National ESD and CCE policy analyses – BRAZIL Report

Rachel Trajber

Abstract
In Brazil, Environmental Education (EE) encompasses both CCE and ESD. It considers the inherent critical-participatory-emancipatory and transformative perspective as constitutive of its practices. The report provides an overview on the relations of EE and climate change legislations and public policies, as well as the practices and programs developed in the field of EE, CCE and ESD in Brazil. While in the past years Brazil established a legal framework for EE, climate change legislation shows little concern for education. At the same time, the Ministries of the Environment and Education adopted a number of initiatives in order to implement the EE policies. The Ministry of Education, in particular, developed a systemic perspective for EE in basic education. However, some challenges remain, including the limited impact of EE policies and programs, the need to assess the effectiveness of the existing programs, a need for continuity in capacity-building, and a need for schools-based EE policies to reach the totality of schools in the country. In addition, there are a number of on-going ESD and CCE policies and programs developed in other areas, but there is limited interaction between them. Beyond the problems of law enforcement and policies implementation, transforming cultural values is a difficult endeavour. A recent opinion poll on climate change mapped opinions in different sectors/stakeholders in Brazil, and concluded that climate change is on the agenda. The majority claimed to be concerned as individuals and citizens. Yet, the deep rooted question for EE / ESD/CCE is still how to generate creative educational strategies to motivate citizens, and decision-makers, to act towards sustainability.

1. Introduction: Geographic data, political system/culture/structure, societal challenges, CC, Education, ESD and CCE until 2008
Brazil1 covers nearly half of South America and is the continent's largest nation and covers a land area of 3,265,059 sq mi (8,456,511 sq km) and a total area of 3,286,470 sq mi (8,511,965 sq km). Population (2012 ): 205,716,890 (growth rate: 1.1%); life expectancy: 72.79; 62% of Brazilians are under 29 years of age. Today 81% of the
1Brazil: Maps, History, Geography, Government, Culture, Facts, Guide & Travel/Holidays/Cities — Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107357.html?pageno=1#ixzz2JOsXBGni
(29/01/2013)

population lives in urban areas, 19,900,000 in São Paulo ; 11,836,000 in Rio de Janeiro; and 7,789,000 in Brasília (Capital). The natural wealth includes not only one of the world’s most biodiversity rich ecosystems - which plays an important role in the global cycle ' the dense rainforest of the Amazon basin (covering 6.5 million km², i.e. around 60% of the country's territory), but also the important biomes of the savannah-like Cerrado, the arid shrub lands of the Caatinga, the Atlantic Forest, the grasslands of the Pampa and the wetlands of the Pantanal. Brazil’s ecosystems contain more than 15% of the plant and animal species known to science and hold 12% of the world’s available freshwater. Brazil is a Federal Republic made up of 26 States, one Federal District (Brasília), and 5,564 municipalities. It is a representative democracy, with a female President - Dilma Rousseff (2010-2014) - who acts simultaneously as Head of State and of the Federal Government. The country has a well-developed political and institutional system and is considered a stabilised democracy2. All legislative and executive bodies, at Federal, State and municipal levels, are elected with four-year mandates. The federal legislative body is the National Congress, consisting of the Federal Senate and of the House of Representatives (Chamber of Deputies). Each State has a State legislature and a directly elected Governor. The Constitution provides for an independent judiciary. Brazil stands out for its regional and social diversity, heterogeneity, disparities, different faces or identities, being known as a "land of contrasts"3. One can find ample evidence for countervailing trends: unity and diversity, modernity and tradition, progressive government policies and deeply rooted conservative authoritarianism, principles and pragmatism. The country has one of the most unequal income distributions, and poverty prevails in the various favelas (shantytowns) in metropolitan areas and in remote upcountry regions that suffer from economic underdevelopment and belowpar standards of living. Some of the most significant challenges for Brazil to adopt sustainable development include:

a lacking sense of urgency regarding the global socio environmental crisis and a recurrent conflict between conservation and development objectives, most decision-makers favour short-term economic interests, consider the environment as an impediment to economic growth, disregards environmental science, and turn sustainability into empty rhetoric; in order to promote sustainability, actions made to increase resilience to climate change, should be tackled together with the pervasive social inequalities, endemic corruption and the low educational level of the population, among other issues.

2 European Commission Country Strategy Paper - Brazil 2007-2013. http://eeas.europa.eu/brazil/csp/07_13_en.pdf 3 U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved from: http://countrystudies.us/brazil/19.htm

Brazilian scientists4 claim that although there are still few studies on the impacts of extreme climatic events, they are likely to affect Brazil’s natural ecosystems with potentially catastrophic consequences for the whole region. Human health and human settlements are vulnerable, especially in coastal lowlands, mega-cities and environmentally and socio-economically marginal areas. Global climate change and deforestation may lead to major shifts in the hydrological system of the Amazon. Brazil has adopted strong climate change legislation. The National Policy on Climate Change (Law No. 12187/09) passed in 29 December 2009, established a voluntary emission reduction target of 36.1% to 38.9% by 2020 with the year 2005 as baseline. The policy presents emission reduction targets for four designated strategic areas: deforestation (24.7%), agriculture and livestock (4.9% to 6.1%), energy (6.1% to 7.7%) and the steel sector (0.3% to 0.4%). It also incorporates all laws, measures and policies pertaining to climate change (i.e. the National Plan on Climate Change, the National Climate Change Fund, the sectoral plans for conservation of the country’s national biomes and others)5. In contrast, the Ministry of Mines and Energy’s Energy Expansion Plan for the period 2008–2017 launched days before the National Plan on Climate Change, establishes a potential conflict with the efforts to reduce GHG emissions and promote renewable energy6. Also in direct conflict with climate change trends is the 'pre salt' deep sea oil exploitations off the coast of Brazil, considered among the world's largest dirty energy project7.

