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PROFESSORA: Mnica Soares Velloso


A semelhana existente entre a lngua portuguesa e a lngua inglesa em termos de vocabulrio deve-se principalmente ao fato de o portugus ser uma lngua latina e de grande parte do vocabulrio ingls ser proveniente do latim. Por essa razo, at os leitores que julgam nada saber sobre a lngua inglesa conseguem reconhecer muitas palavras em textos nesse idioma. Por exemplo, important, necessary, modem, dictionary, manual, interpretation, vacabulary, radio, cinema, map, etc. Tais palavras so chamadas COGNATOS.

The cost of health Stay healthy, my friend, because the cost of health, which increases with the dawning of each day, is enough to make you sick. As palavras acima, escritas em um cartaz espalhado por toda a cidade: a) contm uma crtica s pessoas que s pensam em doena; b) informam que levantar bem cedo timo para a sade; c) advertem que cada vez se gasta mais quando se fica doente.

Marriage I was told that if a girl wants a husband, she should sleep with a piece of wedding cake under her pillow. Disseram-me que a) para arranjar marido, as moas devem dormir com um pedao de bolo de noiva embaixo do travesseiro. b) a moa que disse que quer um marido ps um pedao de bolo de noiva embaixo do travesseiro. c) a moa quer que o marido durma com um pedao de bolo de noiva embaixo do travesseiro.

A good brother Mother: Tony, why did you put a frog in your sisters bed? Tony: Well, Mom, I only did it because I couldnt find a snake. Tony a) was questioned by his mother about his behaviour towards his sister. b) kept a Zoo at home. c) mistook a frog for a snake.

Women Peggy, a secretary, went back to work when the children were three. Shes been working for 2 years, and is one of the thousands of married women in Britain doing a full-time job. a) Peggy got her first job 2 years ago. b) Peggy has been a secretary for 2 years. c) Very few married women have a full-time job in Britain. d) Peggys children are five years old.

Books Several years ago I read a book called Fahrenheit 451 and was horrified at the description of a scene where all the books of civilized society are burned. Now come to think of it, perhaps (talvez) it is not such a bad idea if a few catch fire. Certos livros. a) bem que mereceriam ser queimados. b) horrorizam a sociedade civilizada com suas descries. c) no contm sequer uma idia interessante. d) procuram atrair leitores pelo ttulo.

Childhood When I was a little boy, I had a passion for maps. I looked for hours at South America or Africa or Australia, and lost myself in all the glories of exploration. At that time, there were many blank spaces on the earth, and when I saw one that looked particularly inviting on a map (but they all looked like that), I put my finger on it and said. When I grow up I will go there. The North Pole was one of these places, I remember. Well, I havent been there yet, and will not try now. The glamours gone.

De acordo com o texto:

a) quando o autor ainda era jovem, no se interessava por mapas. b) ainda havia terras muito populosas, embora a maioria fosse distante. c) as glrias das exploraes de terras desconhecidas fascinavam o autor. d) no existiam praticamente motivos para explorar novas terras. A sentena I havent been there yet, and will not try now poderia ser traduzida por: a) Ainda no estive l, e no tento por ora. b) Ainda no estive l, e no tentarei agora. c) Ainda no terei estado l, e no vou tentar agora. d) Ainda no tenho estado l, e no tentarei agora.

