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Process Instrumentation, part 2: Control Loops and the Control Valve

CM4120 Unit Operations Lab January 2010


What is a Control Loop? A look at Regulatory Control Valves PID Controllers and terminology Instrument Connections to a Distributed Control System

Typical Control Loop

All elements of a loop have same loop number

Elements of Control Loop

Input side: TE Element to measure temp
RTD vs. T/C

TT Transmitter sends signal Dashed line - signal transmission line

Elements of Control Loop

Controller: TIC Temperature Indicating Controller Shared Display, Analog signal

Elements of Control Loop

Output side: TV Valve to regulate steam flow TY Transducer converts electric signal to pneumatic

Solid line w/ dashes is pneumatic signal line F.C. is Fail position


Regulatory Control Valve

(F.O. or F.C.?)

Trim set desirable to have flow linearly proportional to valve position for good control

Valve Trim Inherent Characteristics

Quick Opening safety by-pass type Large flow response when valve starts opening is more important than linear response Equal Percentage ~ 80% of all control valves provides linear response to valve position Linear used when majority of system pressure drop is due to valve position

Valve Trim Sizing: Flow Coefficient vs. Valve Position

By definition: for Cv = 1, 1 gpm flow w/ 1 psi pressure drop across valve


QO 0.5 Linear =% 0 0 20 40 60 80 Stem Position (% Open) 100

Valve Selection Example

Control flow of reflux to distillation column Determine pressure drop: @ design flow @ expected min/max flow



System Response based on Pump/ Piping System

Design Range of flow is 100 to 200 gpm:
Increase in valve opening less P across valve, but w/ increased line losses and decreased total available head from pump
25 Pressure Drop (psi) 20 15 10 5 0 0 50 100 150 Flow Rate (GPM) 200 Line Losses Valve P Pump Head


Installed Characteristic
Size the valve trim, then select valve characteristic w/ the most linear response:
Installed Flow Rate (GPM) 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 Stem Position (% Open) 100 =% Valve Linear Valve

use Equal Percent Characteristic valve to achieve a linear Installed Characteristic


PID Controllers


Review of Controller Terminology

Process Variable (PV) = Measured variable of interest, in EU Setpoint (SP) = Desired value of the PV, in EU Output (OP) = Controller output, 0-100% Error = Difference between Setpoint and PV


Relating this to our Control Loop:


Process Variable Output


Controller Terminology
PID control Dynamic equation that is used to match the controllers response to a measured disturbance. Goal is to minimize disturbance and return to setpoint Equation is tuned to match process response using up to 3 tuning constants


Controller Terminology
Tuning Constants: Proportional term Adjusts output proportional to the error, Gain Integral term Added to output based on error existing over time, Reset Derivative term Additional adjustment to output based on rate of change of error, Rate


Evolution of Controllers
1930s Pneumatic Controllers air pressure w/ flappers, bellows, and valves adjust valve position based on measured process variable for P, PI, later PID control 1950s Electronic Controllers transistors, resistors, and capacitors for P, PI, PID control capable of remote installation 1960s Mainframe Computer Control Refineries were typical users Alarming capability and supervisory control Single point of failure, no user-friendly graphical interface

Evolution of Controllers
Late 1970s Distributed Control Systems (DCS) Networked computers distributed thru plant Pre-configured controllers Data archival capabilities Included an operator console Hardware is proprietary Late 1990s DSCs built on commodity hardware platforms Better scalability Affordable Interactive graphical interface

Emersons DeltaV System current state of the Technology

PID control Discrete logic control Signal conversions Alarming Fuzzy control, etc. are continuously executed by the MD controller


Wiring Systems Connect Transmitters to DCS at the Instrument End:

Wiring to field junction cabinet RTD or T/C head

Level transmitter

Wiring from transmitter to temp measuring element Temperature transmitters


Wiring Systems Connect Transmitters to DCS at a Marshalling Cabinet:

Single pairs from field devices 8 pr. Cables to controller cabinet

8-pr. cables run from Field Junction Box (Marshalling Cabinet) to Distributed Control System

Wiring Systems Connect Transmitters to DCS in the Controller Cabinet:

DeltaV MD controller I/O cards Power-limiting Zener barriers 8 pr. cables from field junction cabinet 2nd I/O chassis w/4-20 mA Output cards


Wiring Systems Connect DCS to Transducers at Marshalling Cabinet:

8-pr. cable from controller cabinet

Current to pneumatic transducers Air lines to control valves Wire prs. to transducers


Regulatory Control Valve

Air line from I/P transducer Actuator w/ positioner Control valve

Block valves Bypass valve


Output Signals from Control System to Control Solenoids

Solenoids for 2-position air-actuated ball valves Air lines to ball valves Wire prs. to solenoids 8-pr. cable from controller cabinet


Installed Field Devices: Ball Valve w/ Actuator

Air line from solenoid Ball valve body Actuator Process line


DeltaV & Foundation Fieldbus

(4) mass flows, (4) densities, and (4) RTD temps (3) 8-multiplexed RTD temps (2) temp-only transmitters (1) wire


Miller, Richard W., Flow Measurement Engineering Handbook, 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996. Riggs, James B., Chemical Process Control, 2nd Ed., Ferret Publishing, Lubbock, TX, 2001. Taylor Instrument Division, The Measurement of Process Variables, no date. www.emersonprocess.com/rosemount/, Rosemount, Inc., Oct. 2006. www.emersonprocess.com/micromotion/, Micro Motion, Inc., Oct. 2006. www.ametekusg.com/, Ametek, Inc. Oct. 2006.