Working Document B

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CCE AND ESD POLICY
A C ROSS -N ATIONAL DESK STUDY BASED ON NATIONAL CASE STUDIES OF POLICY DOCUMENTS SINCE 2008

Jeppe Læssøe

March 2013

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CONTENTS
Contents ..................................................................................................................................................................................2 Abbreviations........................................................................................................................................................................3 Summary.................................................................................................................................................................................4 1. Introduction......................................................................................................................................................................7 2. Research Framework....................................................................................................................................................8 2.1. Research Approach, Objectives and Scope ..................................................................................................8 2.2. Country Selection...................................................................................................................................................9 2.3. Research Questions............................................................................................................................................10 2.4. Strengths and Limitations of the Study......................................................................................................11 3. Findings ...........................................................................................................................................................................12 3.1. What is the state-of-the-art of ESD and CCE policy across the countries covered by this study? ...............................................................................................................................................................................13 Key findings...............................................................................................................................................................13 Analysis and examples .........................................................................................................................................13 3.2. What characterizes the ways in which ESD and CCE policies are shaped?.................................25 Key findings: .............................................................................................................................................................25 Analysis and examples: ........................................................................................................................................25 3.3. How do current national policies interpret and operationalize ESD and CCE? ........................29 Key findings: .............................................................................................................................................................29 Analysis and examples: ........................................................................................................................................30 4. Discussion and recommendations........................................................................................................................37 References...........................................................................................................................................................................40

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ABBREVIATIONS
CC: CCA: CCE: CCESD: DESD: DRR: DRRE: EE: EfS: ESD: IALEI: ILO: SD: TVET: UNESCO: UNFCCC: UNICEF: Climate Change Climate Change Adaptation Climate Change Education Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development Decade of Education for Sustainable Development Disaster Risk Reduction Disaster Risk Reduction Education Environmental Education Education for Sustainability Education for Sustainable Development International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes International Labour Organisation Sustainable Development Technical and Vocational Education and Training United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change United Nations Children’s Fund

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SUMMARY
This desk study is conducted at the request of UNESCO in order to provide a knowledge base to inform the preparation of policy guidelines on Climate Change Education in the overall context of Education for Sustainable Development. There is a wealth of academic and policy literature on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), often in conjunction with the United Nations Decade for ESD (2005-2014), for which UNESCO serves as the lead agency. Compared to this, Climate Change Education (CCE) is a new and poorly researched phenomenon. Furthermore, if we look more specifically at the development of CCE policy, only one international study has previously been conducted (Læssøe et al. 2009). According to this study, which looked at developments until 2009, CCE had been identified as an important task in many countries, but it was still at a very early stage and not yet included in national policies. However, four years have passed since then and it therefore seems reasonable to take a closer look at the recent policy developments regarding CCE, ESD and the relation between them before developing guidelines to support further developments in the area. The purpose of this desk study has been to conduct a cross-national analysis of policy documents in 14 countries with the specific aims of: 1) providing an overview of emerging approaches, strategies and priorities in climate change (CC) and sustainable development (SD) policy on education as well as in educational policy on CC and SD; and 2) identifying key challenges as well as potentials for an integrated approach to CCESD at the national policy level. The key research questions for the overall study, as well as for the national case studies, have been as follows: 1. What has happened at the national policy level regarding ESD and CCE since 2008? 2. Which discourses and educational approaches are expressed by the policy documents? 3. Which generic and/or specific knowledge, skills, dispositions (attitudes and values) or competencies are highlighted? 4. What has been done to implement the intentions of the ESD and CCE policies in practice? 5. Which obstacles and potentials are identified and addressed in the policy documents? 6. To which extent are the national policies on ESD and CCE coherent or fragmented? The research approach has been semi-structured, allowing the authors of the national case studies to explore the unique history and character of ESD and CCE policy developments in their countries while simultaneously maintaining a focus on the six key issues mentioned above, each with a large number of sub-questions that might be covered. The advantage of this approach is that it is more context-sensitive and thus should lead to more valid results than if the study was conducted on the basis of a rigid general research frame. The drawback is that the national case studies are not directly and strictly comparable.

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However, they still include a large amount of factual information regarding what has happened, as well as knowledge-based interpretations of the state-of-the-art. Fourteen countries have been included in the study, chosen partly on the basis of ideal criteria of representing different world regions, and national differences in terms of economy, size, impact of CC and ESD activity level, and partly of pragmatic considerations regarding where national case studies were possible. This has led to the inclusion of the following countries: Canada/Manitoba, Costa Rica, Brazil, Tuvalu, South Africa, Australia, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, South Korea, China, Bangladesh, Denmark, United Kingdom. The analysis, presenting the findings of the study, is structured in three sub-chapters: 1. What is the state-of-the-art of ESD and CCE policy across the countries covered by this study?; 2. What characterizes the ways in which ESD and CCE policies are shaped?; and 3. How do current national policies interpret and operationalize ESD and CCE? For the first of these sub-chapters – What is the state-of-the-art of ESD and CCE policy across the countries covered by this study? – the key findings are the following: (1) Since 2008, many national governments have passed CC policies that also include CCE. (2) CCE initiated by CC policy has been linked to education policy, while there are exceptional cases where CC policy and education policy are completely disconnected with regard to CCE. Linking CCE to education policy, however, does not guarantee that CCE is promoted with reference to ESD. The degree of connectedness between CCE and ESD varies according to the national context. (3) ESD policy development is most clearly in evidence among those countries included in the study with the most rapidly expanding economies with fewer new policy initiatives elsewhere. (4) DRR is a key driver of CCE in countries strongly impacted by the effects of climate change. In some of these countries DRR is integrated into broader CCE and ESD policies. Green economy and the need for TVET innovation towards green skills is another driver of CCE. (5) Although CC, in recent years, has been a subject for policy making at the national level, CCE is in general still at a very premature stage, and CCE, as well as ESD, is faced with a number of roadblocks for implementation. For the second sub-chapter - What characterizes the ways in which ESD and CCE policies are shaped? – the key findings can be summarized as below: (1) In general, national governments do not apply regulatory policy instruments to implement ESD and CCE. National curriculum frameworks are an exception in many of the countries. (2) National ESD and CCE policies tend instead to apply softer governance instruments such as consultations, coordination, facilitation and guidance. (3) However, these governance instruments seem, so far, too weak to ensure a mainstreaming of ESD and CCE. Finally for the third sub-chapter - How do current national policies interpret and operationalize ESD and CCE? – the key findings are:

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(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

ESD and CCE policies are linked to, or express, different concepts of and approaches to SD. Some countries maintain the, until now, rather dominant focus on the nature-society relationship and ecological sustainability, while other countries have a broader focus on the future of society as a whole. There is an emerging trend towards focusing CC and SD policies on green economy by interpreting CCE as a means for providing green skills. The policies and discourses on ESD and green skills are in most countries remarkably unconnected but there are also examples of efforts to integrate them. DRR education is only addressed by some national policies. In some of these it has a rather narrow focus on climate knowledge and operational instruction. However, in several other countries the approach seems to be more comprehensive. The national strategic policy papers on ESD neither interpret ESD as equivalent with science education nor restrict the educational approach to prescriptive learning. The dominant approach to promote implementation of ESD and CCE is to integrate it into the existing school subjects. There are, however, also examples of extra- or cross-curricular strategies.

In the final chapter, a number of issues of importance for the compilation of policy guidelines on CCESD are highlighted. In heading form, they concern: • • • • • • • The challenge of taking account of diversity in national challenges, capacities and aspirations The challenge of guiding national policies in times of “new governance” The challenge of overcoming marginalization in the policy arena The challenge of overcoming the gap between soft generic values and hardcore, concrete economy The challenge of bringing ESD and CCE together The challenge of mediating science and local knowledge in CCESD The challenge of political ideologies

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1. INTRODUCTION
The UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD, 2005-2014) marked its midpoint in 2009, and UNESCO developed its strategy for the second half of the DESD, highlighting climate change, disaster risk reduction and biodiversity as priority themes. Recognizing that the education sector offers an untapped strategic resource to mitigate and adapt to climate change, UNESCO established the Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development (CCESD) Programme in 20101. The purpose of this desk study is to provide a knowledge base to inform the work of UNESCO in providing policy advice to Member States on CCESD by exploring what has actually happened at the national policy level regarding Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Climate Change Education (CCE) since 2008. A cross-national study from 2009 concluded that, despite a call for CCE from several stakeholders, this call had for the most part not yet resulted in widespread policy initiatives (Læssøe et al. 2009). 2 UNESCO’s new focus on CCE in the context of ESD, as well as the increasing international recognition of the importance of CCE (as evidenced, for example, by the recent launch of the UN Alliance on Climate Change Education, Training and Public Awareness), provide the impetus for taking a closer look at global developments within CCE and ESD policy during the last four years. Since the beginning of the DESD, a large number of reports, articles and conferences have discussed the concept and principles of ESD, as well as different educational approaches to implement ESD in practice. However, education does not exist in a vacuum, but is embedded in societal realities with challenges and opportunities that have to be taken into account when clarifying potential ways to further advance CCE and ESD. This study can be interpreted as an integral part of larger ongoing efforts to explore, document and learn from these challenges and opportunities. This report presents the outcomes of the desk study of policy documents in 14 countries with the specific aims of: 1. providing an overview of emerging approaches, strategies and priorities in climate change (CC) and sustainable development (SD) policy on education as well as in educational policy on CC and SD; and

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CCESD is by UNESCO interpreted as CCE in the overall context ofESD.

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The International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes (IALEI) produced a series of reports entitled Climate Change and Sustainable Development: The Response from Education in 2009. The IALEI study covered ten countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Republic of Korea, Singapore, South Africa, UK, and USA. The 2009 IALEI study did not include any question on climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction and technical and vocational education and training.

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2. identifying key challenges as well as potentials for an integrated approach to CCESD at the national policy level. The study is conducted primarily to inform the work of UNESCO to produce a set of guidelines to support the development of CCE and ESD at the national level. However, hopefully, a wider dissemination of the cross-national analysis as well as the national case-studies will also inspire ongoing reflection, from the global to the local level, on the roles, challenges and potentials of education in relation to climate change and sustainable development. After the executive summary, the report is structured in three chapters. In the next chapter, the research questions, methodology and design of the study are presented, including reflections on its strengths and limitations. The third chapter contains the findings of the cross-national analysis regarding the six research questions that have guided the study. Finally, in the fourth chapter, a number of general issues, identified in the cross-national analysis, are discussed, and recommendations concerning the development of UNESCO guidelines on CCESD are presented.

