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MAGNET AND TRAFO CIRCUIT REPORT

1 PHASE TRANSFORMER TEST

CLASS : D3 - I A
GROUP : Group 1
RESPONSIBLE PERSON : Niken Endras Camarita / 1131120113
MEMBER OF GROUP : 1. Dio Agatha Septiyan / 1131120122
2. Hedy Febriana Puspitasari / 1131120125
3. Karina Monica / 1131120121
4. Mirtha Isnay Samindha / 1131120088
5. Regina Damayanti / 1131120127

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING STUDY PROGRAM
STATE POLYTECHNIC OF MALANG
2012

A. PURPOSE
a. PURPOSE OF OPEN CIRCUIT TEST
1. Determine the transformer core losses in no load condition when nominal
voltage.
2. Determine the parameters of transformer core losses (Rc and Xm).
3. Comparing the transformer core losses when step up and step down.
4. Determine the effect of sinusoidal source voltage changing toward transformer
core losses.
5. Determine the transformation of number base on the voltage (a).
6. Understanding the function of open circuit test application.

b. PURPOSE OF SHORT CIRCUIT TEST
1. Get the value of the copper losses when nominal current flows.
2. Get a resistance, reactance, and impedance of transformer ( R
ek
, X
ek
, Z
ek
).
3. Get impedance voltage and the rate of transformation (a).
4. Determine save guard of transformer.

c. PURPOSE OF TRANSFORMER POLARITY TEST
1. Knowing what is meant by the polarity of the transformer 1phase.
2. Knowing the methods to determine the polarity of the transformer 1 phase.
3. Knowing the function of the polarity of the transformer 1 phase.

d. PURPOSE OF FULL LOAD TEST
1. Determine regulation and efficiency at load condition transformers
2. Determine loses at one phase transformers
3. Compare the efficiency of step up transformers and step down transformers

e. PURPOSE OF PARALLEL TEST
1. Determine the method for paralleling the two transformers or more
2. Find out the characteristic of load test parallel transformers
3. Find out the current distribution at parallel single phase transformers
I
m

I
c

I
0

o
o
B. BASIC THEORY
a. BASIC THEORY OF OPEN CIRCUIT TEST
Parameter of transformer core losses can determine with open circuit test and
short circuit test. For open circuit test is :
1. In no load condition, the current flow is too small. Because of it, the copper
losses and reactance transformer can be ignored. So we just measure the
transformer core losses.
2. In no load condition, the source is used nominal voltage so the output is nominal
transformer core losses.
3. In no load condition, if the primary coil connected with voltage source (V
1
), so I
o

will be flow through the primary coil. From the measuring input power (P
1
),
input current (I
o
), and input voltage (V
1
), we can get :

From measuring in no load test, we can determine Rc and Xm value. The
transformer core losses consist of hysteric losses and eddy current losses and the
transformation number.

b. BASIC THEORY OF SHORT CIRCUIT TEST
- Short Circuit Test
The short circuit test is performed by short circuiting one of the two
windings, by supplying the other one with a voltage adjustable from zero, until
reaching the value of the rated current of the winding itself. In this test, the
whole absorbed power corresponds to the only copper losses of the two
windings, since, the low applied voltage given (in the short circuit test of the
transformer), the magnetizing current, the flux in the core and the consequent
losses are negligible. In these conditions we determine the equivalent resistance
of the transformer.
- Copper Losses
The value of copper losses influenced by :
 The quality of email and enamel of transformer.
 There are terminal which advers in high voltage side and low voltage side
cause a warming and make copper loses increases.
- Measuring Cooper Losses And Impedance
Measuring copper looses have a purpose to know the value of power
losses when trafo work arising out of cooper (W
CU
) and Strey Lose (W
S
) of
transformer.
We can measuring cooper looses by give a nominal current in one of side
and the other side shorted, it will arise nominal current in that side, so that the
In short circuit test we need to know in advance the value of In. Aim to
avoid damage (for security). In can be searched by:
P
TRAFO
= V
TR
x I
= 48 x 10
= 480
I
NOM
=

