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Zhang 1

American Imperialism:

The Effects of the Treaty of Paris


http://15218465.nhd.weebly.com

James Zhang Senior Division Individual Website

Zhang 2 Works Cited Primary Sources Adler, Felix. "The Parting of Ways in America's Foreign Policy." International Journal of Ethics 9 (1898): 1-12. JSTOR. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/2375093? seq=2>. In this journal article from the time period, the parting of ways in American foreign policy is explained and discussed. Adler speaks of how only a century after the colonies freed themselves from England, they had already began conquering their own. The capitalistic reasons for imperialism are found in here, and more importantly, many analogies to current US military interventions can be found inside. I used this broad source in many parts of my website. Apacible, Galicano. "A Letter from the Philippine Junta." Letter to the American People. 10 June 1899. HERB. City University of New York, n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. <http://www.herb.ashp.cuny.edu/items/show/945>. This source was a letter written from the Philippine Junta to the American people as a whole. Inside, they pleaded the Americans to realize that they had been tricked by their government, and that the Filipinos only wished to be their friends. However, they also showed their inner strength by refusing to simply stand down; hence, when the Americans inevitably ignored them, the Philippine Insurrection occurred. I used this source in the Philippine Insurrection subsection. Beveridge, Albert. The March of The Flag. Campaign, Indiana. September 1898. Campaign Speech. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1898beveridge.asp This source was a speech said by Senator Beveridge promoting the new-found American policy of imperialism. Inside, is the reasoning used by one of the main factions of American Imperialists after the Treaty of Paris. The contents of this speech were used in the Treaty of Paris section of my website, and it helped develop my perspective of the imperialists. Conant, Charles A. "The Economic Basis of Imperialism." The North American Review 0167.502 (1898): 326+. Making of America. Cornell University. Web. 15 Feb. 2013.

Zhang 3 <http://digital.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=nora;cc=nora;rgn=full text;idno=nora0167-3;didno=nora0167-3;view=image;seq=333;node=nora01673:9;page=root;size=100>. This source once again shows the new capitalistic and imperialistic America following the Spanish-American War. The author of the article explains how in order for America to become a world power, it must expand beyond its current borders to more markets/territories, so that its markets may continue to expand. Without the victories and glory brought by the Spanish-American War (and consequently, the Treaty of Paris), this viewpoint would never have occurred. As a result, the reasoning used in this source was also used in the American Dominion section. King, George G. Letters of a Volunteer in the Spanish-American War. Chicago: Hawkins & Loomis, 1929. Library of Congress. Web. 31 Mar. 2013. <http://memory.loc.gov/cgibin/query/r?ammem/lhbpr:@field(DOCID+@lit(lhbpr12858div4))>. This book is a compilation of all the letters the author wrote while serving as a soldier in the Spanish-American War. It stretches from his enlistment all the way to his return to America from Puerto Rico; however, I mostly read the letters dealing with his adventures in camp and in both Cuba and Puerto Rico. Unlike the dramatized reports of the newspapers of the time, his letters are far more down-to-earth, although some parts have been censored. From here, I learned more of the deplorable conditions in the training camps, caused by neglect, ignorance, and bad planning, as well as the troubles that resulted. In addition, this source pounded in the reality of war for me: that is, long stretches of boredom interrupted by marches, skirmishes, and battles, and a greater likeliness to fall sick than to fall by an enemy bullet. Hence, I used this to great effect when preparing my presentation and when I was editing my Call to War section. Lme, Enrique. "De Lme Letter." Http://www.ourdocuments.gov. Our Documents Initiative, n.d. Web. 09 Jan. 2013. <http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=53>. This letter was a personal letter sent by Enrique de Lome to the Foreign Minister of Spain. Inside, de Lome calls President McKinley a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party. After it was stolen and published by US newspapers, it outraged the US public, which combined with the sinking of the USS Maine, helped cause the Spanish-American War. I used this source in the Context section of my website. "Mark Twain And The Spanish American War." Http://www.loc.gov. Library of Congress, 22

