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CODIFICATION OF FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) AND ITS PROBLEMS DURING CURRENT AGE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ALLAMA IQBAL

Asim Syal, Umar Hayat (2004) CODIFICATION OF FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) AND ITS PROBLEMS DURING CURRENT AGE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ALLAMA IQBAL. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi. codification of fiqh, allama iqbal, fiqah, quran, hadith, ijtihad, islamic legislation, womens right Abstract Principles of Fiqh were introduced to solve problems in accordance with the time attempted to conform the principles derived from the Quran and Hadith to human nature Iqbal occupies a unique place among these scholars. His thoughts are based on the Quran and Hadith , therefore he is deemed to be an authority for codification of Fiqh. He studied deeply the modern theories & thinks their concordance with the fundamentals of Islamic civilization a mean for the success of humanity. In this background his ideas provides a base for answering the following these question:- 1 Conformity Iqbals Conception of Ijtihad with the Quran and Sunnah 2 Views of scholars about his conception of Ijtihad 3 Practical implementation of his conception in current period and its results Iqbal ka Taswwar-i-Ijtihad by Dr Masud motivated me to undertake this research.
If major religions believe that the divine resides, or at least guides each individual, they must not stop their ears from listening to others, nor close their hearts to the possibility that alternative and equally important forms of divine inspiration may be issuing from non-heteronormative persons. Furthermore, if these religions believe in that sanctity, freedom and intellect are divine gifts, it is incumbent upon them to at allow that sacredness, liberty and wisdom to flourish through avenues of discourses that respect the individual's right to read, compare, assess and decide. God is much bigger than the sacred texts and sacred traditions of major religions - in fact, those texts and traditions find their origins precisely in human experiences.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)

ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SELECTED BOOK ON FUN RIJAL (SCIENCE OF LIVES OF TRANSMITTERS)


., Samiyyah (2005) ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SELECTED BOOK ON FUN RIJAL (SCIENCE OF LIVES OF TRANSMITTERS). PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD) Subjects: Social Sciences(g) > Religious Studies(g18) Deposited Mr. Zeeshan Khan By:
Abstract Religious Knowledge among other knowledges is like a heart in a body. A

man devoid of this knowledge in the word of Quran is worse than animal. The developed nations, despite material progress, are deteriorating as far as morals and ether are concerned. Hadith is also a form of divine revelation as explained by the prophet verbally and practically. It explains the verses of the Quran. There is every possibility of addition and alliteration in Hadith as mostly significance of the words of prophet is transmitted. As Hadith is classified into Mutawatir (continuous) and Ahad ( single & isolated), it needs Jarh (contestation) and Tadil (Justification) of narration. It was duty of Muslims to keep traditions in their original form. Beginning of Sanad (Chain of narrators), its importance and utility. The chain of narrations started when one said; I heard this tradition from such and such companion of the prophet. Acceptation and rejection of hadith mainly based on narrators. To known trustworthiness or otherwise of the narrations to called science of the lives of narrators (Fun AL- Rijal). Seemed name of this science is AL-Jarh (contestation) Wa AL-Tadil (Justification). Ilm AL-Rijal is also defined as a science pertaining to the gradation of a hadith as Dhaif (Weak) and Sahih (Sound) by technical standards laid down for the purpose. Al-Jarh- Defects of narrator which make his narration prone to contestation and challenge. AL-Tadil. technically mean moral & behavioral quantification of a narrator which justifies his narration. Importance of Al-Jarh Wa AL-Jadil. It is this science which enable us to sift true from untrue. By protecting tradition, we protect Islam. It is incumbent upon the Muslims collectively to know this science in orders to achieve the aim & object of Islamic law. It guards the Muslim from evil. Rationale be kind selecting this Subject- The works on Ilm Al-Rijal are of different kinds. I have tried to collect them in my dissertation keeping in view their importance. The book on this science can be classified as under:-

1Biography of the companions of the prophet. 2Biography of the other authentic narrators along with the companions 3Biography of the General narrators, wherein they have been Judyed as trustworthily or otherwise 4Biographies of defector narrators 5Biographies of narration of special books 6Biographies of narration wherein their name and Surnames ---7Biographies of narrators who names are akin to one and other in writing but different in pronunciation. Subject wise Classification of above mentioned sources 1Narrators mentioned by their genealogies 2Gradation of narrations as companions and followers. 3Narrations mentioned according to the countries they belonged to 4Narration mentioned alphabetically I pray that this dissertation of mine may serve as guide for students of Hadith

Is Islam a free market religion?


I made a mistake in presuming that the self-interests of organizations, specifically banks and others, were such that they were best capable of protecting their own shareholders and their equity in the firms The problem here is something which looked to be a solid edifice, and, indeed, a critical pillar to market competition and free markets, did break down. And I think that, as I said, shocked me. I still do not fully understand why it happened and, obviously, to the extent that I figure out what happened and why, I will change my views. Alan Greenspan and in their riches, the beggars and the dispossessed have what is truthfully their due Al-Quran, 51:19 Is Islam a free market religion?

It is odd that many Muslims are still vehemently championing a free market despite the global economic downturn it has caused. The common libertarian Muslim argument emphasizes the simplistic claim that the prophet Muhammad PBUH was a trader, but lately we are hearing much more. Consider for example, Mustafa Akyol who went so far as to claim that the sources and history of Islam point to a freemarket economy not a command economy.[1] This became the basis for him to draw further daring conclusions: He added that the gap between the rich and poor is not only inevitable, but is in fact assured by the Quran. [2] Akyol also claimed that Muhammad himself was a libertarian. Not only did he lavish praise for the pursuit of profits, Muhammad was also alleged to have said only Allah governs the market when he was asked to regulate prices after some merchants were charging high prices for their products.[3] These may appear to be bold, if not wholly unorthodox, claims, but they are not rare. Akyols book, Islam Without Extremes which essentially argues that Islam is libertarian at heart can be found in almost every major bookstore in KL. In fact, I have heard the resonance of Akyols arguments even in my conversations with Malaysians, namely among one or two personalities at IDEAS and their allies. Other things I have heard include the claim that the Prophet tolerated the wealth gap, encouraged individualism in the market and so forth. In other words, Islam was libertarian way before Adam Smith was born. Muslims and the economy The problem of course is that matters are not as simple as they make it out to be. For one, the claim that Islam is in essence a free market religion would not be so problematic if not for the fact that one can easily point to counter examples and perspectives that argue the complete opposite. Ali Shariati for one believed that the Islamic faith is fundamentally about the liberation of the oppressed. The oppressed in this case, of course, includes the working poor. Their liberation goes beyond the mere occasional voluntary charity towards ensuring their voice in the governing process altogether within a polity that maintains a just economic system that would eradicate the oppression imprinted in a free market. There was no place, in Shariatis philosophy, for the supposition that the rich should be special just because they are rich. Poet-philosopher Muhammad Iqbal is another interesting example. Cognizant of the oppressive workings of an unregulated capitalist economy, he held that Islam provided the framework to envision a just alternative to free market capitalism. Because justice stands at the core of what Islam is supposed to be about, Iqbal argued that Islam can be a middle path for the unresolved problems