Crimes You are walking alone on a deserted street at night. Suddenly a stranger steps from the shadows (de repente um estranho surge das sombras) and jabs a sharp object in your ribs ( e encosta um objeto pontiagudo em suas costelas). Give me your wallet (me passa sua carteia), he demands. What should you do? Do not resist. Immediately hand over your wallet, your watch, your jewelry (jias) and anything else (qualquer coisa a mais) the mugger (assaltante) wants. That is the primary survival tip (dica de sobrevivncia) given by law-enforcement (lei de fiscalizao) officials across the world to potential victims of armed street criminals (criminosos de rua) . Even if you are carrying a gun, advise police officials, dont try to use it. By the time you have reached for your pocket (o tempo que vc leva pra chegar ao seu bolso), an armed robber will have had time to kill you (o bandido armado ter tido tempo de te matar). Do not attempt (no tente) to negotiate for some of your belongings (pertences): the longer you delay the mugger, the more impatient, and more violent, he is likely to become.(quanto mais vc atrasar o ladro provavelmente mais impaciente e mais violento ele vai ficar) If you are held up (assaltado) in an isolated area, do not scream (grite). Chances are that no one will hear your cries for help (existem chances de que ningum vai ouvir seus gritos de Socorro), and they will only enrage ( eles s vo irritar) or perhaps, even worse, frighten ( e talvez, pior, eles podem inclusive assustar o ladro) the mugger. All in all ( em todo o caso), try not to panic, and do the best you can under any difficult situation. Above all, dont try to be a hero. The situation suggested in the first lines of the text shows: a) someone in danger of being attacked by a robber. b) a person who is attacked by a thief but manages to escape from him. c) someone who is walking in the evening and is attacked by a robber. d) a well-timed attempt to run away from a madman. O texto, de maneira geral, recomenda a) um alto grau de prudncia ao fugir de um assalto, se estiver devidamente armado. b) a melhor cooperao possvel com as autoridades policiais, para que o assaltante seja encontrado o mais rapidamente possvel. c) que se tente reagir sempre aos assaltos, para que a onda de crimes possa ser contida. d) calma e prudncia ao lidar com o assaltante, para que este no se sinta acuado ou atemorizado, vindo a reagir com violncia.

Any delay to hand over your possessions may a) make the mugger become impatient and more violent. b) infuriate the mugger and make him run away. c) tire the thief and make him repent from his crimes. d) draw the attention of an oncoming policeman.

Stress and gender at work If you are ambitious, a dedicated worker, and capable, you may need to battle stress more strenuously than do men with similar goals and talents. ( Se vc ambiciosa, uma trabalhadora dedicada e capaz, voce pode precisar combater o estresse com mais firmeza que os homens com os mesmos objetivos e talentos) Thats the warning from the University of North Carolina and Chapel Hill School of Medicine, where a study of high achievers revealed that tension tends to raise womens blood pressure more than it does in mens. ( Este um aviso da universidade da California do norte e da escolar catolica de medicina, onde um estudo de altos pesquisadores revelou que a tensao tende a aumentar a pressao arterial das mulheres mais do que a dos homens). The finding means you need to guard against the risks of stress and heart disease by increasing exercise, modifying diet, and importantly, taking time out for yourself. ( Essa decoberta significa que vc prescisa se guarder contra s riscos do estresse e das doenasdo curacao-aumentando a atividade fsica, modificando a sua dieta e tendo tempo livre pra vc)
(Cosmopolitan Magazine).

This article was specifically written to a) men. b) women. c) children. d) parents. e) relatives. Gender here means a) sex. b) goal. c) stress. d) ability. e) pressure. The University of North Carolina warns readers to a) sleep more. b) be more ambitious c) eat more vegetables. d) work less than men. e) fight against tension more than men do. ... taking time out for yourself means a) driving.

b) studying. c) exercising. d) having fun. e) speaking English.

Speech (falar/conversar) Speech is one of the most important ways of communicating. It consists of far more than just making noises. To talk and also to be understood by other people, we have to speak a language, that is, we have to use combinations of sounds that everyone agrees stand for a particular subject or idea. Learning a language properly (aprender um idioma de forma apropriada) is very important. The basic vocabulary of English is not very large, and only about 2,000 words are needed to speak it quite well. But the more words you know, the more ideas you can express, and the more precise you can be about their exact meaning (significado exato). Words are the main thing we use in communicating what we want to say. The way we say the words is also very important. Our tone of voice can express many emotions and shows whether (mostra se) we are pleased or angry, for instance (satisfeitos ou com raiva, por exemplo). According to the text, speech is a) the only way of communicating. b) an inefficient way of communicating. c) the most important way of communicating. d) amongst the most important ways of communicating. (um dos mais importantes) e) not particularly relevant in the communication process. According to the author, the more words we know a) the better we are able to communicate. b) the worse we express ourselves. c) the less precise our speech will be. d) the more incomprehensible the message. e) the more likely we are to lose data. Based on the text above, if we know only about 2,000 words in English, we a) will not succeed in communicating. b) do not possess a sufficient lexical knowledge of the language. c) will not be able to send and receive information. d) will find it extremely difficult to convey our message. e) will be capable of speaking the language reasonably well.