Zhang 4 June 2011. Web. 15 Jan. 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/twain.html>. This primary source contains several excerpts of commentaries made by the famous American author, Mark Twain, on the Philippine Insurrection. He and a small minority of the American public believed that the new-found policy of imperialism was terrible, and the atrocities being committed in the Philippines only compounded that problem. From this source, I saw his reasoning, which was quite similar to that of many other antiimperialists of the time. Then, I used this knowledge while writing the sections dealing with the reaction to the Treaty of Paris. Proctor, H. H. "Sermon on The War." Http://memory.loc.gov. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. <http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r? ammem/murray:@field(DOCID+@lit(lcrbmrpt1209)):>. This source was a sermon by Reverend Proctor on the attitude that the African-Americans should take toward the Spanish-American War. In it, he talks of how this war has begun to unify North and South, and how if they partake in the war as well, the lines between white and black may serve to bind them together, and not force them apart. Hence, I used this sermon in order to better understand the viewpoint of the minorities of this war. In fact, their viewpoint was quite different than my preconception; I would have thought that they would have disliked the war, since the whites were looking to conquer the outside without improving the situation within the country. Roosevelt, Theodore. "Roosevelt's Report." Letter to Secretary of War. 10 Sept. 1898.Http://www.bartleby.com/. Bartleby, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://www.bartleby.com/51/b.html>. Here, Theodore Roosevelt writes a letter to the Secretary of War explaining the poor condition of the troops sent to Cuba. He illustrates all of the terrible decisions that happened before, during, and after the war, leading to poor food, lost equipment, and ravaging epidemics. When this letter was later released to the press, it led to a massive outcry, leading to the American solders being rushed out of Cuba following the Treaty of Paris. I used this source in both the Immediate reaction subsection and the Prepare For War section. Roosevelt, Theodore. The Strenuous Life. Hamilton Club, Chicago. 10 April 1899. Address. Web. 16 Feb 2013. http://voicesofdemocracy.umd.edu/roosevelt-strenuous-life-1899speech-text/ In this speech by Theodore Roosevelt, can be found the new American mindset that developed after the end of Treaty of Paris. One example of this mindset that can be found

Zhang 5 in this quote, The guns that thundered off Manila and Santiago, left us echoes of glory, but they also left us a legacy of duty. As a result, I used this in the American Dominion sub-section of my website. Sumner, William. "The Conquest of the United States by Spain." Speech. Phi Beta Kappa Society Speech. Yale University, New Haven. 16 Jan. 1899. Http://mises.org. Ludwig Von Mises Institute, 15 Dec. 2006. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. <http://mises.org/daily/2398>. In this speech, Sumner talks about how the conquest of Spanish territories has led to the fall of the former United States. In its place, was a new American Empire, decadent and driven by the same vices of the defeated Spanish Empire. His anti-imperialist stance is quite strong, but is repeatedly proven by solid logic; as a result, I took the logic in mind when I wrote the immediate reaction sub-section of my site. Tillman, Benjamin. The White Man's Burden. Senate, Senate Floor. 7 Feb 1899. Speech. Web. <http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/empire/text7/tillman.pdf>. This source was a very interesting anti-war, but pro-imperialism speech delivered by Senator Tillman. Although it argues against suppressing and slaughtering the Filipinos, the speech does not argue against imperialism. In fact, the senator encourages the further expansion of the United States; the only difference is that it should not be so extreme or violent. As a result, I used this in both the Treaty of Paris section and the conclusion. Turner, Frederick J. "The Significance of the Frontier in American History." Speech. Columbian Exposition. American Historian Association, Chicago. Http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org. National Humanities Center. Web. 2 Apr. 2013. <http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/gilded/empire/text1/turner.pdf>. Although this speech was delivered a few years prior to the Spanish-American War, it is a pivotal moment in America's history that helped lead to the war and the development of the United States into a super-power. Here, Turner speaks of how the frontier has shaped America's history and people; in his mind, American democracy was formed by the synthesis of civilized culture and the savagery of the unexplored wilderness. With the end of this frontier, and the conquering of the West, Turner stated that America would stagnate, with the dynamism powering American invention suddenly disappearing. For Roosevelt and the other jingoists, that meant that United States would now have to expand overseas, and become an imperial power. As a result, I used this source to better understand the viewpoints of the jingoists who led us to war, and to better understand how American policy began to change following the Treaty of Paris.

Zhang 6 United States. Congress. Joint Resolution of Congress Respecting Relations between the United States and Cuba. 6th ed. Vol. 1. JSTOR. Web. 13 Feb 2013 <http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1109239.pdf?acceptTC=true>. This government publication shows far more than the simple matter of Cuba's independence. In addition, it shows that despite its former idealistic views, the US was now no longer so altruistic. Throughout this source are naked grabs of capitalism and nationalism, with demands being forced upon Cuba in return for their freedom. For instance, the requirement that Cuba must enact a strict policy to remove yellow fever from the island in order for more orderly and efficient US-Cuba commerce. This was mainly used in both the Treaty of Paris section and the conclusion. Secondary Sources Baker, John. "The Press and Spanish-American Relations in 1898." www.humboldt.edu. Humboldt State University, n.d. Web. 3 Apr. 2013. <http://users.humboldt.edu/jcbaker/spanwar.shtml>. In this article, Baker speaks of how yellow journalism helped lead the United States to war in the months before the Maine incident. However, unlike my other sources, he does not stop there; instead, he also goes into how minorities viewed the war; for instance, there are excerpts of African-American newspapers of the time period, both pro-war and against. In addition, he also talks about the almost untouched topic of the rabid anti-Asian sentiment found in the West Coast at the time, which helped flesh out my knowledge of the topic. Plus, it led to my discovery that racism was another reason for anti-imperialists to call against the annexation of the Philippines. Due to this, I used this source as a guide to fleshing out my presentation. Brands, Henry W. "Interview with Brands." E-mail interview. 4 Apr. 2013. In this interview, I asked H.W. Brands, professor of government and author of several books on America in this time period, questions on the effects of the Spanish-American War. He was very helpful, as he dispelled my misconception of the US government having definitive relations with other countries; instead, he showed me that the government was heavily divided at the time, with several factions forming as a result of the war. This interview also helped patch over the remaining events that I had no definite knowledge of. Bundt, Thomas S. "Phillipine Insurrection." Www.au.af.mil. The Air University, May 2004. Web. 12 Jan. 2013. <http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/milreview/bundt2.pdf>

