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By yenbeeyes Written on 27/03/2009

Sambandha Or Relationship between planets

The word sambandha in Sanskrit means binding or joining, a close connection or

union or association, conjunction, inherence, connection with or relation to. It
connotes personal connection like a relationship, fellowship, friendship and even
intimacy. The word ‘sambandhi’ (or as used ‘samdhi’ refers to a kinsman, a
relationship brought about by a marriage or family by birth.

There are three main kinds of Sambandha we see in Jyotish; They are
i) Naisargika sambandha or Natural relationship
ii) Tatkalika sambandha or Temporary relationship
iii) When we apply the above two rules of sambandha we get the Compound

Naisargika Sambandha:

Parasara teaches the general rule which is applied in 2 stages. First step is to
determination of natural relationship. This is based on the Moolatrikona and is the
desire of every planet to achieve its object. Second step is the modification to this in
individual charts. Take the Moolatrikona of the planet, Lord of the rasi where it is
exalted is its friend.

Satyacharya’s rule: The lords of the signs in 2, 4, 5, 8, 9 and 12 from the

moolatrikona sign of a planet are its mitra (friends). Lords of other rasis (viz. the 3 rd,
6th, 7th, 10th and 11th position lords) are its natural satru (enemies). If a planet
becomes a friend and an enemy on account of owning 2 rasis, then it is a sama
(neutral planet).

This is a permanent relationship and is not influenced by position of planets in the

zodiac. Due to their inherent nature, the planets are friendly with certain planets and
inimical to others. The rays of planets will be intensified by the rays of one declared
as its friend and counteracted by those of a planet declared as enemy.

Let us apply the above rules to a planet say Sun. One thing to remember is that the
exaltation sign’s lord of a planet is always its friend even if it owns 3rd, 6th, 7th, 10th
and 11th from its moolatrikona sign.

Let us take the planet Sun. Sun’s Moolatrikona sign is Leo. It is exalted in Aries. So
Mars is a friend of Sun. The 2 nd house from the moolatrikona sign is Virgo whose lord
is Mercury. So he is a friend. But Mercury also owns the 11th house from Leo. Hence
he becomes neutral. The 3rd house from Leo is owned by Venus who also owns the
10th house. Hence he becomes enemy. The 4th house and the 9th house from Leo are
owned by Mars and hence he becomes a friend. The 5 th house and the 8th house are
lorded by Jupiter and hence he becomes a friend. The 6th and 7th houses are owned
by Saturn and hence enemy. The 12th house is owned by Moon and so he is a friend.

Now you can verify the table below to look at the relationship of all the planets based
on this rule.

By yenbeeyes Written on 27/03/2009

Planet Friend Neutral Enemy

Sun Moon, Mars, Jupiter Mercury Venus, Saturn
Moon Sun, Mercury Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn
Mars Sun, Moon, Jupiter Venus, Saturn Mercury
Mercury Sun, Venus Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Moon
Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars Saturn Mercury, Venus
Venus Mercury, Saturn Mars, Jupiter Sun, Moon
Saturn Mercury, Venus Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars
Although we do need to know this for the nodes as relationships are with ‘real’ people
having physical bodies, nevertheless, we can determine their friends and foes to
understand the relationship between the deities of Hinduism.
Rahu Sun, Venus Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Moon, Mercury
Ketu Moon, Mars Mercury, Venus, Saturn Sun, Jupiter

Ketu treats Sun as enemy. Why? We have to back to the Purana. Parvati while taking
bath asked Ganesa to guard the door with instructions not to allow anybody inside.
At that moment Siva came there and as a dutiful guard he refused entry to Siva.
Siva got enraged and a fight started between the two and in the end Siva cut off the
head of Ganesa. Here Ganesa (Ketu) was only doing his duty (Moolatrikona-office)
entrusted to him by his mother. He is the favourite of Gowri (Moon) and these
relationships are reflected in the table above.

Pandit Sanjay Rath says, “If the nodes are to be used in planetary relations, then the
following information can be useful. Often astrologers tend to confuse eclipse
relations with the moolatrikona relations. Relationships between individuals can be
for a variety of reasons of which the moolatrikona (office/work/duty/desire
fulfillment) is the most common and is given here. There are other relationships like
marriage or worship, which are purely personal or domestic activities, or the purely
financial relationships, which require a different model as, taught by Jaimini
Maharshi. A business partnership is more than just financial relationship as it brings
two or more people into a working (moolatrikona) relationship.”

Nodes ownership

Node Own Sign Moolatrikona Exaltation

Rahu Aquarius Virgo Gemini
Ketu Scorpio Pisces Sagittarius

Tatkalika sambandha

Tatkalika sambandha or temporal relationship as the name itself suggests is os

temporary in and is the second stage modification of the natural relationship. It
varies from one chart to another. According to Parasara model the relationships are
based on moolatrikona (office or work), this principle is carried over to the second
stage as well.

