumption and exchange of consumer’s taste (see figure major rice importing
Countries above).

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ACMECS Rice Import and Global Rice Import
1,000 MT

35000

30000

25000
World total
20000
Vietnam
15000 World total World total World total Cambodia
10000

5000

0
ACMECS ACMECS ACMECS
2005 (April) 2006 (April) 2007 (April)
Importing Countries

Source: FAS/USDA and Own Calculation

Other figures and facts regarding rice


Fifteen years ago, the trade share for rice was barely 4 percent. Increased market access has
accounted for much of the increase in the trade share for rice. This is especially true for much of Latin
America, where countries began to open their markets in the late 1980s. Despite greater market
liberalization, many governments worldwide-especially in Northeast Asia-continue to severely limit
rice imports and protect their producers. These policies limit the volume of world rice trade and
depress trading prices.
In addition to being a relatively thin market, the global rice market is heavily segmented, with
little substitution among types and qualities by producers or consumers. Long grain typically accounts
for almost 75 percent of global rice trade. Medium- and short-grain rice combined account for about
12 percent of global trade. Fragrant or aromatic rice accounts for about 12 percent. Specialty rices-
primarily glutinous rice-account for most of the remainder of global rice trade.

D. Organization and mission of the Association of Rice Producing Countries (ARPC)


Mission and objectives
Base on the rough report above, establishing of the Association of Rice Producing Countries
(ARPC), intergovernmental Organization, plays a significant role for the ACMECS Countries in order
to promote and secure the rice world and to reply to the ACMECS’s mission cited below. ARPC can
be created by Members of ACMECS Countries, which are Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and
Vietnam and has the mission to coordinate and unify rice policies among Member Countries, in order
to secure fair and stable prices for producers; an efficient, economic and regular supply of rice to
consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those investing in the rice sector to secure the
livelihood and to develop the market for producers and export of the rice products. Regarding to the
mission ARPC has following objectives:

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• Market development and market maintenance for domestic sales and export of rice products.
• Legislative and Governmental affairs.
• Information and Education services for members and general public.
• Harmonize and set the quality and technical standards for the rice products.
• Convey the views of the Association to others who have direct or indirect involvement in the
rice world, whether nationally, at regional level or overseas.
• Representing of all interests of ACMECS Countries concerning with the rice world.
Organization and structure
It can be formed structured like other associations as ASEAN or OPEC Countries
Planning, implementing and monitoring
It will be depended on the objectives, the structure and the organization of ARPC.
Budget
It can be financed by the member Countries, private and public institutions concerned and
donors.

E. Conclusion
Global rice consumption and trade is projected to increase 2.3 percent a year from 2005/06
until the end of the baseline in 2014/15, reaching a record 34.5 million metric tons in 2014/15. Trade is
expected to account for nearly 8 percent of annual production by 2014/15 (see figure above). Increased
global rice trade is primarily driven by rising import demand from Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Sub-
Saharan Africa-the three largest rice import markets. Combined, these three markets account for 50
percent of the increase in global rice imports projected over the baseline. Rising imports by Indonesia
and Bangladesh are driven by larger populations, limited ability to expand rice area, and competition
for arable land from substitute crops and nonagricultural uses.
Besides, global rice trade in 2007 is projected at 28.0 million tons, unchanged from a year
earlier but 1.0 million tons below the 2005 record. Weaker exports from the United States, Vietnam,
Australia, Egypt, China, Brazil, and Pakistan are projected to be offset by increased exports from
Thailand, India, and Burma. Global rice trade in 2006 of 28.0 million tons is more than 3 percent
below the year- earlier record. Weaker exports from India, South Korea, the United States, Burma,
Egypt, and Uruguay are projected to more than offset increased exports from China, Australia,
Cambodia, and Argentina.
Looking to the rice trade of ACMECS Countries, despite steady expansion in domestic rice
use and import, those exports continue to account more than 45 percent (around 50%) of the world rice
export. Furthermore, ACMECS Countries, in particular Cambodia, Myanmar and Laos, have a high
potentials to further increase rice production as well export because it still has a lot of idle land that
can be converted to cultivated area and there is room to increase productivity and export through
increased use of appropriate technology, improved irrigation systems, reformed and managed domestic
legal framework, and liberalized the market access etc. Through these potentials, the volume of

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ACMECS rice exports can be projected to increase more than current export volume in the global rice
trade.
Therefore, it would be seen that the establishing of the Association of Rice Producing
Countries (ARPC) recommended by H.E. Samdech Hun Sen, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of
Cambodia is very significant to challenges the above changes described of the rice world and to
address the global and regional mission raised in the mission’s proposal of ARPC.

