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Oceania Publications, University of Sydney

Dreams, Laki, and Mourning: A Psychoanalytic Ethnography of the Yagwoia 'Inner Feminine' Author(s): Jadran Mimica Source: Oceania, Vol. 76, No. 1 (Mar., 2006), pp. 27-60 Published by: Oceania Publications, University of Sydney Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40332007 . Accessed: 19/04/2013 11:58
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Dreams,Laici,and Mourning: A Psychoanalytic oftheYagwoia Ethnography 'InnerFeminine'


Jadran Mimica
University ofSydney
ofdream-experiences andtheir existential in thelife-world Thisis a three-part study reality The focusis on a singleconjugal couoftheYagwoiaofthePapua New Guineahighlands. and articulation of their bond as in their their the expressed life-trajectory, specifically ple, In thefirst instalment is presented thegeneral of dreams. cosmo-ontological background of the and thefundamental dialectics of thecontra-sexual self-identity Yagwoiadreaming theintrinsic relationin their encounters. The secondpartexplores oneiric couplemanifest in which the life-world is a and the of between Yagwoia practice gambling dreaming ship flowof the in the self-generative life-death domainof men's homo-social participation itstrue as an exhibits characteristic at large.In thisaspect, Yagwoiagambling world-body domainof hunting, and the of the male-exclusive and modification extension warfare, flow.The third to of the cosmic life-death ceaseless in-/ex-corporation partcontinues on the woman and its her of the death of in the context dialectics this cosmic impact explore a cosmo-poetic as a wholepresents The study ofmourning. theperiod manthrough ethnogfield-work thesystematic of theYagwoia dreamlifedevelopedthrough long-term raphy andpsychoanalysis. inphenomenology grounded

leaves as wellbe dead.Sociology in manawake,thesleeper interested Forsociology, might andto psycholothedream's to study itto anthropology civilization, place in thetraditional ofouractions. motivations theprofound in thewebofourdreams Following gyto discover theact that of productivity, of ourculture thedictates sociology pushesintotheforeground and socialenvironment his physical of manawakefighting thetension against presupposes born willexorcise thephantasms work that it.It feelscertain ofchanging with theintention deed. (...) For Halbwith Promethean threaten to interfere whenever of thelongnight they was notsocial memory, wachsthedreamwas purememory, just as forBlondelinsanity socialized not and coenesthesia 1966:199-200). (Bastide emotionality. pure

that it is its in fullforI think is worth from Bastide'sarticle statement This opening citing whichhas lostnoneof its reflection informed As a piece of rhetoric bestpart. by a cogent of ideas conto givethispassagea newlease of lifein thecirculation I thought relevance, note forthis an It existence.1 human and opening apposite provides dreaming cerning and I of theYagwoialife-world dimension of theoneiric case study detailed ethnographic ofBastide'spronouncements. belowon someimplications reflect willfurther who occupyan tribes2 of theAnganspeaking The Yagwoia belongto thecongeries and Eastern New Guinea three area thatstraddles Morobe, Highlands, provinces: Papua sector in Morobe Administrative Gulf. Most Yagwoia live in the Menyamya-Aseki Oceania 76,2006 27

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LakiandMourning Dreams, Province.The realmof Yagwoia intersubjectivity and interpersonal concernsextends intothedream theimmediacy of wakeful andbodily beyond expeexperience co-presence, of dreaming take rience and oneiric of existence. In their life-world thevicissitudes reality wakeful consciousness. in the as lived same exterior the through place space experiences lifeof thepsyche The activities whichmostWesterners wouldcharacterize as theinterior of are forYagwoialivedand thought of as experiences whichtakeplace in theexteriority their their is an objective,exterior world.Any Yagwoia dreamscape landscape,mostly familiar is engendered hometerritory. Dream experience by a person'ssoul-component nearand whichin sleepbecomesdetached and goes offwandering from thebody, through orrelates to in any farplaces,butthisis thesameexistential a person inhabits space which other of consciousness.3 Whichever of theworldthesoul-component may modality region theYagwoia havegoneto - familiar or alien- that world is thevery sameexpansein which live daily;if a distant theyhave never place, theymayhave heardaboutit or,perhaps, known aboutituntil saw itin a dream. In thelastcase a person has seena placewhose they itto has shown4 s/he does notknow. Where is it,one does notknow, butthedream identity in which saw him/her. dream accounts Thus,overtheyearsI recorded they places Yagwoia identified as Australia andAmerica. The dreaming foroneiric consciousness (qua thesoul-component) experiresponsible ontodimension enceactsin andexperiences this exterior an immanent which, spacewithin human souls. to the mode of existence of and detached logically, primarily belongs spirits In Thatis, thisdimension is notdetermined consciousness. by human wakeful-perceptual discourse thisspecialstatus ofdream andvisionary is often indicated bya verbexperiences of whichindicates their modedifferent from thecertainty morpheme separate experiential souldirect wakeful Whiledreaming, detached a sleeping experience. personqua his/her is in theexistential of spirits. To be sure, thisis thesameobjeccomponent dimensionality tiveexteriority of theworldas it is forthewakefully humans butwho as such perceiving cannotdirectly In thissense,human theexistential of spirits. experience dimensionality consciousness thesameumwelt has,strictly (vonUexkull1957)as spirdreaming speaking, its. In dreams, an unsuspecting can see and thuspre-cognize, someone's nefarious person activities or someone'sdeath.Thatis, thespatio-temporality of theoneiric (e.g., sorcery) umwelt is different from thespatio-temporality In of thewakeful-perceptual consciousness. dreams one can see something that has or willhappen, 'here' or 'elsewhere'. This is why individuals who have visionary and pre-cognitive abilities are called aa'mnyewuocaqale becausein their vision can see as in dreaming, not dream-seer),5 (person wakeful they things visiblein ordinary wakeful In thisconception, dream the perception. generically designates of character not an that a is exclusuch vision vision, trans-wakeful-perceptual assumption indreams. sively possible For instance, if someone'sproperty was stolen,a dream-seer can identify thethief and/or thelocation where thestolen is hidden; notethat herethetheft are and hiding thing if thestolenthing is deposited on a stonealreadyaccomplished, past actions.However, it is thought thatthedream-seer is notverylikelyto see the ledge,behinda waterfall, whena dream-seer's it is claimed kind, sought object.This is why, poweris of a superior thats/heis able to see a stolenobjecteven if it is hidden insidea waterfall. Due to this thecase that stolen view,itis often valuables, prevalent shells), especially money (formerly do in actualfactgetplacedbehind waterfalls. whenconsulted Consequently, by a dispossessedowner, thedream-seer willoften first zero-in on thoseaquaticspotsknown tobe parfitfornefarious It seemsthat thereasonwhywaterfalls are preferred ticularly depositions. thefactthat someof them areactualentries intotheabodeof thewild spotshas to do with forest who confer shamanistic on the mortals spirits (see Mimica 2003a). powers living or thresholds, between theordinary and visionary dimenBeing thejunctions, perceptual sionsof theworld, obstruct or neutralise theefficiency ofeither modeof visibility and they 28

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Mimica thetwodimensions transit intoeach other, detection. Sincein them waterfalls wouldtherein thepoly-sensible texture oftheYagwoiaumwelt. fore be likeblind-spots in general towards dreams is in terms of their The basic attitude future-mode of orienthat thespatio-temporality of theoneiric umwelt has a totalising tation. It can be said,then, thehorizons of hereand elsewhere, insideand outsidetheworldand protensive quality; andmaybe pre-cognized, relative to theceaselessflow areindefinite body,6 pastandfuture all modesof consciousness. dreams have a of existence whichunderpins Fundamentally, in full, that no matter how of showings (ucoqwalye) Yagwoiadesireto consume signature can assess whether will follow on from feel about since anxious it, they something may they An abruptly is likely to protest awoken that inthewakeful dream actuality. person showings in his/her dreamwhens/hegot awokenand hence s/hewas just aboutto see something I haveseensuchfrusofactuality. ofwho-is-to-know-what-kind oftheknowledge deprived on with their on and about so-and-so trated dreamers interfering sleep and thereby ranting forthe dreams Rather than their experiences, dream-showings. beingephemeral destroying withtheworldby of wakeful bear on thepractical engagement sphere Yagwoia directly humans intomostdiverse and one of itsmosttitillating aspectswhichentices generating - extreme and their interests and sustains notuncommonly actions, inquisitiveness. oneiric activities of thesoul. deed ensuesfrom a 'Promethean' To echo Bastide, many in theYagwoialife-world all modalandBlondel, to both Halbwachs Furthermore, contrary ofthe'social' andaction itiesofexperience Here,therealm totality. belongto itsexistential of whatis 'real' or 'socialised',and thus of beingthearbiter has no ontological privilege and in all its depths, human horizon of The as such. heterogeneity experience acceptable The Yagand future. there that witheverything is conterminous is, past,present intensity, and therealmof the 'social' is butthemicrocosmic, is macrocosmic woia un/conscious7 exteriorithephysical Andqua dreaming, macrocosmos. of the self-expression8 part=whole, in their and of determination constitutive a world has the of living permanent Yagwoia ty of in and qua theexteriority is continuously un/conscious which, objectified reciprocally, is continuously un/conscious theliving In thesameprocess theworld. opento somatisation andsocialisation. andthe oftheir oftheYagwoiacathexis world-body giventheintensity Parenthetically, it can of concrete un/conscious in the immanence of its individuals, body-images ubiquity as of theworld-body with thequiddity are saturated coenaestheses their said that be firmly same the one and The two define embodiment. maternal their as with much primorprimary to the Pace Blondel(as citedby Bastide),I am true and sensibility. of motility dial habitus is a which life-world their I that when embodiment of the insanity, say Yagwoia facticity is as much ofthedeceasedmaternal induced condition relatives) (notinfrequently byspirits of thesomatised a rupture imageof its world.As forthe psycheas of thecoenaesthetic itsimagiof thepsycho-soma, from the life borrowed the it lives 'social', powers/energies to more to the It is the sensuous. of realm immediate is the which world and the point nary, theYagwoia),insaniWesterners andpost-modern modern forso many (butnotfor saythat define which oftheparameters andidealisations ofthelimitations truth tyis theunpalatable ease is at socius civic Western the and socius. human norm-dX the of sense their large, By of 'socialisedemotion'and of theegos well of all sorts(theyare thestuff withneuroses In a leakagesand ruptures. psychotic equippedwith'social skills') butit cannottolerate of thedayas thepigs,marsupials, order of the'natural' are as part where life-world spirits encountered morethana commonly and humansthemselves, 'psychoses' are nothing 'social fact'.9 it makesitclearthat world oftheYagwoialifeoftheoneiric sketch Thisbrief facticity toknowtheYagwoia in wakefulness. than is no less realintheir Correspondingly, dreaming and action, arequa their as they andthemselves, life-world exploration requires experience thistotalperspective articulations. and its modeof their of every Onlythrough experience the Yagwoia sense of realityand theirmodes of realitycan one come to understand 29

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LakiandMourning Dreams, and validation. anddreams domain can constitute theexistential which appraisal Dreaming be entered intorelatively a long-term easily.Through systematic ethnographic-psychoanadreamswill disclose theconcrete and cultural lyticexploration dynamic configurations of once the matrix of lifeat un/conscious the world, personal specificity imaginary Yagwoia and transpersonal. of thistotalising of thedreamer is an expression synthesis Everydream andhis/her thelife-world immanent in itas a whole, andidentical to itsliving life-situation, thedreamer.10 The radicalimaginary invoked hereis, literally, theontological part=whole, sourceof all humanreality of thecreative matrix (Castoriadis1984, 1987),11 by virtue which there is anygivenhuman cultural life-world. In thepresent 1 am primarily conwhosescope is fundamentally work, ethnographic,12 cerned with theconcrete oneiric of two manifestations and articulations of theself-images a polygamous man(QANG) and his favourite To theextent that wife(Tilm).13 individuals, theseimages,or in Yagwoia terms'showings',are as such theyare aboutthemselves, in their theforemost oftheir concrete andgenerative rootedness simultaneously expressions lifeworld. in these oneiric and arenot twoconcrete Inhering objectivities justthese egoities their un/conscious of (i.e. total self)butalso thegeneric specific biographical configurations their of formative the of the lifeworld. imaginary totality Yagwoia As a workof theconstitutive human theYagwoia,no less thananyother imaginary, is necessarily realisedas a singular or individualised universal. Its imaginary life-world, are constitutive in and through of and givenmaximum itsmodesof configurations reality cultural from and self-institutionalisation: theYagwoialanguage, tools,dwellings, kinship socialorganisation, to their andstyles ofbeingsocialised anddying cuisine, egoities, living as suchinthefullness oftheir conscious andun/conscious being. I have elsewhere detailed themaincosmo-ontological of theYagwoia configurations lifeitsself-institution as a cosmological the embodiment which world, totality: autopoietic itself all itsliving anddeadpart=wholes (Mimica1981,1988, ceaselessly generates through ofpsycho-analytic andJungian 1991,2003a). Fromtheperspective analytical psychology,14 theYagwoiauniverse is a masterly ofthehuman creation pre-Oedipal beingwhose psychic andculturally existential areaptly archetypal dynamics specific categories15 captured bythe imageoftheouroboros.16 The keypoint forthisseriesof papersis thisarchetypal imageof theYagwoiacosmic manwhosebodyis simultaneously thecosmos,17 as thenuclear Self,thefirst androgyne of their constitutive To theextent thatit is thecondition forthere expression imaginary. this nuclear is the (Castoriadis, 1987:3), beingany image-of anything image minimally As suchit is also thekeyimageof itsimaginary itsseity, matrix, imageof itself. purposedetermined andexistential one has fulness, archetypally intentionality, project. Accordingly tobeholditin itsself-referentiality. Whatone sees is, at a glance, theinner of determination that there is and how it is. This can be matrix, then, everything imaginary comprehended thehuman dimension of existence, whichis to say through theconcrete entirely through and embodiment. In short, their Yagwoia realmof thepsychic being,its energies living un/conscious.18 Like all archetypal ofthepsyche, thisimageis theliving ofthe semblance productions thatanimates theun/conscious of the Yagwoia who, through (libidoAmortido19) energy bothgenerate and actualisethematrix of their themselves, container, i.e., all-containing their life-world anditsimaginary matrix ofself-realisation. Whether one focuses on thecolor specific in everyaspectone deals withtheself-totalising circleof individuals, lectivity at once insideand outside of themselves, and in each and every one of Yagwoiaexistence, - ad infinitum. them The stuff human is madeof is secreted one of them, reality by every awakenor asleep; alone or in thematernal in some other enwombed, bosom;or stewing - thetomb, container or 'society'.Such is thecosmo-ontological ofthis group, background series ofthree papers. In theensuing theactualities of thisdialectics of theYagwoianuclear pages I explore

