Você está na página 1de 2

Li Chun Ho (Alvin Li) History Revision: 5 year plans past papers.

June 2007 Question 12 (a) Describe the main features of Stalins first Five Year Plan.[5] The first five year plan was in process from 1928 to 1932. It focused on the development of heavy industries, such as oil, coal, steel and other industrial materials. The formation of electricity was one of the greatest achievements of the first five year plan, as it had further enabled Russia to become more powerful. Single managers would award managers who performed well during this plan scheme and Stalin furthermore introduced foreign specialists to aid the Russian workers in further developing the heavy industries sector. (b) Why did Stalin introduce Five Year Plans?[7] Stalin had introduced the Five Year Plans to Russia because he believed that the technology and mechanisation of Russia was very backward and weak; virtually 50 years behind other big powers. Therefore he wanted to protect Russia from possible capitalist attacks by creating a more powerful Russian Economy. Furthermore, he wanted to spread the power of Communism by making a more powerful Russia. The Five Year Plans were also created in order to increase foreign trade and to open its markets, as before they have had an isolated market. In addition, Stalin wanted to change the industry upwards to increase food production. By increasing the Russian economy, it would in turn increase industrial material, improve the industrial output, i.e. coal, iron and steel and to expand industry, i.e. to build more chemical plants. He also wanted to reduce the power of peasants but at the same time to improve the Russian economy. By doing so, it would create a more powerful Russian economy during a short period. (c) How successful was industrialisation under Stalin? Explain your answer.[8] Stalins industrialisation of the series of the Five Year Plans, starting from 1928, were seen to some extent as successful and beneficial to the Russian people. The industrialisation periods have appointed foreign experts to Russia in order to assist it with its developing economy and line managers have awarded workers for their achievements. There were many victories during Industrialisation. Electrification throughout Russia was achieved during the first 5 year plan, from 1928 to 1932. Russias heavy industries also had blossomed, with from 35 million to 76 million tons of Coal output, before the 5 year plans and after. Other aspects of heavy industries also had exceedingly high achievements. By 1940, USSR was the worlds second largest industrial powers. The industrialisation was also seen as beneficial because due to the heavy investment into education of students, and the training of workers and technicians in the industrial field of Russia, this has created a very skilful workforce, consisting of highly educated teachers, workers, managers and specialised managers who would further contribute to the strength of Russia. This therefore would increase the power of Russia and furthermore increase the power of Communism, which may have a positive effect on other nations to turn to a communist state too.

Li Chun Ho (Alvin Li) History Revision: 5 year plans past papers. However, the industrialisation of Russia can also be seen to some extent as unsuccessful. During the process of the Five Year Plans, many managers were forced to be extremely strict on their workers. This meant that they had to produce a minimum amount of output over a period of time, i.e. per day. If they had failed to, or were lazy, or were late to work, they would be fined extremely harshly. They had to carry around a labour book, which recorded their failures, job comments and other related aspects of work. A bad record may lead to a loss of ration cards, leading to starvation. Furthermore, Stalin did not understand that most of the workers were peasants whom had never used technology as well as machinery. Therefore, those who accidentally wrecked machines were called saboteurs, and were sent to jail. For example, 53 engineers were accused of conspiracy of sabotaging machinery at the Soviet Coal mining industry in Donbass as they fell below target. These resulted in a trial and were blamed. This created a workplace of fear, and workers were forced to cover up mistakes. Furthermore, industrialisation under Stalin can also be seen as a failure because it failed to follow the values of Communism. Line managers awarded managers and workers who worked exceedingly hard and had great contributions to the Russian industry were given big privileges, such as big luxurious houses and also personal vehicles. In addition, skilled workers were given a high salary; up to 4 times higher the wages of unskilled workers. This created a divided society, and everyone were not financially equal; the Communist system was broken.