in socialism and capitalism. An economic system founded on Islamic principles will protect one class from the domination of the other, be it capitalist on worker or worker on capitalist. Now, perhaps Shariati and Iqbal are not the best examples, as Muslim libertarians can easily dismiss them for veering too far to the left. Lets consider then, in the interest of balance, Sayyid Qutb who was executed after years of torture and imprisonment under Nassers socialist regime. Did that eventually turn him to capitalism? No. Qutb in fact persisted to write and speak vehemently against the moral corruption inherent to the free market ethos, claiming that wealth on one side and a lack of it on the other produces profound corruption, greater even than that produced by hatred and rancor. [4] He emphasized instead communalwealth which he felt was more Islamic and could be more effective in alleviating poverty. Therere others: Ibn Taymiya saw nothing wrong with commerce but he condemned monopolies and endorsed price controls to ensure that goods are only to be sold at a fair value. Ibn Rushd was full of praise for Platos Republic, because Platos ideal city denied private property to ensure the absence of greed and exploitation among its citizens. This is to say little of the fact that many notable figures in the history of Islam shunned material weatlh altogether for the potential spiritual corruption it can lead to: Abu Dhar Al Ghifari and Hassan Al-Basri are just two who immediately come to mind as this is being typed. In other words, the philosophy of economics in the history of Islam is a complex discourse. True, Islam free marketers can make a good case for the virtues of the market, especially via the corpus of Ibn Khaldun. But it wont be a simple straightforward argument favoring the markets side, for even a cursory reading of Islamic intellectual history will show the great extent to which it is notapparent, as Akyol easily takes for granted, that all of Islam points only to only a free market economy. [5] Anyway, there is a more fundamental question we must reflect on: What explains the prominence of suspicions against wealth and the purported virtues of the market among Islams greatest thinkers? A blogpost would not be sufficient to exhaustively explore this question but there is a shorter answer in the fact that Islam was never about a libertarian economy to begin with. I have written a very brief piece on the progressive core of Islamic economics in another post. For now, it would suffice to note that the fundamental principle of Islam is social justice. Justice by definition is social because it is about harmonious relations between citizens. This is why Tawhid is more than simply a theological commitment. It is also an ideal of justice. Tawhid, defined as onenness, is constituted by balance and unity. Having a large gap of wealth between the rich and the poor the gap that Akyol claims the Quran assures and by implication renders acceptable is a clear breach of that ideal.

Tawhid in fact is one of the reasons why riba is prohibited, for it upsets the equality of what is loaned and paid. Tawhid is what is behind the Quranic insistence that and in their riches, the beggars and the dispossessed have what is truthfully their due (51:19). Tawhid is the reason why the Muhajirun gave up their wealth to migrate to Madinah. Tawhid is the reason why manumission was so often encouraged. There are many other examples, examples of Islams noble moral demands that would raise serious questions about how the effects of a free market which have proven to create wars, damage the environment, compromise basic ethical principles, exploit workers, and now shortchanging even the middle class - can be accepted as negligible outcomes of a flawless invisible hand at work, as if that was what Allah and the Prophet Muhammad had intended for us all along.

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[1] His argument is all the more peculiar when one begins to ask who, what and where exactly in the sources and history of Islam that Muslims are urged to establish a free market economy. For this, Akyol points to the work of Marxist historian Maxime Rodinsons seminal work Islam and Capitalism, which argues that Islam is essentially a religion of capital par excellence. [2] It is ironic, if not altogether disingenuous that Akyol would cite a Marxist historian. The strategic ploy here is evident, since he was writing his article against Muslim socialists. But he does this to his detriment as Muslim socialists can easily reply by citing evidences against Akyols from within the Islamic tradition itself. [3] Akyol does not cite the source for this Hadith although based on the censures against greed and wealth for wealths sake thats spread throughout the Quran and Sunnah, I personally have serious doubts about its authenticity. [4] Qutb, S. (2000) Social Justice in Islam. Islamic Book Trust: Kuala Lumpur. Pg. 136. [5] If Muslims have to pick a present day ideological partner, they would gain much from engaging with social democracy than any other modern economic outlook, in my opinion.

On hijab and segregation: some notes about AlAhzab, 53


Note: A friend recently posted an article on Facebook regarding a PhD dissertation in Al-Azhar which recently challenged the common claim that thehijab / tudung is a mandatory obligation for

Muslimahs. This argument has been made before by many Muslims activists and thinkers throughout the 20th century but that it is now acknowledged by Al-Azhar, the eminent Islamic university in the world, with an excellent grade on top of that is indeed newsworthy. Reading the article reminds me of my notes on verse 53 of Surah Al-Ahzab, which I will take the liberty to post here. In it the word hijab is mentioned, although not as an article of clothing necessarily but a tool of gender segregation. I cannot claim expertise on the complex history of this verse, but I think whats been said of its background and origins in some well known tafsirs is worth noting. Lastly, my own limited opinion is that the hijab ultimately is a matter of personal choice. It is purely legitimate for one to wear it as a mark of ones piety or commitment to Islam. What I think is the real issue of concern is how womens clothing or more to the point: womens bodies end up being the battleground and tool of control and conformity for religious elites seeking to solidify their power. Preliminary Notes: Al-Ahzab, 53 The passage that is often quoted to argue for the segregation of genders is verse 53 of Al-Ahzab. Chronologically, it was the first verse to speak of covering women. It reads as follows:

Muhammad Asad translates this verse as follows: O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not enter the Prophets dwellings unless you are given leave; [and when invited] to a meal, do not come [so early as] to wait for it to be readied: but whenever you are invited, enter [at the proper time]; and when you have partaken of the meal, disperse without lingering for the sake of mere talk: that, behold, might give offence to the Prophet, and yet he might feel shy of [asking] you [to leave]: but God is not shy of [teaching you] what is right. And [as for the Prophets wives,] whenever you ask them for anything that you need, ask them from behind a screen: this will but deepen the purity of your hearts and theirs. Moreover, it does not behove you to give offence to Gods Apostle just as it would not behove you ever to marry his widows after he has passed away: that, verily, would be an enormity in the sight of God. The Qurans demand to Muslims to speak behind a screen to the Prophets wives is often read along with other eventual Quranic demands to women to cast their jilbabs over their persons (33:59-60) and to hide their ornaments (24:30-31) further adding to the idea that women are to be concealed as much as possible from the public male gaze. The phrase waraa I hijabin (behind a screen) also evidently evokes the hijab, now synonymous with the veil.