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Mimica in thepsycho-sexualdynamicsof concreteindividualYagwoia. self-imagebut as articulated withthe fourencompassingthemesindicatedin the titleand the sub-title, I also Intertwined the dialectics of theirouroboricphallic Selfhood formative of their documentand interpret 'maleness' and 'femaleness'. Briefly, among the Yagwoia, human sexuated embodimentis of the primordialphallic androgyne.The ubiquitous constituted as the self-differentiation known as 'male' and 'female' is each in itselfan androgynous(bisexual) humandifference phallomorphicgestalt,male-and-female(indicated as mAf).Thus m=(mAf),f=(fAm).The A designation means thatbothcomponentsare in mutuallyinseparableyettensive(conjuncis a dynamismwhich makes the ouroThis immanent auto-polarity unity. tiveAdisjunctive) Whenever I use it in the text,A specifies auto-polarising boric androgyny self-generative. dynamics that simultaneouslybinds and generatesboth the mutual unityand the compoexists without the other, and each is which compriseit. Neithercomponent/term nents/terms of each other.This sexuation is articulatedas the functionof the dimensional constitutive of the primordial and containerAcontained) ourodifferentiation (in termsof insideAoutside boric phallomorph.It can be best explicated as a dynamictopological scheme represented endnote24).20 by theimage of the Kleinian bottleor theMoebius strip(see further of the a woman's incorporation I In the first psycho-dynamics part specificallyexplore and her relationsto of her man (husband) as the principalcarrierof her phallic generativity her 'inner' masculine object. I focus on her intra-psychic realityas her man's womb, the flow. It is one of her numerousdreams that terrestrial by his life-generating body fertilised dialectics. her un/conscious this dimension of into a egoic self-world provides glimpse the dynamics of her man's I then examine a reciprocal of her contra-sexualcircuity, but which as such is determinedby his contra-sexualrelationsto his phallic generativity 'internal'feminineobject. As we shall see in the second part,the sphere of his activityin has a pronounced significance is gambling (laki). By the same which this self-circuity introduced token,thisrecently practicewill be illuminatedas to its cosmo-ontologicalconworld. withinthebounds of the Yagwoia lifestitution In the thirdpartI deal withthe vicissitudesof his favouritewife's presence in his life following her death whereby she became a spiritof the dead (wopa ilymane). Here my focus is on the practice and intersubjective dynamics of mourning,a process which with world as an indissoluble socius of the living and the singularforcerealises the Yagwoia lifealso comes to experience and appreciatethe dead. It is in thiscontextthatthe ethnographer of the denizens as the real of Yagwoia world,and, by the same token,is palpability spirits and delimitationsof their moved to explore more cogently the horizonal differentiation of the notionof the of the in terms field, implications topographical specifically experiential un/conscious (see below). in as it is articulated embodiment My focus is on the Yagwoia sense of theirprocreative theirdream experience. For in this dimension the egoic self's noetic activityarticulates of the wakeful self-consciousand critical self-regard. itselfwithoutthe wilful interference to me (as theyare among themselves) To the extentthatall Yagwoia dreams were reported theystill were the productsof theirsleeping egos and theirinternalobjects. As post-facto, such they are the work of what / delineate as their un/conscious. I put it so precisely because the relationbetween consciousness and the un/consciousis subject to diverse articdoes not conform theirmutual articulation life-worlds.Experientially, ulations in different betweenpsychic in termsof a distinction to a universaldimensionaltopography, principally un/conscious slashed of the use Hence and indicatingthatthereis my interiority exteriority. no a priori assumptionmade as to how and in what mode, if at all, is somethingunconThis calibrationvaries between individualsand lifescious in a given field of experience.21 worlds, and between different periods withinone and the same life-world.In termsof the of theirexperiences and existence, ontological underpinnings Yagwoia life-world-specific and all its derivaof their 'I-ness', such as interiority/exteriority the basic dimensionality field. Spirits no less than the soul, or any other inner/outer tives, is a radically different 31

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LakiandMourning Dreams, forinstance in dreams, are notfortheYagwoia 'internal presences objects' experienced, or archetypal eitherentirely composedof life-memories images; theyare the entities autonomous andexternal to a givenT (ego) or in a semi-detachable incorpo(e.g., spirits) rati ve relation with the one's dream-soul ve/excorporati bodyand 'I-ness', as forinstance component. The ego and thederivations stress theirreducible bodilysphere primary, egoic,egoity, ofthehuman anditsconstitution ofthebodyego (Fleiss field experiential qua thedialectics 1956, 1961) and itsmaternal Pine,and 1954; Mahler, (Klein 1932; Neumann envelopment Lacan somewhat cumbersome Stern a 1975; 1977; 1985). Bergman phrase'egoic self I By is thefigure/ground theembodied of experience. Selfhood within specify dynamics sphere is thefigure thetotaldynamic whichtheego/I-ness of thepsycho-soma vis--vis ground of fluctuating modalities of autoAallo (including subjectto a myriad morphic dynamics relation to its formative and autoAallo-centricity, autoAallo-recognition) alwaysin reciprocal oftheradical, total WhenI write to therealm Selfwith thecapitalS, I am referring ground. is schemata of experience archetypal (Jung1968, 1968a) whichin theYagwoialife-world in theegoic as theouroboric CosmicSelf.This transpersonal Self is immanent objectified selfhoodof everylivingand dead Yagwoia. This, in short, is the sphereof Yagwoia 'agency'. in theYagwoialifeis phenomenologically Accordingly, grounded mypsycho-analysis constiworld. to itslife-world Theirpsychic forwith a maximal fidelity beingis accounted and internal tution. of self So although use the notions such as un/conscious, egoic my theframework of psychoanalytic conceptualisation objectsis within meta-psychological thisis done as an interpretive theontological exercisewhichbothmaintains and amplifies More signifiand existential of theYagwoia selfhood and life-world. originality integrity the of theprithe dreams that I examine will us most into cantly, bring immediately sphere its 'material' constitutive somatic of theYagwoiaembodiment whereby mary, imagination as flesh, and quiddity of substance knowand identify (thatwhichwe readily composition as cells,genes,etc) acquiretheir or morerecently, tissue, skin, bone,blood,semen, organs, primary objectification.22 IN THE MATRIXOF KINSHIP: MANAWOMAN THE PRIMARY SELF-DIFFERENTIATIONOF THE OUROBORIC MONAD

Figure1 of a vastfield Consider thisgenealogical of a segment sketch. It is a graphic representation of human 1 willcometo discusstheman relatedness all generated sex andeating.23 through

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Mimica Here a fewremarks on thegraphic (QANG) and thewoman(Tilm) shortly. displayitself will be instructive. is a product of cognitive a conceptualisation The figure construction, - imagining, and whicharticulates a particular modeof ideation thinking, anthropological - indeed - total intereconomic of the field of human schematising procreative, alimentary, - scheme, - ideational the action. As a conceptual, or morebroadly itdoes notat all convey as articulate themselves most basic lineaments ofthewaytheYagwoialiveand ideationally all shortcomcollections of human and dead,that ethnographers, despite corpuscles, living frame characterising ings,productively by meansof thiskindof genealogicaldiagrams, such as Mine', 'kindred', thereby group',etc. In the groupings 'family', 'lineage','descent of concrete to an ideationalsystem imagery Yagwoia worldany such diagrampertains whosestructural inthenext arebestexpressed meanings figure.

Figure2 theschematised (A) and (B) are respectively They bodyand thetree. imagesof thehuman are stand in therelation of notjust formal butof identity. Moreprecisely they equivalence two aspectsof one and thesame Yagwoia archetypal bodilygestaltin whichthetreeis = spine= penis) an imageof bodilyinteriority, axis (head = trunk its vertical articulating and its lateral of countless internal and symmetrical arborescent structure ropesand pasintovarious thatintertwine marrow veins,innards) sages (intra-skeletal passages,arteries, ofbranches, nexicalledlatice;simultaneously arecontained in theexternal appearance they leaves(up) and thebase and numerous subterranean 'ropes' (roots)(down).Whatis more, are interand theroots thistreeis thought of as beingclosed in uponitself so thebranches to the twined. It is an archetypal imageof thecosmictreeand thetreeof life.Similarly, in extent that thebodyis drawn in upright shouldbe understood and open,itreally position terms of itsarborescent turned in on itself. Bothareinstances body, imageas theself-closed of theYagwoiaouroboric monadic eidos (Mimica 1988, 1991).The third image(C), which of thearchetypal belongsto thesame Yagwoia gestalt body,is thehouse. It ideationally container articulates thebodilycontainer (skin and flesh)and theoriginary intra-bodily within which thewomband its 'childnet-bag', every bodyis generated through gestation, whichis how theYagwoia nameand think aboutthatorganknownas 'placenta'.Every of the human bearson its exterior flesha navel,in theverycentre body,male or female,

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LakiandMourning Dreams, as an indelible mark of itsoriginary In thisperspective the intrauterine attachment. trunk, of its primordial the content container, bodilyexteriority qua thenavelis theexternalised womb.Whatwas insidebecameoutside. This self-referential dimensionaliantio-morphic ofthebodyis offundamental in Yagwoiamentation. ty24 importance Now thebodyin (A) has a mouth This is to indicate as well as thepenisand breasts. thathumans are sexed embodiments, has a placenta, one in whichtheinteriority i.e., can bearanother theparturition comesto suckletheexternal breasts. These body,whichafter arethesalient of every characteristics whileevery aapale (woman), qwole(man)possesses theexternal lakice(penis).Giventhat in theYagwoialife-world is no manor woman there who does notliterally incarnate or embody in his/her bonesand fleshthesocial groupto whichtheybelong,everysexed body is simultaneously This is a strictly a group-body. relation moreinformasincethatwhichI label as 'group'or,slightly part=whole identity descent is thesame itself articulated as (PDG), tively 'patrilineal exactly group' ideationally Several genericlabels applyto thismostbasic archetypal gestaltwhichI just outlined. human social configuration: or nexus;base lakice(penis),lance (internal bodilyvitalknot of thepenis),peyuleyeuwye (umbilical-cord name)or peyuleu/mcace (umbilicalyeuwye cord blood name). All of theseare vitalgenerative thecorporeal parts whichdesignate whole: thebody as a groupor container of its containing the members. They incarnate whichis in and is themselves as their bodies.The labelsare interchangegroup-body very able andthey accentuate oftheself-same different aspects bodily gestalt. The simplest is 'of x determination of a manand womanis bysaying that s/he 'group' or y (name)penis'or,whenone is specifying these matriconnections between individuals, relations issuefrom theaamne(breast) that have in common. Whathas to be grasped they hereis the following self-refractive or self-twining That is, the relation: penisA=breast. and the breast of are to be in the of the dialectical mode penis envisaged dynamics primary is themirror-self-twining which A=-A (Fig 3a). or self-same-difference: identity

V\ fi
A Figure3a 3b WhenI say that N is from thebreast that theformer and P is from thepenis,I am saying comes from thesame group-body N is woman as thelatter, that from its (his/her except mother's P is from hear itsman(therefore As one willoften his/her PDG) whereas father).25 thespecification of theMBCh/FZCh theman(i.e., MB) an ego's MBCh is from relation, is from oneself thewoman(i.e. M); or theother is from s/he thewoman(FZ) I wayaround, am from theman(F). The manand woman or simply themanand arethebrother and sister thewomanof thesame penis,i.e., thegenerative She is its breasthe is the group-body. penis(3b). Each group-body is thusself-twined, or moreconcretely, sexed self-same-different, intomenand women, thebreasts and penes:f(B)Am(P). Thus in Fig.2 thebodyhas both breasts and a penis.Note,however, of the that muchhas beensaid as to thenature nothing

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Mimica breast and the penis, and the umbilical-cord,as well as of thatverbal componentyeuwye And nothingmuch has been said about (name), except thatthe labels are interchangeable. the womb containerand its externalisableintra-container, the childthe bodily interiority, of one and the same are all differential modes eidos which I have phallic net-bag. They termedouroboricor the self-generative phallus. segment of a Yagwoia group-body,(that which anthropologiststerm Any structural point 'family', 'line', 'sub-lineage', 'lineage', 'clan', etc., fromthe most inclusive reference and sons to the lowest possible exclusive single always and only being a man, his wife/ves a collectivity male or female individual) is always and only a body. In otherwords,whether extinctgroup withthe last of some twenty lineages with,say a 1000 members,or a virtually as group-body, a Yagwoia survivorbeing an 80 years old, toothlessand childless woman,26 as a part=whole hologramic totality. PDG is constituted Every single corpuscle is just as of N numberof members.So long as thereis a much its total embodimentas is a plurality (landevery latice territory single human body thereis a latice group-body.Furthermore, are appropriatedby other tracts)is its body. Although groups vanish and theirterritories groups the knowledgable Yagwoia always point out that underneatha present-daylatice thereis another'man' or 'man's which claims and exercises ownershipof some land-tract, owned it because it was therebeforethepresentgroup. name', or latice whichtruly with its part, the In Fig.2, (A) is also placed as a whole into the relationof identity and the genderhand (a) which articulates the system of birth-order specific birth-order As such theyfurther articulatethe sexual differnames, being the names of the five fingers. entiationof the rightand lefthands as respectivelymale and female (Mimica 1981; 1988; of the body into interiorityAexteriority (contain1991). In conjunctionwiththe self-twining its and therefore erAcontained)which is coterminouswith the sexual self-differentiation one of the most salient features scheme is this fundamental pentadactyl binarydynamism, in general (Mimica of the Yagwoia systemof social classificationand cognitivearticulation between the hand and the body the pentadic segmentation 1988). As a part=wholeidentity of the penand self-symmetrical of the hand is a self-referential hologramic reproduction and thehead-body-trunk tadic scheme of thebody as a whole: fourextremities (D). of the Yagwoia body (E) illustratesmore schematicallythe endoAexo dimensionality bodof the self-unified of the self-twining (individualand group). This again is the function and sexedness (i.e., self-difily gestaltwherebyit at once produces its own dimensionality values of the dynamics of self-differentiaThese are entirelyinterdependent ferentiation). tion of the self-sameouroboricphallus. Here it should sufficeto point out thatthe bodily are of the woman and matertherefore and flesh are the externalisedcontainer, exteriority nal. Each latice's women bear childrento the men fromthe latice other then theirown. as theirZCh whose bodies They marryoutside and theirchildrenbelong to theirbrothers the container- womb no were borneout of theirsisters'bodies. But everybodily interiority, less thanthe skeleton(bone), is of the man and therefore paternal.Every man produces chilis his own and his latice's, not thatof his affines,the wife-givers. dren whose interiority self-deterand independently This is so because neither'male' nor 'female' are elementary minantand self-exclusive entities.Rather,they are the differential antio-morphsof each oneness of the primary derives fromthe determining otherbut whose difference self-unity whose self-splitting (twinning)has broughtthem into being. The two sexed modalities of of theirown monadic eidos priorto its self-twinning. the human body are the antiomorphs as a in the Yagwoia life-world This oneness is theouroboricphallos, the One=All immanent of is the or male each As such (containfemale, interiority exteriorising unity body, totality. of the pri(contained=man). Each is a bi-fraction exteriority er=woman) and interiorising monad which is differentially mal ouroboric self-generative accomplished by men in relation to each other(homo-sexuality)and by men and women in relationto each other(hetin thebodies of but in bothcases produces theirown maximal self-replication ero-sexuality) theirchildren(Mimica 1991).