=

= 2,182 ~ 2,2 A
In short circuit test, we get the cooper loss, which I in Short Circuit test is
very large so that R is relatively small.
W
Rek
Xek
V A Isc

Figure 1. Equivalent Circuit
Explanation :
 Nominal current is the reference of the test
 At the time of practice should not be too long-time because of the warmingof
transformer and if repeated it will cause chaos to the data obtained because of
the losses.
 Short circuit test can also be used to find the transformation rate by
comparison
1
2
I
I
a =

Figure 2. Equivalent Circuit when Short Circuit
Explanation:
 In equivalent circuit, the core of the transformer is considered non-existent of
be ignored because the current choose to flow in the smaller place.
By measuring the voltage V
hs.,
I
hs.
And P
hs.,
will be calculated parameters :
 R
ek
=
2
.
.
) (
s h
s h
I
P

 Z
ek
=
s h
s h
I
V
.
.
= R
ek
+jX
ek

 X
ek
=
2 2
ek ek
R Z ÷
 R
ek
= R
1
+ R
2

 R
2
= R
2
’ / a
2

 X
ek
= X
1
+ X
2

 X
2
= X
2
’ / a
2

 Vz = (

) X 100%

c. BASIC THEORY OF TRANSFORMER POLARITY TEST
By looking at the way the coils wrapped around the transformer can be
determined the direction of the induced voltage is raised and the polarity of the
transformer. When the primary coil which is a high-voltage coils were tegngan,
twisted way as in figure 1 below will generate the induced voltage as indicated by
respective arrows. This means that the terminal T1 (+) have the same polarity to the
terminal R1 (+), while T2 (-) have the same polarity with R2 (-). Polarity in the form
known as the polarity of the reduction. When the polarity of the T1 (+) = R2 (+) and
T2 (-) = R1 (-), meaning how the low voltage coil wrapped around the R1R2
opposite of figure 2, and this relationship is called the polarity of the sum. ( Zuhal,
Teknik Tenaga Listrik)

Figure 3. Transformer terminals that have been identified

Figure 4. Existing terminal at the transformer

d. BASIC THEORY OF FULL LOAD TEST
Give the secondary side with load and the primary side with voltage. Because the
secondary side are having load, so the current would be flows through both of
transformer coil.
R1
X1
R0 X0
R2
X2
RB
N1
N2
V1
V2

Figure 5. Load transformer equivalent circuit
From the circuit above, we can conclude that :

From that conclusion, we will know that the primary current is a function from the
load current. Controlling the voltage or we called it regulation is drop voltage at
output side in load condition. The aim of regulation is :
- Controlling the input voltage to be stabled with load
- Controlling the coil to changing the voltage (Tap Changer)
Regulation could be determined by using formula :

In the other side, efficiency is the equivalent between output power and input power
for determine the magnitude of the transformer power and as indicator the
transformer loses.
()

From the open circuit test and short circuit test, transformer equivalent circuit at load
condition who had been transformed to the primary side could be replaced like in the
picture below :
R
X
X
o
R
o
V
2
'
I
2
'
V
1
I
1
I
o
Z
L
'

Figure 6. Load transformer equivalent circuit from OC test and SC test
If the no load voltage is constant, we can conclude that :
( )
2 1 2
' ' V V I R jX u = ÷ Z +

2 2
' V aV =

2 2
' / I I a =

From that equation, we can drawn the phasor diagram for the three load condition,
like this :
b c
V
2
'
I
2
'
V
1
jX.I
2
'
R.I
2
'
a
jX.I
2
'
R.I
2
'
a
b
c
jX.I
2
'
V
2
'
V
2
'
I
2
'
I
2
'
V
1
V
1

Figure 7. Load transformers phasor diagram (a) resistive (b)induktive (c) capasitive
Reactive load characteristic will dominantly affect the voltage magnitude at
secondary transformer. Inductive load characteristic will significantly causes drop
voltage at secondary side (V
2
). Capasitive load will make the secondary voltage
higher than the primary voltage.

e. BASIC THEORY OF PARALEL TEST
Sometimes, in load condition needs to paralleling the transformers. The main
purpose of paralleling transformers is to make the load each transformers are
proportional with his power ability, so the overload can be minimized.