Foreign language Asking (perguntar), thanking (agradecer) , complaining (reclamar), apologizing (pedir desculpas). Saying the right thing (dizer a coisa certa) in these everyday

situations (nessas situaes cotidianas) is perhaps ( talvez) one of the hardest aspects of a foreign language. This is because the problem isnt merely (meramente) linguistic: it is also a question of manners (modos/maneiras) and cultural differences. What might be acceptable in Portuguese could appear rude (parecer rude) when translated into English and, of course, vice-versa. It is useful to have some phrases handy for when the English apologize ( bom ter algumas frases prontas na mo para quando o ingles pedir desculpas), which they do fairly frequently. The English tend to favour the term Im sorry or sorry, whereas the Americans will go for excuse me. The Brazilians say como? when they want someone to repeat something they havent heard. In English, there are a number of possibilities. One of the most common is pardon but, like many English words, it has class connotations ( tem uma conotao de sala de aula).

The author states that saying the right thing in every day situations is a) relatively simple. b) a complex financial process. c) quite simple. d) a difficult task. e) an impossible goal. The author also states that a) every single word we translate from Portuguese into English sounds rude. b) we ought not to accept translations from English into Portuguese. c) Portuguese is a rude language if compared to English. d) rude words in English should by no means be translated into Portuguese. e) we ought to be careful when translating from one language to another.

Assertiveness (assertividade) A Being assertive is being able to communicate with other people clearly and without misunderstandings. If you have ever come awayfrom a confrontation or conversation feeling that something was left unsaid and unclear (se vc participou de um confront, uma conversao e sentiu que algo no ficou claro), than one of the participants was not being assertive. It is important to remember that being assertive refers to a way of coping ( forma de lidar com) with confrontations. In practice, assertive behavior is usually most likely (provavelmente) to produce a result which is generally acceptable to all concerned, without anyone feeling that you have been unfairly treated (sem ningum sentindo que tenha sido tratado injustamente). B Assertiveness is often wrongly confused with aggression (assertividade) erroneamnete confundia com agresso). An aggressive confrontation is when one or both parties attempt (tentam) to put forward their feelings and beliefs at the expense of others (impor seus sentimentos e crencas na conta do outro). There may be

raised voices, angry personal attacks, emotional blackmail (chantagem emocional) and a complete failure (uma total falha) of each to understand the others point of view. In an assertive confrontation, however (entretanto), each part stands up for their personal rights, but each shows respect and understanding for the others point of view. According to paragraph A, being assertive means a) being frank and rude if necessary. b) not being objective; c) being honest and ambiguous. d) being objective and unambiguous. e) being vague and imprecise. According to paragraph A of the text, if you leave a confrontation or conversation feeling that something was left unsaid or unclear, that means that: a) you have achieved a satisfactory result. b) both parties involved were assertive. c) assertiveness was not achieved. d) both parties involved have failed to be assertive. e) you have succeeded in being assertive. According to paragraph B of the text, assertiveness: a) is frequently mixed up with aggression. b) is an aggressive confrontation. c) involves aggression and disrespect. d) and aggression are synonyms. e) requires some degree of aggression.

Stress When we are very frightened (com medo) and worried (ou assustados) our bodies produce certain chemicals to help us fight what is troubling us. Unfortunately these chemicals produce the energy needed to run away fast from an object of fear ( do objeto do medo), and in modern life thats often impossible. If we dont use up these chemicals, or if we produce too many of them, they may actually harm us (isso pode nos fazer mal). The parts of the body that are most affected by stress are the stomach, heart, skin, head and back. Stress can cause car accidents, heart attacks and alcoholism, and may even drive ( podem at levar ) people to suicide. As with all illnesses, prevention is better than cure (previnir melhor do que remediar). A very commom danger signal is the inability to relax. When youre taking work home, when you cant enjoy an evening with friends, when you havent time for outdoor exercise that is the time to stop and ask yourself whether your present life really suits you, says one family doctor. Then its time to join a relaxation class, or take up dancing, painting or gardening.