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Laki andMourning Dreams, Finally, in both diagrams I drew the sun and moon hoveringabove the genealogical This is because thesetwo luminariesare tree-of-life embodiment. display and the archetypal of the originary the primalgenerativemaleAfemale difference produced by the self-twining ouroboricmonad, the cosmic creator.At the level of common (not secret) knowledge they are the primal ancestralcouple, the firstman and woman fromwhom all Yagwoia (latice) derive, and by extension all humankind.But by the same token,these two luminariesare overseeing theirterrestrial progeny all day and nightlong, day in and day out. They are theyoriginatedin the cosmogonie past, are always here and now, and theexisomnipresent: tence of any tomorrow(future)also depends on them.They are vitallyinvolved in the life of humanity. Because of themthereis life on earth;plants grow or don't grow.Withoutthe sun's diurnalfire/heat therewouldn't be life; but equally so, withoutthe moon's nocturnal This luno-solardetermoisturetherewould not be life forthe sun would scorch everything. I became of the human bodily substantiality. minationis intrinsic to the very constitution aware of this in 1983 and 1984 when two successive solar eclipses occurred.It was in that thatI came to understand clearlywhatthe Yagwoia meantwhen period of my field-research moon and thattheyare all theirchiltold me that their are of the sun and bodies made they dren.27 HE-IN-HER AND SHE-IN-HIM IN THE EXPERIENCES OF SELF AND THE WORLD underof Yagwoia intersubjectivity These, then,are some of the most basic presuppositions to use the classic title, stood as a field of concretehuman beings interlacedthroughtheir, as egoic and affinity'. What about theirinter-subjectivity specific 'systemof consanguinity experience of oneself in relationto so many otheregoic selves, and theirconcreteecologi- the physical landscape? What are the appetites,passions, and cravings; cal environment the affectivity and sensibilities, and concernsof specificYagwoia selves thatgenerateexpethat riences and the egoic milieu which can be informatively talked about as subjectivity always and only intersectswith so many other subjectivities?What of the fact thatthese other subjectivities are principally those of one's own creators,motherand father, and, sibthroughthem,with so many other (classificatory)fathersand mothers,grandparents, affines?In formulating it like thisI am emphasislings, sons, daughtersand grandchildren, of the Yagwoia self and the intersubjective field. All ing the irreduciblekinship facticity individuation the within in of this takes and terms egoic among Yagwoia determining place fieldof relatedness. But the omnipresenceof relatednessis not an abstraction. Rather,to be entangledin the networkof kinship-and-affinal relations means to be possessed by them in the very substance of one's own body,especially on the side of the maternalrelations.In this sphere,as the Yagwoia formulation aptly expresses it, one is 'eaten' frombirthto death, in concord with the primordialhabitus of this relatedness- the mother's stomach (womb). The very beginningdeterminesthe flow of relatednessfor the rest of life: through exchange, every in the first Yagwoia is being eaten back by those whose embodimentenabled him/her place to become. The Yagwoia intersubjective field of relatednessis a field of ceaseless human of 'Planting' and 'Eating' (Mimica 1991; 2003a). It is a fieldof universalfertiligeneration, eaten by some ty be thatin the mode of a blossoming nubile woman, a person relentlessly disease, or a rotting corpse. If one is barrenin the mode of 'Planting' s/heis stillgenerative in the mode of edibility.The ceaselessly self-totalising existentialflow of life-and-death is the veryenergiesubstanceof relatedness.Human sociality,its institutional and morphology, are its intrinsicmodes of self-articulation. In short,the very subegoic inter-subjectivity are the exisstance,the subject,object and the projectsof Yagwoia human intersubjectivity tentialflow itself. And it alone is the Yagwoia all-containingSelf refractedin each and every one of the human corpuscles, those thathad lived and died, the ones thatare living and will die; and those who are yet to be begottenand will invariablydie. There is nothing 36

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Mimica is notit.Itsownnothingness, ofthisSelfthat to be sure, is itsvery insideoroutside generativecore. Consideragain theFig.l. As I write, QANG is stillin good healthand fit;I have of himfrom thefirst fieldwork wivesthethird known 1977). Of his three days my (July, ofthedead) sheis activeandwillbe so for as a wopa-ilymane diedin 1998,although (spirit butshediedwhilegiving birth to her-and-his to come.28 She borehimfivegirls many years in hervagina;she was too drained to 7thchild.The babygotstuck by a yearlongdrought the and the and she expired She were endure themassiveblood-loss during delivery. baby shehadlostno child, which is very uncommon buried (see Part3). Fora longtime together fora Yagwoiawoman.Onlyin recent boys.QANG's wl yearsshe losttwo,bothof them each lostrespectively 3 and 2 in their ear10 and 8 children; andw2 produced respectively 17 of whomhave sursired25 children, liestinfancy. So in all QANG and his 3 wives29 child. By Yagwoia values and have alreadyproducedthe first six are married vived,30 With twowives(Tpc andOmly)he hisfirst man,a true'planter'.31 QANG is an exemplary in all tensons,of whomseven himself and reproduced had truly by procreating implanted his of his namefrom he has secured thegrowth are alive,twowitha childeach; therefore seed. son by his 1stwife his first-born finished he has neverentirely However, mourning andhe saw all self-investment whodiedwhileat schoolin Mrw.Thisson was hisforemost himhis of his bestqualitiesin thisboy who excelledin school.This excellencebrought who Mrwwereenviousof thisIwolaqa-Malyce demise.The Baruyafrom boy toppedall in and who to the national was to on and theclassesyearafter Goroka, high-school go year theBaruya or evenin Australia. in Moresby to theuniversity knows- maybe Accordingly school.Ten theboy and he died whilein thelastyearof community madesorcery against him all thetime. 'I think about in a conversation: me told son's his after death, QANG years I die. And whenI die abouthim.Andit willbe so until I don'tthink Thereis no yearthat "shall I findhimthenor what?I don't of thedead), I think: and becomeilymane (spirit subof his laticecosmogonie know'".QANG saw in his deceasedson a fullmanifestation to came the whom 'red man' the or as the stantial identify Yagwoia marsupial-man identity his Man. This is whyQANG characterised sourceof theWhite as theoriginary archetypal man'. child.He was likea white deadsonas 'nota native The first-born by thesecondwifedid quitewell in schooland sincethemideighties in wifewas also excellent has been livingoutsidethearea. The second-born by thefirst whenin 1992he beatup the further education from anddebarred schoolbuthe gotexpelled None of QANG's sons was initiated, school.32 teacherat the local community mainly outin theregion was carried becausewhenthelastcycleof initiations they (mid-eighties) in schoolor too youngfortheundertaking. wereeither by the Onlytwoof his daughters wenton to complete secondwifewentto school.The first-born highschooland has been the area. outside brother birth-order same her with since ever living that eachofthem remarked borehimall girls. Now histhird Tilm, wife, Manyvillagers it.Thereto consume is no (girls')brother there forwhich hima big bride-price willbring to his desire. to wealth this can use who it is the fore Ordinarily, according father, QANG, inadbe an would this cowrie 1983 until shells) eat his daughters' (or, money bride-price or saliva' (i.e.,hisownsemen)andas such backhis ownnose-mucus act- 'eating missible incestuous is archetypically which self-closure (Mimica1991). an auto-copulati ve/-phagous wife.She was first favourite became Tilm late 1978 in her As soon as he got QANG's back whenit becameknown forherwas taken manbutthepayment fora younger marked as a contract on an islandplantation was working man(husband) whileherprospective that, different half-brother sex withherpatrilateral (same father, she had incestuous labourer, in dealman the a himself who made No childcame outof this.QANG, leading mothers). at court to brother her take to offered the with (first the Government, culprit ings to approxisentenced he was which of as a in then station Lae) consequence Menyamya

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Laki andMourning Dreams, In the process Tilm became his new, young woman (wife). mately 2 years imprisonment. Due to her betrayal which put his son (by the firstwife) in prison33Turn's father,a renowned marksman-warrior and shaman, wanted to kill her. On one occasion while she was asleep in her father'shouse he sneaked in on her with a glowing bamboo stake which he intendedto drive through her anus causing her an agonising death. But she managed to wake up right in timeand she jumped and ran out screaming. QANG took full advantage of thisviolentact which made clear thatthisyoungwoman was utterly devalued by her own father and paternalcore-kin.Not only was she 'opened up' ratherthan by some otherman but her own fatherwanted to kill her. by her own brother AccordinglyQANG paid a lesser bride-pricethenhe mighthave otherwise.He told them: Her father and full There is no zipper on thispouch. You unzipped and took the money!'34 brother with which he paid the same had no What is more the mother) (by argument. money forher bride-price he earned by playing laki - cards duringthe period he worked as a government in Mrw (1979-1984). Gambling (cards and dice) became an important interpreter aspect of Yagwoia men's activitiesin the early 1970s when more cash became available due to coffeecultivation. This connectionbetweenTurn's bride-price and QANG's involvement withgamblinghas a special significancein thehistory of theirconjugal relation(Part 3). a succession of sicknesses while livingin Mrw. But Subsequentlyhe and Tilm incurred in a criticaldream he saw and identified and the the culprits, namely his new wife's father eldest half-brother. During a visit to the home village he got a local shaman to locate and exorcise the kiVt/nye sickness. Tilm and the (sorcery) bundle responsiblefor the recurrent shaman were duly impressedby his dream-visionary powers. The reason he didn't accuse his affinesof sorcerywas thathe decided thathe had proved himselfstronger than them. Their sorcerydidn't kill him35 and he could now restoreagain a viable relationwiththese affines.On the otherhand, he decided that should theytryto do sorceryagain, he would take themto the government courtand win again as he had before. In everyrespectQANG was and still is a powerfulman, physicallyand in termsof his and the new ways of the government, as well as of his soul's knowledge of local tradition dreamTilm him desired and powers,including visionarypower. veryearlyin theirconjugal relationshe identified with him as her man. In Yagwoia termsher kalye (vital organ) was 'knife-cut'(kalye yoce nakldata'nye), meaningthatshe was subject to intensesomatic-feelher umpne (soul) became shaped by him in ing which made her desire him. Furthermore more thanone way. Indeed, from1984 when she began to have recurrent visionarydreams symptomaticof the acquisition of curing (shamanistic) powers fromwild forestspirits,36 QANG became her committedadviser on these experiences since her problem was thata local shaman (her close paternal relation,in fact) managed to block her soul so that she could not incorporate the powers withwhich she recurrently engaged in her dreams. Established shamans regularlydo this for they are envious of novices and tryto preventthem frombecoming curers,but in hercase the factorwas thatmostof herpaternalrelativeswere curersand theywanted to retaliatefortheirson who wentto jail because of her.But QANG had continuously encouraged her, maintainingthat her kune umpne will eventually get strong enough to overcome themalignantobstacle.37 HE-IN-HER The above sketchgives just one concretecontourof the inter-subjective field of Yagwoia polygynous domesticityand the flow of life-and-deaththerein.This is a field of basic human passions and affective dynamics.In its human modalitiesthe flow-of-life-and-death is articulated in and as egoic sexual-appetitive and actions cravings,murderous preferences, of men and theirwomen (wives), sons and daughters.They are sires, mothers,planters, warriors,hunters,indenturedlabourers and students.In this incarnationthe flow is their self-interesteddrivenness to create, protect,feed, love, possess, as well as to destroy. 38

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Mimica or exacting one is birthing, and hatred in a carefully Whether breast-feeding, vengeance or sorcery, crafted act of murder ambivalence, symbiotic dependence, anxiety, possessiveThe egoicpursuit of self-accomplishment situation. is driven ness,andenvyshapeevery by of theouroboric and ambivalent selfcharacterized theprimal omnipotence by typhonic38 is theouroboric ofitsinternal fluxion This,ofcourse, negativity (all=nothingness). intensity cosmicomnipotence andequallyself-same between yetinverse oscillating omni-impotence. forthisarchaicschizoidaffective of omni/m/potence self-ambivaHence myblend-usage lence(Mimica2003b). detailsand history of therelationship between Without QANG goingintoanyfurther forthepurposeof thisdiscussion, another of the and TilmI wishto illustrate, modality I will focus of conjugaldomesticity. of life-death flowin thesphere effluence Specifically theterrestrial as herman'swomb, on Turn's reality bodyfertilised byhislifeintra-psychic numerous dreams will a into this dimension of flow. of her One provide glimpse generating for The dream is edited andeconomy of dialectics. herun/conscious clarity egoicself-world in thesessionwith ofFig.4 was drawn A virtually identical version QANG and exposition. wererecorded anddiscussed. She dreamt ofherdreams which thisandanother Tilmduring moreprothisdreamwas butanother 1996. In its mostovertform it in earlyFebruary of hersoul's activequestforshamanistic articulation nounced curing powerwhichin this or intothebodyand extraction theactionof penetration is prototypically Yagwoia craft of hersoul (ie. it. Turn'sdreamwas theproduction of thesickness objectfrom expulsion in thecontext of herat once personal of herpsyche) constellation egoic affective-cognitive and has been shapedby well over 30 yearsof concrete and transpersonal un/conscious, its depthsand internal In other in herYagwoia life-world. existence words,herpsyche, thelifeofexperiential theproducts arethemselves through objectification objectdynamics 'internal a of the faintest even In this sense of socialisation. personal glimpse longprocess thecultural exterior intothat realm's is also a glimpse realm milieu, (innenwelt) subjective' ofeach modalities andinseparable theinterdependent The twoarestrictly umwelt. speaking other.39 Dream 1. hasn'tgot anydirt;it is very I saw a water-ditch [aalye qaqana]; thewater is coming clean.The water down,it is clean and I saw QANG [herman]sit= water He is sitat theheadofthewater source]. [aalyehiminye exactly ting Now the water-ditch. I went and him at I am and there following looking ting thewater-ditch. in linealongside I saw many planted begonia] waquye[native nice are niceand so is thewater, Thisplace [plot]was all clean.The waguye I went water-ditch the I followed and this thus I saw and clean. [course]. came to themiddlenow and I looked inside [alongsidethewater-course], at thetop [thewatersource].I saw thisthus. back,QANG is sitting-staying itbends[see andI cameto where thiswater-ditch Now I saw,I was following at thewaterthefigure anylonger 4], I lookedback - QANG wasn'tsitting she said that thedream He saw me andhe ranaway [when source. clarifying I was who also man unknown saw she at this another, disappeared]. juncture side - they I saw on theother thiswater-ditch alonenow.As I followed plantthusnow and I wantto turn I am watching ed [in line] woqaye[cordyline]. and I wentoutdoor a backto see, at thisside there is[(now] passagestaying was a waterthedoor].I wentoutside now,I saw there side [passedthrough nowwhenI gotup [wokeup] perplexed nearthewater-fall I went fallstaying. experience]. [bythedream