Figure 8. The right circuit of parallel transformers

Figure 9. The wrong circuit of parallel transformers
For that circuit, we needs some requirement, such as:
1. The transformers have the same voltage ratio (Look in the nameplate)
If the voltage ratio didn’t same, the induction voltage at secondary coil of
each transformer will be not same. This dissimilarity causes the Eddy’s current
at secondary coil in load condition. This current makes the secondary coil warm
up.
2. The transformers have the same polarity (Look at the transformers terminal or
the result of polarities test)
3. The transformers have the same impedance voltage at full load condition (Look
in the nameplate or in the short circuit test)
From equivalent formula we can conclude :
V
1
= Z
1
Z
ek
+ V
2
’ ................................................................................ (1)
The parallel transformers could be described as :
I
1
total = I
1A
+ I
1B
.................................................................................. (2)
Because,
V
1
= I
1
Z
ek
+ V
2
’ .................................................................................... (3)
So, for the full load condition:
V
1
– V
2
’ = I
1A
Z
1A
= I
1B
Z
1B
..................................................................... (4)
1
V
'
2
V
B
I
1
A
Z
1
A
I
1
B
Z
1
total
I
1

Figure 10. Divider current at parallel transformers
From that formula is meaning that the transformers, to makes the
transformers dividing the current as the Volt-Ampere ability, so the impedance
voltage at load condition must be similarity (I
1A
x Z
1A
= I
1B
x Z
1B
). Therefore we
can conclude that both of the transformers are having the same impedance unit.
4. The reactance ratio to resistance should be same as (Short circuit test)
If the R/X ratio is same, both of transformers will be working at the same
work factor.

C. PICTURE OF TEST CIRCUIT
a. PICTURE OF OPEN CIRCUIT TEST

Measure tool that used in open circuit test such as :
- Voltmeter is to measure the input voltage and output voltage.
- Amperemeter is to measure I
o

- Wattmeter is to measure the transformer core losses.

b. PICTURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT TEST
TT TR
W
V
A

Figure 11. Picture of Short Circuit Test
- Amperemeter is used to measure I nominal.
- Voltmeter is used to measure V
SR (short circuit).

- Wattmeter is used to measure transformer and load loss.
- Ampere is used to measure current in low voltage side.

c. PICTURE OF TRANSFORMER POLARITY TEST
- To find out the high voltage (HV) and the low voltage (LV) of a transformer is
carried out experiments as follows:
ohm ohm

Figure 12. The series of experiments to determine the coil HV and LV coils
- To find out the type of polarity is the polarity of the sum (additive) or reduce
(substraktif).
V1 V2
V3
A
B
C
D

Figure 13. The series of experiments to determine the type of polarity
- To find out the positive and negative terminals of a transformer with certainty by
using a reference transformer.

V2 V1
AC
AC
B
A
D C 0 48
0
220

Figure 14. The series of experiments to determine the positive and negative
terminals of a transformer
V3
Blank
Transformer
References
Transformer
d. PICTURE OF FULL LOAD TEST
W
1
A
1
~
V
1
A
2
V
2
W
2
z
LV HV
Figure 15. Full Load Test Circuit
1. V
1
= Measuring the input voltage
2. A
1
= Measuring the current I
1

3. W
1
= Measuring the input power (transformator and load)
4. A
2
= Measuring the current I
2
5. W
2
= Measuring the output power (load)
6. V
2

e. PICTURE OF PARALLEL TEST
W1 A1 A2
A3
A4 W2
V2
~ V1
L
O
A
D
+ +
+ +
- -
-
-
LV HV

Figure 16. Parallel Test Circuit
1. V
1
= Measuring the input voltage
2. A
1
= Measuring the current I
1