Education8
The principles established in the 1988 Brazilian Constitution are the guidelines for national education. Specifically concerning environmental education (EE), the Constitution establishes (Chap. VI, Article 225), that “everyone has the right to an ecologically balanced environment, of common use, and essential to a healthy quality of life, imposing on public power and society the duty to defend and preserve it for present and future generations.” And emphasizes the need “to promote environmental education in all levels of education and public awareness to preserve the environment."
4 National Institute of Science and Technology for Climate Change. INCT for Climate Change, 2009.2010, Activity Report – São José dos Campos, 2010. 5 GLOBE- International. 2013, pgs. 4-5 6 Motta, Ronaldo Seroa da … [et al.]. – Brasília : Ipea, 2011. 7 Greenpeace International - Point of No Return: The massive climate threats we must avoid. Published in January 2013. 8 Informations for this part was retrieved from several sources: http://portal.mec.gov.br/index.php?option=com_content&id=12407 , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Brazil , http://www.un.int/brazil/brasil/brazil-education.htm#ORG , Brazil - Constitutional Legal Foundations - Education, Educational, Law, and Primary – StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/196/Brazil-CONSTITUTIONAL-LEGAL-FOUNDATIONS. html#ixzz2JaBGD8WZ

Other important legal tools for education are: the National Educational Guidelines and Framework (Lei de Diretrizes e Bases no. 4.024/1961), later amended by other statutory laws (in 1971, 1982 and 1996). Brazilian public expenditure on education grew from 10.5% in 2000 to 17.4% in 20089 (a percentage of total public expenditure) indicating the great extent to which Brazilian government prioritized education in relation to other areas of investment. From 1997 to 2006, public education was funded by the FUNDEF (National Fundamental Education Fund). In 2007, it was replaced by the FUNDEB (National Primary Education Fund ), a fund that covers all basic education until 2020. The Brazilian Educational System is divided into levels: Preschool infant education, fundamental, intermediate and higher education. The literacy rate is 92.0%. Fundamental education is compulsory for all children aged 6 to 14 and free at all public institutions. Intermediate education is also free in public schools, but is not compulsory. Any youth or adult who did not finish regular schooling at the appropriate age may make up for the delay by attending courses and supplementary examinations. Higher education is organized in two levels: undergraduate and graduate. Universities provide higher education qualification through teaching, research, and promote extension activities to the community. There is an enormous expansion of Technological Institutes.

ESD and CCE until 200810
Before continuing, some clarifications are needed. In Brazil, public policies and actions on Climate Change Education and Education for Sustainable Development fall under Environmental Education. "Environmental" refers to a structural element characterised by political values and practices that promote the ethics, aesthetics and the citizenship of sustainability. Since the beginning of the 90's, preparatory activities for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Rio92 provoked the creation of two institutions: the Coordination for Environmental Education at the Ministry of Education and an EE Division of the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA). Rio92 also provided the government, through Agenda 21, with a proposal for action. The Ministries of the Environment (1994) and Education, in partnership with the Presidency of the Republic, launched a centralized National Environmental Education Program (PRONEA). In 1997 they promoted a National Environmental Education Conference in Brasília. The Ministry of Education drafted the National Curriculum Parameters (1997) and PCNs in Action: the Environment (2001), aiming to provide National guidelines for the diversified part of school curricula with a group of themes that crossed disciplinary
9 Education at a Glance 2011 - OECD Indicators. http://www.oecd.org/brazil/48657313.pdf 10 This part is based on the publication: Educação Ambiental: aprendizes de sustentabilidade. (Environmental Education: learners of sustainability).

boundaries: environment, ethics, cultural diversity, sexual orientation, work and consumption. In 1999 a Law, the first in Latin America, established the National Environmental Education Policy (PNEA - Law nº 9795/99). According to this law, environmental issues in formal education are presented as an interdisciplinary alternative, counter to the specific school discipline. Management of the PNEA is under the responsibility of a Governing Body composed by the Ministries of Environment and Education. As a result of the growing interest in EE, the Ministry of Education/Inep included in the annual School Census (between 2001 and 2003) questions about the presence of environmental education in primary schools in Brazil. It was found that in 2001, 61.2% of elementary schools reported working with EE and, in 2004, this percentage rose to 94% of schools11. These numbers mean that the practice of EE is universalized in the primary education system. Aiming to better understand these school EE practices, another research project called “What are they doing the schools that say they do EE?” involved five Federal Universities, 12 states and 418 schools”12. Results showed a great dispersion of concepts and actions developed by schools, which were mostly related to waste, water, air and promoting awareness. They found a lack of learning opportunities for teachers to integrate complex emerging themes. In 2003, the Ministry of the Environment held the first National Environmental Conference Let's Take Care of Brazil, both adult and children versions. National Conferences are stipulated in the 1988 Brazilian National Constitution and over the past 20 years have become the most important participatory policy at the national level in Brazil13. The first National Children and Youth Conference for the Environment involved schools and established a cooperation agreement with the Ministry of Education14. The Children' Conference set the basis for a Youth public policy - Youth Collectives for the Environment and Sustainability (CJ-2004 ) and the Youth Network - REJUMA. The initiatives have as principles: 'youth educates youth, youth chooses youth and one generation learns from another.' The General Coordination of EE at MEC launched the Program Let’s Take Care of Brazil through Schools. In a systemic view, it was composed of three main processes and a fourth (Sustainable Schools) was included in 2010:

Conferences (levels: school – regional - State and National) – conferences socialize and popularize the debate proposed by international policies: the

11 Blanco, Maurício; Érica Amorim; Aline Veiga. MEC 2005. 12 http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001545/154576por.pdf
13 Avritzer, Leonardo 2012 14 The program “represents a landmark in the development of a public arena for environmental issues...The process triggered the Let’s Take Care of Brazil program, which focuses on teacher and student training.” In: UNICEF - November 2012.