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LakiandMourning Dreams,



Figure4 Turn's comment on themeanings familiarof herdream was in terms of herimmediate and showings i.e., theactivities itywithherdreaming-visionary (ucoqwalye) experiences, of her soul in relation to the wild forest in the spiritswhichare the key protagonists shamanistic thisis thedreamshe alwaysdreams, So she said that processof development. thatit is yetanother one of thedreamshowings thatshe has had so manytimes meaning andthat itis abouthergaining willenableherto becomea thesoulpowers which (strength) shaman. In other it is yetanother of herdominant thematic instance words, egoic strivings is a uniqueimaginal eachdream ofthedreamer andhersituation. although expression Thereare layersupon layersof meanings in this(as in any) dream;I will elucidate thosewhich are mostgermane to mytheme QANG's exegesiswho in thedream following is thesourceof theclean 'water'that flowsthrough all thewayto theditch that shefollows themoment of awakening. In our discussion no thismostovertimagereceivedvirtually is because it a manifest of the factical explication precisely sexual-procreative expression between of QANG and Tilm.He and his penisis thesource(aalye himinye) conjunction sementhatover theyearshas flownintoherwomb,presented in thedreamas a garden. Thisis a common as itandthehousearethecenimageofthewoman'swomb justas much traldomains of woman'sdailyactivities. is a It is important to notethatthedream-scene area wherein the stream is a human runs a ditch or a water canal which garden-like through artifice thegarden as theearth to and transdomain and substance characterising subjected formed human As an imageofthebody, work. itsgenerative through interiority, specifically it is similarly transformed intercourse and and other kindsof intrusions, incisions, through in a sense or, manipulations global self-implantation. Insidethegarden thewater is a contained flowwhich in the onlybecomeslikea river outside area marked where Hereis a newuncultivated areaof theforest bya door-passage. thestream is freeand open,as indicated The flow, as all other modesof by thewaterfall. is to is contransformations or but itself a ceaseless substantiality, subject metamorphoses tinuum. It has,however, different thresholds which constitute different existential andontois indicated of thedoor-passage and the This,forinstance, logicalmodalities. by themotif waterfall. I will notelaborateon them, thatare it is specifically thesemotifs Although salient in respect of theshamanistic of thisdream. Whatmust be understood underpinnings is that thedream is theimageof thedreamer's which as suchis at once landscape body-self herbodilyinteriority of the and herexternal umwelt. As a dreaming ego she is theviewer dream-scene and themainactorin it. The scene insidethecultivated area is constituted thesilent(wordless)ocular-scopic relation thedreamer and herman at between through whomsheturns-to-look his twicewhileprogressing the water course that issuesfrom along of herown intrapsychic determination body.This linearpathis a manifestation phallic40

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Mimica which is the core of her self; it is just as much the conditionof her generativity, regardless of who specificallyis the man, such as QANG - her actual man - who inseminatesher,as it is the icon of thepath of the initiatory experiencesconductedby the wild forestspiritsfrom whom her soul acquires the desiredpowers of curing.The phallic eidos of which the flow is here a concretelife-situational expression is the very natureof her progenitive femininity. This is the most latent,or submergedtranspersonal archetypalgestaltof the Yagwoia Self, male and female, of which this dream gives one particularmanifestauto-symbolicvariant articulatedas the dreamer's concreterelationto her man. He as such is a concretevehicle sexual self-component, for her own contrai.e., her own male complex.41In her case this of herfive female children accomplished in herprodigiousprocreation complex is primarily the manintothepath of the acquisitionof spiritpowers. In short, but is further transformed are ifestman and woman, and all othermale and female componentsin thisdream situation, of concretemen and women in her existentialumweltand theyare at once the refractions also the objectifications(internalobjects) of her own innerfemaleness and maleness, the libidinal self-difimmanent twoity(mAf)of her selfhoodin which thisinternal intra-psychic ferenceis the verydynamicsand energyof self-generation. The initialmotifof the shinycleanliness of the waterand of the entireplace aroundthe self-evident is a salientand virtually water-ditch (forthe Yagwoia) iconic image of the overof the the cleanliness and translucency all shamanisticrelevance of the dream. It represents humanbody fromwhich a sickness object (napalye) has been extracted.QANG said: The time she is doing sickness (extraction)to a person, s/hewill say: "I became well". This is what she saw'. A shaman has a penetrating, virtuallyX-ray-likevision. In this sense the vision (that Turn's cleanliness of the path and the water-courseis at once the penetrating soul has as yet to develop) which enables the shaman to see the sickness object inside the and the general visionary body which always appears as a shadowy, dark configuration, the body. Once the outside and of sickness sources the to locate sorcery objects power the internalshadowy sickness the body itselfwill become clean, without object is extracted and thusthe body will be cured. In the rouobject, i.e., freedfroma malignantpenetration, tine performanceof a simple initial examination of afflictedbody the shaman sprinkles water and beats and rubs (cleans) the afflictedbody part with a bundle composed of the waquye (begonia) plants,one or two, commonlyred woqaye (cordyline)leaves, and one or smell. All but waquye are optional. Now waquye, two otherplants which have a distinctive is whereas is female like all plants, woqaye male, and theyfigureas such in Yagwoia social names (ilaye yeuwye). The shamanisticbunclassificationas female and male endearment dle, then,is a conjunction of the maleAfemalegenerativeelements which in conjunction with water are applied to the body being subjected to penetrating-extractive manipulation. elementis the shaman's breathwhich in the mode of directedwhistleA thirdpenetrating blowing combines both oral-sonic and the heat-pressurequalities coming frominside of = his/her body and as such are iconic of the generic soul-substance(umpne literallyheatbreath).42 What has to be emphasised in this composition of the shamanisticplant bundle is its In the Yagwoia life-worldno substanceis determination. dynamiclibidinal auto-generative inert. Any mode of substance is generative of both malignant or benign qualities and effects.For instance any sickness object is itselfa negative generative(in the irreducibly sexual-metabolicsense) substance which as such actively generatesits libidinal-metabolic energie power clearly manifestin the very conditionof the substance and sensoryexperiloss of flesh,weakness, etc. The bunence of the afflicted body,eg., pain, hightemperature, being a living organic self-generating dle, a composite of male-and-femaleplant-matter, of the shaman's craft.It is a homomorunit,preciselyas such is an effective'instrument' of phic means forenhancingthe phallic penetration the shaman's vision itself. This exegesis places in the shamanic perspectivethe significanceof the waquye plants and of the woqaye (cordylines) which in the dream are lined (planted) on the two sides of 41

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LakiandMourning Dreams, the water-ditch. But QANG correctlycommentedthat this is one side of the meaning of all female. Because of these elements.The otherside is that'she dreamtabout her children, thisI am sitting at the aalye himinye [watersource]. Tilm is not able to bringout [give birth to] a male child. She will yield only women to me'. However, he didn't exclude the possiwith bilityof having a male child withherbut,as he said, he has to do more fuck-shooting43 her. There is also a special spell (ququna yakale) thatcan be used to ensure a specifically In Turn's dream male childrenare presentedby the line of woqaye (cordymale offspring. said thatthese were planted by his otherwomen (Tpc and Omlyc) both of lines). QANG whom had borne him sons in additionto daughters.Indeed, in the dream scene Tilm moves her side of the garden,while the cordylinesare on the otherside of the ditchwhich through plot.44 belongs to otherwomen. As in the actual gardeneach woman has herown cultivation As forthe waterwhich emanatesfromhim QANG said: In theTok Pies [vernacular]here [locally among the Yagwoia] the meaningis thus: she is looking at water - she is looking at woman, she is looking at woman. And she is looking at aalye qaqanamndenye [ditch,canal], because her box [vagina] has got a ditch, that is, is broken in two halves [i.e., the ditch has a cleft,split which containsthe water].It [dream-image]showed her about thismeaning. to the vernacularQANG simply atteststo his knowledge of his own mother By referring since in the Yagwoia life-worldand in the Ququna Yaquye (Yagwoia language) tongue -/-. wateris generically withthenominalfemalegender marker namesterminate female;all river The lexeme himinyi (headwaters, source) has amplifiedfemalephonemiccomposition(3 -/-) and relatesbothsemantically it labels) and phonetically to hiye(urine)which that (thesubstance is to linked the female third femaleness, again intrinsically personpronounhi, and to several riverswhose originsand names containthisnexus of the aquatic natureof femalenessforthe So QANG is simplysayingthatin the dreamTilm is lookingat herself as herown Yagwoia.45 is woman]of whichhe is thesource. (generic)substance[water water,the source of which is herman's body,is contained Simultaneouslythisfeminine in theditchrepresenting hervaginal cleft.The relationship betweenthe man's female watersubstance and the female vagina, itselfdetermined as a linear,phallic shape, is thatof the contentand the container.This is one of the criticallydefiningcharacteristics of the ouroboric phallic eidos. It is constituted as a dynamic relationcontainerAcontained relativeto which malenessAfemaleness are dynamicallydetermined. Justas the linear flow is phallic and proceeds fromher man, she simultaneously containsand receives his waterygenerative substance. The ouroboricphallos is here at once the male flow as it is the vaginal canal passage. The image of the inside of the gardenis the situationof a coital conjunctionwhich is the condition of the generativity of the womb. In this regard the dream image clearly shows thatTilm has introjected her man who, intra-psychically, is the maniQANG as truly festcarrierof her un/consciousgenerativephallic self-articulation. The ouroboricphallus is trulyher. Her man is fully integratedinto her bodily un/conscious:his penis is indistinfromher aqueguishable fromher vagina and his semenal aqueousness is indistinguishable ousness. She possesses him as the containerpossesses the contained,but it is also the case thathe is possessing her fromwithinherself,as the very source of her procreativity. There is no question thatQANG is a most successfulplanterand thathe has truly fullyimplanted his self intothe womb un/conscious and the self of his wife (Tilm no less thenhis othertwo and as the wives) in the double phallic function:as the source of her phallic generativity father of her children.46 This is a concretetestimony to the Yagwoia dictumwhich says that if a man is stronghis wife will not go into anotherman's garden. Indeed, she will truly become his garden and will be gardeningherselfexclusively for him and for her. And, as her dreamclearly shows, she will stickto herplot acknowledgingin theprocess thather cowives also are wateredfromthe same source.47 42

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Figure5 of thearchetypal The dream-image, articulates moremanifestly a version then, phantavariant of of more condensed the the womb itself a sy being womb-with-the-penis, phallic of Turn'sdream thecombined-parents-coitus Within thescenario (Klein 1932).48 phantasy it is important to observethatthecoitalconjunction (water-ditch) (and herun/conscious) and its product an interior realm- insidea garden-like define (male and femalechildren) selfdevelopedthrough area. This is theintra-psychic of heregoic familial representation thisintersubin themilieuof kinship socialisation and affinity. But theditchgoes beyond and thusintothe of theforest jective and domestic ecological space intoan exteriority ofexistence.1X realm ofthewildforest whoareoutside ofthehuman facticity spirits In thedreamtheone and thesame phalliclinearflowof semenalfemalewaterconthe Thereafter tained bendsand is demarcated there bythevaginalpath, bya door-passage. of thewombun/conscious oneiric and domestic passes, ecologyof gardening generativity zone. The wateras is commonly thecase in thewakeful realm,intotheadjacentforest canal continues its garden-like acquiresa simultaneously retaining identity yetit further to a diverted newdetermination of an un-contained as a stream can be stream, just partly uncontrolled flow.Humanembodiintoitsoriginal plotof landvia a canal and redirected and binding ment of thegenerative flow50 is thusto be understood as strictly a delimitation oftheuniversal flowwhich streams theworld-body. ceaselessly throughout Now letme reflect of theflow.As on Turn'smovement from theinsideto theoutside relation to themale she progresses thelineof herfemale through plants, alignedin mirror above as she turns backto lookat herman.This is evidence of whatI characterised plants, their is coterminous connection which with thecoitalconjunction represented ocular-scopic in theoneiric ditch. as theacting is moving She herself, objectivity bythewater dream-ego, of her own intra-psychicwomb. Coming to the bend she is encroaching into a transitional/transformative threshold. This is mademanifest by thechangein thescenario: man she looksbackand sees that she saw an unknown hermanhas gonebutshe said that of whoseface she didn'tsee. This is a scotomic in the intra-psychic dynamics the point in the relation withhercontra-sexual she was advancing double,themale imago.Hitherto of hermanwhomshe possessescompletely as he does her.But as he disappears presence manwho also disappears. She sees him (she said he ranaway) there appearsan unknown maleis butdoesn'tknowhim.This scotomic from the known to the unknown transposition as herwild a fleeting trace ofthemirroring-structure ofhermale-double which also appears forest spirit guide.To be precise,thisimago is composedof threeseparatemale spirits It is in whoseseparate into identities fluctuate so that often she fusesthem just one figure. relation to thesefigures of hersoul (herself-compothatis made manifest theimpotence

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Laki andMourning Dreams, nent) and the incompleteness of her shamanistic project. These (or this) spirit(s) is the ambivalent internalobject (in the sphere of her un/conscious)who, to the extentthat he shows her shamanisticpowers, simultaneously preventsher fromacquiringthemas her permanentsoul-qualitiesthatwould make herinto a shaman. This is therealityof her soul malor FB) has interfered ady. Some othershaman (her paternalrelative,possibly her own father and weakened her soul; she has the dream visions but the forestspiritdoesn't quite let her them. She is not theirmasterand the spiritcontrolsher. This is the difference incorporate between her domestic coital conjunctionwith and binding of her male part,mediated and articulated by the relationwithher man, and the relationwhere thereis no real conjunction securedwiththeinternal object. is exactlya momentof intra-psychic In the dreamthe scotomicpointof transition articto its continuation ulation of the shiftfromthe self-possessedphallic contra-sexualcircuity into the unmasteredlibidinal-aggressiveflow. At the point where she catches a fleeting glimpse of the unknown man she becomes alone. The unknown face is the lapse of the sustained by the presence of her husband, the fullyposhitherto mirroring intra-psychic the door passage. Here again sessed good phallic object. Now alone she moves on through the dream has a shamanistic saliency precisely because it resonates with the culturally namely that of the initiationrituals. Turn's otherdreams archetypaliconic significations, one the door is a good indicatorof this context.51 make thatfullyexplicit. In thisparticular of the dream experience,thisis the pointof a more radical In termsof the psycho-dynamics and simultaneousconjunction.She has entereda new intraendo-psychicself-disjunction exteriorbush zone. But precisely as such this is a deeper as the manifested level psychic her spiritimago has been clearly indicatedby the The potentialforencountering interiority. briefvision of the unknownman.52 Having crossed the door passage she then comes to a on the an icon of a new thresholdof the flow and the point of a new transition waterfall, This is the within her un/conscious. effluence the of (energie) libidinal-aggressive path with the wild realm of her unknownand unbound self where new internal-object-relations spiritshave as yetto be adequately forged,and withthemnew powers of the soul begotten. dreamjourney her anxietyovercame her and she woke But at thisjunctureof her recurrent up. which is dream she has effecteda minor self-birth However, even in this unfulfilled in the Yagwoia life-worldis.53It what everycrossingof more criticalexistentialthresholds thatTilm has a fullyarticulatedstable endo-psychic is of utmostimportanceto understand and autonomous phallic womb. Throughthis she has inalienable her is which self-object54 motherwho contains her man's penis as a womanhood her consummated progenitive fully This is herpermanent and through. possession. By the same tokenshe is also a selfthrough generative phallic womb not just with regard to being able to bear children but also in respectof her own soul. And thisis why it is evidentlythe case thather man's phallic introto acquire the powers that object which bolstersup her soul's struggle ject is a good internal and the potentialsof her self circumscribed come fromoutside the sphereof domesticity by she can be said to have it. In crossing the door passage on the vaginal-phallicwater-ditch It is not coincidence thather next to herself.55 thebirthcanal and given birth passed through cord of a female child is umbilical where the is which forest in the a waterfall was stop preferablyplaced. The male child's umbilicus is also placed in the forest,either in the stone.But the waterfoliage of the wild taroor in a tree,or,possibly also, undera water-fall Such is the meaning the into a new pointof entry fall is primarily world-body.56 (threshold) dream. Turn's of and existential reality SHE-IN-HIM I will now examine some of her man's dreamsand whattheyreveal about the dynamicstucwithinhis self. These, as has been of his contra-sexualinnerobjects-and-relations turation