Marque T (true) ou F (false). According to the text: a) ( T ) the author describes stress as a natural reaction of the body to dangers encountered in our lives. b) ( F ) the author implies that solution to stress is to run away from our problems. c) ( T ) it seems that many of our health problems could well be symptoms of stress. d) ( F ) the author believes that stress causes people to commit suicide by provoking car accidents. e) ( T ) the inability to relax is considered to be a classic indication that one is suffering from stress. f) ( F ) the author emphasizes that one must learn to dance in order to avoid stress.

Running Running is one of the simplest yet most beneficial forms of exercise ( correr um das forma mais simples e benficas). Technique comes naturally, equipment is minimal but, more importantly, its very good for the human body. Americans have raised (elevaram) it to the level of a religion, with more than 30 million regular runners. Although slower to take it up, the British have recently started running in greater numbers three million in 1982 (2,080 men and 898.000 women). The Central Council for Physical Recreation says this official figure can be multiplied by five. There are many claims ( muito se fala sobre) made about the benefits of running, but there is no denying (no se podenegar) that running is good for you. It increases ( Ele aumenta) fitness and energy, lowers the risk of heart disease, releases tension and reduces sleeplessness. The writer recommends running as a sport because it: a) decreases your level of fitness b) improves your general health. c) requires a lot of money. d) reduces the need for sleep. e) raises the risk of heart disease. Compared to the Americans, the British: a) run more slowly. b) became interested in running later. c) practice it as a religious discipline. d) have more women runners. e) do not run as regularly.

Physical fitness

Fitness problems such as obesity and overweight (sobrepeso) have reached (encontrou/alcanou) truly epidemic proportions (uma real proporo epidemica) in the United States. In the last 10 years, obesity rates (taxas de obesidade) have increased by more than 60 percent among adults. In 1999, 61 percent of the adult population was either overweight or obese. The obesity epidemic impacts other diseases as well (tambm). For example, the incidence of type 2 diabetes, a major consequence of obesity, is on the rise (aumentando). Among (entre) U.S. adults, diagnosed diabetes increased 49 percent from 1990 to 2000. The rate of increase in overweight (a taxa de crescimento do sobrepeso entre) among young people has been even steeper (est aumentando). This is particularly troubling (principalmente problemtico) since many (uma vez que) of the behaviours that lead (muito do comportamento que leva a) to adult obesity are established during childhood (infncia). Just 10 years ago, type 2 diabetes was virtually unknown in children and adolescents. Indeed (de fato), the medical community commonly referred to the condition as "adult onset diabetes." Today, it accounts (contabiliza quase) for almost 50 percent of new cases of pediatric diabetes in some communities. Medical complications associated with obesity in children can lead (pode levar a) to hospitalizations for type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, and asthma (asma). Since 1980, the percentage of children who are overweight has nearly doubled (quase dobrou), and the percentage of adolescents who are overweight has nearly tripled. Almost 9 million young Americans, or about 15 percent of all children, are overweight.

Americans young and old should incorporate regular physical activity into their everyday lives. This does not necessarily mean joining an expensive gym (isso no significa necessariamente comear uma ginstica cara) or committing to a rigorous exercise or training routine. It is sufficient to choose activities that fit (que se encaichem) into your daily routine that speed your heart rate and breathing, or increase your strength and flexibility. Examples include walking to work, gardening, taking extra stairs, or mowing the lawn with a push mower ( cortar a grama com cortador de grama). Besides ( alm de) building strength and aerobic fitness, regular exercise relieves stress, provides motivation, promotes relaxation, and facilitates sleep. Such activity reduces the risk of dying (usa ing pois dye est depois da prep. of) of coronary heart disease and decreases (diminui) the risk for colon cancer, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Regular physical activity is important throughout life. Healthy lifestyles are more influential than genetic factors in avoiding deterioration traditionally associated with aging. The growing number of older Americans places increases demands (est no fato/ reside na demanda crescente) on the public health system and on medical and social services. Currently, almost one-third of total U.S. health care expenditures are for older adults. These expenditures are largely due (so amplamente devidos) to treatment and care of chronic diseases, and the cost associated with many of these conditions could be reduced through (atravs) regular physical activity.