UNDP' Millennium Goals, Agenda 21, the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, as well as civil society documents, the Treaty on Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility, the Earth Charter, the Charter of Human Responsibilities. A summary of the Conference process:
Conferences / Year Themes debated Mobilization schools/participants 15,452 schools 5,660,692 part. Spin-off Let's take care of Brazil with the schools Com-Vidas (Commissions for the environment and quality of life) Youth Collectives Charter of Responsibilities “Let´s take care of Brazil” Strengthening of the COM-VIDAs and of the Youth Collectives

I National Children Let's take care of: and Youth Our water -- 42% Conference / 2003 Our school -- 19% Our community -- 17% Living beings -- 12% Our food -- 10% II National Children and Youth Conference / 2006

International Agreements: 11,475 schools + . Climate Change/Kyoto Protocol -- communities 26%; 3,801,055 part. . Biodiversity/The Convention on Biological Diversity -- 32%; . Food Security/Rome Declaration on World Food Security -- 24%; . Ethnic and racial diversity - Durban Declaration against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance -- 18%. 11,631 schools 3,700,000 part.

III National Global environmental changes: Children and thinking + acting at school and in Youth the community. Conference / 2009 • Hydroshere, Atmosphere, Biosphere and Sociosphere (energy and mobility). I International Global socio environmental changes Children and • Hydroshere Youth • Atmosphere Conference / 2010 • Biosphere • Sociosphere (Publications on the themes translated into 4 languages) IV National Children and Youth Conference 2013 (predicted) • Let's take care of Brazil with sustainable schools: learning to think and act in times global environmental change.

Regulations for the CONFINT Sustainable schools

62 countries enrolled 47 countries present India involved 80,000 schools, 9.1 million students Other countries together: 1,700,000, 4,430 schools, 353,229 students --

Charter of Responsibilities “Let´s take care of the Planet” Methodology of Conferences reproduced 20112013: European Union, Angola, Egypt, India. --

Capacity building and training teachers (continuing education for teachers in service). In 2005 – presencial trainings process involved 65,648 participants from 1,815 municipalities during three days of seminars - in partnership with

Universities, States governments, NGOs and Youth Collectives.

Creation of Com-Vidas - Commission for the Environment and Quality of Life at Schools.

Unicef in a publication on “Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in the education sector”15, summarizes the Brazilian experience: “Brazil has been an international and national leader in thought, policy and practice in the field of environmental education for more than 40 years”.

2. Reflections on the relevance and usefulness of national policy documents
From a more general perspective, according to an international review of climate change legislation 16 it is possible to deduce that the key issue regarding environmental problems in Brazil is one of implementation as opposed to the lack of legal principles and instruments. Concerning Environmental Education, the problems follow along the same lines. In legal terms, the Brazilian Constitution and the National Policy on the Environment already provided remarkable leverage for institutionalizing EE in Brazil and secured society the right to universal access to EE. Another legal framework, the National EE Policy, was designed to complement and clarify the principles and guidelines necessary in practice. A specific study on Climate Change Education prepared in 2010 by a consultant for the Department of Environmental Education –DEA|MMA17, asks for changes stressing that the National EE Policy “does not provide a reference, nor specific guidelines for coping with climate change, which appear only implicitly”.

3. ESD and CCE policy from 2008 and onward
a. ESD and CCE as part of larger national policy strategies
When compared to the issues of economic crisis and political reforms, climate change and the environment have usually occupied a much lower position on the Brazilian Government’s agenda, perhaps regarded as a rather technical, scientific and foreign concern rather than a national political issue. Accordingly, this statement is true for ESD and CCE when dealing with Climate Change policies. Below, the most relevant policies are briefly outlined along with comments on

15 For more details and information, see: Case Study 2 – Brazil, A leader in youth engagement with a focus on the marginalized. This case study focuses on children and young people’s right to participation, In Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in the educator sector – Resource Manual. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) - November 2012. 16 GLOBE- International, 2013. Pg. 3. 17 A public policy proposal: parameters and guidelines for Environmental Education in the context of climate change caused by human action. Brasília, 09/2010. Retrieved from: http://www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/educamb/_arquivos/eavp01_20.pdf

their educational aspects, which typically appear in a generic and instrumental way, such as “promoting awareness and environmental education”. The National Plan on Climate Change (2008)18 establishes measures on adaptation to climate change. A qualified EE action, intended to make the Ministry of Education responsible for the implementation of sustainable schools, was included in item 6 of the National Plan on Climate Change (2008) - Strengthening inter-sectoral actions for reducing vulnerability of populations through: “Implementing sustainable educational spaces through re-adapting buildings (school and university) and management, and through teacher education, inserting climate change into the curricula and teaching materials.” The National Fund on Climate Change - NFCC (Law nº 12114/2009; Decree No. 7343/2010)19. Although the Fund has a specific non-reimbursable Education, Training and Mobilization Area, resources allocated to Education over the first two years of operation comprised approximately 9% of the available resources20. In fact, the Fund is not open to spontaneous demands and the current priority is to strengthen the Brazilian Panel on Climate Change Climate and the Brazilian Forum on Climate Change. The Inter-ministerial Committee on Climate Change was established with the assignment to guide the development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the National Plan on Climate Change. Decisions are institutionalized through resolutions.21 In order to meet the voluntary commitment, the Mitigation and Adaptation Sectoral Plans22, that should include adaptation activities, as initiatives and measures to reduce the vulnerability to the effects of climate change. Most of the Sectoral Plans have little concern for the education dimension. The Health Sectoral Plan for Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change, not yet launched publicly, establishes measures through four axes of intervention: health surveillance, health care, health promotion and education and health research.23
18 http://www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/imprensa/_arquivos/96_11122008040728.pdf (English translation of the executive plan)
19 Most of the legislation in this part was extracted from: Globe International – Brazil 20 Information provided by the Climate Fund Manager, Ministry of the Environment. More information about the activities of the Fund can be found at: http://www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/251/_arquivos/relatorio_fundo_clima__2011_1_251_1.pdf and http://www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/251/_arquivos/paar_2012_vers_o_final_251.pdf Containing the Annual Plan Application Resource 2012). The balance of 2012 and the Investment Plan for 2013 to be presented at the first meeting of the Steering Committee, superior court of the Fund, to be held in March. 21 http://www.mma.gov.br/clima/politica-nacional-sobre-mudanca-do-clima/grupo-executivosobre-mudanca-do-clima/comit%C3%AA-interministerial-sobre-mudan%C3%A7as-clim %C3%A1ticas Visited on 17 feb. 2013.