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Mimica world. shown,also articulatethe dynamicsof power in the dialectics of the self and its lifeMy focus will be specifically on QANG's pursuitof card-playingwhich in the Yagwoia lifeworld has intrinsic relationsto the traditional warfare,and wealth pursuitsof hunting, Tilm his of it is the that acquisition significant acquisition.Regarding money which he used forthe bride-price wasn't procuredin the usual manner,namely by receivingfromanother man a bride-price payment for his sister. Rather, it was throughhis own independent i.e., powers, that he procured the money for this (autonomous) strength(yeki'/t/nye), woman. QANG's egoic self and self-consciousview of his autonomy- 'I am an independent of his man', as he put it in Tok Pisin - are underscoredby the Yagwoia historicalfacticity was killed by Qwoqwayqwace (Iqwaye) beforeQANG parental(familial) matrix.His father was born. His maternaluncle (specificallyhis mother'sfourth-born was killed and brother) Since the killerstook the eaten by the Pataye while QANG's motherwas stilla young girl.57 body and only lefthis head and penis, therewas no properburial - fortherewas no body to handle.58 He would have been smoked and his cadaverous fluids collected, steam-cooked and sisters' children.As forthe significance and eaten by his sisters(real and classificatory) forhis entirebody. The sistertook of his severed penis, it was intendedto be the substitute it in her net-bagformany years and used it regularly care of her brother'sskull by carrying as a head supportfor sleeping. QANG said thatit became white as paper. She disposed of her brother'sskull well aftershe got married.This sortof behaviour was not a customary and the intersubjective sigYagwoia practicebut it is an acute expressionof the affectivity nificanceof the brother-sister QANG's mother'shandlingof her cannibalised relationship. of the intensity of the psycho-dynamics of her brother'sskull can be seen as symptomatic of the moulded by the experiencesand internalisations masculine self-object, contra-sexual, The killed man's ZH who found his affme's severed head and the fatherand the brother. club at the place where he penis, buried the latterin a hole which he dug withhis fighting it to the village. Symptofoundthe remains.He put the head intothe loin-clothand brought matically,in his account QANG gave the place-name which, being fromhis mother'slatz names (ilaye yeuwye).As such he immediately is also one of his endearment ice's territory, between himselfand his maternalpenis-identity indicatedthe bodily identity amplifiedby was implantedin the maternaluncle's penis-shaft the factthat,in thepars-pro-toto manner, theroot-place,althoughhis body ended in, so to speak, the exterior its innerearthcontainer, the of Pataye's stomachs. interiority Furthermore, althoughhis body was eaten out, his residual substancewas reincorporaton so many aspects of the head. While commenting ed through QANG's mother'streatment of the Yagwoia mortuary practicesQANG pointedto his mother'sexemplaryif idiosyncratof was fullyexpressiveof the desire forthe incorporation ic behaviourwhich,nevertheless, carried in a situationof the acute absence of his body. QANG's mother thedeceased brother her brother'shead in her net-bagso thatthe brain (semenal substance), hair,and the flesh him completelydissolved in it. It can be said thatin this mode she maximallyincorporated the womb. Ever since I heard the firstaccount of the into her own generativeinteriority, demise of his MB, I wonderedabout the full significanceof QANG's mother'sinvolvement withher brother'shead. It was only afterI learned thatshe finallyburied the head afterthe death of her first-born son, who died some time afterhe was nose-pierced,thatI fullyfathomed her sororal behaviour. By keeping the skull, whose generative substance was absorbed by her net-bag,and its use as the head-supportwhich thus became one with her own head, she made sure thatshe sustainedthe benign presence of her brother'sspiritdurrelationexhausting the growthof her son. Withthe latter'sdeath,however,thismatrifilial ed itself:the sister's son's death translatedhim into the same existentialcondition as his maternaluncle. They both became the spiritsof the dead (wopa ilymane). The skull, then, an un/conscious can be regardedas a sortof the transitional meaningof her object, carrying the interiorised with self which co-habits contrasexual fraternal phallus phallic intra-psychic

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Laki andMourning Dreams, of her own man (husband). When her husband was killed by the Pataye, she went on to his classificatory matrilateral brother leviraticsucces(i.e. in the mode of matrilateral marry sion), the man who siredQANG.59 QANG learned about this and many otherdetails of his parents' lives fromhis mother who brought in fleshand blood, without him up. It is these factsof being withoutthe father the kaule kayemu (base maternaluncle), and that he was the only male child, withouta which account forQANG's view of himselfas being on his own - 'indeyoungerbrother, from therewas no Aside his firstwife, who was markedfor him by his mother, pendent'. father and no maternaluncle to put together a rope of shells forthe bride-price. These came via the bride-price forhis two sistersand his own work. However, the father'spresence in QANG's childhood and self-consciousness,was in the formof the dead man's spirit(ily~ mane) which was regularlyvisitinghis wife and childrenwarningthemabout the impendThis was in ing attacksfromthe Iqwaye, and in general,makingsure thattheyare healthy. accord with the pledge he made to his wife when he was alive (common among Yagwoia thatif he died he would protect her and the children:'You will not get couples) to the effect sick nor will othermen be able to kill you, nor will you die quickly.You will become like a father to him and you will stay and look afterhim untilHiwoye (one of QANG's endearment names) of mine will have become a big man; until his hair becomes white (katace namdkanyakmaldaqwoye). When his hair is pale (mdjace qalyce), you can die'. It was the father, then,who told his motherto assume his - paternal- role. And so she did. QANG's mother,Quaqa, often had communications with her man's spirit while QANG himself maintainsthathis father'sspiritwas withhim all thetime. The first timehe experiencedhim was when his two older sistersabandoned him at the homesteaddoor at night.He was too littleto follow themas theywentintothe nightto collect insects. The dynamics of the situationof this experience is critical.He wouldn't have been more than5 years old, possibly youngerwhen he got himselfintoan either/or position and was incapable of resolving it: abandoned in the nighthe was too frightened to either follow themor to attempt to return to his mother'shouse. Anxietygave way to panic and he began to cryand scream. At thatpointhe was enveloped by his father'sspirit.'I am looking thus at the foot-path where my two sisterswent when (suddenly) it became like lightning comes. I saw it lit like a torchand it came. He (his father'sspirit)came, (piyane);60 lightning held me up; I stood up (there) washed withwaterand whitebecause the spiritheld me. He thenproceeded to put mouth(kiss) on me everywhere (on QANG's body), cryingas he did so. Now I called out: "Mama, he is sitting on my penis, he is sitting on my chest,he is sittingon my nose."61I was calling out thus when a noye (ZS) of mine, he was in a hiqwona (bachelors' house), heard me'. The latterthencalled on QANG's motherand took him into the hiqwona. He shoutedat his motheragain (who was also the man's classificatory sister) and interpreted this visitationfromQANG's father spiritas a good indicationthatthe child will grow healthyand fast.Indeed, QANG characterised his father'sinvolvement withhim in termsof his bodily growth.His father 'was makinghim grow up. An invisible presence he would announce himselfby whistlingand sometimeswould pour water on him and his motherand sistersto assure them thathe was for real. QANG said thathis father'sspiritnever appeared in his dreams. He always experiencedhim when awake. He would sit on him; sometimeshe would sit on his first-born sister,and he could clearly hear him talking to her. His father's spiritpresence was with him uninterrupted childhood. But when he was initiatedin the nose-piercingceremony,during throughout which the novices underwenta series of beatings marked by cataclysmic severity,his father'sspiritwas so scared thathe ceased to make himselfpresentto him. However, in his later life the father'sspiritdid aid him in several life-endangering one of which situations, was the sorceryattack by his affinesmentionedabove. Once in this period, when he fell froma pandanus palm and survived withoutthe slightestinjurybecause he called on his father as he fell,his father appeared in his dream. 46

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Mimica It is important to commenton these aspects of Yagwoia experience. Children report when they are by themhaving been visited by spirits,the wild forestones in particular, selves. This is a characteristic featureof Yagwoia childhood experience. Many individuals who become shamans have theirfirstonset experiences duringsuch childhood visitations. to such experiencesbecause theyfear thatthe child may Parentshave ambivalentattitudes get stolenand harmedby the spirits.On the otherhand if the spiritsappear in a dream or by some othermeans indicatethattheymay impartcuringpowers, a parentmay encourage the child to take heed of such experiences and not to divulge to anybody that s/hehad them or a jealous shaman may wantto block the child's soul. Indeed, since the spiritsmay retract, the stipulationis thatone should never divulge such experiences to anybody,not even to fora child to develop one's own parents.In this sense spiritvisitationsare tacitenticement role in the dynamicsof egoic individuation. own secretswhichplay a veryimportant his/her own decisive influenceon thisprocess which may become a lifeThe child thushas his/her A young man whom I have known since the age of five told me long vicissitudinousaffair. dream experiences of spiritswho were showing him shamanistic thathe has had recurrent to become a shaman because, in his view, dealing with visions but he was always reluctant otherpeople's sicknesses makes you more liable to get sick. He neverbecame a shaman but was glad thathe still has the same dream-visions.The spiritsevidentlystill want him to become a shaman. In the case of QANG he also had a visitationfroma wild forestspirit. But his mothertold him thatthiswas not good forhim so the spiritnever came back. However, with her own involvementwith her deceased husband's spiritshe certainlygave a to his presence in the umweltof her children.The formaximumintersubjective objectivity mationand persistenceof the paternalimage relativeto the presence of the father'sspiritin by his mother'srelationwithher dead husband QANG's life,then,was verymuch fostered as her man and as such as herpossession. She refusedto take anotherman despite the offers.'My motherdidn't want another man. No. She used to say thus: "Is theresomethingelse thatI would want so thatI will go to anotherman? Here is QA-Mace's (QANG's F) penis staying, you look at him". She was him and - here - his penis I liked else. "I like someone don't me about (i.e. QANG). talking is staying".She used to say thus'. This verbalisationwas in conformancewiththe practice of some Yagwoia widows who keep the deceased spouses' smoked penes in theirnet-bags. If asked to go to a new man such a woman was likely to produce her man's penis pointing of out thathe was still withher. In this respect,QANG was forhis motherthe incarnation her man's penis. QANG also said that in the period before he got nose-pierced she was capable of catching a plenitude of small marsupial game, mice, and frogs. This was the of her masculine-paternal manifestation quality as the providerof meat forherselfand her children. This was clearly due to her man's spiritpresence. But it came to a halt when or as he himQANG got nose-pierced,a subtle indicationthathe came to a new threshold self put it: 'I became big now and this meat vanished, my mothercould find it no more manifest now'. The hitherto presence of his father'sspiritalso changed forhe now stopped talkingto him: 'He finishedwithme', althoughhe didn't abandon his son (see endnotes). who lived into a ripe old age, died in 1984 when her body finallydisinteHis mother, her but QANG said thatshe became so old thatshe couldn't walk any see I didn't grated. more and her sacrum dissolved. This has to be understoodin termsof the Yagwoia notion of the body as a composite of the 'bone' (skeleton) about the micro-cosmic constitution tree-of-life62 macro-cosmic of the the as enveloped by the flesh which is equivalent imaged his motherdied because of the that container. house-like as the external, By saying imaged dissolutionof the sacrum,QANG in effectstatedthatshe died fromsheer old age since the vitalityof the body, its, so to speak, overall anabolic equilibrium,is finite. life-sustaining She was like an old treewhich witheredaway and dissolved fromwithinitself.Thus, being the sacrumdissolved by itselfand the bodily a vital nexus of thebone (skeletal) scaffolding, with it and an old like QANG's motherexpired.This would be the house, edifice, collapsed

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LakiandMourning Dreams, best example of the Yagwoia view of a 'good death'. of novices to be inductedinto QANG was fullyinitiated.He was of the last generation the practice of fellatio and thus, as he liked to emphasise, he received the full strength The centralpurpose of the Yagwoia ini(power) of the Qwoqwoyaqwa custom (h/yi/uwye). tiations,or as theyare properlycalled - 'the making of man'63is to make the boy's body in the ritual containedand concentrated the infusionof the powers (strength) grow through various acts which reproducethe originalcosmogonie creationof man. objects, and through of the The former of this primordial pattern practiceof fellatiowas the living continuation creation of men by men. Coterminous with this stimulation of bodily growth was the in its design initiation so much so thatthe first growthof the novices' infantsoul (umpne)64 and executionwas seen as the 'opening up of theboy's soul'. This was on a par to the opening up (disclosure) of the ritualhimace (power) objects which are like 'a gate'. When they are unwrappedtheirpowers are usheredin among humans (men and women) and so are the wild forestspirits.The initiations, specificallythe initialqwolamnyephase which precedes the male exclusive secretperformances, are the foremost gateways forthe unbound influx of the life-and-death This is the time when, among others, energie flow of the world-body. the visionary experiences, mediated by the wild forest spirits, are expected and unrestrained.This is the time when the human corpuscles are maximallyopened up, especially the novices who endure incalculable pain as theygo fromone ordeal to another.In a sense theirpsycho-somaticbeing becomes so havocked and disequilibratedthat it is forced to of the egoic self. transform itselfout of itself, the alreadydeveloped structures i.e., through As I mentionedabove, in consequence of the firstinitiationQANG's father's spirit familiar ceased to be his immediate presence but this didn't deprive him of his further is his possession. Furthermore thathis father growthas a powerfulman wholly self-assured it was in the ceremonialfringe-forest house (taqauwyaane) thata particular visionaryexperience had a decisive impact on his self-recognition as to what kind of man he was going to become in respectof his relationto women,65 namelythattheywill want-desire-him. At the forestritual-house, nose-pierced and drained like all his katouqwale (co-initiates), he was in the midstof the experientialflux thatwill change him forlife. Seated and under the stringent supervisionof theirguardians,the senior initiatedbachelors, theyhad two men who acted as if fallingintothefire.This was one just seen a performance featuring of many such h/yi/uwyaqwa (custom-behaviour)shown to the novices. Most of them are acted out in such a way that the performers appear withoutany announcementsand they Almost all of them are intendedas showings of the wild forest equally abruptly disappear. spiritsand the primordialmen. There is virtuallyno exegesis offeredand the novices are intendedto be perplexed by such showings. If any one of them were to dare to ask about what he had just seen he would be immediately belaboured withone or both typesof clubs used specificallyforthe handlingof novices at theceremoniallodge. As it happened, afterthe performance QANG was a novice with enough audacity to openly respond to it and he asked what it was thatthey had just seen. Immediatelytheir 'older brothers', which is how the supervisorsare addressed and referred to by the novices, descended on him and hammeredhis knee with a club. Such behaviour oftenreboundson all other co-initiateswho, being a group body, are mercilesslytrashedtogetherwith the actual culprit; they are treated as all-for-one-and-one-for-all. For the rest of their lives they'll be bonded by this economy of group-pain.The 'older brothers'said thathe mustbe and also thatthisboy,theycould now tell by his behaviour,is a thief.These sortsof tedje,66 are common in thiscontextpreciselybecause thenovices are scrutinised in pronouncements termsof theirsoul characteristics which are now becoming more manifest.That is, here theyare becoming men and will be revealed as to what kind of men theywill eventually become just as much as, depending on the interventions of spirits,what kind of qualities theirsouls may develop. This is the contextin which theirsouls are being forged.They are like a door forthe spiritsand thepowers unleashed by theritualobjects did penetrate them. 48