Upon a closer look, however, Al-Ahzab 53 is in actuality a complex verse. It is, for one, full of rather particular contextual details. There is a location (the Prophets dwellings) and there are acts (meals, lingering). The Prophet is also described as shy. Much of these details are of course left out in casual references to this verse, to our detriment for, without further context, we would not really understand the screen, or in actuality, curtains, mentioned. [1] The first question is why the Quran would have to prohibit entry into the Prophets house? Commentaries point to the Prophet Muhammads wedding with Zainab Bint Jash as the context of this revelation.[2] The Prophet had invited some friends to eat (according to Anas bin Malik it was held at night andclose to three hundred people eventually attended).[3] Many of those eventually left after the meal, but a few more apparently stayed back to chat. Anas bin Malik also narrated that the Prophet had even hinted to his guests to leave, by standing up and leaving the room only to enter it later, only to find three men still lingering. The Prophet being a shy man was hesitant to tell them to leave. With so much traffic of people, many of whom strangers, in and out of the Prophets house, it was also unsurprising that some measure of protecting the Prophets wives were demanded, hence the mention of a screen. [4] Was this, as the current Muslim mind would have to ask, a prudish request, in fear of stoking sexual thoughts among strangers towards the Prophets wives? Or was this a caution for their safety? Commentaries suggest that the latter was a more likely answer. The Prophet may have established a constitutional state in Madinah, but there was no moral policing in the way that conservative Muslims demand today. The Prophet was also known to be open towards others: he spoke to sinners, warning, advising and engaging them, without ever the need to quarantine or isolate anyone. That some of them may have even attended the feast was confirmed by a statement known to have originated from Umar when he was taken aback at how the Prophet PBUH, during the feast, had let the righteous and the corrupt enter in on you. [5] At any rate, the fact that a revelation was needed to instruct the Medinan public on how to behave in the Prophets house is telling of the way that the Prophet himself lived. Put in more contemporary terms, he was no elite leader living behind a gated community. Historical accounts describe how he lived austerely with little possessions going so far as to deny his wives request for more luxury (hence, presumably, the absence of any revelation or narration addressing the need to protect the Prophets property during the feast).

In other words: being the charismatic leader he was the Prophet was known to have been rather flexible about having guests frequent in and out of his residence. We should recall that Madinah remained a precarious and in many ways divided society, in a state of constant alert for any potential attacks from neighbouring tribes or the grudging Quraysh in Mecca. The idea that women needed protection because of the context of that time was part of daily life there. Recall that most if not all the wars that the early Muslims fought occurred only during their Medinan phase. It appears that the verse, first and foremost, is not about the kind of strict segregation between genders that we find today, but about how one ought to behave in the house of the Prophet.

[1] (Maududi, 1999, p. 133) [2] (Al-Wahidi, 2008, p. 186) [3] (Hamka, 1987, p. 5764) [4] (Al-Wahidi, 2008, p. 187) [5] (Al-Wahidi, 2008, p. 187) and (Maududi, 1999, pp. 132-133) Works Cited Al-Wahidi (2008) Al-Wahidis Asbab al-Nuzul. Fonts Vitae: Louisville.Hamka (1987) Tafsir AlAzhar Juzu 22. Pustaka Nasional: Jakarta. Maududi, S. Avul ALa (1999) The Meaning of the Quran Vol. IV. Islamic Publications Ltd: Lahore.

In Memory of Dr. Ibrahim Abu Rabi & his Service to Risale-i Nur
I wish to dedicate this post to my friend, Dr. Ibrahim Abu Rabi. His services to Risale-i Nur were outstanding, to say the least. His sudden and unexpected death came while traveling to Jordan, Saturday, July 2nd, this year. His death at the early age of 55 shocked many of us, indeed, it was very sad news for all of us to lose such an exceptional scholar and important friend. We pray for his family now. We also pray that his invaluable services to better understanding of Islam in the United States will continue. Dr. Ibrahim was the first full-time Muslim faculty member at an accredited Christian Seminary, the Hartford Seminary. Once, in 2005, I was attending a conference at the Seminary in Connecticut, Dr. Ibrahim was the Chairperson for the conference. He and I were also in the company of Mehmet Firinci Agabey and Sukran Vahide, both arriving to the US from Turkey. We all really enjoyed the presentations on the Risale-i Nur. Dr. Ibrahim was the one person responsible for this conference taking place. I was coming from Phoenix, Arizona and at one point, Dr. Ibrahim told me: how about if we have the next Risale-i Nur conference in Phoenix? I was very happy for his encouragement of this suggestion. Inshaallah, his soul will be blessed and rewarded whenever our team holds seminars or lectures in Phoenix.