22http://www.mma.gov.br/clima/politica-nacional-sobre-mudanca-do-clima/planos-setoriais-demitigacao-e-adaptacao 23 The system must be able to cope with the possible negative impacts on health caused by dry weather, heat waves, flooding. Prevention includes psychosocial disorders related to stress caused

The National Policy on Solid Waste Residue and Climate Change (Law nº 12305/2010) – This bill promotes strategies to minimize the generation of solid residues, domestic sewerage and industrial effluents. Education is present as an Instrument: VIII environmental education activities that promote non-generation, reduction, reuse and recycling solid waste”. This bill encompasses the theme chosen for the 3rd National Conference on the Environment, planned for October 2013. The Brazilian National Forum on Climate Change - FBMC24 (Decree nº 3515/2000), aims to raise awareness and mobilize society on the Clean Development Mechanism. The Forum is chaired by the President of the Republic. In 2011, 16 Brazilian states had established local forums. The Forum published a handbook on General Global Warming issues (2008) in a partnership with FBMC and Petrobrás 25 aiming “the promotion, dissemination and analysis of interactions concerning climate changes records and the functioning of the energy market.”

i. SD, Energy, CC, DRR
Energy companies develop their own school programs on the rational use of energy, such as Petrobras/CONPET and Eletrobras/PROCEL. And the most noteworthy of the energy companies initiatives was created by State-owned Itaipú Binacional26, the world's largest hydroelectric power plant. Itaipú also promotes the most comprehensive water protection program developed by the Brazilian electric sector, seen as a movement for sustainability: Cultivating the Good Water. The Program is a regional strategy (located in western Paraná State, at the confluence of the Parana and Iguazu rivers), for confronting the climate change crisis directly related to water and its multiple uses. It demonstrates that it is possible to reconcile economic development with energy production, education and environmental preservation. Concerning Disaster Risk Reduction, the National Policy for Protection and Civil Defence (Law nº 12608/2012). The Ministry of National Integration and Civil Defence has performed a Mapping of the Greatest Risk Areas in Brazil, and set a Preventive Action Plan for Disasters (2012-2015) that has prioritized 251 hazardous areas in 1,400 municipalities, in areas susceptible to floods and landslides, based on recurrence (20 years) and deaths. Since Civil Defence measures come into effect only after the occurrence of extreme events that cause natural disasters, they can only try to remedy losses. In response to
by extreme weather events.

24 http://www.forumclima.org.br/index.php/o-forum/coordenacao . 25 Handbook on Climate and Energy (Vol. 1). The only volume accessible, pgs 7 and 60. The other handbooks planned are: Human and Climatic Vulnerability of the Amazon Basin Water Resources; The Economic aspects of Energy; Biofuels and Clean Development Mechanisms Projects, and addresses the presence of biofuels and combined fuels (ethanol, biodiesel, ethanol, and charcoal). 26 Cultivando a Água Boa / Itaipú Binacional - http://www.cultivandoaguaboa.com.br/oprograma/sobre-o-programa.

this inadequacy, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation created a Centre for Monitoring and Alerts Natural Disaster – CEMADEN / 2012, that installed an Early Warning System, using Climate Change predictions to support Natural Disaster Risk Reduction. CEMADEN launched an informal CCE project called "Pluviometers in the Community"27. acquired 1,100 semi-automatic digital rain gauges, which are installed and operated by community teams trained to collect data on rainfall. The project allows the community to quickly organize, contact local authorities, and receive guidance in order to take immediate action in risky situations.

ii. Education, TVET, Science education
EE in higher education was researched in a partnership between MEC and the University Network of Programs in EE (RUPEA) through survey information -- Mapping Environmental Education in Brazilian Institutions of Higher Education: elements for public policies28. Data collected on teaching, research, extension and management corroborate the diagnosis of the limitations, contradictions and challenges facing academic institutions to deal with the dilemmas of contemporary societies. The Extension Program at the Ministry of Education - PROEXT29 did not contemplate the Environment thematic line in its previous announcements. Nevertheless, in an analysis of the 53 proposals involving specific key words, all of them include interdisciplinary practices. The PROEXT 2014 announcement is under implementation, and a new Environment Thematic Line30 is covered. Although CCE is not explicated, the concept of sustainable education spaces is, and includes low carbon emissions, protection of communities and disaster risk prevention. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation/Brazilian Space Agency created the AEB School Program. In partnership with the FBMC, the Program produced three volume books for Intermediary Science Education: Astronomy, Astronautics and Climate Change. 200,000 high school level copies were distributed by MEC. This was done without providing specific capacity building for teachers. Moreover, the National
27 Activities supported by the Center for Earth System Science at the National Spatial Research Institute - INPE. Project provides for the development of teaching materials, films, booklets etc. 28 OLIVEIRA, Haydée et al, 2006. Retrieved from http://portal.mec.gov.br. 29 Extension is understood as the interdisciplinary, educational, cultural, scientific and political processes which promote a transformative interaction between universities and other sectors of society, mediated by undergraduate students and supervised by one or more teachers, within the principle of the constitutional inseparability between Teaching and Research. PROEXT announcements and results are available at: http://portal.mec.gov.br/index.phpItemid=490id=12243option=com_contentview=article 30 Theme Line 1: Education. 4.1.8 Environmental Education: a) Continued trainings for community workers, educators, popular educators and members of school community; b) based on the principles, concepts and practices of environmental education, including ethics, environmental justice and governance through participatory methodologies and interactive; c) Participative-action Research methodologies for the development of proposals for environmental sustainability (schools management, physical structure and curriculum) and Universities' contribution to the transition to sustainable education spaces.