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APPENDIX
Table :Global rice exporters and total share export of ACMECS Countries, calendar years 2005-2007; monthly revisions and annual changes
2005 2006 1/ 2007 1/
Monthly Annual Monthly Annual
April March April revision changes March April revision changes
1,000 metric tons (milled
basis)

Argentina 345 500 487 -13 142 500 500 0 13


Australia 52 317 317 0 265 100 100 0 -217
Brazil 272 300 290 -10 18 100 100 0 -190
Burma 190 75 47 -28 -143 150 100 -50 53
Cambodia 200 350 350 0 150 450 450 0 100
China 656 1,216 1,216 0 560 1,200 1,200 0 -16
Egypt 1,095 1,000 958 -42 -137 900 900 0 -58
European Union-25 201 150 144 -6 -57 150 150 0 6
Guyana 182 170 170 0 -12 170 170 0 0
India 4,687 3,800 4,500 700 -187 4,300 4,300 0 -200
Japan 200 200 200 0 0 200 200 0 0
Korea, South 400 100 100 0 -300 100 100 0 0
Pakistan 3,032 3,000 3,000 0 -32 3,000 3,100 100 100
Thailand 7,274 7,376 7,376 0 102 8,700 8,800 100 1,424
Uruguay 762 812 812 0 50 625 625 0 -187
Vietnam 5,174 4,694 4,705 11 -469 4,900 5,000 100 295
Other 425 321 321 0 -104 265 265 0 -56
Subtotal 25,147 24,381 24,993 612 -154 25,810 25,795 -15 802

United States 3,862 3,360 3,360 0 -502 3,300 3,300 0 -60

Total share export of ACMECS Countries in the world total 44.3% 45.0% 44.0% -- -- 48.8% 48.9% -- --

World total 29,009 27,741 28,353 612 -656 29,110 29,360 250 1,007

-- Not available. Note: All trade data are reported on a calendar-year basis.
1/ Projected.
Source: FAS/USDA and own calculation

Table :Global rice importers and Share import of ACMECS Countries, calendar years 2005-2007; monthly revisions and annual changes

2007
2005 2006 1/
Monthly Annual Monthly
April March April revisions changes March April revisions

Angola 250 225 225 0 -25 225 225 0


Bangladesh 785 600 600 0 -185 600 600 0
Brazil 547 691 691 0 144 800 800 0
Cambodia 350 150 150 0 -200 150 150 0
Cameroon 350 275 275 0 -75 300 300 0
Canada 321 335 335 0 14 350 350 0
China 609 653 653 0 44 800 800 0
Colombia 92 100 160 60 68 100 200 100
Costa Rica 106 100 100 0 -6 100 100 0
Cote d'Ivoire 867 850 850 0 -17 800 800 0
Cuba 736 591 591 0 -145 700 700 0
Dominican Republic 56 120 120 0 64 60 60 0
European Union 968 1,100 1,100 0 132 1,100 1,100 0
El Salvador 69 75 75 0 6 75 75 0
Ghana 450 400 400 0 -50 450 450 0
Guatemala 58 50 50 0 -8 60 60 0
Guinea 300 300 300 0 0 300 300 0
Haiti 328 418 418 0 90 350 350 0
Honduras 116 100 100 0 -16 100 100 0
Indonesia 500 550 550 0 50 1,800 1,800 0
Iran 983 1,200 1,200 0 217 900 900 0
Iraq 786 1,200 1,300 100 514 1,200 1,300 100
Japan 787 650 650 0 -137 650 650 0
Jordan 154 125 125 0 -29 125 125 0

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Korea, North 600 150 150 0 -450 150 150 0
Korea, South 120 475 475 0 355 265 265 0
Madagascar 250 100 100 0 -150 200 200 0
Malaysia 751 850 850 0 99 850 850 0
Mexico 553 585 585 0 32 600 600 0
Mozambique 350 350 350 0 0 350 350 0
Nicaragua 134 120 120 0 -14 130 130 0
Nigeria 1,777 1,600 1,600 0 -177 1,700 1,700 0
Philippines 1,890 1,900 1,900 0 10 1,850 1,850 0
Russia 350 345 345 0 -5 320 320 0
Saudi Arabia 1,357 1,000 1,000 0 -357 1,000 1,000 0
Senegal 1,200 750 750 0 -450 850 850 0
Singapore 375 375 375 0 0 375 375 0
South Africa 850 800 800 0 -50 800 800 0
Syria 232 250 250 0 18 250 250 0
Taiwan 125 125 125 0 0 125 125 0
Turkey 298 200 200 0 -98 300 300 0
Yemen 250 250 250 0 0 250 250 0
Vietnam 320 350 350 0 30 300 300 0
United States 419 633 633 0 214 675 675 0
Subtotal 22,769 22,066 22,226 160 -543 23,435 23,635 200
Other countries 4,176 3,861 3,861 0 -315 4,006 4,006 0
Unaccounted 2,064 1,814 2,266 452 202 1,669 1,719 50