3. A
2
= Measuring the current of transformer 1
4. A
3
= Measuring the current of transformer 2
5. W
1
= Measuring the input power (transformator and load)
6. A
4
= Measuring the current loa current
7. W
2
= Measuring the output power (load)
8. V
2

D. TOOLS AND MATERIALS
a. TOOLS AND MATERIALS OF OPEN CIRCUIT TEST
1. 1 phase transformer 220/48V ; 10 A 1 unit
2. 1 phase wattmeter 1 unit
3. Voltmeter 1 unit
4. Ampermeter 1 unit
5. Cable as needed

b. TOOLS AND MATERIALS OF SHORT CIRCUIT TEST
1. 1 Phase Transformer 220 / 48 V ; 10 A 1 unit
2. Voltmeter 1 unit
3. Amperemeter 1 unit
4. Wattmeter 1 Phase 1 unit
5. Ampere pliers 1 unit
6. Cable as needed

c. TOOLS AND MATERIALS OF TRANSFORMER POLARITY TEST
1. Transformator Blank 1 unit
2. Transformator referensi 1 unit
3. Voltmeter 3 unit
4. Miliohmmeter 1 unit
5. Cable as needed

d. TOOLS AND MATERIALS OF FULL LOAD TEST
1. 1 phase transformer 1 unit
2. Voltmeter 2 unit
3. Amperemeter 2 unit
4. Ohmmeter 2 unit
5. Resistive load (ball-lamp) 4 unit
6. Cable as needed
e. TOOLS AND MATERIALS OF PARALLEL TEST
1. 1 phase transformer 2 unit
2. Voltmeter 2 unit
3. Amperemeter 4 unit
4. Wattmeter 2 unit
5. Resistive element 1 set
6. Cable as needed
7. Current Transformer 2 unit

E. TEST PROCEDURE
a. TEST PROCEDURE OF OPEN CIRCUIT TEST
1. Calibrating and checking the condition of measure tool.
2. Setting the wattmeter with seri and parallel to measure the transformer core
losses (P
Fe
).
3. Setting the voltmeter with parallel to determine the input voltage.
4. Setting the ampermeter with seri to measure input current.
5. Setting the input voltage in 0V, 10V, 20V, 30V, 48V.
6. Writing down the value that showed by voltmeter, ampermeter, and wattmeter
every the voltage increase.
7. Setting the input voltage in 220V.
8. Writing down the value that showed by voltmeter, ampermeter, and wattmeter.
9. Comparing the transformer core losses when use step up and step down
transformer.
10. Calculating the transformation number base on the voltage.
11. After finish, setting the voltage source in 0V.

b. TEST PROCEDURE OF SHORT CIRCUIT TEST
- Safety Procedure
1. Arranging the series according to the picture of short circuit.
2. Re-examining a series of trials before being tested.
3. Reporting the series to the instructure before being tested.
4. Connecting the circuit to the source.
5. Recording the result of the short circuit test
- Test Procedure
1. Preparing tools and material of the test.
2. Checking and calibrating the tools to be used.
3. Arranging the series according to the picture of short circuit.
4. Connecting Wattmeter, voltmeter, and amperemeter in the high voltage side
according to the circuit picture.
5. Giving the voltage of the source on the HV side is raised little by little until
the amperemeter read nominal current (2,2 A).
6. Recording the primary input power in Wattmeter, primary nominal current
in amperemeter are already right at 2,2A,input voltage in voltmeter, and the
current which flow in the LV side by using ampere pliers.
7. Recording the measured data of the tools to the table.
8. After finish, setting the voltage source in 0V.