Institute for Space Research / Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, produced an interactive CD-ROM in an e-learning format on Education for Climate Change31. Green jobs are not enforced in Brazil. The Economic and Social Development Council – CDES of the Presidency of the Republic, published a report on Green Jobs pointing its importance for adaptation to climate change, vital to protect jobs and livelihoods.32 Accordingly, ILO33 provides technical support to the conceptual development and practical implementation of green jobs at federal and state level since 2009. But these initiatives do not seem to have any influence over the National Access to Technical Education and Employment - PRONATEC, created by MEC in 2011. In the general framework of TVTE34 , this area of the Ministry of Education does not respond to Climate Change and green jobs debates, skills and knowledge. The National Institute of Science and Technology for Climate Change - INCT was created in 2009 to provide high-quality and relevant scientific information35. Such scientific objectives meet CCE in a broad way, as most research is being performed through the Climate Network, structured in 13 thematic sub networks: Agriculture, Biodiversity and Ecosystems, Cities, Natural Disasters, Regional Development, Economics, Renewable Energy Modelling, Oceans, Water Resources, Health, Environmental Ecosystem Services and Coastal Zones. Research on Education is not among them. Capacity building and outreach activities were highly developed due to the growing number of universities in the network.

b. Specific ESD and CCE policy initiatives
The National Congress and the Ministry of Education - MEC have launched the Education Development Plan (PDE) for the 2011-2020 decade (Project Law 8035/2010)36. In Article 2, the Plan establishes 10 guidelines/directives for Education, one of them related to EE: VI - promoting social and environmental sustainability. In spite of the mobilization of environmental educators and some deputies, the plan does not explicitly mention EE, ESD nor CCE. It ignores the guideline among its 20
31 http://www.ccst.inpe.br/videos/mudancasclimaticas/ 32 Report 03/2008 of the Working Group of Energy Matrix, Development with Equity and Environmental Responsibility of the Economic and Social Development Council – CDES (related to the Presidency of the Republic). 33 Green Jobs Country Brief- Brazil. Related Country Outcome (2010-2011) - Policies to promote green jobs are designed and implemented. Period: June 2009 – Dec. 2011. Paulo Sergio Mucoucah, ILO Brasilia, Peter Poschen, ILO Geneva. 34 The federal system is experiencing the largest expansion of professional education and the network of federal vocational education. Currently, there are 354 units (Federal Education Institutes for Science and Technology; Federal Centers for Technological Education; Technical Schools Linked to Federal Universities, Federal University of Technology) that create over 400,000 jobs nationwide. With other 208 new schools scheduled to be delivered by the end of 2014, there will be 562 units in full operation, which will generate over 600,000 jobs. 35 National Institute of Science and Technology for Climate Change INCT for Climate Change, 2009.2010, Activity Report – São José dos Campos, 2010 78p. 36 www.camara.gov.br/proposicoesWeb/prop_mostrarintegra;jsessionid=E5E9E43D5BD6655D09A 5C2081C63CB38.node2?codteor=831421&filename=PL+8035/2010

targets, more than 40 measures and strategies encompassing all axes, levels and methods of education. Similarly, previous Education Plans and policies, even after the establishment of the PNEA (1999) by-passed EE, or merely included it as part of a list of other suitable cross-curricular themes. In order to cope with this and other perceived disadvantages, several strategic measures to mainstream EE, ESD and CCE in broader policies were adopted by the Governing Body. For instance, Climate Change was the theme selected for the 2nd National Conference for the Environment in 2008 that mobilized 65,000 participants. The final document stressed that without educational measures, the National Plan on Climate Change cannot fully reach its objectives. The 3rd National Children and Youth Conference (2008/2009) covered the same theme under the title Global Environmental Changes: thinking + acting at school and in the community. Child friendly materials were distributed to all primary schools in the country (107,000 copies), aiming to mainstream environmental issues across disciplines, respecting the complexity of the subject. CC impacts on natural systems and human populations were addressed cross-disciplinarily through a debate on sustainable measures: mitigation, adaptive, preventive and transformative actions. Moreover, two 180 hour distance (Internet) courses were offered on Global Socio environmental Changes, for 14,860 teachers. The special document on EE and Climate Change (Ministry of Environment, 2010)37 expressed concern over new challenges for EE such as: building the necessary sense of urgency; highlighting the role of the human being (or persons acting collectively), as opposed to a purely technological approach; to communicate the links between the complex phenomenon and everyday life; build and expand partnerships with all segments of society and the three spheres of government; and propose practical projects and a feasible and transformative public policy. The Ministry of Education conducted initiatives to include EE and CCE in mainstream educational events, such as the National Conference on Primary Education (2008) and the National Conference on Education (CONAE 2010) which approved a Motion to implement Sustainable Schools. Moreover, EE was included in 10,000 school Integral Education Programs (More Education Program, Decree 7.083/2010 item V, art. 2). Another important action was the co-organization between MEC and the Council for Economic and Social Development of the Presidency of the Republic, of a Forum entitled “Sustainability, Energy Efficiency and Environmental Education: a challenge for educational institutions and society” (2009). The report concluded that "environmental education is effective and can contribute to mitigating the effects of climate change and to form a new citizenship, was the consensus in discussions among councillors.

37 www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/educamb/_arquivos/ea_e_mudclim__doctodeammaprincipios_e_ diretrizes_vp01_20.pdf

Educational institutions are incubators for concrete changes in social contexts that link three areas: buildings, management and curriculum”. In consequence, the Sustainable Schools Program was introduced in 2010 by the Ministry of Education. The program was inspired by British experience and policies. It aimed to integrate social and educational policies in dialogue with school communities, encouraging the creation of sustainable educational spaces38. In 2010, the Coordination of Environmental Education promoted an extension, semipresencial course on Sustainable Schools and Com-Vida, implemented in 160 high schools for 1600 participants in 18 states. The Sustainable Schools program was included in the Ministry of Education's Plan of Joint Actions (2013) for States and Municipalities and received R$ 100 million, 2 year budget.

4. Characteristics of national ESD and CCE policy
The National EE Policy was regulated by the National Environment Council - CONAMA (Resolution nº 422/2010) and the National Education Council – CNE (Resolution nº 02/2012). The CONAMA resolution established guidelines for content and procedures for Environmental Education campaigns and actions. Communication and EE in formal and non-formal education, organized by public, private and civil society should adopt principles and values to build sustainable societies in their various dimensions. The CNE regulation for formal education systems was publicized during the UN Conference Rio+20 by MEC as the National Curriculum Guidelines for Environmental Education. The norm establishes the general directives for the National EE Curriculum. A contribution of the new Guidelines39 is that they should be observed by school systems and Primary Education and Higher Education institutions as a human activity aiming to fully achieve social practice and environmental ethics.