For children, almost any physical activity is sufficient as long as they are moving (com tanto que/ desde que elas estejam se movendo). Playing actively or participating in athletic or physical fitness activities during school, running, biking, jumping rope, and dancing instead of watching television or playing video games all provide children with the kinds of activity they need (tudo isso d a criana as atividades que ela prescisa).

1. Retire do texto acima: a. Dez exemplos de palavras idnticas ou semelhantes aos vocbulos da lngua portuguesa. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ b. Cinco exemplos de palavras no cognatas da lingua inglesa cujos significados voc j conhecia antes da leitura do texto. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

2. Com base no contexto, deduza o significado das palavras sublinhadas: 1. It is sufficient to choose activities that fit into your daily routine that speed your heart rate and breathing or to increase your strength and flexibility. suficiente escolher as atividades que se encaichem na sua rotina diaria que acelerem o seu ritimo cardiaco ou respirao ou aumentem sua

flexibilidade____________________________________________________________ 2. Besides building strenght and aerobic fitness, regular exercise relieves stress, provides motivation, promotes relaxation, and facilitates sleep.

Alm de dar fora e se exercitar, o exerccio fsico regular alivia o stress, proporciona motivao, promove relaxamento e facilita o sono. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. The growing number of older Americans places increases demands on the public health system and on medical and social services. O crescente numero de idosos americanos reside no aumento da demanda do sistema de sade pblica e nos servios mdicos e sociais. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

3. Retire do terceiro e ltimo pargrafos do texto: a. Exemplos de atividades fsicas que podem ser realizadas por adultos. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ b. Os benefcios que estas atividades podem trazer. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ c. Os riscos que estas atividades podem evitar. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

d. Exemplos de atividades fsicas que podem ser realizadas por crianas. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

Voc ler a seguir um texto intitulado Why is Recycling Important? Antes de iniciar a leitura, reflita sobre o que voc j leu ou sabe a respeito do assunto (o que recycling, materiais, processos, benefcios/vantagens, etc). Agora leia o texto a seguir e verifique se ele apresenta informaes que no foram mencionadas na questo anterior.

Why is Recycling Important? Did you know that you can help the environment in a lot of ways by recycling various materials? Read on to know how it can help protect and preserve the natural resources of our Mother Nature.

What is Recycling? Before knowing the importance and benefits of recycling and its relation to a better environmental condition, it is essential to understand what is recycling. Recycling refers to the process of collecting used materials which are usually considered as 'waste' and reprocessing them. In this process these used materials are sorted and processed to be used as 'raw materials' (material prima) for the production of new products. It varies from 'reuse' in the sense that while reuse just means using old products repeatedly, recycling means using the core elements (elementos centrais) of an old product as raw material to manufacture new goods. Some of the most common items that are recycled are plastic, glass, paper, aluminum, etc. Process of Recycling The recycling process involves three stages. In the first stage, the old products are collected and processed, where they are sorted, cleaned and made ready for recycling or manufacturing new products. The second stage involves the manufacturing of new products from the raw material obtained by the processing of the old products. Finally, the process ends with the purchasing of recycled goods by the consumers. The more people step forward to buy recycled products, the better the success of the process can be ensured. Buying recycled products will only increase when every individual will develop an awareness of the difference that can be made by utilizing their old household objects as raw materials to produce new goods and help the environment by recycling.