c. TEST PROCEDURE OF TRANSFORMER POLARITY TEST
1. Preparing the experimental tools.
2. Checking and calibrating the equipment to be used.
3. Arranging the tools and materials according with Figure 12.
4. Measuring the resistance using miliohmmeter.
5. Recording the results on the gauge reads miliohmmeter in Table 1.
6. Making analysis of the data that has been established to determine the HV & LV
side.
7. Arranging the tools and materials according with Figure 13.
8. Entering the input voltage V1 = 220 V at the HV terminal.
9. Recording the results read on a voltmeter measuring devices in table 2.
10. Determining the type of addition or subtraction polarity, if the data has been
obtained.
11. Arranging the tools and materials according with Figure 14.
12. Entering the input voltage V1 = 220 V on the terminal side of the HV
transformer or transformer reference blank.
13. Recording the results read on a voltmeter measuring devices in table 3 .
14. Determining the transformer terminals is positive or negative blank assisted with
data from previous experiments, if the data has been obtained.
15. After finish, setting the voltage source in 0V.

d. TEST PROCEDURE OF FULL LOAD TEST
1. Preparing the used materials.
2. Making the circuit like the picture above.
3. Setting the voltage source up to the nominal voltage.
4. Giving the circuit with varies of load.
5. Write the result of Wattmeter, Voltmeter, and Amperemeter each load.
6. After finish, setting the voltage source in 0V.
a.
100 W

b.
100 W 100 W

c.
100 W 100 W
100 W

d.
100 W 100 W 100 W 200 W

a.

b.

c.

d.

7. Making the analysis and calculating the regulation and efficiency.

e. TEST PROCEDURE OF PARALLEL TEST
1. Preparing the used materials
2. Making the circuit like the picture above
3. Giving the High Voltage side or the secondary side with varies of load
a.
100 W

b.
100 W 100 W

c.
100 W 100 W
100 W

d.
100 W 100 W 100 W 200 W

4. Setting the voltage source up to the nominal voltage
5. Writing down the result of Wattmeter, Voltmeter, and Amperemeter each load
6. Making the analysis and calculating the regulation and efficiency.
7. After finish, setting the voltage source in 0V.

F. TEST RESULT
a. TEST RESULT OF OPEN CIRCUIT TEST
- Transformer 1
V
1
(V)
V
2

(V)
I
0

(A)
P
1

(W)
a
10 45.2 0.27 3 x 0.4 = 1.2 0.221
20 90 0.36 13 x 0.4 = 5.2 0.222
30 133 0.45 26 x 0.4 = 10.4 0.225
48 215 0.77 62.5 x 0.4 = 25 0.223
220 47.8 0.17 73 x 0.4 = 29.2 4.6

 Nominal Input Voltage 48V

 Nominal Input Voltage 220V

- Transformer 2
V
1
(V)
V
2

(V)
I
0

(A)
P
1

(W)
a
10 50 0.24 3 x 0.4 = 1.2 0.2
20 95 0.33 11 x 0.4 = 4.4 0.21
30 145 0.41 23 x 0.4 = 9.2 0.207
48 230 0.74 57 x 0.4 = 22.8 0.209
220 45 0.13 60 x 0.4 = 24 4.9

 Nominal Input Voltage 48V

 Nominal Input Voltage 220V

b. TEST RESULT OF SHORT CIRCUIT TEST
No Trafo
I
1
(A)
V
1

(V)
P
1
(W)
I
2

(A)
a
R
ek
(Ω)
Z
ek

(Ω)
X
ek
(Ω)
V
z

(%)
1.
Trafo
1
2,2 14,5
15,5 x 2 = 31
W
9,3 4,23 6,4 6,59 1,57 6,6
2
Trafo
2
2,2 12,5 13 x 2 =26 W 9,3 4,23 5,37 5,682 1,851 5,7
3
Trafo
4
2,2 16
17,2 x 2 =
34,4 W
9,2
4,18 7,11 7,27 1,54 7,2