Needless to say, he brought so much good to very many people around the world. We will not forget him. May Allah increase His blessings on our good brother, Ibrahim Abu Rabi. Ameen. Dr. Osman Birgeoglu After a friend: Ibrahim M. Abu-Rabi by brahim zdemir

Ibrahim Abu Rabi was my friend and mentor . After quoting him in a private conversation, I heard the news that he was dead. Cahit Stk was once more proved right. We do not know when death will find us and where.
Maybe f or th i s reas o n , n ews o f u n ti mel y death s u psets u s. T hi s was th e case wi th Ibrah i ms death , wh i ch was u psetti n g n ot onl y for me bu t al so for all hi s Ch ri sti an , Mu sli m an d Jewi sh fri en ds. We al l agreed th at hi s death was too s oon . I m et Ibrah i m on a fin e day i n May in 1998. Du ri n g my servi ce as a vi si tin g profes so r at Harva rd Un i versi ty, Tu rki sh stu den ts en rol l ed i n th e u ni versi ti es i n th e H artford r egi on i n vi ted me o ve r. On my w ay fr om Bo ston to Hartf ord, we pass ed th rou gh a sea of green l i fe rej u ven ated afte r a h arsh wi nter. Amon gst th is beau ty, w e di scu ssed th e i ssu es an d o vera l l state of Mu sli ms an d Mu sli ms stu den ts i n th e Uni ted States. We c on ti nu ed thi s discu ssi on an d con ve r sati on wi th oth er frien ds ov er breakfa st. I as ked t h e au di en ce wh eth er th er e was a Mu slim academi c th ere an d th ey men ti on ed wi th prai se a Pal estini an prof es so r wh o h ad been of g reat h el p to th em. Th ey sai d: He pays atten ti on to u s an d ou r probl ems, h e in vi tes u s to h i s h ome an d ev er ybody k n ows h i m h ere. I a sked th em i f we cou l d pay hi m a vi sit, bu t th ey di d n ot h ave h i s ph on e n u mber. I ask ed i f we cou l d h ead to Hartf o rd Semi n ary, bu t they tol d me th at bec au se i t was Su n day, th ere was n o way th at we wou l d fi n d an ybody th ere. I repl i ed: It doesn t matte r, l ets do ou r j ob. B esi des, Hartf ord S emi n ary i s an i mportan t in sti tuti on an d I wo ul d li ke to se e i t. So we t ook of f. Th e wh ite buil din g of Ha rtford S emi n ary was i ndeed cl osed. Th e re was n obody th e re ex cept th e peopl e passi n g by on th ei r way to ch u rch . I wal ked aro u n d th e buildi n g and, at th at momen t, I saw som ebody comi n g ou t wi th a book i n h i s h an d. I a pp roach ed h i m an d asked i f h e kn ew Ibrah i m Abu Rabi . He sai d: He i s a fri e n d of mi n e. I wi ll call hi m u p i f you wan t me to. I n oti ced th at my fri en ds we re a li ttl e embarrass ed bu t I wa s r eall y h appy. Th ey qu i te ri ghtl y tol d me th at it was Su n day an d th at e ven Ameri can Mu sli ms di d n ot want to be both e red on th at day bu t I was d etermi n ed to

meet th i s gu y an d I wou l d take my ch an ces. On th e ph on e , I tol d hi m I was a prof ess or an d w ou l d li ke to meet h i m, s ayi ng: I kn ow i t i s Su n day, bu t I wou l d li ke to meet y o u an d I am h er e n o w. It i s a cu stom f or me to pay vi si ts to Mu sli m sch ol ars. Ibrah i m took th e off er wi th ou t h esi tati on , repl yin g: Wait for me th e re , I am comi n g. He wa s th ere i n 15 mi nu tes an d th u s ou r fri en dsh i p started. On th e ver y sam e day, Ibrah i m p rov ed h i s gen er osi ty, h i s most promi n en t featu re. H e i n vi ted me an d my f ri en ds over t o di n n er. After wards, I a sk ed my fri en ds permi ssi on to wal k wi th hi m al on e. To tal k more co mfortabl y, we h eaded to a n i ce pl ace by a l ake. It was li ke h eaven . Du ri n g my s tay i n Hartfo rd i n th e year s to c ome , I real iz ed th at Ibrah i m came h ere oft en an d, most o f th e ti me, w e wou l d come t oget h er. An autog ra phed b ook We l oved each oth e r by th e en d o f th at day. Bef or e w e part ed, h e gav e m e an au tograph ed cop y of h i s book , Th e In tell ectu al Roots of Isl ami c Movem en t, wh i ch was l ater tran sl ated in to Tu rki sh . I starte d readi n g i t th at ni gh t. Th ere was i n con si sten cy betwe en th e titl e an d th e con ten t of th e bo ok, wh i ch focu sed on th e Isl ami c movemen ts i n th e Arab worl d, l eavi n g th e oth ers asi de. Th i s was odd to m e an d I deci ded to l et hi m kn ow. I w rote to hi m: You r boo k i s great, bu t I th i n k someth in g i s mi ssi n g. No Isl ami c movem en ts fr om Tu rke y we re i n cl u ded. Said Nu rsi , M. Zah it K otku , S l eyman Hil mi Tu n ah an an d even Feth u ll ah G l en, n on e of th em a re men ti on ed i n th e book. Wh at do y ou mean by Isl ami c movemen ts? On l y poli tical on es? If so, th e Isl ami c moveme n ts in Tu rkey can n ot be an al yz ed an d u ndersto od. From h i s resp on se, I real i z ed th at h e was i n deed a se ri ou s sch ol ar. He sai d h e agreed wi th most o f my c ri ti ci sm an d h u mbl y tol d me th at h e did n ot kn ow Tu rk ey wel l . Thi s was a tu rn i n g poin t i n ou r fri en dshi p. I wou l d h el p hi m better u n der stan d Tu rkey an d th e Isl ami c movemen ts i n Tu rkey, a du ty I tri ed to perf orm wi th i mparti ali ty. Ibrah i m frequ en tl y in vi ted me to th e US an d h e pl ayed a key rol e i n my assi gn men t as vi si tin g profe sso r at Ha rtfo rd Semi n ary. I ref e rr ed to Ibrah i m as my m en tor. Th ats ri gh t; it i s n ot easy to gi ve l ectu res an d be come su cc ess fu l i n a di fferen t pl ace. I w a tch ed h i m cl osel y, atten di n g man y semi n ars, con f e ren c es an d oth e r ev en ts wi th him. Hi s fl u en cy i n En gli sh made ev en Ame ri can s admi re hi m. To pr o ve h i msel f as a Pal esti ni an i n th e US h e tau gh t i n En glish . Th i s was th e pri mary r eas on fo r