2. RESEARCH FRAMEWORK
The study has been conducted as a desk study consisting of: 1) 14 case studies of national policies on CCESD based on identification and analysis of strategic policy documents; and 2) a cross-national analysis based on these national case studies. Sustainable development is an essentially contested concept open to different interpretations. Furthermore, it is a generic concept including many different areas and issues. Education is also a complex concept referring to different types and levels of learning efforts. CCE is a new area that might either be interpreted and approached within the scope of what, until now, has been perceived as ESD, or outside the framework of ESD. For this reason, researching how ESD and CCE are expressed and related in policy might easily become a huge and highly challenging task.

2.1. RESEARCH APPROACH, OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE
On the one hand, this study approaches data collection and analysis in an explorative manner in order to identify how ESD and CCE are interpreted and approached in national policy. On the other hand, it cannot examine in detail all policies related to every aspect of SD and every area of education. In order to adapt the study to the available time and resources, the data collection has been focused on general strategies from 2008 and onwards addressing ESD and CCE from the national ministries responsible for (i) SD policy, including CC policy and (ii) education policy, respectively.3

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The narrowing of the scope to the period from 2008 and onward was also motivated by the conclusion from an earlier cross-national study on ‘Climate Change and Sustainable Development: The Role of Education’,

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Furthermore, the study has paid attention to policies, from 2008 and onward, on areas of education of high relevance for CCE and ESD but which, in the first half of the DESD, were often excluded or downplayed in the way ESD was framed. These areas are 1) science education, 2) technical and vocational education and training (TVET) related to sustainable transition/green growth and 3) disaster risk reduction (DRR). It is not only the scope of the study that has been narrowed. Although the core research interest has been to explore developments regarding CCE and ESD in national policies and, as part of this, how CCE and ESD have been approached, the time and resource constraints did not allow the research design to be entirely open. A set of more detailed research questions, as well as a design template for the national case studies, have been compiled to ensure similarity in the way the national case studies are conducted. As such, the study has not been designed as a strict comparative study with clearly defined concepts, as this would contradict the explorative intention, but as a semi-structured analytical framework, guiding the national case studies to address the same research questions while allowing them to interpret policy documents within the historical process and current societal context they are part of. In this way, the design has opened for interpretations that not only describe what has been done/not done, but also to some extent offer an explanation of why. This is important in a study aiming to offer knowledge to support the development of general guidelines for CCESD. To contexualize national policy development on ESD and CCE in relation to developments in the areas of green skills, TVET and DRR in a given country, the study has drawn on a number of recent studies. These include the IALEI cross-national study ‘Climate Change and Sustainable Development: The Role of Education’ (Læssøe et al. 2009), the ILOCedefop study ‘Skills for Green Jobs – a Global View’ (Streitska-Ilina et al. 2011) and the UNESCO-UNICEF study ‘Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula: Case Studies for Thirty Countries’ (Selby & Kagawa 2012).4

2.2. COUNTRY SELECTION
The selection of which countries to include in the study has been made as a pragmatic combination of ideal criteria and practical considerations. In terms of ideal criteria, we looked for countries from different regions of the world, and for variety in terms of size, wealth, impact of CC, and level of ESD activity. With regard to practical considerations, we have looked for countries already covered by previous, relevant cross-national studies (IALEI and ILO), or where pilot studies had already been conducted on CCESD. Furthermore, we had the opportunity to include five countries through cooperation with an international research group at Kyoto University, Japan, as well as three national

covering the period until 2009, which concluded that CCE until then had not been included in the national policies.
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The historical background is furthermore included in the national reports on which this cross-national study is based. In some cases, this is in the form of brief summaries based on the IALEI and ILO-Cedefop studies, while others provide more extensive sections explaining the historical roots of contemporary ESD and CCE policy in the country in question.

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studies individually contracted by UNESCO. Through this selection process, the desk study has covered the following 14 countries: Europe and North America - Canada/Manitoba - Denmark - United Kingdom Latin America and the Caribbean - Brazil - Costa Rica Asia and the Pacific - Australia - Bangladesh - China - Indonesia - Philippines - South Korea - Tuvalu - Vietnam Africa - South Africa National case studies are being developed for Dominican Republic and Chile, and will be included in a cross-national analysis in the future.

2.3. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The key research questions guiding the study in general as well as the national case studies were as follows: 1. What has happened at the national policy level regarding ESD and CCE since 2008? 2. Which discourses and educational approaches are expressed by the policy documents? 3. Which generic and/or specific knowledge, skills, dispositions (attitudes and values) or competencies are highlighted? 4. What is done to implement the intentions of the ESD and CCE policies in practice? 5. Which obstacles and potentials are identified and addressed in the policy documents? 6. To which extent are the national policies on ESD and CCE coherent or fragmented? A framework for the national case studies included a large number of questions to each of the key questions (Læssøe, 2012). Due to the restricted time and resources, responses were not expected to all these questions but only to those that made sense when analyzing

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the collected national policy documents. Furthermore, the framework also proposed a structure for the national reports (ibid). 5 During the study it was decided to supplement this framework with a request to structure the national analyses in a way that made it clear how, on the one hand, SD and CC policies have addressed education and skill development and, on the other hand, how education and skill policies have addressed SD and CC. This was due to an interest in supporting the cross-national analysis of the sixth research question. Furthermore, to support the crossnational analysis, each of the national reports was condensed in a single-page national sheet with one column for the context and one for each of the six key research questions.

2.4. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Obviously the applied approach has consequences for the cross-national analysis. The aim has not been to generalize the recent global development of CCE and ESD from a limited number of cases but rather to gain a robust knowledge on and contexualized understanding of the processes, dynamics, challenges and potentials in a diverse array of countries that might provide helpful insight to reflect on and conceptualize as part of the preparatory work on CCESD guidelines. The strengths of this study lie in its scope. It provides a broad overview of the current situation and developments regarding ESD and CCE in countries of varying size and representing each and every continent. Despite the breadth of the study, attention must be drawn to the limitations regarding the global perspective. A number of areas and cultures are notably missing, not least USA, Eastern Europe, Russia, India, Japan the Middle East and huge parts of Africa. It is therefore important to be aware that there might be other approaches to ESD and CCE policy than those covered by this study. Furthermore, it is important to stress that breadth usually stands in opposition to depth, and indeed, a relatively wide-reaching short-term study such as this cannot fully take into account complexity and depth of the field it covers. Firstly, focusing solely on national policies only provides a certain degree of insight into the governance character of the policy processes. We have chosen this limitation because the aim is to inform guidance of national policies and the governance perspective is therefore included, but only in terms of the role of the national state. However, it is important to be aware that policy today in this area includes activities between many stakeholders. Secondly, even national policies are not single-layered but include processes from overall policies, to strategic documents and action plans for specific areas, to guiding documents and activities. Quite different interpretations of issues can very well exist between these levels. We have chosen to focus on strategic documents but have also tried to identify and include official documents from the lower levels of the policy hierarchy. Thirdly, by applying a semi-structured methodology we have tried to prevent overly rigid frameworks for the national case studies in order to explore the specific character of the ESD and CCE policy developments.

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The pilot studies of CCESD in South Africa and Tuvalu were conducted before this desk study and have, for that reason, been designed differently. However, they include information of relevance for this study.

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However, this allows bias regarding how the involved researchers interpret and apply the guidelines, collect documents and conduct their analysis. Furthermore, the cross-national analysis implies another layer of selection and interpretation of the material included in the national reports which may also influence the validity of the outcome. In order to counter-act this, the authors of the national reports have received and commented upon an earlier draft of this report. It will also be discussed at an Expert Consultation on Guidelines on Climate Change Education in the context of ESD, 8-9 April 2013, at UNESCO Paris and reviewed by researchers from the involved countries. When presenting the findings in the next chapter, references will primarily be made to the national reports in order to make the links between these reports and the cross-national analysis transparent and also to faciliate the reader to access a more comprehensive explanation of the often rather brief passages based on these reports. While the reference list for this report is kept rather short. by consulting the national reports, it is possible to find extensive references on which the findings of this report are based.

3. FINDINGS
This chapter presents the findings of the cross-national analysis. It addresses the six key research questions originally posed, but the logic of the presentation does not simply correspond to each of these questions. The findings will be presented in three sections in order to inform and guide the deliberations on the draft guidelines on enhancing climate responses through education. The three sub-chapters answer the following questions: 1. What is the state-of-the-art of ESD and CCE policy across the countries covered by this study? Have there been new developments during the last four years? Is education addressed in CC/SD policy, and, if so, how is it addressed? Is CC/SD addressed in education policy, and, if so, how is it addressed? Are there linkages between CCE/ESD policy making in the education community and CC/SD community? 2. What characterizes the ways in which ESD and CCE policies are shaped? Do national policy efforts promote a mainstreaming of ESD and/or CCE, or do they let ESD and/or CCE remain marginal? What roles does the national policy play? What kinds of policy instruments are applied? Is ESD and CCE policy developed and conducted by the national government as top-down processes, or does it include interaction and cooperation with stakeholders? In the latter case, what roles do the governmental institutions play as part of such multi-stakeholder policy processes (governance)? 3. How do current national policies interpret and operationalize ESD and CCE? Is CCE incorporated into ESD and/or ESD transformed by CCE? To what extent is CCE, and perhaps ESD, influenced by recent trends towards aligning climate

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change adaptation with DRR and recent emphasis on the transition to a green economy as a means to achieving SD (particularly in the context of Rio+20)?

3.1. WHAT

IS THE STATE-OF-THE-ART OF

ESD

AND

CCE

POLICY ACROSS THE

COUNTRIES COVERED BY THIS STUDY? The IALEI cross-national study from 2009 concluded that CCE up to this point was in a very premature state with almost no policies or clarifications of the relation between ESD and CCE (Læssøe et al. 2009). What has happened since then? We have looked at some of the same countries, but also at a number of other countries, to clarify whether there have been formulated new policies on CCE and ESD in these countries since 2008. To this end, we have deliberately looked for SD and CC policies on education as well as education policies including SD and CC.

KEY FINDINGS
1. Since 2008, many national governments have passed CC policies that also include CCE. 2. CCE initiated by CC policy has been linked to education policy, while there are exceptional cases where CC policy and education policy are completely disconnected with regard to CCE. Linking CCE to education policy, however, does not guarantee that CCE is promoted with reference to ESD. The degree of connectedness between CCE and ESD varies according to the national context. 3. ESD policy development is most clearly in evidence among those countries included in the study with the most rapidly expanding economies with fewer new policy initiatives elsewhere. 4. DRR is a key driver of CCE in countries strongly impacted by the effects of climate change. In some of these countries DRR is integrated into broader CCE and ESD policies. Green economy and the need for TVET innovation towards green skills is another driver of CCE. 5. Although CC, in recent years, has been a subject for policy making at the national level, CCE is in general still at a very premature stage, and CCE, as well as ESD, is faced with a number of roadblocks for implementation.