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Mimica in his account thesituation thedisIt is significant that QANG formulated by making himself andhisco-initiates: wereliterally confused andcrazedbythe between tinction they andtheweight oftheexperience. He too,buthe hadenough unbidden andunreexhaustion to in when forbidden This itself was a wilfulness to ask speak. questions explicitly pressed his He stood out but also ate of his soul and to the individuality. pain. testimony strength of other saw a number and then butthesamenight thisincident, After performances, they that he gave me QANG connects with wereordered to sleep.In severalself-accounts they between one was a visionfluctuating twodream occurrences: thisincident sleepand wakehas critical-formative was a dream-vision that fulness here),another (notdiscussed signifidifferent of all thedetails ithereas a combination canceforhim.I present givenon several occasions.67 Dream 2. like a beautiful I saw a beautiful, woman, [QANG speakswithexcitement] new She worea beautiful whitewoman.Her face and bodywerebeautiful. it becamelike theleaves of a grass-skirt; But thiswas notreally grass-skirt. She also It was white [pale] sameas itsfruit-efflorescence. hiwoye pandanus. women's chestto attached worenenna[white characteristically egg-shells rubbed ; she had yellowground [pigment] bands]and lauwye[chest-bands] and here[at three here, here, places on herbodyand face],and she heldher at my and came standing and bark-cape, stick], net-bag, [digging qwouwye women.68 She of all star kind of the kind of like a was She picture place. like you so I come. You see me, theyrubbed toldme: "I like you; I truly on me theground on me" and she came and also rubbed [pigment] ground liver at her I am thus now it Rubbed here. , my [vital looking here, here, -Aiy! likea and shewent ThenI wokeup,alarmed, at her. shoots up straight organ] was an ilymane-aapale this I didn't woman]. dream, [spirit piyana[lightning]. all thenoviceswerewokenup before [Thereasonwhyhe wokeup was that weretofaceyetanother thedawnandthey day]. gruelling he didn't. he said that Askedifhe hadthesamekindofvisionafterwards Manyyearslater, thesameimago(see Part2, dream articulates which 6). The followin 1997he hada dream vision QANG dreamthe of his of terms In are pertinent. understanding ing comments womanhood who this that He said clearer. be couldn't generic spirit-woman, encapsulates was stilla he while him liked/desired she him that truly bytelling ('star', 'shine','picture') albeitnose-pierced little boy,had 'openedtheroadforall womento likeme. This is what whenhe grewup, so many thiskindof (vision)has shownme'. This is whysubsequently, and are willing attracted are and still were his to tied women'ssoulsgot soul,i.e., sexually to him.Womendo like himand he likes to be likedby them.This to becomeattached his malenessand sexual power.Womenare drawnto him.It is thisirresistible affirms so to speak,in womanhas in-spirited, to himthatthespirit powerof women'sattraction his soul. That of fixture the became of kind powerthereby him.This particular permanent it was of her material the indicated was skirt; thewomanwas a wild-forest by spirit clearly of theinsideof a tree-bark leaves nottheribbons ordinarily slicedpandanus made from of ritual a group Furthermore, imagos spirit used forwomen'sand uninitiated boys' skirts. Her same material. from the made the wear house in theceremonial thatfeature aprons her of white overall the skirt, was accentuated and sexualcomeliness gloss idealbeauty by as addedin viewof muchlater of her, thecharacterisation experience, obviously including her of the stick The woman. a white like aspect phallic amplifies manifestly digging being to lean As a saying goes,it is thewoman'slakicekamce(penisshaft) Yagwoiafemininity. semfemale irresistible and as an that observed be also it should on. However enchanting no inherhave these since was a she forest wild a blanceassumed spirits deception spirit by 49

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Laki andMourning Dreams, ent sex. They are metamorphicand can assume any concrete human semblance and sex. Should a person be actually incited into sex with a wild forestspirit,as occasionally hapa shaman's intervention s/hewould die.69 pens, without Let me reflect on this dream experience within my psychoanalytic perspective. of the Although clear, the intensityof libidinal-narcissisticdynamics and structuration dream-visionhave to be more sharplydelineated. Not only did this ideal Yagwoia woman hercome to him and announce thatshe wants and desires him but she tactuallyidentified self withhim. Justas she was painted withthe earthpigmentshe did it to him. Among the but a substantialmaking or Yagwoia any such action is not just an abstractidentification enhancementof the body. Especially duringthe initiation, and before the dream, he was dealt with several times in exactly the same manner- rubbed with ground. Such an act is intendedas the makingof and strengthening of the body. Earth(pigment)is one of the cosfrom substances which the human mogonie body was made. What, then,the newly nosepierced boy QANG experienced was a powerfulencounterwith his contra-sexualdouble who acted upon him in such a way thatshe transferred intohimherself yherperfect feminine semblance whichas such will be his soul-powerto attractwomen.This attraction is herperfect beauty but as projected by him, in his bodily countenance. This is the road that she women to follow: he carriesa mirror their(women's) thatirradiates opened up forall future ideal beauty. What they will be attractedto in him is theirown perfectsemblance, but in and projectedby his soul. imprinted There is no doubt that in his dream-experiencehe actually libidinallycathected this narcissistic production of his psyche. As he said his vital organ went up to her. This describes his total organismicresponse to her. He was not just smitten by her but he was with the contra-sexualarchetypal totallyaroused by her. It was a perfectself-conjunction him as desirable and she made clear thatshe exclusively wanted him. imago thataffirmed In this regard his contra-sexualimago, as it presenteditselfin the dream, behaved as an internal excitingbut unproblematic object. Autonomousyetin desirous and positivelyaffirmativeand libidinally-conjunctive relationto him. Whateverthe vicissitudesof his maternal identifications in his experience of the initiations,during mighthave been beforehand,70 which specifically the maternalattachmentsbecome radically attacked and destabilised, these have been most constructively re-cathectedand restructured. Although in actuality severed fromhis motherand severely beaten up, QANG's un/conscioushad produced a more autonomous female imago, clearly freedfromhis infantile-maternal orientations. At the same time this internaldependence on the primalmaternalobject was re-established in the overtlysexual-copulativemode. What is here in evidence is the transfiguration of the un/consciousumbilical connectionto the maternal-feminine into a mode which I call the There is no really traumatic, phallo-umbilicalre-connection. castratingseverance fromthe in factan impossibility withinthe ouroboricstructure of the Yagwoia un/conscious mother, transforbeing. Rather,what has occurredhere is a positive narcissisticself-consolidating mation of that connection. Through the bespellingly beautiful spiritfeminineimago the counter-self as his own possesyoung nose-piercedQANG had reconnectedto his feminine sion. He has pierced her and a new current of intra-psychic libidinal-aggressive-narcissistic flow has been initiated. The aim of nose-piercing had been partlyaccomplished.In Yagwoia terms,his body and soul have been broken into; the powers of the bone and the himace there is no power-objects have entered him. But note, this is a disjunctive-conjunction; absolute severance, and most importantly, in his case it is the femininespiritwho initiates the new intra-psychic self-objectre-cathexis. For him the spirit-imago has opened up the road to women beyond the primalone, his mother. To the extentthathe, as any humanbeing, got the first intimations of ideal womanhood from his motherand sisters, the dream-vision was clearly a transformation of his mediated un/conscious In this he was to a soulmaternally femininity. regard possess thatmakes him a kind of man thatall women desire. This was the extentof his quality71 50

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Mimica libidinal remained narcissistic But its core-structure and,so to symbiotic re-equilibration. thespirit womanacteduponhimin accordwith For,on reflection, speak,actively-passive. In thisintra-psychic mirror she is theactiveside; he acts in her-desire-for-him. equation, is split, or unison withher.Whatis more, itself a contra-sexual themirror being mirroring more -self-twined accurately (Fig.6).

active I

O Ofc^ (5

I passive

I-want-You I-am-You

Figure6 bond and In factno Yagwoia,manor woman,would ever attempt to denythematernal his in himself as themale own maternal-feminine which he articulates specifically aspect thematernal of fellatio had consolidated uncle.QANG's subsequent mother, experience himinthis hisfeminine andconjunctions. ofboth andmasculine self-objects transfiguration The growth ofhisearliest selfwas also facilitated through byhismother masculine-paternal was herrelation his father with as herman.Indeed, as theprotecting QANG's father spirit, theideal one foronlythebestcame from him.And,to be sure,he was a dead father truly before In thisregard ofthefather theliteral QANG was evenborn. bytheson incorporation smooth that theYagwoiamendo inthemodeof 'Planting', was for QANG entirely bycomto the more is to occur. common situation where conflict parison likely thepractice he developed of insemination (bachelors) Through by his 'olderbrothers' hisownself-image the which as a manwhoincorporated features a self-valuation markedly ancestral This has thecharacter of a general sexual- indeedI can say a supreme strength. were non-differentiated whoseforemost traditional libidinal-aggressive expressions potency of in warfare in fatherhood. The birth and progenitive hetero-sexual relations consummated thefirst child (regardless of sex) was marked and last initiation ceremony. by the fifth to all his resistance also likesto emphasise that QANG, like manymenof his generation, his first initiation sorts of diseasesis due to thesame ancestral received in that he strength and bachelorhood life.Although he espousesa viewthat, as a manmadeby men,he posand indepensesseda modeof superior thatonlymencould practise regardless sexuality of women, his adherence to it isn'tmarked schizoid, abjectcondedently by thecommon scension and hateful of womenwhichsupported thetraditional Yet, practice. depreciation and hereis its schizoidcorrelate, thisforemost male secretvalue at thesame timemade as an expresin relation to women.In itscore it was determined Yagwoiamenvulnerable sionof their of thesourceof their un/conscious bondageto womenas thevitalpossessors - rather destined to be consummated them -women thanamongthemmasculinity through selves.Accordingly theinner determination of men'shomoerotic bond- a bondbetween - was in a negative allowed and solelyforthemselves modeprecisely becauseit was never to be openlyaffirmed and valuedin relation to and by their women.Yet thewomenwere and arejust as muchconstituted ouroboric un/conwithin thesame dynamic fieldof their of the desire scious.Whichis to say - whatmenhad created forthemselves was driven by in thesameSelfthat lives itself in and as their women.Bothmenand womenare situated theself-same The fieldof ouroboric self-same-difference. desirearticulated as their mutual

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LakiandMourning Dreams, primaryand malignant obsession was that, should the women find out men would be The narcissisticcore of theirhomoeroticismwas precariously ashamed and depotentiated. their pre-Oedipal. The practice of secrecy only insured that men could never transform (includingtheirwomen's) ouroboricpre-Oedipal egoic Self2 into a less schizoid and more self-possessedhomosexual and heterosexualintersubjectivity. In concrete termsthe equilibriumwas always reached at the level of the narcissistic and libidinal-aggressive dynamics of each particularman and woman. For QANG he was his about self-assured power over women. It came fromthe very spiritwoman who, quite thatfatefulnightinside the ceremonial house opened for him the road into all women by to him her desire forhim. Togetherwith a numberof powers that declaringand imparting he acquired, QANG came out of the process of 'the makingof man' empowered to handle the spiritwoman, all of themwere predisposedto women's desire forhim because through in his Uncertainties This was his him. be in-spirited notwithstanding, power of attraction. by shows that soul he possessed her because of her own desire forhim. His subsequenthistory how insecure he feltabout his women in relationto him and his life,no matter throughout othermen,he more or less always won, bothin regardto his and to othermen's women. He never lost himself and his powers vis-vis-all of them. The fact that in his present age (approximatelylate fifties)he got himselftwo new wives proves thathe is still a man in whose body, as the Yagwoia like to say, there is 'ginger flowing', i.e., he has burning life sexually and in othermodes. But he semen, active libidinal forcecapable of generating his and of soul did come to lose an important qua it a mode of possession of his power conrelatedto his feminine, is internally whose determination libidinal power of attraction This is what I shall explore next. tra-sexualself-conjunction. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS seminarsat the Universitiesof Extractsfromthis work were presentedin the departmental I thankall the parSydney,Melbourne,Macquarie, and the AustralianNational University. to the participants I also am comments. critical their for seminars in these grateful ticipants of Psychology, seminarorganisedby Olga Katchan of the Department in the psychoanalytic of Sydney,fortheircriticalcomments.Special thanksare due to Roy Wagnerof University BorutTelban of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Eric Hirsch of Virginia,Charlottesville, the University an of Brunei University, London, anonymousreviewerforOceania, and my wife Ute Eickof and commentson the paper. I am especially thankful assessment their critical for elkamp to Neil Maclean and the Oceania staffat Sydney for theireditorial and technical work which broughtthis paper to its final form.I also gratefully acknowledge the financialsupme to continue with my which enabled Council Research (ARC) port of the Australian researchin Papua New Guinea for several years. I am especially gratefulto The Ann and Erlo Van WaverenFoundation of New York whose grantallowed me to continuemy field researchon Yagwoia shamanism aftermy ARC grantended. Finally, I am gratefulto the Yagwoia people, especially Iqwaye and Iwolaqa-Malyce for lettingme explore theirlifeof theirmacroworld,which is to say,themselvesas theyare inside and outside the circuity cosmic Self (Imacoqwa). Among them,my heart-felt gratitudegoes to Hiwoye, Wopaye, and Qwace u/ngwatanye. NOTES
1. 2. 3. sociandhuman on dreams andCallois 1966volume in theclassicvonGrunebaum Bastide'spaperappeared andStroumsa see Tedlock1987; Shulman 1999;Bulkeley on thesethemes, recent Formore eties, compendia 2003. 2001; Mageo 2003; Lohmann For detailssee Mimica 1991. For other Angans,see ttscnerivo; uiacKwooa iy/y;iterai ivsi, i*o/; 1997,1998. Godelier 1998;Bamford 1996;Lemonnier 1986;Bonnemere aboutthesoul,see Mimica2003a. ofYagwoianotions Foran outline