hi s assi gn men t as th e edi tor- i n- chi ef of Th e Mu sl i m Worl d jou rn al . He tau gh t me abou t th e En gl i sh l an gu age an d academi c wri tin g. Actu ally, h e di d more . He mad e su r e th at I atten ded semi n ars an d l ectu res on th es e su bj ects i n n earby u n i versi ti es. He al so w el comed m e i n to hi s h o me an d h e off er ed m e a pl ace to stay. I wa s h esi tant at th e begin ni n g, but I too k th e of fe r u pon h i s in si sten ce. We staye d togeth er fo r si x mon th s, du ri n g whi ch ou r f ri en dshi p tu rn ed i nto broth erh ood. I b ecam e part of h i s famil y. Du ri n g thi s peri od, I beca me famili ar wi th hi m, hi s famil y and hi s fri en ds. He h ad man y f ri en ds fr om di ffer en t backgrou n ds; Jews , Ch r i sti an s, Hi n du s, Bu ddhi sts an d even th ose wh o wo rsh i p goddess es . Vi cky was of th e l atter grou p. I bette r u n de rsto od th e pl u rali stic comp osi ti on of th e Ameri can soci ety th rou gh con ve rsati on s an d di scu ssi on s wi th h er. I b ecame acqu ai n ted wi th di fferen t c ol ors of th e Isl ami c worl d th rou gh Ibrah i m. He wel com ed all , ran gi n g from radi cal grou ps to S u fi s. Howev er , h e was abl e to embra ce all th ese di ffer en t an d di vers e c ol ors th rou gh h i s cri ti cal approach . Bu t fo r Ib rah i m, Tu rkey an d th e Tu rks we re di ffer en t. H e h ad a speci al in terest i n Tu rks. He l ov ed sayi n g: My gran dma was an Ottoman . My gran dpa met h er on hi s way back to Pal esti n e from th e Sar kam Battl e an d th en th ey got marri ed. Fo r th i s reason , I can be partl y con si dered an Ottoman . On e of h is desi res was t o l earn Tu rki sh an d foll ow Tu rki sh literatu re. Wh en I tol d hi m h e sh ou l d take l esson s from TM ER, h e acc epted wi th n o h esi tati on . He l eft h i s h ou se to me an d h eaded to stan bu l wi th hi s wi fe, ren ti n g an apartment in sk dar. Th rou gh ou t hi s li fe h e ma in tai n ed hi s fri en dshi p wi th Fari s K aya, wh o gav e h im Tu rki sh l esson s. At thi s ti me, h e became famili ar with Said Nu rsi an d th e Ri sal e -i Nu r commu ni ty; h e l oved hi m an d th ei r works , dedi cati n g hi s ti me an d en ergy t o i n trodu cin g th em to th e worl d for th e r e st of h i s li fe. I t ol d hi m i t woul d be best for h i m to get to kn ow oth e r Ri sal e -i Nu r grou ps an d h e a greed wi th me. Du ri n g hi s stay i n stan bul , h e met w i th fi gu res wh o kn ew Sa i d Nu rsi well an d h e asked th em qu esti on s an d took n otes. He tol d me th at h e wou l d l ove to se e F eth ull ah Glen wh en h e got ba c k to th e US. Th i s re qu est was forwa rded to G l en bu t th e state of h i s h eal th was n ot su i tabl e for th i s meet i n g. Th ey di d en d u p meeti n g l ater. Ib rah i m was pretty h appy as h e tol d me ov e r th e ph on e, I m et wi th a li vi n g Mu sli m l eader cl osel y an d I n ow

better u n der stan d h im. Learn ing from Fet hull ah G len He b eli eved th at th e Isl ami c movemen ts i n th e Arab wo rl d h ave a l ot to l earn from th e expe ri en ce an d acti on s of G l en . Hi s effo rts to better kn ow Tu rkey , th e Isl ami c movem en ts i n Tu rke y an d Mu sli m in tell ectu al s in flu en ced hi s sch ol arl y works as wel l . Th e best i ndi cator for th i s was th e presti gi ou s Th e Mu sli m Worl d j ou rn al , wh ere h e s er ved as edi tor - i n- chief. Th e j ou rn al , on ce a l eadi ng pu bli cati on for mi ssi on ari es an d Ori en tali sts, res er ved g reate r ro om fo r Mu sl i ms u n der h i s admini strati on . Th e n u mber of arti cl es au th ored by Mu sli m i ntell ectu al s an d sch ol ars was o n a con stan t ri se du rin g thi s peri od. Ibrah i m did n ot even fi n d thi s su ffi ci en t. He pu bli sh ed speci al i ssu es focu si n g on th e Isl ami c movem en ts i n Tu rkey, i n clu di n g i ssu es pu bli sh ed on Nu rsi , G l en an d th e Departmen t of Rel i gi ou s Affai rs i n Tu rkey. Th e pu bl i cati on s of Th e Mu sli m Worl d, wh i ch h as been sh o wn great atten ti on in li brari es an d u ni versi ti es in th e US and Eu rop e si n ce i ts fo u n dati on in 1911, reach ed ou t t o l arge mass es. I pe rson al l y wi tn essed t h e rol e Ibrah i m pl ayed i n thi s proce ss. I still remembe r h o w h e deal t wi th some boa rd memb ers of th e j ou rn al wh o argu ed th at th e j ou rn al h ad fall en un der th e c on trol of Mu sli ms an d h ow h e emph asi z ed th e n eed f or kn owl edge - based c oop erati on betwe en Mu sli ms an d Ch ri sti an s. At thi s poi n t, I wou l d like to t ell th e sec ret th at Ibrah i m h ad align ed hi msel f wi th th e Nu r c ommu n i ty an d hi s dedi cati on to fu l fillin g th ei r requ est s. Let me fi rst state th i s: I n eve r wi tn esse d a materi al dimen sion of th i s rel ati on shi p. Ibrah im expe cted n o mat e ri al gain ou t of th es e i n vi tati on s. Wh at mattered to h i m were Sai d Nu rsi an d hi s cau se. H e was i mpr ess ed by Nu rsi s dedi cati on an d stru ggl e. After h e l earn e d abou t Nu rsi , Ibrah i m sai d: He dedi cated hi msel f to Isl am an d h e h ad to go th r ou gh so mu c h in hi s stru ggl e. He h ad n o ch il dren or f ami l y th at woul d prom ote h i s cau se. We al l are h i s h ei rs an d ch ildren . We h av e to p rom ote h i s case. Nu r si s life i n exil e an d hi s commen ts on bei n g exil ed wer e parti cu larl y i mpressi ve to h i m. Th e n oti on of e xil e bore spe ci al meani ng for a Pal esti nian wh os e cou n try was oc cu pi ed by Is r ael an d wh ose r el atives w e re still li vin g in refu ge e camps. In addi ti on , h e al so tol d me th at h e fel t h e was i n exil e in the Ame ri can