Zhang 7 This source discussed the Phillipine Insurrection that occurred following the First Shot, which was a direct result of the Treaty of Paris. It is a factual paper on the causes, history, and atrocities of the insurrection; in addition, it is a military source, and is therefore a reliable source. Finally, I used this source while writing the legacy of the Treaty of Paris. "Emergence to World Power, 1898-1902." Chapter 15: Emergence to World Power, 18981902. United States Army, 27 Apr. 2001. Web. 03 Feb. 2013. <http://www.history.army.mil/books/AMH/AMH-15.htm>. Although this source provides several different aspects of information on the SpanishAmerican War and the Treaty of Paris, I primarily used it to find out details of Shafter's offense in Cuba, as well as the legacy of the Treaty of Paris. Unlike many other sources, it discussed several effects of the Treaty of Paris, such as the Boxer Uprising and the Philippine Insurrection. Although parts of this source helped create the Spanish-American War section, this was mostly used in the Legacy section of my website. "Interview with Ambrose." Interview by Stephen Ambrose. Crucible Of Empire. PBS, 1999. Web. 29 Jan. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_resources.html>. Stephen Ambrose is a historian, as well as an author of several books on the Spanish American War. In this interview, he discussed both the Spanish-American War, as well as the effects of the Treaty of Paris. The discussion was both broad and specific, covering many of the facets of the war in very specific terms. I used it in all aspects of my website, and it provided an informal, easy-to-understand answer to many of my questions. "Interview with Beisner." Interview by Robert Beisner. Crucible Of Empire. PBS, 1999. Web. 29 Jan. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/crucible/frames/_resources.html> . Robert Beisner is a history professor at American University; in addition, he has written several articles on anti-imperialist reactions to the Treaty of Paris. In this interview, the negative reactions to the Treaty of Paris was discussed in depth. Even more importantly, by learning what the anti-imperialists opposed, I also discovered exactly what the Treaty of Paris entailed, and general knowledge about the fates of the conquered territories.

"The Japanese Offensive in the Pacific." Www.history.army.mil. US Army, n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2013. <http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/MacArthur Reports/MacArthur V1/ch01.htm>. This army history text describes the invasion of the Philippines by the Japaneses during

Zhang 8 the opening stages of the Pacific War. In addition, the strategic value of the Philippine, which made it an essential target for the Japanese, as well as the objectives of the invasion, are outlined. As a result, I used this source in the Legacy section, as it showed how the US annexation of the Philippines and other Asian possessions helped lead to its involvement in World War 2. Krenn, Michael L. "Spanish American War." Gale.cengage.com. Cengage Learning, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. <http://www.gale.cengage.com/pdf/whitepapers/gdc/SpAmerWar_whtppr.pdf>. This source was both a combination of further background, and detailed information on the course of the war. It contained several pieces of valuable information, such as the Cuban death camps and many other episodes prior to the war. However, its main use to me was the further readings section in the back, which I used to request additional books on the topic for research. Piedad-Pugay, Chris A. "Treaty Of Paris." Http://www.nhcp.gov.ph. Republic of The Phillipines, 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2013. <http://www.nhcp.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content& task=view&id=25>. Here, an overview of the Treaty of Paris is given. This article talks about the contents of each article within the treaty quite well, with a brief summary explaining what each article meant. Additionally, a commentary was given discussing the reaction of the average American and Filipino to the treaty, as well as the effects of the treaty. Ramos, Rafael. "US Military Themes." Rafael Ramos, n.d. Www.youtube.com. Youtube, 1 Sept. 2009. Web. 16 Feb. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OgwJ1ZzlGqMg>. This was a compilation and remix of several US Military themes throughout American history. It included Anchors Aweigh, Battle Hymn of the Republic, and many other songs, and was a perfect backdrop to the effects of the Spanish-American War. As a result, I used this music in the Treaty of Paris section of my website. Roosevelt, Theodore. The Rough Riders; An Autobiography. New York: Library of America, 2004. Print. This book is actually two separate books that were spliced together by the Library of

