Você está na página 1de 89

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE APRESENTAO

Prezados(as) alunos(as), Ol pessoal, Sejam bem-vindos ao curso de Ingls Teoria e Exerccios para o SENADO. Como j foi dito na aula demonstrativa, ao todo sero seis aulas, divididas por assuntos, em que resolveremos questes de provas do CESPE, ESAF e FGV, j que a banca examinadora para o prximo concurso do Senado Federal ainda no est definida. Nesta primeira aula sero apresentados os principais tempos verbais e como foram abordados pelas diferentes bancas examinadoras. Para facilitar a reviso, na parte final da aula est o quadro-geral do vocabulrio-chave e as questes apresentadas. Bons estudos.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

AULA 01 TEMPOS VERBAIS

PRESENTE SIMPLES E PRESENTE CONTNUO

O tempo verbal do ingls denominado Presente Simples corresponde ao Presente do Indicativo da lngua portuguesa. Os verbos no Presente Simples so empregados para indicar uma ao habitual, que ocorre no momento em que enunciada. Normalmente aparece aps expresses de tempo como when, as soon as, before e after. Alguns advrbios de freqncia tambm funcionam como indicadores do Presente Simples, tais como always, generally, seldom e often. Afirmativa: Sujeito + Infinitivo. Para he, she, it o verbo acrescido de s.

Negativa: Sujeito + Do/Does + Not + Verbo principal no infinitivo (sem to). Para he, she, it usa-se does; para you, they, we usa-se Do.

J o Presente Contnuo um tempo verbal que mostra movimento, algo que est acontecendo. Uma ao que ocorre no momento da construo da frase. Veja no quadro abaixo a estrutura do presente simples e do

presente contnuo:

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PRESENTE SIMPLES (VERBO BE/HAVE) I He She It You We They PRESENTE CONTNUO I He She It You We They are + verbo + ing is + verbo + ing am + verbo + ing (I am working) are/have is/has am/have (I am at work)

Agora veja como caiu em prova:

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE DICA: Antes de ler o texto todo, no perca tempo, v ao enunciado da questo. Veja o que a Banca Examinadora quer de voc.

The web makes waves in Brazil There is no doubt that the web has caught on in Brazil as its web-using population has doubled in just three years. In July 2008 more than 23.7 million Brazilians went online according to figures gathered by web statistics firm IBOPE/NetRatings. The figure is up 28% on the same time in 2007 and continues the trend of booming net use. Proof that it has caught on can be seen in statistics which suggest Brazilians spend the longest time surfing from home than any other nationality. By contrast, North Americans spend 20 hours 30 minutes and Germans 21 hours browsing the web every month. While net access is popular in the homes of Brazilians, with 35.4 million homes connected to the web in July 2008, internet cafes, or Lan houses as they are known in Brazil, are becoming hugely popular. So popular that they are springing up in underground stations and fast food restaurant. The dark side The internet has a reputation for harbouring some dark areas and for that reason, a rigorous check is done before anyone can use a computer in a Lan house. (adapted from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7642224.stm)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The title of this article refers to a movement that is (A) swaying. (B) sweeping. (C) swindling. (D) swerving. (E) swinging.

Comentrios: O enunciado da questo j remete o leitor ao ttulo do texto The web makes waves in Brazil. Logo, para responder a essa questo no ser necessrio ler o texto, mas apenas o ttulo. Observe que no ttulo est dito que a web faz ondas (makes waves presente simples web (it) makes) no Brasil. Vamos entender essa frase: make wave/fazer onda em portugus seria melhor traduzido por A web se tornou uma onda no Brasil, no sentido de varredura, popularizao. O enunciado da questo diz que o ttulo do texto se refere a um movimento que (is, presente simples do verbo be) Vejamos as alternativas de resposta: (A) swaying. (balanando) (B) sweeping. (arrebatando, varrendo, tomando conta), sim, como uma onda (C) swindling. (trapaceando) (D) swerving. (desviando) (E) swinging. (balanando)

PALAVRAS-CHAVE web: web, rede make: fazer waves: onda www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE swaying: balanando sweeping: arrebatando, varrendo, tomando conta swindling: trapaceando swerving: desviando swinging: balanando

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The underlined word in While net access is popular (line12) can be replaced by (A) Whereas. (B) Wherefore. (C) Whenever. (D) Whence. (E) Whereby.

Comentrios: O enunciado da questo j indica a frase que deveremos ler no texto: While net access is popular (linha 12). Vejamos: While net access is popular in the homes of Brazilians, with 35.4 million homes connected to the web in July 2008, internet cafes, or Lan houses as they are known in Brazil, are becoming hugely popular. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 6

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

No pargrafo citado aparecem grifados os verbos no presente simples e no presente continuo. Observe:

While net access is popular ... (Enquanto o acesso internet popular..) be no presente simples They are known (Eles so conhecidos..)