- Transformer 1
V = 14,5 V ; I = 2,2 A ; P = 15,5 x 2 = 31 W ; I
TR
= 9,3 A
Z =

=

= 6,59 O
R =

=

= 6,4 O
X = √

= √

=

= 1,571 O
Z% =

x 100%
=

x 100%
= 6,6 %

c. TEST RESULT OF TRANSFORMER POLARITY TEST
Table 1. Experiments with the first method
No
R sisi HV R sisi LV
Ohm(O) V Ohm(O) V
1.
37,89
220
2,30
54

Table 2. Experiment with both methods
No V1
(volt)
V2
(volt)
V3
(volt)
KET
1. 220 54 167,5 Substructive

Table 3 Experiment The third method
V1 Trafo Refrensi
(Volt)
V2 Trafo Blank
(Volt)
V3
(Volt)
KET
54 48 5 Substructive

d. TEST RESULT OF FULL LOAD TEST
Step Up Transformer Experiments With Resistive Load
V
1
= 48 V
Beban
(W)
P1(W) P2(W) V
(V) I
1
(A) V
2
(V) I
2
(A) η(%) ∆V(%)
100/100/
200
90 66 230 18,2 212 0,32 73,33 8,49
100 110 98 230 2,8 216 0,5 89,09 6,48
100//
100
200 185 230 4,6 214 0,9 92,5 7,48
100//100
//100
290 260 230 6,0 206 1,28 89,65 11,65
100//100
//100//
200
450 410 230 8,8 200 2 91,11 15

Step Up Tranformer Experiments With Inductive Load
V
1
= 48 V
Beban
(W)
P1(W) P2(W) V
(V) I
1
(A) V
2
(V) I
2
(A) η(%) ∆V(%)
L1//L2 72 38 230 5,9 217 1,25 52,78 5,99
L1//L2//
L3
90,2 51,2 230 7,6 211 1,7 56,67 7,48
L1//L2//
L3//L4
126 70 230 9,4 213 2,25 55,56 7,98
L1//L2//
L3//L4//
L5
156 87 230 13,5 212 2,9 55,76 8,49

Step Up Down Transformer Experiments With Resistive Load
V
1
= 220 V
Beban
(W)
P1(W) P2(W) V
1
(V) I
1
(A) V
2
(V) I
2
(A) η(%) ∆V(%)
100//200 50 26 45 0,24 40 0,6 52 12,5

The example of efficiency and regulation calculation :
- Efficiency
Single transformer efficiency at 100W resistive load
()

- Regulation
Single transformer regulation at 100W resistive load

e. TEST RESULT OF FULL LOAD TEST
Percobaan Dengan Beban Resistif Menggunakan Trafo Step Up 240 VA
V
1
= 48 V
Beban
(W)
P1(
W)
P2(W
)
V
no
(V)
I
1
(A
)
V
2
(
V)
I
2
(A)
I
3
(A)
I
4
(A
)
η(%) ∆V(%)
100 76 53 230 3,2 225 0,85 2,7 0,42 69,73 2,22
100//
100
235 190 230 4,4 207 1,7 3,6 0,74 80,85 11,11
100//100
//100
305 240 230 6,6 198 2,7 4,4 0,98 78,68 16,16
100//100
//200
450 390 230 8,9 184 4,1 6,6 1,75 86,67 25
Percobaan Dengan Beban Resistif Menggunakan Trafo Step Up 50 VA
V
1
= 48 V
Beban
(W)
P1(
W)
P2(W
)
V
no
(V)
I
1
(A)
V
2
(
V)
I
2
(A)
I
3
(A) I
4
(A) η(%) ∆V(%)
100 86 74 230 1,75 176 0,9 0,93 0,4 86,05 30,68

The example of efficiency and regulation calculation :
- Efficiency
Parallel transformer efficiency at 100W resistive load
()

- Regulation
Parallel transformer regulation at 100W resistive load

G. The chart of the Load and Parallel Test

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

(
%
)

Efficiency Chart
SU single trafo with resistive load
SU single trafo with inductive load
SU parallel trafo with resistive load

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
R
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

(
%
)