Você está na página 1de 2

Li Chun Ho IB Psychology Higher Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behavior In this answer I will be examining the

role of individualism/collectivism on conformity and the role of long term/short term orientation on patience and perseverance by challenging Hofstedes studies of cultural dimensions (1967-1973). Bond and Smith (1996) found more conformity in collectivist countries supported by Williams and Sogon (1984) in their research on Japanese social groups. For time orientation, Chen (2005) studied the patience of Singaporean bicultural participants. Research from other studies will also be used to evaluate Hofstedes research. Individualism and collectivism refers to the strength of interpersonal relationships. A high indication in this dimension suggests the society is chiefly individualistic, while a low score suggests collectivism. In an individualistic society, individuals are loosely tied to society; they are expected to look after themselves and their immediate families. This is more prevalent in Western Europe. Contrastingly, collectivism describes societies where there are strong connections with other people, as they are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups with extended families. They hold strong intergroup values. Research has suggested individuals from individualistic cultures tend to conform less compared to people from collectivistic cultures. This is supported by Bond and Smith (1996) when they conducted a meta-analysis of 133 conformity studies across 17 different countries. Collectivistic countries like Fiji and Hong Kong conformed more compared to individualistic countries like the United States. Possible factors may be because there is a strong interconnection between people in collectivistic culture. They are more concerned about their relationships with other people; they value their tradition more highly and define themselves in terms of their social roles. This is supported by Williams and Sogon (1984) who found significantly higher levels of conformity in Japanese groups who were familiar with each other compared to out-groups. Compared to American participants, less conformity in informal sports clubs was found by Takano and Sogano. However, broad generalizations leading to stereotyping should not be made. Conformity also depends on the nature of the group, to the extent they are tied to, such as family and classmates. Secondly, long term/ short term orientation refer to the promotion of a Confucian set of ethics. This is where the values of perseverance, patience, social hierarchy and a sense of shame is acknowledged and valued. A high score in this dimension suggests individuals focus on thrift, perseverance and long term goals, have a high regard for social order and a sense of shame and collective face saving. A low score portrays individuals as focusing on short term goals and instant results, a high regard for social obligations, like business traditions and an individual face saving. Such phenomena is demonstrated by Chen (2005) who, basing on the assertion that most patience is valued more in Eastern countries, hypothesized that Western cultures would place a higher value on immediate consumption. This was investigated by having 147 Singaporean bicultural participants. This is where the participants have been exposed to two different cultures, both American and Singaporean. A particular cultures values were activated by presenting half of the participants with photos of American culture, and the other half with Singaporean culture. They were then asked to purchase a novel online. Participants could wait within four days and pay a standard fee or pay additionally to have it delivered the next day. It was found US-activated participants valued immediate consumption and were willing to pay more, compared to the Singaporean activated participants.

Li Chun Ho IB Psychology Higher Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behavior This is supported by the research of Ayoun and Moreo (2009) who surveyed top-level hotel managers in America and Thailand regarding their strategic behavior. It was found Thai managers strongly emphasized on longer-term strategic plans and stronger reliance on long-term evaluation of strategy compared to their American counterparts. It must be noted, however, that ecological fallacy be avoided when comparing the dimensions of different countries. This is the mistaken belief that if two cultures differ in terms of dimensions, that these individuals should also differ. Moreover, collection techniques may be subjected to researcher expectancy.