Planets in 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 10th, 11th and 12th houses from a planet become its temporary
friends and those in the rest of the houses (viz. 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 11th ) are
temporary enemies.

By yenbeeyes Written on 27/03/2009

This has been very exhaustively explained by Shri Sanjay Rath in his article
“Sambandha”. With due respect to Shri Sanjay Rath, I would like to quote the
passage here which will give you an idea of how the temporary relationship between
planets is established.


It is well known that the Sun is the keeper of time and that all activities of men shall be governed by the
Sun. The birds fly out of their nest with the first ray of the Sun and return with the last ray of the setting
Sun. Their sensitivity to the time indications of the Sun causes their entire group (birds) to be over-lorded
by the Sun. Men are more emotional and have the highest share of mental working causing them to be
over-lorded by the Moon instead. It is natural that their working and relationships will be governed by
‘moods and tastes’. The activities following the Sun are based on ‘muhurta’. Brahma muhurta coinciding
with Brahma gayatri starts the day. The activities reach an acme at midday, which is called ‘Abhijit
muhurta’ coinciding with Vishnu gayatri. Thereafter, the energies and rays decline until sunset, which is
the ‘Rudra/Siva gayatri’. The activities of darkness begin after sunset and reach a nadir at midnight called
the ‘Kali gayatri’.

In this working day, since planets represent people, every planet would like to be in the highest state i.e.
akin to Abhijit muhurta or in Vishnu gayatri connoting success, fame, wealth and all the good things of life
that go with it. Such a planet attains the form of Vishnu and becomes an avatar. He sits on the throne and
like Indra, becomes the king of the skies (svarga). During the day, the lagna starts with the Sun at
Brahma gayatri, goes to the fourth house from the Sun in Vishnu gayatri, seventh house from the Sun in
Siva gayatri and finally, the tenth house from the Sun in Kali gayatri. Reckoned from Lagna, at midday,
the Sun is in the tenth house and this fact is used in determining the relationship.

If this is the position that every planet wishes to have in its working environment, then its relationships
have to be based on this desirable situation. The midday situation of lagna with the Sun in the tenth
house is extended to the planet and for the planet to rise at midday, sunrise should occur in the sign in
the tenth house from it. The following deductions can be made based on this hypothetical situation, which
will amount to a derivation of the rules taught by Parasara on this subject.

The sign occupied by the planet is This is the throne of the planet. It defines its
akin to midday avastha (situation or mood or age), its bala
(strengths) and everything else.
The tenth house from it is akin to This is the first definition of sambandha and The planets in the
sunrise the planets placed in the tenth from it shall tenth house are
herald its ascendancy. temporal friends.
The fourth from it shall be akin to The planets in this house shall be the last to The planets in the
sunset leave the sinking ship or shall be the most fourth house are
loyal/trusted. temporal friends.
The sign opposite to it shall be akin This is the nadir and shall define the opposition The planets in the
to midnight. or he who shall rule after the planet abdicates. seventh house are
temporal enemies.
The signs/planets intervening from These supporters join the herald in helping the The planets in the
the tenth house from it to its seat planet’s ascendancy. The signs intervening are 11th and 12th house
will help him to achieve the position the 11th and 12th houses. are temporal friends.
The signs from its seat to its fourth These supporters join the king (planet under The planets in the 2nd
house shall help sustain/continue consideration) after his ascendancy and and 3rd houses are
his kingly position. support his claim to the throne. The signs temporal friends.
intervening are the 2nd & 3rd houses.
The signs after sunset (darkness) These signs are the 5th to 9th houses. The planets in the 5th
shall work towards his downfall as to 9th houses shall be
everyone wishes to be in the light temporal enemies.
or ‘limelight’.
No king likes to share his throne Sharing power causes a weakness in the The planets in the
with others. throne that is not stable. That is why four or same sign are
more planets conjoining can cause pravrajya temporal enemies.
yoga implying exile or renunciation.

By yenbeeyes Written on 27/03/2009


Now the confusion comes in the mind as to whether we should apply the Naisargika
sambandha or the Tatkalika sambandha while considering the various aspects of
Jyotish. Now if we are to apply the Tatkalika sambandha rule to a planet that is
bound to create a disturbance to the Naisargika sambandha rule. Hence it has been
clarified in the texts that there will be a new sambandha or relationship while
combining these two which works out to a five-fold relationship.

1. Adhimitra or Good friend:

A natural friend and a temporal friend becomes a very close friend and will have
intimacy who will be the most trust-worthy for a long-term relationship.

2. Mitra or Friend:

A natural neutral planet and a temporary friendly planet becomes a friend. They
are just supporters of a cause but may not in principle support the ideals.
Nevertheless you can count on them due to their friendly relationships.