ANALYSIS AND EXAMPLES
3.1.1. Since 2008, many national governments have passed CC policies that also include CCE: According to the IALEI study, CCE policy until 2008 was requested but not incorporated into regular strategic policy documents (Læssøe et al. 2009). This is not the case anymore.

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The increased awareness of CC-risks has pushed several governments to develop policy strategies in order to cope with CC. And this, in turn, has driven the development of CCE. Two examples: The Philippine Climate Change Act of 2009 explicitly directs the Department of Education to “integrate climate change into the primary and secondary education curricula and/or subjects, such as, but not limited to, science, biology, civics, history, including textbooks, primers, and other educational materials, basic climate change principles and concepts” (Fernandez & Shaw, 2013: 1). In response, the Department of Education issued a standing order entitled “Reiteration of Related Implementing Guidelines on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction at the School Levels,” directing schools to revitalize the various programs and projects on DRR and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) (ibid: 7). Various memorandums have also been released to support the standing order, such as Department of Education Memo 276 series of 2010 which orders the integration of CCA and DRR with Environmental Education into elementary and high school curricula. (ibid: 7) This introduction of CCE into the school curriculum is one of the activities under the Knowledge and Capacity Development strategic priority in the National Climate Change Action Plan 2011-2028 prepared by the Climate Change Commission. The national report on CCESD in the Philippines concludes that the outlook for CCE here is promising due to “a very conducive enabling environment in terms of legal and policy bases and institutional frameworks at the national, regional and local level” (ibid: 12-13).

The Bangladesh CC Strategy and Action Plan was compiled in 2008 and revised in 2009. It has six pillars among which one concerns research and knowledge management. Actions in relation to this pillar are about “Establishment of a centre for research, knowledge management and training on CC” which, among other things, should “develop training programs for high and mid-level officials of the Government, NGOs and private organizations/associations and provide training in collaboration with research centres and universities”. CCE policy is at a very early stage in Bangladesh and this centre should be seen as a first step towards building the capacity for it (Habiba et al., 2013: 12). Furthermore, in 2010 the Government of Bangladesh finalized the National Plan for Disaster Management, which also includes an action agenda for 2010-2015: “Design and implement a national training strategy aimed at building knowledge and understanding of CC and disaster management roles and responsibilities of key players at all levels as per standing orders” (ibid). CCE in CC policies in other countries: • Costa Rica: A National Strategy on CC was decided in 2009 and a national organization was established to be responsible for the implementation. It is coordinated by the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Telecommunications, but

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• •

the Ministry of Public Education is part of it as well in order to implement ESD and CCE (Hori & Shaw 2013: 7). Brazil: In 2009 a joint forum entitled “Sustainability, Energy Efficiency and Environmental Education: a challenge for educational institutions and society” was co-organized by the Ministry of Education and the Council for Economic and Social Development of the Presidency of the Republic. The following year, the Ministry of Environment launched a special document on Environmental Education (EE) and Climate Change (Trajber, 2013: 12). China: In 2012 China’s State Council released the “12th Five-Year Plan for EnergySaving and Emission Reduction” and in the same year “China’s National Report on Sustainable Development” was published. Education is included in these CC and SD policies, although the concepts of CCE are not explicitly used in any national policy or plans (Han 2013: 11-13). South Africa: A White Paper, setting the parameters on how CC should be addressed, was approved in 2011. It includes CCE as one of these parameters (Læssøe, 2013b: 1). Indonesia: The National Action Plan for DRR 2010-2012 acknowledges education as one of the priorities (Mulyasari & Shaw, 2013: 10). Vietnam: Since the National Target Program in Response to CC was approved by the government in 2007, a number of other CC policy documents have been approved and included educational aspects. In 2011 The Ministry of Education and Training launched an Action Plan of Education Sector in Response to CC (Tong & Shaw, 2013:2-4). Furthermore, in 2012 a National Action Plan for DRR education was issued (ibid: 11). Tuvalu: After extensive consultations and a national symposium on CC in 2011, seven thematic goals were developed. It was followed by the Tuvalu CC policy plan in July 2012. In this plan, goal 2 concerns CCA and DRR: Improving understanding and application of CC data, information and site specific impact assessment to inform adaptation and DRR programmes (Young, 2012). UK: Especially after the change of government in 2010, SD policy has shifted towards a strong focus on CC and transition towards a low carbon society and a green economy. This overall strategy has resulted in a number of policy documents on CCE or with CCE as an integrated part. These have been issued by the CC and SD departments as well as by departments responsible for education and skill development (Læssøe, 2013c: 2-3). South Korea: In 2010 the government passed ‘The Framework Act on Low Carbon, Green Growth’ and released ‘The National Strategy for Green Growth’ and Five Year plan for Green Growth. In 2012 The Presidential Committee on Green Growth signed a joint memorandum of understanding on Green Growth Education (GGE) with the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and thirteen other public agencies (Sung 2013). Australia: While education at the national policy level is largely absent from broader policy on climate change issues, the Council of Australian Governments’ National Strategy for Disaster Resilience from 2011 offers education a more

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central role. Education is here highlighted as one of the six key roles of governments in strengthening the nation’s resilience to disasters (Rolls, 2013a: 6). Denmark: CC policy contains a minor initiative on raising public awareness (Læssøe, 2013a: 2).

3.1.2. CCE initiated by CC policy has been linked to education policy, while there are exceptional cases where CC policy and education policy are completely disconnected with regard to CCE. Linking CCE to education policy, however, does not guarantee that CCE is promoted with reference to ESD. The degree of connectedness between CCE and ESD varies according to the national context. In some countries, the push from CC policy has led to the development of CCE without any connection to ESD. Examples of this can be found in Bangladesh and Tuvalu, both countries characterised by not yet having established ESD policies or structures. This can be partly attributed to the fact that Bangladesh and Tuvalu are least developed countries (LDCs) which need to prioritize Education for All (EFA) goals rather than ESD agendas. Furthermore there might be cases of CCE policies within non-formal education that are disconnected from educational policy. The data only sporadically covers non-formal education. An example of disconnectedness in this area can be found in Denmark, where the CC policy includes an initiative on raising public awareness about CC without any relation to the Ministry of Education and ESD (Læssøe, 2013a). In most of the countries, some kind of cooperation has been established on CCE between the SD/CC policy and the educational policy. This trend has two strands: (i) a delegation of responsibility on CCE to an educational ministry/department, or (ii) embedding of CCE within an existing ESD policy. In some cases this takes place as a delegation of responsibility. The CC policies and strategies cover all policy areas, including education, but delegate the responsibility to develop and implement the CCE policy to ministries of education. In the Philippines, a national CC Act has led to a number of CCE promoting initiatives from the Department of Education, In the UK a governmental shift caused a change of SD policy towards CC and green economy, and the subsequent CC policy has delegated responsibility to governmental departments responsible for education and skills policy to play their parts to support this overall CC policy (see 3.1.2). In other countries, the connection between the sectors has been established on the basis of an already established ESD policy to which CCE has been related. Examples of such explicit relations can be found in Costa Rica, Canada/Manitoba, South Africa, China, Brazil and Vietnam. These cases also show that the relations between CCE and ESD can be stronger or weaker depending on the national context.

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In Costa Rica, policy and structures for implementation of EE, and later ESD, were established before 2009. When the Costa Rican government passed its National Strategy on CC in 2009, the responsibility for CCE was assigned to the Ministry of Education which integrated CCE in its strategic framework for implementing EE and ESD (Hori & Shaw 2013: 8). In a similar way, CCE is not highlighted as a specific area, but is included as a key theme of ESD in Canada/Manitoba (Rolls, 2013b: 4; 13).6 In South Africa, the governmental White Paper on CC Policy is explicit on the relation between ESD and CCE: “CCE should be part of the broader framework of ESD and should equip South African citizens to reorient society towards social, economic and ecological sustainability” (Government of the Republic of South Africa, 2011). The South African case, however, also shows that the integration is still at the level of intent as the crossdepartmental organizational structures have not yet been established (Læssøe, 2013b: 1). The situation is rather similar in China. Although CCE on the strategic level is expected to be carried out under the umbrella of ESD (Han 2013: 13), and the CC/SD and educational area of policy share the overall focus on socio-economic development (Han, 2013: 25), there remains a gap when it comes to the more specific action plans. The gap is not only organizational but also discursive. While the national SD and CC policies focus on improving public understanding and behaviour on CC and SD issues, the educational policy targets innovation towards quality education, approaching ESD and CCE as integrated parts of the quality education agenda (ibid). In Brazil a National Plan on Climate Change from 2008 was intended to make the Ministry of Education responsible for the promotion of sustainable educating spaces and sustainable schools. However, in a later version of this plan, clear links to EE and ESD were replaced by a general request for “promoting the dissemination of information, education, training and public awareness of climate change” (Trajber, 2013: 10; 17). Vietnam deviates from the above mentioned examples in that there exist good organizational structures to coordinate CCE and ESD efforts. At the same time, CCE is not simply integrated into ESD. The overall Vietnamese SD strategy and the Vietnam Agenda 21 policy are coordinated with the national ESD policy (Tong & Shaw, 2013: 6-7). In a similar way, the National Target Program in Response to CC has involved the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) and delegated the responsibility for the CCE approach and action plan to MOET (ibid: 8). Furthermore, the Action Plan for DRR education from 2012 emphasizes that the implementation of DRR education will be carried out in

6

A quote from the website of Manitoba Education illustrates how it is perceived as one ESD theme among others: “Education for Sustainable Development involves incorporating key themes of sustainable development – such as poverty alleviation, human rights, health and environmental protection, climate change – into the education system. ESD is a complex and evolving concept and requires learning about key themes from a social, cultural, environmental and economic perspective and explores how those factors are inter-related and inter-dependent” (http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/esd/).

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accordance with CCE and ESD (Tong & Shaw, 2013:11). MOET promotes ESD and CCE in an interlinked manner, yet CCE is not embedded within ESD. Rather, ESD and CCE are conceived as mutually supportive and complementary strands (ibid: 14).