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4. is lingually and a classificatory wuoce,meaning dream, expressed by thenounadjunct Dreaming activity In theYagwoialanguage theactionseeing/looking. there is no independent or nuclear verbwhich predicates Rather theclassificatory meanslook/see. verb-stem whichpredicates thisaction, verbwhichby itself -#i-, meanseat.It predicates a widerange ofactions. Forsee/look, the seemsto be thesameas a stem, -n-,which In thissense,looking has that in sucha fornounhine, primordial quality expressed eye,is usedas adjunct. mulation as "eating withone's eyes". In theneighbouring 1991) a verbstem Menyalanguage(Whitehead theaction ofseeing/looking inconjunction with thenounadjunct, which meansstrike/hit, eye. predicates is notthecase. Ifa person powerofthesoulbuttheobverse Manya shaman mayhavethiskindofvisionary has thepowersto curenorwouldhis/her soul have thekindof it does notfollowthats/he is a dream-seer their are individuals with extraction. there the to see sickness objectsand to execute Similarly, vision-power to see sickness shamanic objectsand lostsoul-composemi-developed powerof visionwhichallows them to perform or to deliver thelostsoul-component to itshuman extractions nents butthey are soul-impotent kanace.The ingenious Tok Pisinglosswitnis undoubtarecalledaa 'mnye container. Such persons (witness) which can be bestrendered as 'overseeing a realaspectof thevernacular concept guide',for edlyindicates shamans. But kanaceis to followtheactivities of thefully of an aa 'mnye theidea and thepractice fledged andmakessurethat If they missed don'tmissanything. in thebackground, s/he watches, carefully they stays thissupervisor will alertthem to that effect a sickness-object or a lostsoul-component (overseer) detecting missed. andguidethem tothetargets they is theembodiment of their cosmiccreator, the sourceof theworld-extension In theYagwoia cosmology characandfuture. Forthis reason themostaccurate there that is,past,present cosmo-ontological everything is as the'world-body'. oftheir world terisation in thelastsection un/conscious with a stroke ofthis I explain thereason for writing prologue. oftheworld, therealm ofthe ofontological differentiation On thephenomenological including problematics 1970. Wallace's 1964: Pt 6; Luckmann 'social', see James1890 (voi 2: Ch 21); Schutz1962; Gurwitsch of from within theconceptual of the same problematics parameters (1959) paperis a classical positing modeof partxwhole it is thedominant Re. thesynecdochic relation, part=whole inquiry. anthropological Foran elabis to say,intheir realm world is a holographic Which intheYagwoiauniverse. totality. dynamics 2001. see Wagner as characteristic ofNew Guinealifeworldviews ofholographic oration worlds, Leenhardt's is one wayofconcretising thisreflection I shouldalso add that (1979) cosmo-poetic pronouncetheworldfrom his ment thatbecause 'the nativeis filledwiththeworld'spulse,he does notdistinguish which he himself that thebodyis an element is unaware body'(p. 61). As forhis viewthat'theMelanesian is a piece thiswouldbe cosmo-ontological at itsbest, pronouncement, possesses'(p. 32), all I can sayis that One in an effort to do cosmo-poetic ofhowone can go astray rhetoric ofmisleading ethnography. exemplary themselves actionas transporting sucha humble wouldhaveto ask howdo theCanaquesperform practical whether theCanaques that at his word, itwouldfollow If one takesLeenhardt world? concrete their through that I don'tthink to them?! etc.etc.,itmakesno darndifference or getinjured, hita stone, fallintofire, any structuration ofembodiment, too long.Foraesthesiological 1950,1951; see; Schilder wouldlive for ofthem 1958;McDougall 1989. andMerleau-Ponty 1962;Husserl1989,see also Scott1948;Winnicott or misis ueraai i^oe; see aiso mnillustration An excellent valia perspective. 1 takethisas theuniversally swan per1963. is thematrix of theradiforthelatter thecondition muchthat forLacan's imaginary It is notto be mistaken 1984:46-115. see Castoriadis of imaginary, ofLacan andhis concept ForCastoriadis' cal imaginary. critique for of Lacan's concept thegeneral does notdiminish his critique an astute discussion, importance Although orthe'imagiofmundus Corbin's ofthepsychic theelucidation imaginalis concept reality. beingandhuman I willrefrain of thisintroduction in thiscontext nar (1969, 1972) is also relevant although giventhebrevity of Durand's(1971, 1999) great The sameholdstrue clarification. critical outa moresustained from carrying work. worldsinclude:Stephen1982; Werner in New Guinealife1986; Herat on dreaming Recentcontributions 2000. 1987;Gillison1994;Lohmann or genuine as thecombinations namesareconstructed their of all persons, theidentities To protect Yagwoia to anyrealnames. do notcorrespond butwhich syllables m the same are thetwotraditions grounded anddivergences commonalities Theirhistorical notwithstanding, fieldof psychotherapeutic especially convergences, experienceand evidence.Their moreconstructive arewellexemplified ofpsychoanalysis, theobjectrelations Jungians, bytheBritish especially theory through 1957 1975,1985;Redfearn and Scott 1949; Fordham 1985), theclassical (e.g. Fordham, Adler, Heimann, ed. 1998;Papadopolous 1998). Gordon 1993;andthe'post' (e.g. Samuels1983;Casement the ot grammatical schematism theintra-lingual This rangesfrom (a variant parallelism), poeticdynamic In other or salt-production. ofmen-making tothegrand (i.e. initiations), practices logicofsocialmorphology, thestate) thoseintroduced form is no singlecultural there e.g. Christianity, by Europeans, (including words, matrix. itsimaginary into andrearticulated hasn't beenassimilated which intheYagwoialife-world through itstailto indexine 1954.1 havechosenthearchetypal See Neumann eating imageot tneserpent mythopoeic selfin itsconcrete, of theYagwoiaimaginary and dynamics determination internal mythopoeic ontological in of Bakhtin in popularity theupsurge existence. in everymodeof their actualised Following production in has foundresonance of Rabelaisianouroboric academicfora,his mediation iconography Anglophone itfigures accounts Melanesian 2001) where somerecent primarily (eg. Lipset1997; Silverman ethnographic of human The realities and exogenous as a misleading appliedto thelocal modesof humanness. colouring theBakhtinian with are incommensurable life-worlds in Melanesian and itsexpressions ouroboric dynamics


6. 7. 8.


10. 11.

12. 13. 14.




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Dreams, Laki and Mourning characterisations as they a limited in theimaginary of European Mediof expression drawn, are,from range aeval lifeworld. Fora critical discussion ofthese Bakhtinian see Mimica1999,2003b. applications, His penisis simultaneously hisumbilical has held,andstillholds, in self-conjunction theskyand cordwhich as did earth. went asunder his cosmogonie (theontological cut),theskyand earth Following self-parturition all other thecreator's thesunand moon, which derive from twoeyes.Theyarehismaselements, including anddaygenculineandfeminine with theinterchange ofthenight which, energie components concomitantly of realisation erate thecosmicmetabolism within The microcosmic theworld-body. (thelife-and-death-flow) the this is theimmanent ofthehuman that sustains luno-solar self-difference energie self-circuity soul-energy living body(see Mimica2003a). The psychoanalytic and analytiis shapedbythefields ofpsycho-analysis scopeof myethnographic pursuit see Mimica, cal psychology as a whole.Fortheproblematics of thepractice of psychoanalytic ethnography, a specialissueofSocial Analysis. 2003b;forthcoming (2006) on thesubject Forthesignificance ofA,see thenext paragraph. See also Mimica1991: 43-44;56. Fora moregeneral as theirreducible determinaclarification ofandrogyny tionof phallomorphic in common see Mimica2003b:14-26.A to manyMelanesianlife-worlds, dynamics inpreparation. is currently ofthestructure oftheYagwoiaouroboric comprehensive presentation body-image For thepsychoanalytic see Abraham theories to myinterpretation of Yagwoiasexedembodiment, pertinent ed 1990; Breen 1993; 1966; Meltzer 1973; Freud 1977: Chasseguet-Smigrel 1986; King and Steiner, theoutset from thatin these 2001. It shouldbe stressed McDougall 1989, 1996; Lacan 1998; Verhaeghe I am dealingwiththebodyand its constitution of human as a specifically explorations Yagwoia facticity existence. Thisis also themost in every life-world. humans areprocrehuman ubiquitous reality Everywhere atedas bodily andirreducibly in themediation with or withofthewoman's embodiment, beings, minimally out acknowledgment or a conception of theman's,equallyvital,involvement (eg., Jones1924; Roheim 1938; Malinowski 1954,1929; Leach 1967; Spiro 1968Montague 1974;Zegwaard1970, 1990). Parenthetiof the stateof reproductive doesn'tdiminish theuniversal cally,thecurrent scope and validity technologies of Western statement even one iota. Rather, thedesireand phantasy whichdrivetheproduction geneticrarand theconcomitant academic reproductive including prolific bio-technology social-political ideologies, of the are truly narcissistic efactions, Indeed, primordial. belongto thesamearchaic archetypal sphere they human in theabove listedanthropological classics.No matter and psychoanalytic psychic beingexplored how immediately factidiscernible andtransparent seemto be, 'man' and 'woman'arenotself-evident they cal determinations of theliving human and itsembodiment. Fora sampleof themorerecent egoic selfhood andalliedviewsof sexuality andgender see various contributions in Herdt ed. 1994;Parker anthropological andGagnon eds 1995;SuggsandMiracle1999;see also Butler 1990,1993;Dean 2000. Thisfundamental caution for the was stressed a longtimeago byLeach 1958.Similarly, Lienhardt observed Dinka 'who have no conception whichat all closelycorresponds of the to ourpopular modern conception as mediating of theself(ft.l.Andstillless ofconscious "mind", and,as it were,storing up theexperiences and unconscious the wouldprofit from elements, JM).The reader ofcourse)' (1961:149; emphasis reading rest oftheparagraph from this great ethnography. For further elaboration on theproblematics of suchontological as 'matter', categories bodily'substances', 'soul', see Mimica2003a:262-265 ;274-277. 'spirit', Herethesetwoare intended as theYagwoianotions of thetwointerrelated whichmetaphorically processes to theentire activities. But restricted to human without sex and pertain scope of human bodilygeneration, is no bodilyexistence. Each human is theproduct of sexual intercourse and eating eatingthere corpuscle thebodyis continuously nourished, i.e.,generated. whereby The bestwayto envisage this is bymeansofthesimplest First, dynamic concept say,the possibleexamples. inversion of theimagein themirror; thenlook at yourtwohandsand rotate them left-right simultaneously clockwiseand anti-clockwise. Thenconsider twogloves.Turnone of them inside-out. Heretheinsidehas becomeoutside buttheoverallshapeand structure are unchanged. It is thesameifyoutakethesleeveof a shirt andturn itinsideout.Therearemorecomplex which at first do nothaveany shapesandrelations sight overt resemblance. Andyetthey likethehandanditsglovewhere theformer is theconbelongto eachother tent orcontained, thelatter is thecontainer. The bestexample ofthisrelation andcomplete fusion intoa sinof thecontainer and thecontained are a key and its key-hole. The moreintricate thepattern of gle unity is groovesand ridgeson thekeyand its corresponding antio-morphically shapedhole,themorecomplete their fit. Once interlocked becomea fused in which all grooves andhollowness have (conjoined) they totality beenperfectly filled. The filler andfilled arenowa self-consumed oneness. Thisis a further clartopological ification ofthedynamics ofouroboric sexuation sketched aboveinthemainbodyofthetext. This usage is similar to theone reported by Pouwer(1966:) fortheMimikans amongwhommenpractised focussed on analeroticism. a manrefers to hisownchildren as being homosexuality exclusively Accordingly 'of hispenis'whilehissister's children are 'of hisanus'. Hereman'sanusis equivalent to hissister's vagina. theYagwoia, is equivalent tothepenis-sucking andinsemination inmen'sfellatio. Among breast-feeding A laticegroup liveson in theflesh ofitswomen's children to other PDG. Theydo not who,ofcourse, belong transmit their to their children. So whenthey die with them disincarnates theflesh-identity of matri-identity their mothers' PDG. I examinethephoto-thermal and aqueous qualitiesof thesun and moonin a separate work.Only in this mediation can thenature of theYagwoiaembodiment andtheenergetics of their Selfandpsychoarchetypal be most sexualitv comletelv comorehended. See a brief sketch in Mimica2003a:263-265. As a function oftheintersubjective field un/conscious oftheliving relatives.


18. 19. 20.


22. 23.



26. 27. 28.


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had a fourth in a distant wifewhowas living andhe was in the 29. By theperiod1999- 2000 he already hamlet, wife(Tily),whowas originally forhimbyhis mother ofgetting himself hisfifth marked backin the process forher(i.e., 'married' He nevertook-and-paid adulterous relations her)buthe had numerous earlysixties. wifeTilm,QANG was terminating with Two yearsafter thedeathof his favourite themourning forher her. to takeTily.Herman('husband')of 30 years, whomshedespised in no uncer(see Part3) and was dead-set was incapacitated and was moreor less living unableto fend forhimself. tainterms, byhimself by sickness withfoodby one of his younger brother's wiveswho livedin thesame area. Tilywasn't He was provided homestead. She never had anychildren. Her man to cook forhimand she movedintoherbrother's willing an uwye(plant-continuation). She was nevermuchof a gardener. But as a reputable died in 2001 without wealth herown independent so muchso that thanherfrequently sick man, she secured shaman she,rather and money. She also was good with Note flowofcowries a virtually pig-husbandry. uninterrupted generated thesamelineage:Tilmand Tilyare related to each other as patrilateral 3 womenfrom that QANG married to Tpc (wl) as herBD, she beingtheir FZ. and botharerelated different halfsisters (samepenis, net-bags), to twomen(fullbrothers) bore4 children, and became She was married The 4thwifewas tentative. before, that obliterated their hamlet. She is known herhusband was killedin a land-slide involved with QANG after to paya minivalueforhim.AtthetimeQANG intended andthisis herprincipal as a very goodpiggrower heras hiswife. herbutby2002 he haddecidedagainst for malbride-price taking wife Toe in 2000 is alivethen thetotal is 18 children. 30. Ifthebabv.borne bv hisfirst to plant them in all he wants he's gotmany sonsbecausehe's gota lotof land.Therefore 31. In hisownwords, intoit.In facthis landowenership is other menwilltakethelandand plantthemselves his land.Otherwise he has to makesurethat he is hisclaimsare legitimate Andthough in Iwolaqa-Malycaane. rather precarious claimstothelandwillplainly havestronger men(lineages)which in thelandorelse other wellrooted uproot him. was an ulyce(foreigner) 32. The teacher givento belabouring pupilswhomhe quitedespisedsincetheywere so muchin his education, a bushregion;and he, havinginvested and underdeveloped from so backward and suchrather sweetpotato in it - as he putiteating endedup stationed chickens, ducks, than, say,frozen likethepeoplein town. andsausages, in his wives and a mans investments 33. In thecourseof thedevelopmental family cycle of a polygamous is a dominant malechildren, wifeand her, of thefirst buttheprimacy fluctuate children their/his especially oriTurn'sfather was entirely In thisinstance in many situations. value whichYagwoiaexercise normative thesons who werethefullreplications wife'schildren, his first entedtowards (caqamnena)of specifically became his own sons and daughters FM (e.g., FMBSSD) whereby a classificatory He married his father. tohisownF andFZ (see Mimica1991). identical which receives fecund 34. Herehe used a moremodern net-bag imageof woman'swombas thetransformative andwealth. children andgenerates andsemen, bride-price it.In his view can withstand a strong is notvery that local sorcery 35. QANG is oftheopinion person powerful; coastalareasand from comesfrom thetruly Okapa.The Baruyaare locallyknown sorcery deadlypowerful Province. oftheEastern intheOkapaDistrict theForesorcerers from services tohavesought Highlands shookup herpsychic which sickness 36. Thisseemstohavebeenprecipitated being. radically bya violent wnicnnever snamanic cases ot obstructed similar of herand severalother 37. A full-length development study work. another for is reserved andthecraft ofthepowers inthemastery resulted in Hades Earth and Tartarus theson of Mother themythic (theabyssof torture 38. After serpent-man, Typhon, dominated theaffect It is an aptnamefor wereconfined). Titans where ragefedbyfrustrabyomni/m/potent this modeofpre-oedipal labelfor I use itas a suggestive 1980). (see Wilber tionandturmoil. affectivity to a whole its relation I am also indicating and transpersonal thatthedreamis at once personal 39. In saying of thepsychoinstance thesebeingjust one particular and subsequent seriesof Turn'sprevious dreams, other to countless un/conscious herown personal visionary egoic self,also relates which, beyond dynamics liveshad a desireto,and other of so many and oneiric Yagwoiamenand womenwho in their productions theselfarticulates thisdream notapparent, a shaman. livedtheproject of,becoming although Accordingly, onsetexperiof shamanistic within a fieldof a specifically dreamer hood of a particular Yagwoia pattern of theYagwoiaintersubof thistranspersonal, characteristics ences.But theintricate gestalt spirit-centered here. willnotbe discussed lifeoftheir is thematrix which world, jectiveun/conscious, inmelexiaoove. ourobonc ot thebisexual 40. Phallicin thesenseot thegestalt pnaiios;see tnediscussion womensnamans thesecrucialaspectsof Yagwoia womans psychicbeingwithtwo other 41. I have explored adulterous butto themselves. husbands due notto their bothof whomarechildless Theybothhad numerous are and narcissistic Turn'spsychodynamics conceived. never menbutthey withother relations equilibrium which wombun/conscious determined gave hera senseofherprodigious byherprogenitive-maternal vitally ofhermanQANG. as suchis in theservice butwhich generative powerandself-worth is a senwnere scent ot theplants thescent is also iconically 42. The soul as an energie through presented entity thenamesofone plant ofheatandbreath. Furthermore, cross-modal (ampneor amdne)conequivalent sory iconthesensory which or umdinve) forsoul (umpne ofthewords amplifies tainthemorphemic components soul-substance. andthegeneric whistle breathoftheplant-bundle, ic unity Forcopulaand is usedbybothmenand women. is thesameas forarrow-shooting 43. The verbforcopulation it for is thepeniswhereas ofthisaction theinstrument that arrow-shooting tionthenominal specifies adjunct Hencemygloss 'fuck-shoot'. is thearrow. herintrojected seltfeatures un/conscious Turn'sintra-pschic that 44. Thereis nothing intersubjective surprising thisone. in a dreamshe had a day or twoafter This was mademoreexplicit co-wives. situation involving