5. Analytical perspective:
a. Aim and educational approach to ESD and CCE
The aim of EE is to contribute to build sustainable societies, to mainstream the concept of sustainability and to protect communities from climate change impacts. Accordingly, the National Guidelines stimulate a purposeful insertion of EE, perceived as a dimension of education, in the formulation, implementation and evaluation of educational and institutional projects of educational institutions.

38 "Sustainable education spaces" intentionally educate for the maintenance of a balanced relationship with the environment and compensate for impacts through the development of appropriate technologies, thus enabling quality of life for present and future generations.
39 National Education Council – CNE, Resolution No. 02 of 15 June 2012, Articles 5 and 6. Retrieved

from: http://goo.gl/w3Gco

The Ministry of Education's approach to EE has proved itself successful, through a systemic view for building innovative, advanced and mobilizing programs . Nevertheless, other challenges remain and should be tackled permanently: i.
ii.

the schools-based EE policies do not reach the totality of schools, engagement is voluntary and dependent on state, municipal and schools political will; it is difficult to assess and measure in depth40 the effectiveness of the programs developed, in order to understand the gap between what public policies propose and actual practice of EE in schools; teachers need initial and continued capacity building on sophisticated and complex issues and concepts; EE policies and programs still have a limited impact on central, hard core and mainstream Brazilian education, environmental, climate change policies, among others.41

iii.
iv.

b. The relationship between ESD and CCE
It is a consensus among Brazilian environmental educators that CCE disconnected from an EE approach does not foster understanding and learning about the radical changes/transformations needed for a transition to sustainable societies42. EE involves values and worldviews that should assume political and pedagogical dimensions, always considering the interface between environment and culture. It is important to recognize the the emancipatory and transforming role of EE43. CCE cannot be studied in isolation, since it risks to focus on partial and rather technical approaches, limited to global warming, carbon emissions, prevention of disasters, energy efficiency, recycling and modes of transportation. Ultimately, in order to reduce carbon emissions and it would be acceptable, for instance, planting GMO eucalyptus forests.

40 Jacobi P., Guerra and allii – 2011. This is the only article published on CCE in Brazil. It argues that “the federal government has been interested in mainstreaming the educational system a greater involvement with the issue of Climate Change through the organization of conferences and the production of teaching materials. However, the scope of these initiatives differs in each region of the country. Local and regional data for analysis on the implementation of programs and projects are still insufficient. For this reason, only the federal data are recorded and also little socialized.” 41 Loureiro C.F. and Soares de Lima. 2012. According to this perception, “it sounds as if there existed a specific environmental education system that sometimes interacts, but doesn't integrate within the dynamics of the education field at all levels.” 42 Jacobi, et all. jan.|abr. 2011. 43 National Education Council, Resolution No. 02/2012 establishing the National Curriculum for Environmental Education, orienting the implementation of the Constitution and the National EE Policy Law.

While EE would be concerned about learning complex and multidimensional issues including climate change, as well its interrelation with nature degradation, biodiversity, human freedom and happiness. A poor understanding of these issues can generate fragmented and disconnected policies. For instance, an amendment to the National EE Policy (Law 9.795/99) (PL 4609/12) is under consideration in the Brazilian National Congress, that proposes a mandatory Eco-Efficiency Program for public and private educational institutions. The Ministry of Education and the Networks are already manifesting against the amendment in order to update the legislation in a more coherent and consistent way.

c. Differences and similarities to UNESCO guidelines
It is possible to say that there is a general feeling of shared common values between ESD and EE in Brazil. It is worth mentioning that in Latin America and Portuguese speaking countries, both public policies and academic discourse consider the inherent critical-participatory-emancipatory perspective as constitutive of Environmental Education (EE), without any conservationist or behaviourist connotation44. Furthermore, the traditional name reinforces the legislation, as well as the values and principles of the Treaty for Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility (Global Forum, Rio 92). It and also respects the memory of an environmental movement that struggled for democratic freedom during the 1970s under the military dictatorship, concurrently questioning environmental degradation and unequal social conditions. Given that the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development encountered resistance in some parts of Latin America, and specifically in Brazil, an ideological disagreement should be explicated. On the one hand there is a consensus of the importance of the UN Decade for the field of EE, but on the other there is a negative reaction to UNESCO's hegemonic orientation towards sustainable “development", as opposed to building “sustainable societies”. Critics claim that “development” eliminates social differences, masking the identities of ideological antagonism and maintains capitalism under a new guise.45

d. Governance: mobilization and involvement of stakeholders versus top-down regulation
An Opinion Poll on Climate Change in Brazil46 mapped opinions of key influencers from different sectors/stakeholders, aiming to indicate directions for the development of
44 Jacobi, et all. jan.|abr. 2011. 45 Michèle Sato, http://centroburnier.com.br/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2013/02/michele.jpg 46 Crespo, Samyra 2008- Opinion Poll on Climate Change in Brazi developed by the Institute of Religious Studies (ISER), for the Ministry of the Environment, with the support of the British Embassy. Retrieved from: http://www.iser.org.br/RELATORIODIVULGACAOISERPESQUISAMUDCLIMATICAS.pdf

public policies in Brazil. One conclusion was that climate change is on the agenda of different stakeholders; almost all claimed to be concerned as individuals and citizens, beyond professional interest. The analysis showed Parliament as holding the weakest position in terms of awareness and engagement, under the impression that “without society and government, parliament can do very little”. According to the public sector (ministries, agencies) government must lead the coordination process, and although part of the state apparatus, they fiercely criticize the slowness with which the government has been addressing the issue. Media professionals acknowledge their role in forming opinions and encouraging awareness, but feel hostage to the “logic of news”. Not surprisingly, the production of news and broadcasting scientific informations has decreased 90% in the period of 2010-2011, as compared with the previous period. An analysis47 of the main National newspapers during climate events taking place in Brazil, suggests that media still does not clearly connect extreme weather events and episodes of environmental injustice to climate change. The private sector raises doubts about Brazil adopting emission reduction targets based on their reluctance to lose competitiveness. The National Industry Confederation48, claim to need economic tools, as well as investment in capacity building in order to promote green innovations. Business Social and Environmental Responsibility institutions, such as CEBDS – the Brazilian Business for Sustainable Development Council and Ethos Institute/Uniethos acknowledge the DESD. NGOs and civil society, described as a highly heterogeneous segment with active and engaged profiles, has the most pessimistic and most critical opinions. Noteworthy, are the initiatives promoted in close cooperation between the State and society related to CCE. Namely, the Brazilian Network for Environmental Education - REBEA, a network of over 60 networks; the Planetary Network for the Treaty on Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility (Rio +20) and the Brazilian Forum of NGOs and Social Movements for Sustainability-FBOMS. Other interesting initiatives are the Climate Observatory and the creation of a public non-state Brazilian Fund for Environmental Education49.