3.1.3 ESD policy development is most clearly in evidence among those countries included in the study with the most rapidly expanding economies with fewer new policy initiatives elsewhere. While CCE, in almost all countries, has been addressed in national policies since 2008, ESD has not had the same attention at the policy level. One plausible explanation for this might be that CCE is a new area of policy while ESD policies, at least in some countries, have been the subject of policy initiatives in the previous years. An example of this is Costa Rica, where the Ministry of Public Education, in coordination with the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Telecommunications, developed a strategic framework for environmental education back in 1994 that later became the platform for implementation of ESD. In relation to the DESD, a national commitment was established in 2006 (Hori & Shaw 2013: 2-4). Today CCE is incorporated into these already existing policy frameworks. Other countries involved in this study with a similarly long tradition for EE and/or ESD are South Africa: (cf. Feinstein et al. forthcoming; Læssøe, 2013b: 1), Denmark (cf. Læssøe et al. 2009; Læssøe, 2013a), Brazil (Trajber, 2013: 4), Canada (Nazir et al., 2009), Australia (Chambers, 2009; Rolls, 2013a: 1-2) and the UK (Læssøe, 2013c: 1). In Bangladesh (Habiba et al., 2013) and Tuvalu (Young, 2012), meanwhile, ESD and CCE have only recently become a subject for policy. When looking at progress in ESD policy since 2009, it is important to be aware of these different starting points. However, it is notable that the majority of the countries in this study which have launched new ESD policies since 2008 are neither highly industrialized countries like the UK and Denmark nor economically poor countries like Bangladesh or Tuvalu, but some of the recently industrialized countries with strong economic growth. Examples include China, Vietnam, Indonesia and Brazil. China: In 2010 a new national education strategy “The National Outline for Medium and Long-term Education Reform and Development 2010-2020” underscored the significance of ESD under the section ‘stressing all-round development’ of students (Han 2013: 13). Furthermore, ‘The National Environmental Publicity and Education
Program (2011-2015)’ was developed jointly by six ministries and commissions in May 2011. Also in 2011, the National Committee of UNESCO’s ESD Projects in China produced ‘ESD in China Experimental Manual’, providing a comprehensive overview of the policy, theory, and implementation of ESD in the country (Han 2013: 13). ESD

policies are also integrated into some district-level education strategies and action plans.7

7

According to Han (2013:15), “under the direction of the 12th Five-Year Plan, the Guidelines on ESD in Beijing, the guidance of the National Committee of UNESCO’s ESD Projects in China, and ESD-related policies have been

18

Vietnam: In connection to the DESD, the Vietnamese government established a National ESD Committee in 2006. This has promoted substantial progress on ESD policy in Vietnam (Tong and Shaw, 2013: 12). In 2010, The Ministry of Education and Training approved the first National Action Plan of ESD which initiated several projects, e.g. “Integrating ESD into teacher education and training”. Furthermore, SD issues have been integrated into the National Target Program of Education and Training in the period 2012-2015, the Action Plan of Education Sector in the period 2011-2016, and the National Strategies on Education Development in the period 2011-2020 (Tong & Shaw, 2013: 5, 12). Indonesia: The Indonesian government’s strategy for educational development from 20102014 emphasizes that education should foster an understanding of the importance of sustainability and ecosystem balance and an awareness of humans as members of the wider ecosystem. A joint agreement has been made between the Ministry of National Education (MONE) and the Ministry of Environment (MOE) that shifts responsibility for the implementation of ESD from the MOE to MONE. Now all units of MONE are expected to implement the national policies in relation to ESD (Mulyasari & Shaw, 2013: 5). Brazil: In 2010, the National Congress and the Ministry of Education launched the Education Development Plan for the decade 2011-2020. One of the guidelines here is to promote social and environmental sustainability. The same year, the Ministry of Education launched the Sustainable Schools Program, inspired by a similar program in the UK (Trajber, 2013: 11, 13). The identified trend above should be perceived as an indication rather than as firm evidence. Some wealthy countries have actually passed new ESD-related policies in recent years. While keeping a holistic ESD framework, these countries seem to come to simultaneously emphasize skills development in the context of making a transition to sustainable economic development. • Australia launched a new national action plan for Education for Sustainability (EfS) in 2009. Although, as something new compared to earlier plans, it stresses the importance of CCE, the necessity of a holistic EfS approach remains as the framework into which CCE is interpreted. However, also in Australia, CC has

incorporated into some district-level educational strategies and action plans, e.g., Shijinshan District Educational Development Plan during the 12th Five-Year Plan and Haidian District Educational Development Plan during the 12th Five-Year Plan” .

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moved the focus towards the transition to a sustainable, low-carbon society and the need to provide the necessary skills for achieving such transition (Rolls, 2013b: 2-3). • In the Canadian province of Manitoba, a report published by the government in 2009, and related to their Sustainable Development Act, expressed a holistic and action-oriented approach to ESD. Despite this, the focus is on an economic perspective with indicators demonstrating a more traditional set of educational values: school readiness, literacy and numeracy, high school and post-secondary completion rates, and academic achievements and socio-economic status (Rolls, 2013b: 6).

3.1.4. DRR is a key driver of CCE in countries strongly impacted by the effects of climate change. In some of these countries DRR is integrated into broader CCE and ESD policies. Green economy and the need for TVET innovation towards green skills is another driver of CCE. In countries facing serious challenges from CC, DRR plays a dominant role as a driver of CCE. The Philippines can serve as an illustrative example of this. Fernandez and Shaw (2013) report on DRRE in the Philippines:

“In its Strategic National Action Plan (SNAP) for DRR, the Philippines pinpoints Education
and Research as a priority program (Reyes, 2011). The program aims to integrate DRR modules at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels as well as support the training of teachers on DRR. The goal is to fully integrate DRR into both formal and informal education in the country by 2015.” (Fernandez & Shaw, 2013: 6)

“Currently, the DepEd is continuing the implementation of the project on ‘Prioritizing the Mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction Management in the School System and Implementation of Programs and Projects’ as mandated by Department Order 55 series of 2007, which endorses and facilitates the integration of DRR in both structural (i.e., safe schools) and non-structural (i.e., curriculum) components of the school system.” (ibid)

After targeted integration of DRR into Natural Science and Social Studies subjects in one secondary grade level (i.e., grade 7, first year high school), further integration of DRR into other grade levels is currently ongoing (Selby & Kagawa, 2012). So, as the example shows, DRRE is subject for specific policy efforts in the Philippines. Bangladesh and Tuvalu are other examples, although DRRE is only at a very early stage here (cf. 3.1.1). There are, however, other countries challenged by CC where DRRE is not approached independently from other policy efforts, but incorporated into the already established frameworks of ESD and CCE. Vietnam, South Africa and Australia can serve as examples of this. Vietnam: The trajectory of CCE deviates from the above mentioned countries in that DRR has not been a vehicle for CCE; it has instead developed the other way round. The

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World Bank has listed Vietnam as one of the five countries in the world potentially most affected by CC. The Government of Vietnam has in recent years approached this actively and, among other things, developed strategic policies on CCE. In the National CC Strategy from 2011 the role of education is described as bringing CC sciences into educational programmes; cultivating human resources in the relevant fields to climate change adaptation and GHG emission reduction; raising community awareness and involvement in preventive and recovery activities to disaster; promoting a climate-friendly ways of life and behaviours for communities; and encouraging people to adopt climate change response activities (Tong & Shaw, 2013: 9). Also in the National Climate Change Strategy, the National Target Program on Energy Efficiency and Conservation from 2012-2015 and in The Action Plan of Education Sector Response to Climate Change from 2011- 2015, the approach to CCE is described in more comprehensive ways than as DRR education (ibid: 7-9). However, this does not mean that DRR is not an issue and addressed by targeted policies including education. A year after the Action Plan of Education Sector Response to CC from 2011-2015 was approved; a National Action Plan for DRRE was issued. Here it is emphasized that the implementation of DRRE will be carried out in accordance with CCE and in attaining a sustainable educational development (Tong and Shaw, 2013: 12). South Africa: With the effects of CC, South Africa faces increasingly serious challenges from water shortages. However, the White Paper on CC policy from 2011 makes CCE an integrated part of ESD, and DRR an integrated part of the CC strategy. Probably due to a strong emphasis on ESD as a way of facilitating action oriented social learning and change, the governmental approach to DRR is not simply about dissemination of technical instructions, but stresses the importance of cooperation with existing social agents:
“Collaborate with social networks such as community organisations, NGOs, women and farmers’ organisations, and the Adaptation Network to help raise awareness and to transfer technology and build capacity.” (Government of the Republic of South Africa, 2011, p. 24)

Australia: A similar approach to DRRE has been taken by the Council of Australian Governments in their National Strategy for Disaster Resilience from 2011. Here it is stated that “Knowledge, innovation and education can enhance a culture of resilience at all levels of the community should contribute to a continual cycle of learning” (Council of Australian Governments, 2011: 8).

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Another driver of CCE is the vision of green economy/growth as an innovative response to climate change as well as to economic crisis. This involves a focus on innovation of TVET towards providing the necessary green skills. The UK and Australia offer good examples.
UK:

The UK government’s Low Carbon Transition Plan – National Strategy for Climate and Energy from 2009 - was followed up by the Department of Energy and Climate Change, who published “Meeting the Low Carbon Skills Challenge – a Government response” in December 2010. The following quotes express the approach to CCE:
“A skilled workforce is essential if we are to meet our carbon targets and realise the significant economic opportunities of the transition to a low carbon and resource efficient world.” “For businesses to succeed in this green economy they will need people with the technical and managerial and leadership skills to develop and exploit both existing and new markets.” “We need to equip people and businesses to return the economy to sustainable growth, increasing employment, raising incomes and supporting an improved quality of life.” (Department of Energy and Climate Change, 2010)

Australia: The endorsement of the Green Skills Agreement by the Council of Australian Governments in December 2009 and the publication of the National VET Sector Sustainability Policy and Action Plan (2009-2012) by the Ministerial Council for Vocational and Technical Education made green skills promotion a key part of CCE at the same time as it applied a broader approach than the one applied in the UK. The purpose of the Australian agreement is outlined as follows:
“The Australian and state and territory governments understand that decisive action is needed to support Australia’s transition to a sustainable, low-carbon economy. Australia can continue to prosper while making the changes required to reduce the impact of climate change. However, the transition to a sustainable, low-carbon economy will involve changes to how we do things individually and collectively, the ways we live, work and do business, and the mix of what we do in our economy. These changes will require new skills, the application of existing skills to new technologies and practices, and new ways of thinking, working and doing business across all areas of the economy and society.” (Council of Australian Governments, 2009)

In China, ESD is regarded as the framework for CCE, but there are also CC policy documents indicating a shift towards a green economy approach. In general, CC policy is approached as part of a SD policy aimed at achieving a balance between economic

22

development and sustainability of the environment and society (Han 2013; 13). The 12th Five-year Plan approaches this by applying the concepts of ‘green development’ and ‘green economy’ and “The Guidance on Promoting the Development of the Secondary and Higher Vocational Education”, issued by the Ministry of Education, suggests that the transformation of economic development to a green economy contains new missions for the Chinese VET system (Han, 2013: 15). As mentioned in 3.1.1., the government in South Korea has a strong focus on Green Growth which also includes Green Growth Education (GGE). It seems that this initiative is not restricted to TVET but for example also includes elective courses on ‘Environment and Green Growth’ in the middle and high school curriculum (Sung, 2013: 2). This new policy on GGE has caused some confusion in relation to earlier policy initiatives on ESD (ibid: 3). With the discursive turn in global policy towards green economy partly prompted by Rio+20, a TVET-oriented green skills approach to CCE would not be surprising. However, among the countries covered by this study, it is only in UK, Australia, China and South Korea that this approach has gained a footing until now.