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Dreams, Laki and Mourning The scenario was againa garden divided An overt female in that dreamwas herco-wife by a ditch. figure also figured weredigging outtarofrom their dream Omlyc;bothofthem explicrespective plots.Butin this imagothat itlyherthree fluctuating imageof thesinglespirit wild-spirit guideswho are thenumerically articulates hermasculine intoa shamanistically egoic selfwhich complexin itstransformation empowered She to conquer herspirit tookon an ambivalent form. Tilmnever andprimarily complex. negative managed diedwithout ofhersoul. evercompleting theprocess ofthepower-development but the A common imageof womanis frog {papi) and so notjustbecauseof heraquaticqualities because communicawoman'scharacteristic resembles that of a stationary frog. Wagner (personal squatting position thesame fortheDaribiand I think that it is a common tion)reports imageof womanin New Guinealifeworlds. of someolderYagwoiawomen Thisis an endo-psychic ofthemanifest actions known, following equivalent in a netandkept which smoked thedeath oftheir oftheir husbands to havepreserved thegenitals men, they in and thiswas articulated of QANG was of thesameintensity bag (see Mimica 1991). Turn'sintrojection their See Part 3 ofthis mutual woulddo iftheother wereto die first. pledgeas to what they study. contains between tenseand conflictual. Mutualtolerance co-wivesare primarily jealousyand Relationships thesamegarden) or different This is whyitis imperative that have separate houses, envy. they plots(within fieldof In a polygamous nucleusof thegenerative-productive household each wifeis a separate gardens. relatedness. Theseandother nucleus oftheYagwoia(and variants aredynamic structural transformations oftheouroboric thepan-human) Self(Neumann archetypal 1954;Jung 1971). The human of thedead who,before becamespirits, werebornas human beingsand have both they spirits from itsin-utero livedand died,undergone a complete of human bodilyfacticity, processof transformation different modeof to itsobverseas therotting are an ontologically gestation spirits corpse.The wild forest wereneither creation butthey came intobeingin theprimordial as did thehumans, being;they cosmogonie bornnordid theyeverdie. Theyare whollyimmortal, outsideof thehuman whereby cycle of existence die. humans liveandeventually becomeimmortal ofthedead on thecondition that arefirst born, spirits they butarean Thereis no twinning in their mortal norimmortal areneither existence, accordingly humanly they in theflowof existence, thehuman thatis selfunder-current withyetunderpinning current coterminous twined libido-mortido hereis thefundamental dialecticsof theouroboric (see Mimica 2003a). Indicated which from a different oersoective. Waener has formulated inthefieure ofthe'Antitwins' (200l Whichsymbolizes fieldof instinctual drivesand the and thusarticulates thehuman libido-mortido energie ofthehuman embodied selfinto theconcrete projection/introjection ecologicalmilieu. Whatis formidable of is that thiscultural is fully in thedream andvisionary scenario articulated experiences women anduninitiated Turn's was particularly radisituation However, Yagwoiamenwhobecomeshamans. I cameto conclude desire was to that at thislevelofherun/conscious selfherexpressed cal, so muchso that be initiated the likeother This is fully in concord with becomeempowered boysand thereby by thespirits. ofherownmasculine andtheir vicissitudes. to QANG's opinself-identifications psycho-dynamics Contrary ion as to whyshe cannotincorporate to see in thistheworking in her shamanistic powersI am inclined of theprohibition un/conscious on womenbeinginitiated as men.The behaviour of herspirit guide(s)is of thedynamics of a tantalizing archaicsuper-ego whichlets herget close symptomatic yetprohibitive to thedesired initiates in herdream, and then in thecritical moment enough goal - to followother featuring he prevents herfrom in thewomen's andvisions outto QANG that dreams doingso. WhenI pointed appear someof themostsecret contents oftheinitiation theforest can showtheindividuals he said that rites, spirits choose want becausetheseare theforemost But sources of thesoul's powerand growth. they anything they he self-assuredly willnotknowthat whatthespirits haveshown them is also the still, said,theseindividuals sameas whattheboysgetto see whenthey One sees whatone sees,one getsempowactually getinitiated. eredbutone stilldoesn'tknowhow exactly thatpertains to thesecrets of male initiations. Here is also a indication of thepsychodynamics of intersubjective at and itsrepressive effects telling cross-gender secrecy thelevel of thetranspersonal un/conscious. Whatat theself-conscious level of theinitiated sector of male is a sworn and closelyguarded thecontents of whichare disclosedin themostrestricted secret, population ritual does nevertheless find in thedreams andintra-psychic andvisions contexts, expression objectifications of individuals who are,like womenand children, from and selfpermanently prevented havinganydirect conscious access to suchritual revelations. Butthewildspirits, as theimagosofthecollective un/conscious, do notabidebythesocietalgender restriction of thepowers of which arethe to,and control obviously they omnipotent guardians. this is notto suggest that wildforest locations. However, spirits appear justin forest Theycan be encountered and they often come to thevillagearea where can showthemselves to an unsuspecting anywhere they perwillfollow in frenzy theperson them into son,seize him/her (childno less than adult)whereupon byrunning theforest. Thisis subsumed under a range ofbehaviour calledtedje. In thisregard condition and awakening a rebirth on a parto the every falling asleep is a lapse intoa foetal sameprocess ofsun-set andsun-rise in theworld-body. is a sort of smalldeath envisLikewise, anysickness sexual-metabolic The effect ofcureis a re-birth a positive ofthebody, sexuaged as a negative conjunction. al-metabolic conjunction. For thisconcept of 'thearchaicobjectscathected with narcissistic libido(...) whichare notexperienced as from theself (Kohut1971:3)see also Kohut1977,1996;for critical discussions oftheconcept, see separate Grotstein andJacoby 1990. 1982,1983; The basic schemeof shamanicdevelopment is a progression an indeterminate number of such through




48. 49.

50. 51.



54. 55.


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soulto everdeeper recesses oftheworld-body which as suchrepresent which lead a person's levthresholds With oftheun/conscious. successful there is a likelihood of els oftheintra-psychic every penetration depths all shamans butone that I worked with never a particular reached thearea thesoulacquiring power. Virtually can be adequately characterised as theultimate un/conscious that realmof theinnards of their transpersonal in theIwolaqa-Malyce The one whodid is by farthemostpowerful shaman area. In his of theworld-body. withthesouls of deceasedhumans he discovered whatactually and happens astounding soul-journey truly himabouthisonsetexperiences intothespirits ofthedead.I learned from after aretransformed 15 howthey ofacquaintance andfriendship. years ofencounters thiscouldhavewellbeenan entry andexperiences with into from other dreams spirits Judging herintothesubterranean-aquatic havetaken realm oftheforest her thestream journey might spirits. whereby Butthis didn't eventuate. coresibling setconsisted notof thesamebirth-order. therefore She was thesecond-born, QANG's mother's andtwosisters. brothers offour andkinship, see Mimica1991.Froman oftheYagwoialogicofincest ofthisin thecontext Forthemeaning if in thiscontext of inter-group enmities there wouldbe a temptation one maywonder external perspective I knowfor ofthebeheaded victim would thepenisintothemouth to insert for thevanquisher which, certain, of man'sbeing, worsethan, betel-nuts havebeentaken say,putting bytheYagwoiaas an abjectdegradation to one of mychiefinforThe latter was a common stomach. intothevictim's According practice. slit-open wouldcompelthem tocutoff the between thewarring no amount ofenmity mants, groups Yagwoia-speaking themalesecret of insemination. slainenemy's practice Theyall respected penisand place it intohis mouth. The Menya-speaking Furthermore, theyalso didn'teat each other. beingof thesame languagesubstance, them suchan outrage. It is one couldexpectfrom fellatio did notpractise and,therefore, however, Pataye, thecommon another also truethatsome of their enemy, YagwoiaIqwaye allies who would go fighting In that conas themselves. whospokethesamelanguage thevanquished mind didn't eating group, speaking from thiscase, the But as evident under theguiseof thePatayeidentity. as acting saw themselves text they maid's (literally of their thecustom war,butheremeaning enemy), metaphorically fight, Patayerespected the ate. In some instances forthewholebodywhichin turn thepenisas thesubstitute left hencethey they to take Thismeant that shewasn'twilling andkept bytheman'swidowin a net-bag. peniswouldbe smoked meant The smoked to herdeceasedhusband. manbutwas to remain another penisin thenet-bag conjoined was no open passageforanother insideherwomband there was permanently thatherhusband penis(see Mimica1991). was no more, andhaving 'first-born' The first ofthefirst-born. is that Thatis whyhisbirth-order incorporated thenew 'penisshaft'(i.e. thenewman)whomshe borethefirst son,she also madethelatter becoming son and first-born But it can be said thatit was herfirst first-born. forheroriginal thefullreplacement uncle.BeforeQANG she had a withthedead maternal their consummated who fully relationship daughter hersecondman(husband). with seconddaughter of the of spirits, bothdomestic and/or of appearance attribute This is a characteristic spirits disappearance like of a spirit ones (see below QANG's vision-dream woman).Oftenlightning dead and thewild forest modeofluminescence. orgiveswayto a moreindeterminate is proceeded quality his2ndbornsonbyhis2ndwifeto hearit.The boy(approx.14he wanted WhenQANG gave thisaccount detail. at this 16) was laughing thisarboreal and their ritual structures architectural in language, construction, from beingarticulated Apart of those in theonsetexperiences articulation un/conscious is givenforemost skeleton of theliving imagery thebodilyenvelopeas thehousebones.Similarly, broken who acquirethepowerof mending individuals who of the individuals in the onsetof visionary container experiences acquiresmostacute articulation extraction. ofsickness thepowers andthus becomeshamans acquire actions s original ofthecreator As thereplication (see Mimca iwi), cosmogonie is theheat-energy and primary its irreducible Soul is a substance; by thesemenin the generated modality andejaculation. excitation oferotic sexual-copulative process in the of theseclusion andas faras I can tell,giventheunfolding his nosewas pierced Thiswas after period at the whichoccursat theveryend of theresidence intofellatio to his induction ceremonial house,prior healed. havealmost ofthenovices nasalsepti thepierced completely lodgewhen their is under A person induced of mind state andpossession A modeofcombined bywildspirits. visionary of feature wild.This is thediacritical to followthem and is characteristically control by running compelled tedjebehaviour. in thecourseoi has beenaltered no doubt, thedream, In itsdetails old wheninitiated. QANG was 7-10years he did have that as an experience But I regard dream-showing QANG's original QANG's lifedevelopment. I have no it is genuine. dreamexperience transformative and as a critical initiation in thefirst ceremony of other and in a number in the2nd initiation havehad similar he might that ceremony, doubts experiences of this and importance theendo-psychic consolidated havemutually all of which meanings situations, might dream-showing. particular 'Picture' imageor Yagwoiawoman; star meanstheshiny, (in Tok Pisinpiksa) and 'star meanthegeneric semwomanand hershiny Whathe saw is an ilymane-aapala, of sucha semblance. luminous spirit quality and perfection, is exactlythisqualityof ideality blance is the ideal Yagwoia woman.The luminescence It is this seenin visions. butofanything ofa woman thesoul,not as suchaffects which justofthesemblance and powerof thequality on thesoul and thusit acquires makesan imprint that theshine, image-luminosity, male-totheonlytrans-gendered that outin thisregard to point It is significant thething seen,itssemblance.

56. 57. 58.


60. 61. 62.

63. 64. 65 66. 67.



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Dreams, Laki and Mourning as beingchanged his earliest childfemale is exactly described intoa womanbecausefrom Yagwoiaperson I worked with hood 'theshineof all women'(generic his soul and he becamea woman. femaleness) caught in a separate this manfor four andI present hismaterial years young study. with kind ofa union a particular 69. Nevertheless, I knowofone Yagwoiawoman whoclaimed to be theproduct localtoparticular ofwildspirit whohaveas their irreducible Theyarerestricted shapethebodyofa python. loverbut as herillicit mother itiesin theYagwoiaterritory. This serpent to theunsuspecting spirit appeared 'his' semen(said to have A shaman to remove after thecoitus'he' revealed histrue to her. identity managed a mixed blue- 'likeink',andyellow)from herwombbutshenevertheless colourofblack-dark gotpregnant he cannot with thisspirit If a manhas intercourse andgave birth to a female babywhogrewup andmarried. to shamans. be helpedsincehissemen in thespirit/serpent's remains bodyinaccessible 70. And everything about QANCi indicatesthattheywere totalbutat the same timefacilitating relatively andself-affirmative formation. masculine unDroblematic identitv differentiwellhowa person's soulbecomes 7 1. One among a number ofother Thisvisionexemplifies qualities. individuated characterisatedand endowedwitha multiplicity of powers(qualities)whichbecomehis/her as individual tics.Thisis whytheYagwoiaspeakof them soulswhich can be lost;a person maylose certain acquired powers. II. ror somemoredetails and dialectics ot theYagwoiamens homosexuality thepsychoadynamics concerning see Mimica1991,2001.

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