Total share import of ACMECS Countries in world total 2% 2% 2% 0% 26% 2% 2% 0%

World total 29,009 27,741 28,353 612 -656 29,110 29,360 250
Note: All trade data are reported on a calendar-year basis.
1/ Projected. 2/ Includes countries not listed separately as well as imports not assigned a specific destination.
Source: FAS/USDA and Own Calculation

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Table: Global rice producers and total share of ACMECS producers in world total: 2004/05-2006/07 monthly revisions and annual changes 1/
2006/07
2004/05 2005/06 2/
Monthly Annual Monthly Annual
April March April revisions changes March April revisions changes
1,000 metric tons

Argentina 683 764 764 0 81 775 700 -75 -64


Australia 231 749 749 0 518 76 76 0 -673
Bangladesh 25,600 28,758 28,758 0 3,158 29,100 29,100 0 342
Brazil 8,996 7,874 7,874 0 -1,122 7,700 7,700 0 -174
Burma 9,570 10,440 10,440 0 870 10,500 10,600 100 160
Cambodia 2,630 2,835 3,780 945 1,150 3,025 3,025 0 -755
China 125,363 126,414 126,414 0 1,051 128,000 128,000 0 1,586
Colombia 1,380 1,300 1,300 0 -80 1,290 1,250 -40 -50
Ecuador 430 490 490 0 60 480 480 0 -10
Egypt 4,128 4,130 4,135 5 7 4,140 4,383 243 248
European Union-25 1,868 1,730 1,730 0 -138 1,681 1,681 0 -49
Guinea 585 627 585 -42 0 553 585 32 0
Guyana 326 326 326 0 0 312 312 0 -14
India 83,130 91,790 91,790 0 8,660 91,000 91,000 0 -790
Indonesia 34,830 34,959 34,959 0 129 33,300 33,300 0 -1,659
Iran 2,244 2,310 2,310 0 66 2,376 2,376 0 66
Japan 7,944 8,257 8,257 0 313 7,940 7,786 -154 -471
Korea, North 1,540 1,600 1,600 0 60 1,550 1,550 0 -50
Korea, South 5,000 4,768 4,768 0 -232 4,680 4,680 0 -88
Laos 1,518 1,560 1,540 -20 22 1,590 1,590 0 50
Madagascar 1,939 2,176 2,176 0 237 2,240 2,240 0 64
Malaysia 1,415 1,440 1,440 0 25 1,400 1,400 0 -40
Mali 475 597 624 27 149 594 660 66 36
Mexico 195 181 181 0 -14 181 181 0 0
Nepal 2,857 2,803 2,803 0 -54 2,800 2,800 0 -3
Nigeria 2,300 2,700 2,700 0 400 2,800 2,900 100 200
Pakistan 4,920 5,547 5,547 0 627 5,600 5,200 -400 -347

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Peru 1,724 1,550 1,590 40 -134 1,600 1,600 0 10
Philippines 9,425 9,820 9,820 0 395 10,050 10,050 0 230
Russia 306 372 372 0 66 445 445 0 73
Sri Lanka 1,974 2,100 2,100 0 126 2,150 2,150 0 50
Taiwan 1,011 1,033 1,033 0 22 1,044 1,044 0 11
Tanzania 556 573 573 0 17 517 517 0 -56
Thailand 17,360 18,200 18,200 0 840 18,250 18,250 0 50
Turkey 300 360 360 0 60 405 405 0 45
United States 7,462 7,113 7,113 0 -349 6,195 6,195 0 -918
Uruguay 850 880 904 24 54 730 730 0 -174
Venezuela 425 439 439 0 14 390 490 100 51
Vietnam 22,716 22,772 22,772 0 56 22,770 22,770 0 -2
Others 4,466 4,695 4,686 -9 220 4,724 4,847 123 161

Total share of ACMECS producers in world total 13.43% 13.38% 13.57% 95.36% 16.95% 13.53% 13.55% 105.26% 16.82%

World total 400,672 417,032 418,002 970 17,330 414,953 415,048 95 -2,954

1/ Milled basis. 2/ Projected.


Source: FAS/USDA and Own Calculation