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Li Chun Ho IB Psychology Higher Outline principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis Three principles define the

sociocultural level of analysis; the social and cultural environment influences individual behavior; we want connectedness with, and a sense of belonging to other; and we construct our conceptions of the individual and social self. Firstly, the social and cultural environment influences our behavior is the idea that other people influence the way we behave. This is through social norms and internalized standards of behavior that regulate our social lives. Social norms are socially accepted ways of thinking, behaving that the majority of people in a social group agree on. We tend to conform and compromise with the social norms, where we tend to change what we do or think as a response to the influence of others. This is demonstrated in Milgrams (1963) study on conformity where participants engaged in an experiment at Stanford conformed to the instructions of the experimenter while acknowledging the dangers of the study, including delivering high voltage shocks to the confederate. The social and cultural environment also influences behavior when, according to Bandura (1977, 1986), that people learn new behavior by observational learning of the outcome of that observed behavior. If the observed outcome is positive and desired, then that behavior is more likely to be adopted. This is known as the Social Learning Theory, which is supported by Banduras 1965 study on violence. Secondly, we want connectedness with, and a sense of belonging to others is developed around the concept of ingroups and outgroups that identify who we belong to. Once this is established, they similarly play an influence on our behavior. Ingroups are groups we interpret ourselves to belong to, while outgroups are those we do not belong to. The Social Identity Theory, proposed by Tajfel and Turner (1979) relates intergroup behavior with four interrelated concepts that include social categorization, social identity, social comparison as well as positive distinctiveness. Social categorization distinguishes and separates ingroups, away from outgroups, making members within a group feeling more similar to one another and increasing differences between different social groups. Social identity is our impression of someone through knowledge gained by social group interaction. Social comparison is the constant comparison between the social groups against other out-groups, to see our position of social identity. This raises our positive distinctiveness, where we motivate ourselves to suggest the current ingroups we belong to are superior to others. These concepts were demonstrated by Tajfel et al (1971) to investigate whether the classification of ingroups and outgroups would lead to ingroup bias and a change in cognitive behavior. This was managed by dividing participants of British schoolboys into two groups and was given the impression they were divided by their preference of artwork. They were then asked to give points to other pieces of artwork that either was belong to outgroups or ingroups relative to them. Social categorization and ingroup favoritism was displayed when the participants would give 7 to ingroups instead of 13, as if they gave 13, outgroups would also get 13. If they gave 7, then outgroups only received 1 point. Thirdly, we construct our conceptions of the individual and social self. This suggests we develop the concept of our self through the groups we belong to and identify with. It is developed through social interactions, such as ingroups, outgroups and the SIT, however can also be influenced by cultural contexts, that vary between nationalities, such as Hofstedes dimensions, including collectivism versus individualism and the Power Distance index that similarly influences how we behave.