soci ety despi te th e 25 year s h e h ad sp e n t i n th e cou n try. H e e ven pr es en ted thi s as a paper i n a symposi u m. For al l th ese rea son s, h e pa i d parti cular atten ti on Sai d Nu rsi an d hi s work s. He d i d everyth i n g, i n clu din g servi n g as edi tor i n th e pu bli cati on of work s an d bo oks on Nu rsi i n th e West ern w orl d. He atten ded ev en ts organ i z ed on thi s parti cul ar su bj ect all arou n d th e wo rl d. Li ke Mal col m X, h e travel ed ar ou n d, gi vin g l ectu res i n th e most pr esti gi ou s u ni versi ti es i n th e worl d. He n eve r tu rn e d down an y call or i n vitati on on thi s matter. H e di ed i n a h otel room i n Amman , wh ere h e w orki n g on con tri bu ti on s to th i s cau se. All al on e! Fari s tol d me th e n ew s o f h i s death . I cou l d n ot reach h i s wi fe Fatma for s ev eral days afte r h e di ed. S h e h ad l eft Can ada to get to h i m. Words we re i n su ffi cien t wh en I fi n all y got h er on th e ph on e. I read som e exc erpts fr om h adi th s an d Qu ran ve rs es th at an y Mu slim sh ou l d recall at su ch a ti me. Sh e repeat e d th e Isl ami c testi mon y of fai th . I wi tn essed th at th es e words a ctu all y comforted h er pai n an d sorr ow. Sh e tol d me th at Ibrah i m frequ en tl y sai d th at th ey wou l d move to stan b u l to spen d th ei r reti remen t. Ibrah i m fi n ally wen t to h i s h omel an d, Pal esti n e, wh ere h e w as bu ri ed wi th praye rs f rom fri en ds from all fai th s an d backgrou n ds all aro u n d th e worl d. May h e r est i n peac e!

*brahim zdemir is the President of Gazikent University.

About
Welcome to the official Risale-i Nur Institute of America fanpage developed and run by Osman Birgeoglu, Ph.D. PLEASE VISIT US to see more books in English of the Risale-i Nur Collection: http://nurpublishers.com/ Mission Changing peoples lives and benefiting humanity by discovering, developing, and strengthening genuine faith in God through the English translations of the Risale-i Nur Collection authored by world renowned scholar Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. Description This fanpage was developed and is run by Dr. Osman Birgeoglu, founder and director of Risale-i Nur Institute of America with its branches of Nur Publishers and the Nursi School of Theology. We will introduce treasures of the Qur'an through the Risale-i Nur Collection authored by Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. Dr. Birgeoglu was born in Balikesir, Turkey. He left home at age 12 to attend boarding school. He then continued his education at the University in Istanbul completing his PhD in electrical engineering in 1974. During his university years, Dr. Birgeoglu was introduced to Risale-i Nur in 1965 at the age of 17. Five years later, Osman Birgeoglu began his continued learning of the Risale-i Nur under the esteemed tutelage of several of Bediuzzaman Said Nursis top students, including Zubeyir Gunduzalp, Abdullah Yegin, Bayram Yuksel, Tahiri Mutlu, Mustafa Sungur, Mehmet Firinci, and Dr. Sadullah Nutku. Osman Birgeoglu in 1976 married his wife, Mebruke, niece of Mehmet Firinci and Sukran Vahide. Dr. Birgeoglu and his wife continued the Risale-i Nur service in California until they moved to Phoenix Arizona in August, 1993 where they currently reside and operate the Risale-i Nur Institute of America, its printing division, Nur Publishers and the newest branch, the Nursi School of Theology. Nur Publishers prints and distributes the English translation of the Risale-i Nur books not only for the United States but also for other countries such as Canada, England and Australia, and various European countries. Dr.

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A review of 'Homosexuality, Right or Crime'? Ahmad Fuad Rahmat Versi BM belum disediakan]
By Ahmad Fuad Rahmat Malaysia is a complex nation of ethnicities, languages, religions and cultures. In the best of times, this wealth of character can be a source of great pride an actual demonstration of how it can be possible that a society comprised of communities with different values can exist with relatively little to no threat of confrontation. In the worst of times, all this can mutate into a politics of petty threats and race baiting, or more worryingly, violence, as we are all too often reminded. Pada tahun 1950an-toking ini telah dibina khas untuk penganut agama Buddha. Tokong ini mempunyai senibina traditional Cina yang cantik dengan lantai yang dihiasi lukisan bungai teratai iaitu simbol suci agama Buddha. Kelas agama dan pemberian makanan hidangan vegetarian disediakan kepada penganut 2 kali sebulan. Sifu-sifu yang berpelajaran ilmu agama akan dijemput hadir untuk bacaan doa 2 kali sebulan untuk meminta keagamaan, kekayaan, kesejahteraan dan lain-lain lagi.
No, 58A, Jalan Raja Bot, Kuala Lumpur

Mengenai Kami
Projek Dialog adalah suatu projek kemajuan sosial yang ingin memajukan debat dan persefahaman antara pelbagai suku kaum dan agama di Malaysia. Dengan menggunakan pelbagai platform dan media, Projek Dialog membolehkan para sederhana dan toleransi untuk menyuarakan dan membincang isu-isu terkini. Kami juga menyebarkan maklumat melalui teknologi inovatif, seperti projek pemetaan AR. Projek Dialog disokong dan terdiri daripada beberapa organisasi yang progresif dalam pengendalian isuisu sosial di Malaysia. Untuk sebarang pertanyaan, Projek Dialog boleh dihubungi di editor@projekdialog.com

Dharma sebagai kod etika


Uthaya Sankar SB

(Arabic) Theory of Quranic Unity by Muslim Scholars and its Role in Islamic Thought.