Zhang 9 America Organization. The first is The Rough Riders, which was a memoir by Theodore Roosevelt remarking on his experiences in the Spanish-American War, and the second is Theodore Roosevelt, which was his autobiography. The first was a very useful source for my War and Conquest section, as Roosevelt saw action on the pivotal battle of San Juan Hill, and he was a key character during the war. His autobiography, however, was mostly used for its explanation of his jingoistic effort to bring America to war. Without this, many of the lesser-known reasons for war, such as the need for a war to unify the states, and the new American ideology shown during the Columbian Exposition. As a result, I also used this source in my Call to War section. "The Spanish American War." US Department Of State: Office of the Historian. US Department Of State, n.d. Web. 9 Jan. 2013. <http://history.state.gov/milestones/18661898/Spanish_ american_war>. This was once again used for background. However, it goes far more in depth than the first source on both the effects of the Treaty of Paris and the invasion of Cuba. In addition, it is extremely reliable, as it is published by the Department of State. Although it is a summary, it also gave me the information that the annexation of Hawaii was directly caused by the treaty, which was extremely useful. Thomas, Evan. The War Lovers. New York: Little, Brown and, 2010. Print. This book is a long saga covering the very beginnings of each major imperialist's (and non-imperialist's) lives, all the way to their deaths, which were far after the SpanishAmerican War. On the way, the road to war was explained, with various topics, such as the Columbian Exposition, the sensationalist journalism of the time, and the attempts of the various imperialists to quicken the process to an American Empire. Unlike many other books on this war, this book deals almost solely on the causes, instead of the war itself. In addition, when paired with The Rough Riders; An Autobiography, both sources helped educate me on their respective topics even more. As a result, I used it as one of my main sources in my Call to War section. "44d. The Spanish-American War and Its Consequences." The Spanish-American War. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 23 Dec. 2013. <http://www.ushistory.org/us/44d.asp>. This was one of the first sources that I had examined when I began researching. It is extremely broad, and does not specifically explain any one topic, but it refreshed my memory and gave me a brief overview of the war and its effects. Hence, I knew what to search for in following sources. Vance, Jennifer. "Yellow Journalism."Yellow Journalism. University of Florida, n.d. Web. 24

Zhang 10 Jan. 2013. <http://iml.jou.ufl.edu/projects/spring04/vance/yellowjournalism.html>. An overview of yellow journalism can be found in this source. In addition, it explains how yellow journalism helped aid the birth of the Spanish-American War, which may not have occurred without the sensationalist papers of the time. Additionally, I used one of the quotes, "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war," in my website. Vapor, Anthony. "Jazzy Elevator Music." Anthony Vapor, n.d. Www.youtube.com. Youtube, 7 Mar. 2010. Web. 16 Jan. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nf8FCLT8S6A>. This was not directly related to the contents of the website, as it was simply only used as an interlude in the context and Treaty of Paris subsections. However, these pieces were still used in order to provide a segue into the following parts of my website. In addition, they made for good brief pit stops as we proceeded on into the next important section of the website. Werstein, Irving. Turning Point for America; the Story of the Spanish-American War. New York: J. Messner, 1964. Print. This source gave a detailed explanation of the entire course of the war, from its causes all the way to its far flung legacy. It is one of my more important sources, and helped confirm all of my other sources. In addition, it contained a plethora of quotes and information that I used to make my site more interesting. I used the contents of this source in each and every page of my site, and used the Further Reading section to find more sources. "Women Report on the Spanish-American War." Http://www.nwhm.org. National Women's History Museum, n.d. Web. 13 Apr. 2013. <http://www.nwhm.org/onlineexhibits/womenwithdeadlines/wwd27.htm>. First of all, this exhibit was rather broad; as a result, I only used its section on women reporting in the Spanish-American War. This section was extremely helpful, for I had no idea that the Spanish-American War actually played a role in the advancement of womans rights in journalism. The fact that this war was the first war where female correspondents were sent off to war cannot be found in any of my other sources. Hence, this source was very useful in showing how the war not only unified North and South and paved the way for its establishment as a super-power, but also led to a greater equality between women and men. Zimmer, Hans. "Roll Tide." Rec. 1995. Crimson Tide. www.youtube.com. Youtube, 26 Feb. 2011. Web. 15 Jan. 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AJ-trWxSBLo>.

Zhang 11 This song captured the essence of America after the Treaty of Paris: a domineering, intimidating, and arrogant country. Even though there were no words, I could still sense an inner feeling, indescribable but still positive; hence, this music was used in the home page.