3.1.5. Although CC, in recent years, has been a subject for policy making at the national level, CCE is in general still at a very premature stage, and CCE, as well as ESD, is faced with a number of roadblocks for implementation. As described in 3.1.1., CCE is on the policy agenda and has been made a part of general climate as well as education strategies in several countries during the last years. As most of the examples from the national studies show, CCE policies until now are at a very general and intentional level. In some of the countries, CCE and ESD policy also includes more concrete action plans, programs and initiatives (e.g. Vietnam, Philippines, South Africa). However, there are several challenges ahead that need to be addressed if the intentions are to be translated into practice. Like earlier studies of ESD (Wals, 2009; Gross & Nakayama 2010), some of the national studies behind this study have identified a number of roadblocks on the path from the level of good intentions towards implementation of ESD and CCE. Impediments to CCE and ESD implementation8: • Lack of elaboration of national policy to concrete national action plans, curricula frameworks and guidelines: Cf. China (Han, 2013: 25), Costa Rica (Hori & Shaw 2013: 16), UK (Læssøe 2013c: 4). Fragmentation, lack of coordinating bodies (between national policy bodies; between national and sub-national levels; and between agents at the regional and local levels): Cf. Philippines (Fernandez and Shaw 2013: 12), Indonesia (Mulyasari

8

This issue is only covered by some of the national studies.

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& Shaw, 2013: 14-15), Costa Rica (Hori & Shaw, 2013: 16-17), Bangladesh (Habiba et al., 2013), China (Han, 2013: 25), South Africa (Læssøe, 2013b:1), Brazil (Trajber 2013: 16; 18), South Korea (Sung, 2013: 3-6). • Lack of implementation mechanisms, division of work and responsibilities: Cf. Vietnam (Tong & Shaw, 2013: 15) Lack of systematic monitoring and evaluation, and lack of research support: Cf. Philippines (OCD: 2011), Costa Rica (Hori & Shaw, 2013: 16), , Vietnam: (Tong & Shaw, 2013: 15), Brazil (Trajber 2013: 14, 17) Budgetary constraints, and capacity of the education sector to implement the policy: Cf. Philippines (Fernandez and Shaw 2013: 12), Indonesia (Mulyasari & Shaw, 2013: 13), Vietnam: (Tong & Shaw, 2013: 15). Tensions between ESD and the exam-oriented system: Cf. China (Han, 2013: 8). Tensions between the multi-dimensional content of ESD and CCE – and the existing mono-disciplinary curricula: Cf. Vietnam (Tong & Shaw, 2013: 15). Overloaded curricula: Cf. Bangladesh (Habiba et al., 2013: 15), Vietnam (Tong & Shaw, 2013: 15). Lack of knowledge and engagement among key agents: o General lack of understanding of ESD and CCE among stakeholders: Cf. China (Han, 2013: 25-26). South Africa has faced the same shortcomings, but a new Teacher Education Development Programme represents a concerted effort to stakeholder cooperation in order to address this roadblock (Mosidi, 2012). o Lack of ESD-related subjects or topics in teacher education: Cf. China(Han, 2013: 26), Philippines (Selby & Kagawa, 2012), Brazil (Trajber, 2013: 14) o Lack of knowledge among environmental officials: South Africa (Mosidi, 2012: 33) o Lack of engagement to use TVET structures for green skills: Cf. South Africa (Læssøe, 2013b: 2). o Lack of supporting curriculum document to assist teachers, guidelines and materials: Tuvalu (Young, 2012: 26), Bangladesh (Habiba et al., 2013: 15). Uneven development of ESD and CCE: In China, differences between developed and less developed regions of China, as well as between basic education and higher levels of education are observed (Han, 2013: 26). In Brazil governmental initiatives involve a large number of schools but still “the school-based EE policies do not reach the totality of schools, engagement is voluntary and dependent on state, municipal and schools political will” (Trajber, 2013: 14). Necessity of exploring the use of new media: Philippines (Fernandez and Shaw 2013: 11).

• •

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These barriers are still an important part of the state-of-the-art, not only for ESD but also for CCE. Furthermore, they are obviously important to address in providing guidance for national CCESD policies.

3.2. WHAT SHAPED?

CHARACTERIZES THE WAYS IN WHICH

ESD

AND

CCE

POLICIES ARE

While the first sub-chapter (3.1.) focused on whether something has happened in CCE and ESD policy since 2008, this sub-chapter will look at what characterizes the CCESD policy that has been developed in this period. What kinds of policy approaches and policy instruments have been applied to promote CCE and ESD? It is a premise of this study that national policies play a crucial part in the promotion of CCESD. However, this assumption has been contested as some nations delegate the responsibility to state, regional or local levels of policy, or approach policy as a governance process together with a multiplicity of stakeholders rather than as a matter of top-down regulation (Feinstein et al., forthcoming). For this reason it makes good sense to take a closer look at the approaches taken in the national CCE and ESD policies. As already indicated in the introduction to this chapter, the following questions will be answered in this sub-chapter: Do national policy efforts promote a mainstreaming of ESD and/or CCE or do they let ESD and/or CCE remain marginal? What roles does the national policy play? What kinds of policy instruments are applied? Is ESD and CCE policy developed and conducted by the government as top-down processes, or does it include interaction and cooperation with stakeholders? In the latter case, what roles do the governmental institutions play as part of such multi-stakeholder policy processes (governance)?

KEY FINDINGS:
1. In general, national governments do not apply regulatory policy instruments to implement ESD and CCE. National curriculum frameworks are an exception in many of the countries. 2. National ESD and CCE tend to apply softer governance instruments such as consultations, coordination, facilitation and guidance. 3. However, these governance instruments seem, up to now, too weak to ensure a mainstreaming of ESD and CCE.

ANALYSIS AND EXAMPLES:
3.2.1. In general, national governments do not apply traditional regulatory policy instruments to implement ESD and CCE. National curriculum frameworks are an exception in many of the countries.

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Traditional normative and economic regulatory policy instruments are generally not applied to implement ESD and CCE. There is one exception from this. Some of the involved countries have integrated ESD and CCE in their national school curricula. Examples of this can be found in Denmark (Læssøe 2013a: 2-3), Costa Rica (Hori & Shaw 2013: 10), Philippines (Fernandez and Shaw 2013: 5), South Africa (Læssøe, 2013b: 1), Tuvalu (Young 2012)9, UK (Læssøe, 2013c: 8), Vietnam (Tong & Shaw, 2013: 13-14), China (Han, 2013: 19) and Brazil (Trajber 2013: 13; 17). Vietnam deviates to some extent from this general picture as the government here has a rather top-down regulatory approach to ESD and CCE. The Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) has primary responsibility, collaborating with other ministries, local departments of education and training and other organizations. Its activities are supported by funding from the state budget and it monitors and evaluates the implementation of ESD and CCE regularly (Tong & Shaw, 2013). In the UK, CC policy is also partially implemented as top-down regulation with delegation of responsibilities, including demands in terms of expected outcomes and evaluation (Læssøe, 2013c: 4). 3.2.2. National ESD and CCE tend to apply softer governance instruments such as consultations, coordination, facilitation and guidance. The national ESD and CCE strategies are primarily interactive and process oriented. This can take different forms. One approach is to establish contact with relevant state and non-state agents, and invite them to consultation. For instance, in Indonesia a planning workshop was organized to discuss a new national strategy on CCE with participation of diverse government departments, the private sector, education institutions, NGOs and UN organizations (Mulyasari & Shaw, 2013: 12). Similarly, the Vietnamese Ministry of Education and Training held a workshop in March 2011 on “Sharing experiences and strengthening cooperation on climate change education” as an initiative to implement the action plan of education sector response to climate change (Tong & Shaw, 2013: 4). Other examples can be found in Denmark (Læssøe et al. 2009) and UK (Læssøe, 2013c: 6). In a more comprehensive approach, not only do the national governments invite stakeholders to participate in hearings or other types of meeting, they also either take the role as mediators or coordinators of an ongoing dialogue and cooperation on promotion of ESD and CCE, or provide structures for this. An example of this can be found in the Philippines:
“At the national level, there is a Coordinating Council for ESD made up of: 1) Department of Education 2) CHED – Teacher Education Institutions, 3) Technical

9

According to Young, a new curriculum framework including ESD and CCE was prepared and should have been issued at the end of 2012.

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Education System Development Agency (TESDA), 4) Local Government Units, 5) Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), and 6) NGOs.” (Fernandez and Shaw 2013: 5)

In Canada/Manitoba, ESD is a multi-stakeholder process involving government, educational institutions, civil society and the private sector. Not least the NGO Learning for a Sustainable Future (LFS) has played a significant role in the development of ESD in Canada. In partnership with the federal Department of the Environment and Manitoba’s
Department of Education and Department of Advanced Education and Literacy, LSF has worked to establish provincial and territorial ESD working groups. These working groups involve representatives from regional and federal governments, educational institutions, non-formal and informal learning organisations, NGOs, the private sector, teacher associations and other stakeholders. Not only are these working groups active within their own jurisdictions, they also cooperate under the leadership of the pan-Canadian ESD Canada network.” (Rolls, 2013b: 10)

In Indonesia, the ministries for education and environment collaborate, and there is also established collaboration with other agents, e.g. about teacher training. In addition, an Education Consortium named Kalimamtan University Consortium is initiating the establishment of regional networks for capacity and institutional building in relation to CC as part of Indonesia’s participation as pilot country in UNITAR’s CC: Learn Pilot Projects (2011-2013) (Mulyasari & Shaw 2013: 11-12). In Denmark, economic support was in 2009 – the year Denmark hosted UNFCCC COP15 – given to the establishment and a three year running of a national network of agents working with ESD. The network was approved as a Regional Centre of Expertise (RCE) by UNU-IAS and connected to the global RCE network. However, in this case, it was governmental support to stakeholder knowledge sharing rather than a governance network with governmental departments actively involved themselves (Læssøe 2013a). As a third type of governmental process support, several governments offer consultative guidance, information, courses and materials to promote ESD and CCE. This role is reflected in a positioning paper Adapting to Climate Change, published by the Australian Government in 2010:
“Individuals and businesses can only take effective action to adapt to climate change if they are well informed about its potential impacts and risks. It is in the interests of businesses and individuals to invest in the specific information they need to assess and manage their risks from the impacts of climate change. However, there is little incentive for them to invest in basic knowledge that may be of limited benefit to them but of broader public benefit. Governments have a role to play in filling these information gaps, including by providing better public information (such as high quality climate projections) to build understanding and better inform decision making across both the public and private sectors” (Department of Climate Change, 2010: 8).