3. Sama or Neutral:

There are two categories that come under this. The first one is the natural friend
who becomes a temporal enemy. The other one is a natural enemy who becomes
a temporal friend. They are in a dilemma whether to support (natural friend or
temporary friend) or to oppose (natural enemy or temporary enemy). So they
prefer to abstain from the war and become neutral or Sama. “They are the
planets who change sides whenever the wind blows the other way” according to
Shri Sanjay Rath.

4. Satru or Enemy:

A natural neutral who becomes a temporal enemy come under this category.
Though in principle they are not opposed to the ideology, but because of a
situation or convenience they tend to become antagonistic.

5. Adhisatru (Bad enemy):

A neutral enemy who becomes a temporal enemy. Fundamentally both are

opposed and have bitterness amongst them. So when the circumstance comes,
they try to show their hostility and become bitter enemies.

The following table will show the compound relationship in a lucid way

Temporary Friend Temporary Enemy

Natural Friend Adhimitra (Great Friend) Sama (Neutral)
Natural Neutral Mitra (Friend) Satru (Enemy)
Natural Enemy Sama (Neutral) Adhisatru (Bad Enemy)

If we examine the relationship with an Example chart things will be more clear.

By yenbeeyes Written on 27/03/2009

Plane Temporary
Natural Relationship Compound Relationship
t Relationship
Friend Neutral Enemy Friend Enemy Adhimitra Mitra Sama Satru
Ma, Me,
Mo, Sa, Ve, Ju, Sa,
Su Me Ve, Ke, Ju, Ra Ma, Mo Me Ra
Ma, Ju Ra, Ke Ve, Ke
Mo, Sa
Su, Ma,
Ma, Ju, Ke, Sa, Ma, Sa,
Mo Su, Me Ra, Ke Me, Ve Su, Me Ra Ke
Ve, Sa Ju Ve Ju
Ke, Ju,
Su, Mo Ve, Sa Me, Ve, Mo, Su, Sa, Ra,
Ma Me, Ra Su, Sa, Ve
Ju Ke Ra Ju Ke Me
Sa, Mo,
Su, Ve, Ma, Ju Ra, Ma, Sa, Ma,
Me Mo Su, Ke, Su, Ke Ma
Ra, Ke Sa Ve Ju Ra, Ve
Su, Mo Me, Ve, Ma, Me, Ra, Sa,
Ju Sa, Ke Ma Ke Su, Sa Ra
Ma Ra Ve, Ke Mo, Su
Me, Ve
Me, Ke, Ju, Ra,
Ra, Ma,
Ve Sa, Ra, Ma, Ju Su, Mo Su, Mo, Sa, Ke Ju Mo, Ma
Ke Sa Su, Me
Me, Su, Ma,
Su, Mo Mo, Ke, Ra, Me, Su,
Sa Ve, Ra, Ju Me, Ve, Ju Mo
Ma Ju Ve Ma, Ke
Ke Ra
Sa, Su, Ma, Ma, Su,
Mo, Su,
Ra Me, Sa, Mo Me, Ve, Sa Me, Ma,
Ma, Ju
Ve, Ke Ke, Ju Ve, Ke Ju
Su, Ma,
Ra, Sa, Ra, Sa, Ma, Ra,
Ke Ma, Ju Mo, Su Me, Ve, Me, Ve Mo
Me, Ve Mo Ju Sa, Su

Adhimitra – Friend + Friend

Mitra – Neutral + Friend
Sama – Friend + Enemy or Enemy + Friend
Satru – Neutral + Enemy

By yenbeeyes Written on 27/03/2009

Adhisatru – Enemy + Enemy

The Jhora Software clearly gives out the above relationships by highlighting in
different colours.

Wherever it is mentioned in the various classical texts that a planet is in a

friendly house or an inimical house, it is advisable to take the compound
relationship. Let us clarify this point also with respect to the above chart.

1. Sun is placed in Cancer whose Lord Moon is Adhimitra to him as per the table.
So Sun is said to occupy a friendly house.
2. Moon is placed in Taurus whose Lord Venus is a Mitra to him and hence he is
also occupying a friendly house
3. Mars is placed in Leo whose Lord Sun is Adhimitra and hence placed ina
friendly house.
4. Mercury is placed in Leo whose Lord Sun is Adhimitra and so occupying a
friendly house.
5. Jupiter is placed in Scorpio whose lord Ma is Adhimitra to him and hence
placed in a friendly house.
6. Venus is placed in Leo whose lord Su is Sama and hence neither in friendly
nor in enemy’s house.
7. Saturn is placed in Taurus whose lord Venus is Adhimitra and hence placed in
a friendly house.
8. Rahu is placed in Pisces whose lord Jupiter is Adhisatru and hence he is
placed in an inimical house.
9. Ketu is placed in Virgo whose lord Me is Adhimitra and hence he is placed in a
friendly house.

To summarise, a planet occupying a rasi owned by a mitra or Adhimitra is said to be

in a friendly house. A planet occupying a rasi owned by a satru or Adhisatru is
treated as placed in an inimical house.