Let's now see why is recycling important. Saves Energy When new products are manufactured from the raw material obtained from recycled products, it saves a lot of energy which is consumed for production. When new products are manufactured from 'virgin materials', the amount of energy consumed is much higher. Besides, the energy required to acquire and transport the 'virgin' raw materials from their natural sources is also saved. Add to that the energy which is required to clean and protect the environment from the pollutant waste products, especially those which are non-biodegradable (plastic) and fill up the landfill areas.

Saves Environmental Conditions and Reduces Pollution Recycling helps in preventing global climate change to a great extent. By minimizing the energy spent on industrial production, it also helps in reducing greenhouse gas emission. Some of the major fossil fuels used in most industries include coal, diesel, gasoline, etc. All these emit harmful gases such as methane, sulfur dioxide, carbondioxide to the environment. The processing of fresh raw materials also creates toxic materials which pollute the environment. By reducing the energy used, it also minimizes the amount of fuel usage which in turn reduces the amount of harmful pollutants in the environment. Saves Natural Resources We know that recycling involves the processing and usage of core elements of an old product for the production of new products. This helps in saving our natural resources to a great extent. For example, once an old newspaper is recycled we do not need to use the resource of another tree to produce new paper products. This way, proper recycling can help us preserve our natural resources for our future generation and maintain the balance in nature. Economic Benefits Similar to energy and natural resources, recycling also helps in saving a lot of expense, required for the production of new products from 'virgin' materials. These expenses include the entire production cycle starting from acquiring the raw materials, transferring them from their place of origin to production places, processing and manufacturing costs. It creates employment opportunities for a lot of people, involved in the various stages of the process. This in turn contributes to the economic development of a state or country. Saves Space for Waste Disposal Most of the landfill sites are filled up with a lot of waste products that could have been recycled effectively. Some of these waste materials belong to the non-biodegradable category which takes a long time to decompose. Recycling enables proper usage of these waste products and saves space for landfills. The pace with which landfills are getting filled up, soon we might run short of landfills unless we start following recycling at our own home and spread the word to others.

Interesting Recycling Facts It is said that every person creates around 4.7 pounds of waste everyday. In the United States about 33.4% solid waste is recycled, 12.6% is burned in combustion facilities and about 54% is disposed of at a landfill site. Recycling an aluminum can preserves enough energy required to run a 100-watt bulb for 20 hours, a computer for 3 hours or a TV for 2 hours. Isn't it an interesting fact? About 125 recycled aluminum cans save up enough energy required to supply power to one home for 1 day. Recycled aluminum cans, are ready for reuse in just six weeks! An amazing fact about glass is that it never wears out and can be recycled forever. A glass bottle takes approximately 1 million years to decompose in a landfill site. A recycled glass bottle can save enough energy to run a computer for 25 minutes. Recycled glass containers can save about 9 gallons of fuel. Another amazing fact - recycled paper produces less air pollution than if it was made from raw materials. Each ton of recycled mixed paper can conserve energy equivalent to around 185 gallons of gasoline.

Recycling is an important step to undertake for preserving our planet by reducing environmental pollution and conserving energy. Hope this article has given you an insight about its benefits.

1. Leia o texto e responda: a. Como o autor define Recycling? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

b. Que materiais podem ser reciclados? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

2. Volte ao texto e encontre o equivalente em ingls das seguintes palavras: Importncia Essencial Materiais Elementos Papel Alumnio Causas Proteger Poluio Preservar Relao Processo Produo Plstico Baterias Benefcios Energia ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Biodegradvel ___________________________________ Emisso Decompor 3. Traduza: a. Recycling refers to the process of collecting used materials which are usually considered as 'waste' and reprocessing them. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ b. In this process these used materials are sorted and processed to be used as 'raw materials' for the production of new products. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

____________________________________________________________________ c. recycling means using the core elements of an old product as raw material to manufacture new goods. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ d. Buying recycled products will only increase when every individual will develop an awareness of the difference that can be made by utilizing their old household objects as raw materials to produce new goods and help the environment by recycling. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

4. Responda, em ingls, em 10 linhas. Voc concorda com o texto? O que tem sido feito na sua casa, faculdade, trabalho ou cidade com relao ao assunto tratado? 1_____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 5_____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 10____________________________________________________________________