Another example, coming from Brazil, illustrates similar process supporting efforts, but in this case targeted at the school education area. Here the Ministry of Education has conducted initiatives to include EE and CCE in mainstream educational events. It has also initiated the program “Let’s Take Care of Brazil through Schools” which since 2003 has

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organized several National Children and Youth Conferences on EE and CCE issues with a large number of schools as participants (Trajber, 2013: 4-7). Other examples of this type of governmental process support are described in the reports from the Philippines (Fernandez and Shaw 2013: 6), Costa Rica (Hori & Shaw 2013: 11), UK (Læssøe, 2013c: 6), Vietnam (Tong & Shaw, 2013: 4), China (Han, 2013: 12-15), and South Korea (Sung, 2013: 2). 3.2.3. However, these governance instruments seem, up to now, too weak to ensure a mainstreaming of ESD and CCE. The choice of policy instruments does not tell everything about how strong or weak the national policy efforts are with regard to promoting the implementation of CCE and ESD. It is not possible on the basis of this desk study to evaluate the governmental efforts. However, the national reports include some examples indicating the strengths or weaknesses of the governance activities. It has already been partly addressed in 3.1.5 on roadblocks for implementation. Among them was fragmentation/a lack of coordinating bodies. In some countries, for example Bangladesh and Tuvalu, coordinating and supportive structures have not yet been established. In other countries, such structures have been established or supported by the government, but only on a minor scale with few stakeholders involved and/or with few resources allocated. An example of this can be found in Denmark where the government, as mentioned in 3.2.2., has supported a RCEnetwork, but also a national homepage for ESD in schools as well as some science extension institutions that also work with ESD. CCE is partly covered by these mediating institutions, but they are too weak in the overall context of the whole educational system and in terms of the ambition to mainstream ESD and CCE,. In China, the government supports CCE and ESD projects at the lower levels and they are also to some extent in dialogue with NGOs as well as the private sector. However, the involved national-level institutions function within their own jurisdictions without any executive body taking charge of planning, coordination or monitoring and evaluation of ESD and CCE as a whole (Han, 2013: 22-23). In Costa Rica the Ministry of Public Education is part of cooperation between national level and inter-institutional organizations involved as members of sector councils, established by the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Telecommunications. However structures for coordination and knowledge exchange between ESD and CCE agents have not been established (see 3.1.5). Although there are good examples of progress, both regarding development of national school curricula with CCE and ESD elements and regarding coordination and other types of governance and process facilitating structures, the overall impression from the national reports is that the efforts seem too weak to ensure a mainstreaming of ESD. It should, however, be stressed that this impression is still only based on the analyses of policy documents and that a deeper study of the relationship between policy and CCE and ESD practice is needed to evaluate the extent to which CCE and ESD are marginal or approaching the mainstream.

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Whether CCE and ESD will remain marginal or will be mainstreamed is an issue that relates to the next sub-section on how national policies interpret and approach ESD and CCE, not least because these interpretations and approaches might, or might not, connect to the current foci of global and national policies.

3.3. HOW DO CURRENT NATIONAL POLICIES INTERPRET AND OPERATIONALIZE ESD AND CCE?
There are strong historical connections between EE and ESD at the same time as their similarities and differences have been heavily discussed (see, for example, Jickling, 1992; McKeown & Hopkins, 2003; Stevenson, 2006). As climate change, in a narrow sense, is an environmental issue, but at the same time influences all other ‘grand challenges’ of the world, and thus also relates to sustainable development in a broader sense than environmental sustainability, it is indeed interesting to look at how CCE policies relate, or do not relate, CCE to ESD. The IALEI cross-national study from 2009 concluded that the relationship was still very open but also that, rather than CCE being incorporated into and empowering ESD, it might instead revitalize an instrumental and behaviour modificationoriented approach that ESD has otherwise gradually moved away from (Læssøe et al. 2009). So what has happened since then? For this part of the desk study, the questions raised were as follows: Are ESD and CCE related to each other in national policies and, if yes, how? Is CCE incorporated into ESD and/or ESD transformed by CCE? To what extent is CCE, and eventually ESD, influenced by recent trends towards aligning climate change adaptation with DRR and recent emphasis on making a transition to a green economy as a means to achieving SD?

KEY FINDINGS:
1. ESD and CCE policies are linked to, or express, different concepts of and approaches to SD. Some countries maintain the, until now, rather dominant focus on the naturesociety relationship and ecological sustainability, while other countries have a broader focus on the future of society as a whole. 2. There is an emerging trend towards focusing CC and SD policies on green economy by interpreting CCE as a means for providing green skills. The policies and discourses on ESD and green skills are in most countries remarkably unconnected but there are also examples of efforts to integrate them. 3. DRRE is only addressed by some national policies. In some of these it has a rather narrow focus on climate knowledge and operational instruction. However, in several other countries the approach seems to be more comprehensive. 4. The national strategic policy papers on ESD neither interpret ESD as equivalent with science education nor restrict the educational approach to prescriptive learning.

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5. The dominant approach to promote implementation of ESD and CCE is to integrate it into the existing school subjects. There are, however, also examples of extra- or crosscurricular strategies.

ANALYSIS AND EXAMPLES :
3.3.1. ESD and CCE policies are linked to, or express, different concepts of and approaches to SD. Some countries maintain the, until now, rather dominant focus on the nature-society relationship and ecological sustainability, while other countries have a broader focus on the future of society as a whole. The concept of SD has been defined in several hundred ways (Dobson 1996). So which discourses and approaches to SD are the national policies on ESD and CCE based on? Although this study does not include a discourse analysis, one distinction in approaches can be observed. Only a few national ESD and CCE policies apply a narrow approach to SD with a focus on the environment and ecological sustainability. In Indonesia, ESD has been developed in cooperation between the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Environment, and is aimed at creating change in the mindset, attitudes and behaviour of environmentally cultured human (Mulyasari & Shaw, 2013: 12). Also in the Philippines, the approach is focused on the environment. The strategy of the Department of Education is to continue to strengthen CCE as part of the already established EE policy and by using ‘the existing language of EE’ (Fernandez and Shaw 2013: 8). Also Canada/Manitoba belongs to this category of countries. However, strikingly, here a broad approach to SD is being set aside in favour of an environmentally-centred approach. A public consultation process, currently underway towards updating 1997’s Sustainable Development Act with a new Green Prosperity Act, indicates this move towards marginalizing the social dimension of ESD:
“The new act will still encompass the three pillars of sustainable development (the environment, society and the economy), but will shift focus towards environmental sustainability. This will ensure the environment is recognized as the foundation of society and the economy and is given due weight in all decisions. One proposed name for the new act is “the Green Prosperity Act”. The name is proposed to take the current use of the term sustainable development and bring it into a context that reflects the current and future direction of government, which is to create a green and prosperous society” (Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship, 2012: 4).

Several of the other countries apply more comprehensive approaches that make SD, more or less, an issue of coping with the grand societal future challenges. In Costa Rica, a National Commitment on DESD has led to an elaboration of the already existing strategy and structures for EE towards a trans-disciplinary approach that incorporates EE into

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poverty reduction, economic dynamism and gender equity (Hori & Shaw 2013: 4, 16). Similarly, in Brazil, they have a long and strong tradition for EE approached as a comprehensive, critical, participatory and emancipatory project aimed at promoting ethics, aesthetics and citizenship towards a socially and environmentally sustainable society (Trajber, 2013: 4; 13; 15). South Africa has for historical reasons a similar focus on societal development as a whole, and SD and ESD are oriented towards social dimensions of sustainable development (Læssøe, 2013b). Approaches to SD and ESD are also influenced by national development as measured by Human Development Index (HDI). In very high HDI countries covered by this study (South Korea, Australia, Canada/Manitoba, Denmark and the UK), CC encourages strategies for a low carbon society, approached as green growth. (cf. 3.3.2). In China and Vietnam, characterized as medium HDI countries, ESD is linked to the issue of access to education and the Education for All/Quality Education agenda. In this context, in China and Vietnam, as in many developing countries, ESD is connected to a reorientation of the educational system under the heading of Quality Education (Han, 2013: 21; Tong & Shaw, 2013: 12). For example, in China, The National Education Outline 2010-2020 views quality education as a major strategic theme for China’s educational reform and development during the period 2010-2020. It identifies the goals of the education reform in China as promoting equal access to education, improving education quality and boosting SD capacity (Han, 2013: 21).

3.3.2. There is an emerging trend towards focusing CC and SD policies on green economy by interpreting CCE as a means for providing green skills. The policies and discourses on ESD and green skills are in most countries remarkably unconnected but there are also examples of efforts to integrate them. In the global policy arena, e.g., at the Rio+20 summit, the concepts of ‘green growth’ and ‘green economy’ have come to be emphasized as a means to achieving SD. The global financial crisis and pressure to find ways of coping with the effects of climate change are probably some of the important dynamics behind this discursive shift. What does this mean for the discourses on ESD and CCE? The ILO-Cedefop study on ‘Skills for Green Jobs’ from 2011 concludes that most countries still do not have a policy strategy for providing the necessary skills for a green economy (Streitska-Ilina et al. 2011). This is also the case in the countries involved in this study. If we look at those countries that have begun to address the need for skills for green jobs, skills development policies tend to be decoupled from ESD discourses, policies and practice. • In the UK, the ambition to respond to CC by creating a low carbon society has resulted in several policy initiatives to promote green TVET. While the former government placed emphasis on a programme for ‘Sustainable Schools’ with a broad ESD approach, the current government has its focus on green skills which it approaches as a matter of providing the necessary Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) qualifications for the labour market (Læssøe, 2013c: 3-5).