e. Educational approaches/principles versus action plans/norm supporting structures
The National Environmental Education Policy (PNEA - Law No. 9795/99) and the Decree nº 4.281/2002 established the structure, composition and powers of the Governing Body, composed by the Ministries of the Environment and Education, as well as the Advisory Committee, composed by thirteen representatives of governmental and non-governmental sectors, labour, employers, and environmental
47 Milanez and Fonseca, 2011. In Ronaldo Seroa da Motta … [et al.] 2011 48 Benatti, 2011. In Ronaldo Seroa da Motta … [et al.] 2011
49 www.funbea.org.br and http://www.oc.org.br/

educators, installed in 2003. The law encouraged the creation of sub-national Commissions for Environmental Education and Policies, based on the National structure. The National Curriculum Guidelines establishes the norms to be followed by education systems. EE should be a continuous and permanent curriculum component for schools and academic activities, with an integrated and cross-curricular approach, in all areas of knowledge. They propose a “review of fragmented school practices by establishing the relationship between climate change and the current model of production, consumption and social organization, and aiming for the prevention of environmental disasters and the protection of communities”. The Minister of Education has hired a high level EE advisor and consequently taken enormous steps forward. The newest information concerning EE, ESD and CCE is that the Minister of Education, considering the necessity of strengthening EE, has decided to create a new structure for Climate Change Education related issues. It will work in close collaboration with the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation and Civil Defence.

f. Coherence versus fragmentation
Climate change has been a marginal feature of environmental politics when compared to more visible local environmental challenges such as deforestation, waste policies, and water. Perhaps the government perceives climate change as a distant and moderate-risk impact. For instance, the paragraph on sustainable educating spaces and sustainable schools included in the first version of the National Plan on Climate Change (2008) was removed from the National Policy, and replaced by a neutral “promoting the dissemination of information, education, training and public awareness on climate change”. From academic and civil society perspectives, there is a perception of fragmentation of knowledge, both in government and a number of different actors, particularly nongovernmental organizations and business initiatives50. Along similar lines, an examination of the science-policy interface in Brazil51 points out that to date little research has probed the role of social networks, culture, interests, and scientific information on climate change in the formation of climate policy in Brazil. Some authors also note the absence of macro-management plans for integrated policies in government, both within the National and sub-national spheres52. Furthermore, public policies in the area are new and fragile, for instance, a political change of Ministers of the Environment in 2009, along with EE leaders, generated an enormous discontinuity in priorities, policies, methodologies and actions.
50 Jacobi et alii, 2011 - “regardless of the level of involvement by governments and centralization, CCE remains a peripheral issue in education, both in the academic research and in practice.” 51 Rede Brasileira de Pesquisas sobre Mudanças Climáticas Globais, 2010-2011. 52 Sotero and Sorrentino 2011. Retrieved - http://www.anppas.org.br/encontro5/cd/gt6.html.

g. Obstacles versus potentials
This report offered an opportunity for finding some potential synergies. In order to fill gaps in the information for this report, data collected from documents were complemented by a series of meetings at several Ministries. It became clear that, although there are ongoing activities, different areas in federal government do not interact. For instance, during one of the meetings, the person responsible for the Sectoral Plans in the Inter-ministerial Commission acknowledged that there should be an Education Sectoral Plan for Adaptation, Mitigation and Prevention of Climate Change impacts. And the responsible for the 2013 revision of the National Climate Change Plan included EE in the debate. The lack of dialogue and appropriate governance mechanisms that recognize and include EE, are obstacles which may be viewed as yet another element that must be part of future analysis and planning. From a pedagogical and methodological perspective, there is an urgent need to find alternatives for learning to address negative and problematic scenarios without falling in immobility. The most challenging question, therefore, is how to generate creative educational strategies to motivate citizens, and decision makers, to act towards sustainability. This report ends with the Charter of Responsibilities - Let's Take Care of Brazil from the 3rd National Children and Youth Conference, committed to constructing “fair, happy and sustainable societies with responsibilities and actions that fulfil dreams and needs”.

6. Reference list
Avritzer, Leonardo. Conferências Nacionais: ampliando e redefinindo os padrões de participação no Brasil. Texto para Discussão. IPEA – Institute of Applied Economical Research. RJ, 2012. Bennati, Paula Climate Change negotiations from an industry perspective. In: Climate change in Brazil : economic, social and regulatory aspects / editors: Ronaldo Seroa da Motta … [et al.]. – Brasília : Ipea, 2011. Blanco, Maurício; Érica Amorim; Aline Veiga. Um retrato da presença da Educação Ambiental no ensino fundamental brasileiro: o percurso de um processo acelerado de expansão. Brasília: Inep/MEC, 2005. Brasil. Ministério da Educação e Ministério do Meio Ambiente. Programa Nacional de Educação Ambiental – ProNEA. 3ª ed. Brasília: MMA, 2005. Brasil. Ministério da Educação e Ministério do Meio Ambiente. Órgão Gestor da Política Nacional de Educação Ambiental. Comissão de Meio Ambiente e Qualidade de Vida nas Escolas – COM-VIDAS. Brasília: Secad/MEC, 2006.. Série Documentos Técnicos nº 10.