Author(s) Amir Faisal Fath Institute/University/Department Details International Islamic University, Islamabad Session 2002 Subject Islam Number of Pages 505

Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis) Allah, Quran, Prophet Muhammad PBUH, Ulama, Tafaaseer, Suras, Verses, Thematic methodology, Muslims thinker Abstract The theory of unity of the Quran is one of the glaring manifestations of the sunnah of Allah. Allah SWT created this universe on the basis of unity, with all its parts interwoven with each other. Without this unity, the life in this world would be meaningless. In the human body, the small universe, we can easily find this unity. All parts of the body are joined to each other. As the Quran is the word of Allah, it is undoubtedly the best word, the greatest miracle of Prophet Muhammad PBUH and inimitable in all aspects. So it is impossible and unthinkable that it should be in disarray, contradictory and piled together in a haphazard manner. Many "Ulama" ( Muslim scholars) in the past and the present, studied this theory of Quranic unity in various ways. In their tafaaseer (commentaries) we find how they realized the multi-dimensional links among verses and suras. Imam AI-Razi, Imam Abu Hayyan, Imam AI-Biqa'ie, Muhammad Rashid Ridha, AI-Maraghi, Saeed Hawwa and others are some of the leading Ulama who focused on this issue. In specialized books on Ulum al-Qur'an, we find both Al-Zarkashy and AI-Suyuti presenting a special topic of interrelation of verses and suras. All these efforts indicate that Ulama have realized the existence of this theory and its importance in Quranic studies. Allah SWT who has revealed the Quran, has declared that this book is a united whole with all its parts

supplementing and complementing each other and without any contradictions or anomalies. The present Quranic order is God-revealed like its wording and expressions. Therefore, it is out of question that this book should be in disarray. No man worth the name wishes that his speech or writing be incoherent, disunited, and contradictory. He tries by all possible means to revise his speech or writing, time and again to arrange it in an orderly manner. If this is what one likes his speech or writing to be, how can one assume that Allah's words could be in disorder, despite the fact that His speech is the best of speeches as He is the real Knower and All-Wise. Going deeper we find that our Ulama paid a great attention to this theory, making it as a basis of their contributions to the field of Islamic Thought. We also see that in the field of Tafseer and Ulum al-Qur'an, there are various topics relating to Tafseer and Ulum al-Quran which are based on the theory of Quranic unity. For example, the thematic methodology in Tafseer, is based on the theory that the Quranic topics are interwoven and interlinked with each other. In Ulum al-Quran we find so many studies based on this theory, such as; interrelationship among verses and suras, Al-Aam wa al-khas, AI-mutlaq wa al-Muqayyad etc. All these studies indicate that theory of Unity of the Quran has played a leading role in these fields. Similarly, we see that the Modem Muslim Thinkers have emphasized this theory, and utilized it as a means for concept of reviving the Muslim Ummah, in the light of Quranic teachings. If we study for example Muhammad Abduh, Abul Ala AI-Maududi, Sayyed Qutb, and Muhammad Al-Ghazali, we would find that they frequently refer to the theory of the Quranic unity, and with more focus on it they think that the real message and objective of the Holy Quran can be more easily grasped. They assert that all the topics of the Quran are offshoots of the fundamental belief of Tawheed (there is no god only Allah), which is the real theme of the Quran. This, in there thought, reflects the basic principles that all the Quranic teachings must be implemented in toto, because the Quran does not distinguish between what relates to the ritual, social, political, economic and other aspects of life, mentioning all of them together. All these aspects according to the Quranic teachings are interrelated, complementing each other as one unity. On the basis of this understanding, they emphasize that if we really believe in the Quran, we must grasp this Quranic teaching about the unity

of our life. Therefore, it is absurd to differentiate between Quranic teachings on various subjects, clinging to some, and at the same time ignoring others or refusing them outright. This theory becomes important for two reasons: First, it helps in proper understanding of the Holy Quran, in its comprehensiveness and in grasping its message in the best possible way, contrary to those who take the Quranic verses in parts. The latter methodology can easily lead to apparent contradictions in its verses, as we see with Jabrites and Qadrites. Secondly, the enemies of Islam raise doubts about the order and sequence of the Quran to prove that the Holy Quran is a human works in its source and composition. With this theory, it becomes clear that the Holy Quran is well arranged, confirming its inimitability and miraculous nature, and refuting the ill-founded doubts and suspicions of the enemies of Islam.

Konsep dharma merujuk pada himpunan ajaran yang membimbing seseorang individu menjadi insan yang berhemah.

Seorang individu yang menghayati konsep dharma pasti tidak akan melakukan apa -apa perkara yang bertentangan dengan nilai dalam keluarga, kod etika pekerjaan dan norma dalam masyarakat. Pemahaman, penghayatan dan kepatuhan kaum India terhadap segala ajaran yang terkandung dalam teks-teks berkaitan Dharmasastra mampu menyumbang ke arah usaha mengatasi pelbagai masalah dalam masyarakat. Seperti yang saya huraikan minggu lalu, konsep dharma dalam budaya India bukan tuntutan agama Hindu semata-mata. Sebaliknya, memandangkan ajaran agama Hindu dan ajaran Dharmasastra samasama membimbing manusia ke arah kebaikan, maka ramai yang berpandangan bahawa Dharmasastra adalah sebahagian daripada konsep keagamaan Hindu. Pada waktu sama, ajaran agama Hindu turut digelar Sanatana Dharma iaitu agama yang abadi atau agama yang tiada permulaan dan tiada kesudahan. Satu lagi gelaran yang digunakan adalah Vaidika Dharma iaitu agama menurut kitab-kitab veda. Namun, sebenarnya, konsep dharma tidak terikat pada ajaran satu-satu agama. Sebaliknya, ajaran dharma secara langsung atau tidak langsung diterapkan juga dalam ajaran mana-mana agama utama dunia. Hal ini tidaklah menghairankan kerana setiap agama memang membimbing para penganut ke arah dharma. Kebenaran hakikat ini akan diperakui sekiranya setiap individu memahami ajaran sebenar agama anutan masing-masing.