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The same lack of policy integration can be found in Denmark, where TVET has included green elements for many years. Nevertheless, TVET is conspicuous by its absence from the Danish policy documents on ESD. In China, the Ministry of Education has proposed to reform Chinese VET to equip the youth with green economy skills. ESD, however, is not explicitly incorporated into the efforts (Han, 2013: 15). In South Korea the earlier national policies on EE and ESD do not form the basis for the recent policy initiatives on Green Growth Education. However, the new policy is not restricted to TVET and not developed without involvement of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. The problem is the inadequate organisational structure on the government department level that impedes policy coordination (Sung, 2013: 3).

One reason for the lack of integration can be organizational, as school education and TVET often belong to different departments. Another reason can be a discursive and cultural gap between the human and social competence oriented ESD concept and the focus on techno-scientific qualifications in vocational education. It is also due to the simple fact that ESD is still not a well-established concept in the national policies and that green skills have only recently begun to appear on the policy agenda. For these reasons, the potential for dialogue still exists. Interestingly, the material also includes examples showing that some countries clearly differ from the above mentioned countries in that green skills are interpreted in a more comprehensive way, obviously inspired by the strong tradition for a holistic approach to EE and EfS. For example, in Australia, the Green Skills Agreement from 2009 applies the concept ‘skills for sustainability’ and defines it as follows:
“Skills for sustainability, also known as green skills, are the technical skills, knowledge, values and attitudes needed in the workforce to develop and support sustainable social, economic and environmental outcomes in business, industry and the community” (Council of Australian Governments, 2009: 2).

The Green Skills Implementation Plan 2010-2011 furthermore outlines the learning outcomes for VET practitioners as:
• “vocational competence in the knowledge, skills and competencies being taught in industry-relevant training o plus the recognition of, and ability to respond quickly to, innovation in relevant environmentally sustainable services, products and technologies; education skills to deliver learner-based change strategies towards sustainability (Education for Sustainability), including o advanced facilitation skills that foster creativity, innovation and problem solving (these skills are essential if workers are to remain adaptable and employable in a period of significant industrial transition) strategies that allow transformational, experiential and reflective learning” (Council of Australian Governments, 2010: 6)

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Although this approach to green skills does not represent an abandonment of the principles of EfS by narrowing the focus to technical skills, competences and knowledge, there still seems to be a slight change in the perspective, as stated in the National VET Sector Sustainability and Action Plan:
“Where the term sustainability (or sustainable) is used, it describes the interconnectedness of a healthy environment, social justice, equity and economic vitality. This policy and action plan, however, has a much stronger emphasis on environmental sustainability concerns relative to the other dimensions of sustainability.” (National VET Sector Sustainability Action Group & Ministerial Council for Vocational and Technical Education, 2009: 2)

The social and cultural dimensions of sustainability seems not to get the same awareness as the environmental and economic dimensions (Rolls, 2013: 8). In Canada, Manitoba’s Green Plan prioritizes green skills, knowledge and values within the existing and future workforce and the Department of Education published in 2012 a report on Technical-Vocational Education for Sustainable Development in Manitoba as well as a number of guiding materials. The brochure ‘Making a living sustainably: green jobs and sustainable careers’ underlines that technical skills alone are insufficient in creating sustainable development, listing the following examples of values and skills:
”Values and Attitudes • Global mindset • Rootedness in community • Concern for equity and human rights • Respect for diversity • Sense of urgency • Capacity for innovation and new ideas • Integrated thinking • Respect for science as part of the solution • Personal commitment to a sustainable lifestyle Skills and Abilities • Bridging and combining disciplines and skills • Planning with a long-term outlook • Communicating and networking • Managing people and projects • Implementing financial planning (preparing budgets, monitoring costs) • Dealing with uncertainty and unpredictability • Applying a systems approach • Translating complex ideas Source: Manitoba Education: ‘Making a living sustainably: green jobs and sustainable careers, 2012:.5

3.3.3. DRRE is only addressed by some national policies. In some of these it has a rather narrow focus on climate knowledge and operational instruction. However, in several other countries the approach seems to be more comprehensive. In some of the national policy strategies on CC, DRRE is approached as a matter of enhancing the knowledge on the science of CC, fostering awareness of CC and/or disseminating DRR instructions. Examples can be found in the national reports on China (Han, 2013: 12-13), Denmark (Læssøe, 2013a: 2), Tuvalu (Young, 2012) and Bangladesh (Habiba et al, 2012). However, as already described in 3.1.4., DRR policies in Vietnam, South Africa and Australia are incorporated into the already established frameworks of ESD and CCE. Within this framework DRRE also includes collaboration with different agents and communities on capacity building and problem solving. In line with this

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approach, the content of the disaster-related curriculum for schools in Indonesia also includes social studies (Mulyasari & Shaw, 2013: 10).

3.3.4. The national strategic policy papers on ESD neither interpret ESD as equivalent with science education nor restrict the educational approach to prescriptive learning. What has happened with the approaches to ESD since 2008 if we look at how ESD is described in national policy papers? UNESCO’s mid-Decade report on the DESD notes:
“Although there is no hard evidence to support this claim, there is anecdotal evidence to suggest that there is more emphasis today on the E in ESD that there was at the beginning of the Decade.” (Wals, 2009: 27)

This study supports this impression. If we look at the way ESD is described in national policies since 2008, it generally applies in relation to the involved countries that such descriptions have neither been reduced to science education nor to prescriptive approaches to promote learning about SD. This is not to assert that science education and normativity are absent, but the approaches to ESD also include other aspects. For example in China, ESD is an integral part of an on-going educational reform. As such, it is an umbrella for many different activities covering more than teaching scientific knowledge, as it is also oriented towards values and lifestyles, as well as competencies.
“ESD policies and practice in China suggest that ESD does not simply represent a new curriculum area or field of study, but rather a more integrated, interdisciplinary and holistic educational approach to cultivate the knowledge, capacities and values of individuals in the rapidly changing world” (Han, 2013: 22)

Another example, expressing a more comprehensive approach, is described by the Indonesian Center of Policy Research and Educational Innovation, which has a key role in promoting ESD in Indonesia. In their version, ESD has 15 components as defined by the draft DESD International Implementation Scheme that was published by UNESCO in 2005 (human rights, security, gender equality, cultural diversity and cross-cultural understanding, health, HIV/AIDS, governance, natural resources, climate change, rural development, sustainable urbanization, prevention and disaster relief, poverty reduction, Corporate Responsibility/CSR, and the market economy).10 These components have been implicitly included in the Standard Competence/Basic Competence in almost all subjects in appropriate portion with the characteristics of each subject (Mulyasari & Shaw, 2013: 7).

The “15 strategic perspectives” of ESD included in the draft DESD International Implementation Scheme (UNESCO, 2004) were dropped in the finalized version (UNESCO, 2005). Indonesia’s inclusion of these 15 perspectives might indicate that Indonesian ESD policy uncritically/automatically reflects UNESCO’s normative approaches to holistic ESD, rather than translating the global ESD vision into local terms.

10

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Other examples can be found in the Philippines (Fernandez and Shaw 2013: 5), Denmark (Læssøe, 2013a: 3), UK (Læssøe, 2013c: 6-7), South Africa (Læssøe, 2013b), Costa Rica (Hori & Shaw 2013: 10), and Australia (Rolls, 2013: 2-3) It should be noted that, although ESD is described in comprehensive ways at the general strategic level, other policy documents at lower levels might express more prescriptive and science focused approaches. 3.3.5. The dominant approach to promote implementation of ESD and CCE is to integrate it into the existing school subjects. There are, however, also examples on extra- or cross-curricular strategies. As noted in 3.2.1, many of the national policies have integrated ESD and CCE in the national school curricula frameworks. In the IALEI study from 2009, three approaches to integration were described: (i) infusing ESD across the curriculum; (ii) delegating ESD to a single subject or subject area (e.g. science education); and (iii) re-orienting the school curricula to make ESD a fundamental educational goal (Læssøe et al. 2009: 17-18). Based on the involved countries in this study, it clearly seems as though the dominant approach is to infuse ESD across the curriculum, as seen in the national reports on the Philippines (Fernandez & Shaw, 2013: 5), Costa Rica (Hori & Shaw 2013: 10), Denmark (Læssøe, 2013a: 3), South Africa (Læssøe, 2013b: 1) and UK (Læssøe, 2013c: 8). CCE is likewise integrated across the school subjects, as observed in the national reports from the Philippines (Fernandez & Shaw, 2013: 7), Indonesia (Mulyasari & Shaw, 2013: 9-10), Costa Rica (Hori & Shaw 2013: 7), Denmark (Læssøe, 2013a), Vietnam (Tong & Shaw, 2013: 14), Australia (Rolls, 2013: 8) and Canada/Manitoba (Rolls, 2013b: 10-11). Although infusion of ESD and CCE across the school subjects is the dominant approach, it does not necessarily exclude a cross-disciplinary/extra-curricular approach. For instance DRRE in the Philippines takes such an approach.
“DRR is also incorporated in co-curricular and extra-curricular activities, including full-scale emergency exercises or drills, drawing competitions, debates, quiz bees, learning journeys, and theater performances, among others (Reyes, 2011). In addition, DRR has been integrated in the non-formal curriculum known as alternative learning under the Bureau of Alternative Learning Systems (BALS) of DepEd. The focus of the non-formal education is out-of-school youth and students taking up technical and vocational courses on agriculture and fishery. DRR concepts have also been integrated in the environment textbook used for non-formal education (Reyes, 2011).” (Fernandez and Shaw 2013: 6)

In Indonesia, a new curriculum system from 2006 provides the opportunity for specific local curricula. DRR is taught as a special subject within the Local Content Curriculum which provides a significant level of autonomy and flexibility to each school, so they can develop curricula by analysing local social, cultural and natural needs (Mulyasari & Shaw, 2013: 11).

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In Australia the Sustainability Curriculum Framework for schools focuses on empowerment and active learning:
“In an era marked by concerns about the future of the planet, education for sustainability can be empowering, and an antidote to a sense of helplessness. It equips students to act, individually and collectively, in ways that can contribute to sustainability. It provides the opportunity for students to explore and evaluate contested and emerging issues, gather evidence, and create solutions for a sustainable future. Education for sustainability can enable students to become effective citizens and active change agents by helping them to deal with complexity and uncertainty. It can also help them to understand that there is rarely a single solution because new knowledge is continuously generated, and diverse viewpoints exist in society” (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 2010: 4).