Brasil. Ministério da Educação. Educação Ambiental: aprendizes de sustentabilidade. (Environmental Education: learners of sustainability). Organizers: Ricardo Henriques, Rachel Trajber, Soraia Mello, Eneida M. Lipai, Adelaide Chamusca. Cadernos SECAD/MEC. Brasília, fevereiro de 2007. Brasil. Ministério da Educação. O que fazem as escolas que dizem que fazem Educação Ambiental? Organized by Rachel Trajber and Patrícia Mendonça. Coleção Educação para Todos, Série Avaliação ; n. 6, v. 23 MEC/UNESCO. Brasília 2007. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001545/154576por.pdf Brazil. Ministério do Meio Ambiente. Uma proposta de política pública: Parâmetros e Diretrizes para a Educação Ambiental no contexto das Mudanças Climáticas causadas pela ação humana. Irineu Tamaio. Brasília, 09/2010. Retrieved from: http://www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/educamb/_arquivos/ea_e_mudclim__doctodeam maprincipios_e_diretrizes_vp01_20.pdf Brasil. Ministério da Educação, Conselho Nacional de Educação – CNE. Resolution No. 02 /2012 establishing the National Curriculum for Education Ambiental, orienting the implementation of the Constitution and the National EE Policy Law. The document became part of the legal framework of environmental education in Brazil, as a reference for promoting EA at all levels and types of formal education. Retrieved from: http://goo.gl/w3Gco Brasil. Report 03/2008 of the Working Group of Energy Matrix, Development with Equity and Environmental Responsibility of the Economic and Social Development Council – CDES. Brazil. Report of the Conference on Green Jobs and Sustainable Buildings- 08/2009. Working Group of Energy Matrix, Development with Equity and Environmental Responsibility of the Economic and Social Development Council – CDES. Brasil. National Institute of Science and Technology for Climate Change INCT for Climate Change, 2009 - 2010, Activity Report – São José dos Campos, 2010 78p. Brasil. Rede Brasileira de Pesquisas sobre Mudanças Climáticas Globais Relatório de Atividades, 2010 - 2011 Organização: Eduardo Moraes Arraut, Fabiano Scarpa, Ana Paula Soares e Armando Martins Revisão Técnica Paulo Nobre, coordenadores das subredes, Eduardo Arraut e Fabiano Scarpa www.ccst.inpe.br/redeclima Brazil. FBMC - Cartilha sobre Clima e Energia (Handbook on Climate Change (Volume 1). Organization: team of the Brazilian Forum of Climate Change –- IVIG – COPPE/UFRJ, 2008, www.forumclima.org.br/ Crespo, Samyra and Maria Rita Villela - “Opinion Poll on Climate Change in Brazil” developed by the Institute of Religious Studies (ISER), 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.iser.org.br/RELATORIODIVULGACAOISERPESQUISAMUDCLIMATICAS.pdf Greenpeace International - Point of No Return: The massive climate threats we must avoid. January 2013. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/publications/Campaign-reports/ClimateReports/Point-of-No-Return/

Jacobi, Pedro, Antonio Guerra et allii Mudanças climáticas globais: a resposta da educação. Revista Brasileira de Educação v. 16 n. 46 jan.|abr. 2011. (Global climate change: the response of education.) This is an interesting academic article on CCE that first does a cross-country analysis of Climate Change educational practices and then suggests some reflexions about the theme of climate change in Brazilian EE. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbedu/v16n46/v16n46a08.pdf Loureiro, Carlos Frederico B., Maria Jacqueline Girão Soares de Lima. Ampliando o debate entre educação e educação ambiental. Revista Contemporânea de Educação N º 14 – agosto/dezembro de 2012, pg. 247 Milanez, Bruno and Igor Ferraz da Fonseca The climate justice discourse in Brazil: potential and perspectives. In: Climate change in Brazil : economic, social and regulatory aspects / editors: Ronaldo Seroa da Motta … [et al.]. – Brasília : Ipea, 2011. Motta, Ronaldo Seroa da [et al.], Editor. Climate change in Brazil : economic, social and regulatory aspects. Brasília : Ipea, 2011. This book provides a national publication on the policies to combat global warming. The English edition offers a comprehensive view of discussions on this topic in Brazil. Texts by 40 specialists represent 18 Brazilian institutions such as universities, research centers, associations and ministries of the federal government, and vary from economic, institutional, sectoral and social analyses. Mucoucah, Paulo Sergio and Peter Poschen. Green Jobs Country Brief- Brazil. Related Country Outcome (2010-2011) - Policies to promote green jobs are designed and implemented. ILO - http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/-integration/documents/publication/wcms_149662.pdf OLIVEIRA, Haydée et al. Mapeamento da Educação Ambiental em Instituições Brasileiras de Educação Superior: elementos para políticas públicas. Realizada pela Rupea – Rede Universitária de Programas de Educação Ambiental para Sociedades Sustentáveis. Brasília: Secad/MEC, 2006. Série Documentos Técnicos nº 12. Retrieved from http://portal.mec.gov.br/pesquisas. SOTERO, João Paulo; SORRENTINO, Marcos. A Educação Ambiental como Política Pública: Reflexões sobre seu Financiamento. Anais do V ENANPPAS. Florianópolis, 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.anppas.org.br/encontro5/cd/gt6.html. Romeiro, Viviane and Virginia Parente, Climate Change Regulation in Brazil and the Role of Subnational governments. In: Climate change in Brazil : economic, social and regulatory aspects . Editors: Ronaldo Seroa da Motta … [et al.]. – Brasília : Ipea, 2011. Townshend T. , S. Fankhauser, R. Aybar, M. Collins, T. Landesman, M. Nachmany & C. Pavese (Eds.). Climate Legislation Study: A Review of Climate Change Legislation in 33 Countries. GLOBE- International. (2013). UNICEF. Climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in the educator sector – Resource Manual. United Nations Children’s Fund - November 2012. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/education/files/UNICEF-ClimateChange-ResourceManual-loresc%281%29.pdf .

Viola, Eduardo, Brazil's Climate Change Policy since 2005: continuity, change and prospective. CEPS Working Document, nº 373/February 2013. www.ceps.org .

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