Konsep dharma merujuk pada himpunan ajaran, peraturan, moral, nilai murni, etika, norma, tanggungjawab, hak dan sebagainya yang membimbing seseorang individu menjadi insan yang berhemah dalam keluarga dan masyarakat. Dalam budaya India, himpunan dharma ini dikategorikan sebagai Dharmasastra iaitu teks -teks yang mengandungi ajaran mengenai dharma. Topik -topik yang dibicarakan dalam teks Dharmasastra terbahagi pada tiga kumpulan utama iaitu acara, vyavahara dan prayascitta. Konsep acara merujuk pada tingkah-laku umum serta nilai-nilai murni yang menjadi amalan serta pegangan seseorang. Setiap individu perlu memelihara diri secara zahir dan batin supaya dapat menjalani hidup yang sempurna dan bersih daripada sebarang noda. Dalam budaya India, kemajuan dan kesejahteraan hidup seorang individu bukan hanya dipandang dari aspek duniawi (abhyudaya). Sebaliknya, aspek kebajikan spiritual dan rohani (nissreyasa) turut diberi perhatian. Kod etika Untuk mencapai kesejahteraan dari aspek duniawi dan rohani, seorang individu dikatakan perlu patuh pada acara iaitu semacam kod etika dalam kehidupan seharian. Sumber bagi kod etika yang disebutkan ini diambil daripada ajaran yang terkandung dalam veda, dharmasutra, smrti, nibandha, purana dan epik. Saya pernah menghuraikan perkara ini menerusi sebuah makalah di majalah Dewan Budaya (Oktober 2004). Veda adalah kitab suci yang menjadi panduan dalam kehidupan masyarakat India beragama Hindu. Dharmasutra pula koleksi teks-teks yang ditulis kemudian untuk menyampaikan ajaran veda secara lebih mudah. Memandangkan karya-karya dharmasutra masih sukar difahami dan diingat, para pemikir agung pada masa lampau telah menghasilkan smrti yang mengungkapkan konsep dharma dengan bahasa yang mudah dan berirama. Nibandha merujuk pada ensiklopedia atau teks-teks rujukan mengenai dharma yang disusun secara penuh sistematik. Manakala purana merujuk pada cerita-cerita mengenai dewa-dewi yang menerapkan ajaran dharma. Amalan positif berdasarkan kod etika (sadacara) menyumbang kepada kehidupan yang bahagia; manakala pelanggaran kod etika (duracara) mengakibatkan kesengsaraan dan kedukaan. Kod etika atau acara yang ditegaskan di atas meliputi diri individu terbabit, hubungannya dengan keluarga serta hubungan dengan Tuhan. Tanggungjawab melayan tetamu turut dijelaskan dalam kod etika ini dan ternyata masih sesuai dijadikan pegangan. Secara umum, vyavahara merujuk pada tingkah laku dalam masyarakat atau norma dalam hidup bermasyarakat. Secara lebih khusus, vyavahara turut melibatkan perihal undang-undang sivil dan undang-undang jenayah. Sebanyak 18 perkara utama dibicarakan dalam bahagian ini. Antaranya adalah isu berkaitan hutang, perkongsian dalam perniagaan, melanggar surat perjanjian, urusan jual-beli, perbalahan antara majikan dan pekerja, perselisihan mengenai persempadanan, serangan, rompakan, menculik wanita, hubungan suami-isteri serta pembahagian harta.

Mungkin sukar dipercayai tetapi hakikatnya adalah bahawa perkara-perkara di atas memang sudah diperkatakan dalam Dharmasastra yang ditulis ribuan tahun dahulu di India. Bagi mempastikan kestabilan dan keseimbangan dalam masyarakat berkekalan serta untuk memastikan norma (norms) dipatuhi, istana menjadi dewan perundangan. Raja yang bertindak sebagai hakim akan dibantu oleh sejumlah penasihat yang berilmu dan disegani. Demikian cara dharma dipelihara, dipegang dan dipertahankan pada masa lalu. Konsep dharma dalam budaya India sejak ribuan tahun dahulu tidak pernah menafikan hakikat bahawa manusia tidak terlepas daripada melakukan kesilapan. Maka, mengikut konsep prayascitta, individu yang melakukan kesalahan perlu diberi peluang untuk menebus dosa dan bertaubat. Dosa besar Istilah prayascitta merujuk pada perbuatan menebus dosa atau bertaubat. Dalam teks -teks Dharmasastra, diterangkan jenis-jenis dosa atau perbuatan yang melanggar kod etika (vyavahara) serta apa yang perlu dilakukan untuk menebus dosa berkenaan. Pelanggaran kod etika atau perbuatan dosa disebut pataka. Terdapat dosa besar (mahapataka) dan dosa kecil (upapataka). Contoh dosa besar dalam budaya India adalah meminum arak, membunuh dan sumbang mahram. Antara dosa kecil pula perbuatan tidak membayar hutang, menebang pokok, membunuh binatang dan mencuri. Hukuman yang dikenakan (prayascitta) pasti berbeza antara dosa besar dan dosa kecil. Terdapat banyak saranan hukuman dan denda yang diterangkan dalam Dharmasastra secara terperinci. Antara hukuman yang biasa bagi dosa-dosa kecil adalah berpuasa, memberi hadiah, melakukan upacara pemujaan khas dan memohon maaf. Bagi dosa besar pula, hukuman mati mungkin dikenakan; atau pesalah diminta membunuh diri. Mungkin ada perkara yang terkandung dalam konsep dharma kurang sesuai dengan masa kini. Malah, para pemikir agung yang menghasilkan teks-teks Dharmasastra ribuan tahun lalu sudah menegaskan bahawa mana-mana peraturan atau dharma yang kurang relevan harus diubah suai mengikut peredaran zaman. Konsep dharma dalam budaya India menyedari serta mengakui bahawa norma dalam masyarakat adalah tidak statik. Sebaliknya, ia sentiasa mengalami perubahan dan bersifat progresif. Malah, membuktikan bahawa dharma hidup sepanjang zaman. Apa yang cukup mengkagumkan adalah bahawa kebanyakan ajaran dalam Dharmasastra masih sesuai dijadikan amalan. Apatah lagi, konsep dharma menekankan aspek nilai murni, keharmonian keluarga, norma dalam masyarakat, etika, tanggangjawab dan hak individu. Saya pernah bertugas sebagai pensyarah subjek Pendidikan Moral di beberapa kolej swasta (1999-2007) dan perkara-perkara yang terkandung dalam konsep dharma masih terdapat dalam sukatan pelajaran secara langsung atau tidak langsung. Konsep dharma bukan hanya dibicarakan oleh masyarakat India beragama Hindu. Konsep yang sama turut terdapat dalam ajaran agama Buddha. Malah, konsep dharma terdapat dalam semua masyarakat yang mengakui kelompoknya bertamadun.

Walaupun mungkin istilah dharma tidak digunakan sebagai rujukan, sesungguhnya konsep dharma seperti yang diterangkan ini terus menjadi amalan dalam masyarakat India khasnya dan masyarakat seluruh dunia amnya. Uthaya Sankar SB memblog di www.uthayasb.blogspot.com dan boleh dihubungi melalui emel uthayasb@yahoo.com.my

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