In accordance with this approach, the framework points to the cross-disciplinary nature of ESD and the challenge of thinking of curriculum in new ways. Although it requires that sustainability be incorporated into the different subjects, it also stresses the importance of:
“aligning related content across learning areas, so that the curriculum supports teachers in building deep understandings and skills about sustainability with their students at particular points in time” – and – “provide sufficient flexibility in the whole curriculum to enable teachers to teach this content richly, using locally relevant sustainability issues and opportunities in schools, at home and in the wider community” (ibid: 8)

In China, where ESD is regarded as more than the specific SD content in the subject curricula, ESD resonates with a whole school approach which, among other elements, includes extra-curricular thematic activities (Han, 2013: 20, 22). A similar approach can also be found in the UK, where the former government decided that all schools should be Sustainable Schools before 2020. The Sustainable Schools in UK are guided by a National Framework that comprises three interlocking parts: (i) a commitment to care, (ii) an integrated approach (whole school), and (iii) a selection of ‘doorways’ or sustainability themes. Compared to this, the current UK government seems to have moved towards a more science and technology oriented focus, but the Government’s ‘National Curriculum Review’ from 2011 still stresses outdoor learning to support educational attainment across the curriculum (Læssøe, 2013c: 7). Another example is Costa Rica where The Ecological Blue Flag Program for Schools was launched in 1996. Since 2004 25% of all schools in the country have been involved in the programme (Hori & Shaw 2013: 10-11). Several other countries have whole school programmes: Australia (Rolls, 2013: 10), Canada/Manitoba (Rolls, 2013b: 10-11), Denmark (Læssøe, 2013a). In practice, whole school approaches can be conducted very differently. These differences fall outside the scope of the present study. The point here is only that, although ESD and

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CCE are generally approached by integration across the curriculum, there is also space for extra-curricular learning in several countries.

4. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Please note: This chapter will be written after, and with inspiration from, the expert consultation in Paris 8-9 April 2013. Below you will find some issues that might be discussed there. This chapter relates the findings of the cross-national study to the challenge of developing global guidelines for promotion of CCESD. List of issues: • The challenge of taking account of diversity in national challenges, capacities and aspirations: How to compile useful CCESD guidelines for countries where some are strongly impacted by CC and some are not, where some are rich with established educational structures, others are in a stage of rapid development, and others remain poor? The challenge of guiding national policies in times of “new governance”: In the twenty-first century, governance is no longer a problem of national governments alone. In the face of ongoing reconfiguration of state-civil society relations, ESD is greatly influenced by the rally cry of participatory and accountable decisionmaking on SD by way of enhancing the involvement of diverse stakeholders in governmental and inter-governmental processes. 11 How strong an emphasis should be placed on classic regulatory instruments? How much on the State’s potential role as funder and organizer of supportive structures creating an enabling environment for stakeholder collaboration on development of CCESD? How much emphasis should be put on guidance and information? What is the specific role of State departments in organizing stronger norm-supporting structures for partnership, project building, intermediary agency, knowledge sharing etc.? The challenge of marginalization in the policy arena: In national policies, education is still a rather marginal part of the discourse on CC and SD. And CC policy seems to have a still stronger focus on CCA and DRR, while SD policy seems to be moving

11 UN ECOSOC (2006) refers to Thomas Weiss’ definition of global governance as “collective efforts to identify, understand or address worldwide problems that go beyond the capacity of individual States to solve” and “the complex of formal and informal institutions, mechanisms, relationships, and processes between and among States, markets, citizens and organizations, both inter- and nongovernmental, through which collective interests on the global plane are articulated, rights and obligations are established, and differences are mediated” (p. 4).

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towards green economy. How can a guideline on CCESD relate to these trends? On the one hand, CCESD risks becoming even more marginalised if it does not follow these current trends, while doing so may open opportunities for mainstreaming. On the other hand, such a move also risks transforming the substance of ESD and a much more instrumental approach to education and learning. How can global guidelines on CCESD cope with this dilemma? Is it possible to address it with an approach that emphasizes the importance of enabling dialogues between a SD/CC perspective on E and an E perspective on SD/CC? • The challenge of overcoming the gap between soft generic values and hardcore, concrete economy: Policy is primarily about economy. With the growing interest in green growth, there are opportunities to bring previously excluded moral issues into consideration within economic policy. But there are obviously also two risks: One is to argue for CCESD as a purely ethical issue, which risks being excluded as too radical and idealistic. Another risk is to go too far in trying to market CCESD as a sound investment and, in that way, transforming CCESD into something that challenges neither existing values nor structures. Some hybrids that overcome these two poles are needed: CCESD that addresses the economic challenges but does so in ways that also challenge and transform the dominant economic discourse. Is it possible for UNESCO guidelines to address this challenge/potential? The challenge of bringing ESD and CCE together: By approaching CCESD as CCE within the framework of ESD it becomes an incorporation of CCE into the discourse of ESD. But does the fusion of the two concepts also open for an elaboration of ESD? Science education, concrete guiding DRRE and Green Growth education towards a low carbon society are all potential elements of CCE but often met with resistance within the ESD circles. Is it possible to maintain these aspects of CCE and interpret them within a broader framework of participatory social learning? The challenge of mediating science and local knowledge in CCESD: ESD and CCE risk excluding the socio-cultural aspects or being divided into two parts – sciencetechnology education and socio-cultural learning. Is it possible to construct guidelines that support ways of incorporating and mediating between these two parts? The challenge of political ideologies: It might seem strange to offer guidance on national policy making without any reflection on political ideologies and power. ESD and CCE are not neutral issues but approaches that draw on ideological values and frames. For example, neoliberal versus social democratic policies, as well as centralized versus governance oriented policies, make a difference. Green growth is not only about enabling SD, but also constitutes a certain approach or ideology that might open for support but also create resistance (as already witnessed in discussions around Rio+20). It also appears as though some of the more recently developed countries are more open to innovation than countries with old, fixed

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ideological positions and structures. How can UNESCO guidelines act in relation to this?

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REFERENCES
Unpublished National Reports (Commissioned by UNESCO) Fernandez, Glenn, and Rajib Shaw. 2013. Climate Change Education in the Philippines: A National Policy Review. Kyoto University, Japan. Habiba, U., M. Abedin, and Rajib Shaw. 2013. Desk Research to Develop Policy Guidelines on Climate Change Education: A National Policy Review in Bangladesh. Kyoto University, Japan. Han, Qingqing. 2013. Climate Change Education and Education for Sustainable Development: A National Policy Review on China. Hori, Tsuneki, and Rajib Shaw. 2013. Current policy development regarding Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education in Costa Rica. Kyoto University, Japan. Læssøe, Jeppe. 2013a. CCESD in Denmark. Aarhus University, Denmark. ———. 2013b. CCESD in South Africa. Aarhus University, Denmark. ———. 2013c. CCESD in UK. Aarhus University, Denmark. Mosidi, Solly. 2013. National Survey on Climate Change Education for Sustainable Development (CCESD): South Africa. The Delta Environmental Centre. Mulyasari, Farah, and Rajib Shaw. 2013. Development of Policy on Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education in Indonesia. Kyoto University, Japan. Rolls, Simon. 2013a. CCESD in Australia. Aarhus University, Denmark. ———. 2013b. CCESD in Manitoba, Canada. Aarhus University, Denmark. Sung, Jung-Hee, 2013. Condensed presentation of national policy analyses. Tong, Thi My Thi, and Rajib Shaw. 2013. A National Policy Review of Education for Sustainable Development and Climate Change Education in Viet Nam. Kyoto University, Japan. Trajber, Rachel. 2013. National ESD and CCE policy analyses – BRAZIL. Young, Carol. 2012. Education for Climate Change and Sustainable Development, Tuvalu 2012. University of Auckland.

Governmental Documents Australia: Council of Australian Governments, 2009: Green skills agreement: an agreement between the Australian Government and the state and territory governments Council of Australian Governments , 2011: National Strategy for Disaster Resilience , Department of Climate Change (2010): Adapting to climate change: an Australian Government positioning paper. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2010): Sustainability curriculum framework: a guide for curriculum developers and policy makers Ministerial Council for Tertiary Education and Employment (2010): The Green Skills Implementation Plan 2010-2011 (Aus)

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National VET Sector Sustainability Action Group & Ministerial Council for Vocational and Technical Education (2009): National VET sector sustainability policy and action plan (20092012 Canada: Department of Education, Manitoba (2013): Education for sustainable development; http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/esd/ Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship (2012): Consultation on proposed Green Prosperity Act Philippines: Office of Civil Defense (2011): Philippines: National Progress Report on the Implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action (2009-2011) - Interim. http://www.preventionweb.net/files/18619_phl_NationalHFAprogress_2009-11.pdf. South Africa: Government of the Republic of South Africa (2011): National Climate Change Response White Paper. Pretoria, Government Printers. The United Kingdom: Department of Energy and Climate Change, (2010): Meeting the Low Carbon Skills Challenge – a Government response.

Other references Chambers, Dianne. 2009. Sustainable Development: Response from Education. Australian contry report. Melbourne Graduate School of Education. Dobson, Andrew. 1996. "Environmental sustainabilities: an analysis and a typology." Environmental Politics no. 5 (3):401 - 28. Feinstein, Noah Weeth , Pedro Roberto Jacobi, and Heila Lotz-Sisitka. forthcoming. "Educational Governance in Brazil, South Africa and the United States: When and how does a nationlevel analysis make sense?" Environmental Education Research. Gross, D, and S Nakayama. 2010. Barriers and Deficits with Implementing ESD 2000-2009. Jickling, B. 1992. "Why I don't want my children educated for sustainable development." Journal of Environmental Education no. 23 (4):5-8. Læssøe, Jeppe, Karsten Schnack, Søren Breiting, and Simon Rolls. 2009. Climate Change and Sustainable Development: The Response from Education. The recommendations from the International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes. Læssøe, Jeppe (2012): Framework for national CCE and ESD policy analyses, Methodological guideline, Unpublished. Mckeown, Rosalyn, and Charles Hopkins. 2003. "EE =/= ESD: defusing the worry." Environmental Education Research no. 9 (1). Nazir, Joanne, Erminia Pedretti, John Wallace, David Montemurro, and Hilary Inwood. 2009. Climate Change and Sustainable Development: The Response from Education. The Canadian Perspective. Centre for Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto.

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Selby, David, and Fumiyo Kagawa. 2012. Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula - Case Studies from Thirty Countries. UNESCO and UNICEF. Stevenson, R.B. 2006. "Tensions and transitions in policy discourse: recontextualizing a decontextualized EE/ESD debate." Environmental Education Research no. 12 (3-4):277290. Streitska-Ilina, Olga, Christine Hofmann, Mercedes Durán Haro, and Shinyoung Jeon. 2011. Skills for Green Jobs - A Global View. Geneva: International Labour Office. Wals, Arjen E.J. 2009. Review of Contexts and Structures for Education for Sustainable Development. UNESCO.

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