Internet cafes or lan houses are becoming (ciber cafs e lan houses esto se tornando..)

be + become + ing (presente contnuo)

Como acabei de apresentar o presente simples e o continuo, resolvi colocar essa questo. Contudo, esta foi uma questo de puro vocabulrio e cobrou do candidato o conhecimento dos advrbios, que estudaremos na nossa prxima aula. Mas vamos l: Voc dever acertar o substituto para while, que significa enquanto. Vejamos as opes de resposta: (A) Whereas = enquanto, ao passo que, considerando que (B) Wherefore = por isso (C) Whenever = quando (D) Whence = onde (E) Whereby = como, de que forma, por meio do qual

PALAVRAS-CHAVE while: enquanto, considerando www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 7

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE net access: acesso interne popular: popular homes of Brazilians: lares brasileiros internet cafes: ciber cafs known: conhecido become: tornar-se hugely: amplamente, largamente whereas: enquanto, ao passo que, considerando que wherefore: por isso whenever: quando whence: onde whereby: como, de que forma, por meio do qual

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) When the article informs that it has a reputation for harbouring some dark areas (lines19-20), this implies the Internet can be used for (A) exquisite ends. (B) sober objectives. (C) genuine aims. (D) sensible reasons. (E) grim purposes.

Comentrios: O enunciado diz que quando o artigo informa que ela has a reputation for harbouring some dark areas (linhas 19-20), isto implica que a internet pode ser usada por (can be used for). Internet has a reputation for harbouring some dark reas A frase est no presente simples, observe que o verbo have est conjugado, passando para has (It has). O texto afirma que a internet tem uma reputao (reputation) de abrigar (harbouring) algumas reas obscuras (dark). Isto quer dizer que a internet pode ser usada para: (A) exquisite ends = requintados/extraordinrios fins (B) sober objectives. = objetivos sbrios (C) genuine aims. = objetivos verdadeiros (D) sensible reasons.= razes sensatas (E) grim purposes. = propsitos cruis/ameaadores A nica alternativa que carrega a idia negativa de dark a letra E.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

PALAVRAS-CHAVE when: quando article: artigo inform: informar that: que has/have: ter reputation: reputao harbouring: abrigo dark areas: areas obscuras imply: implicar can be used for: pode ser usado para exquisite ends: requintados/extraordinrios fins sober objectives: objetivos sbrios genuine aims: objetivos verdadeiros sensible reasons: razes sensatas grim purposes: propsitos cruis/ameaadores

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

10

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Insolvencies/Guaranty Funds Source: www.iii.org Feb/ 2006 (Adapted) 1. The regulation of insurance company solvency is a function of

the state. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed banks, securities firms, insurance companies and other financial services entities to affiliate and sell one anothers products, continues this practice. State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic onsite examinations. When a company is found to be in poor financial condition, regulators can take various actions to try to save it. Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators.

4. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) According to the text, insolvencies do occur, which means they a) actually happen. b) are undoubtedly preventable. c) hardly take place. d) do not pose a threat. e) used to be more frequent.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

11

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Comentrios: O enunciado da questo j remete o leitor expresso insolvencies do occur. S ser necessrio encontrar esta expresso no texto. Vejamos a ltima frase do texto: ()Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators. Agora as palavras-chave e as alternativas de resposta:

PALAVRAS-CHAVE insolvencies: insolvncias occur: ocorrer, acontecer however: porm, no obstante despite: apesar de actually: efetivamente, de fato happen: acontecer undoubtedly: indubitavelmente preventable: evitvel hardly: dificilmente take place: ocorrer pose a threat: representar uma ameaa used to be: costumava ser

a) actually happen. A opo A est correta. Insolvencies do occur uma frase que est no presente simples. O verbo occur que significa ocorrer, est precedido de do que o verbo auxiliar do presente simples. Ora, mas o auxiliar no usado para formar as interrogativas e negativas? Sim, mas tambm usado para dar nfase, como no presente caso. Dizer que Insolvencies do occur significa dizer que insolvncias efetivamente acontecem. Actually significa de fato, efetivamente. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 12

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE DO PARA DAR NFASE

Insolvencies do occur =

Insolvencies occur.

Do verbo auxiliar, usado em negativas e interrogativas no presente. Exemplos Do insolvencies occur? Insolvencies dont occur.

b) are undoubtedly preventable. A opo B est incorreta. Da leitura da frase Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators. percebe-se que apesar dos esforos dos reguladores (despite efforts), as insolvncias efetivamente ocorrem. Logo, no se pode afirmar que insolvncia seja indubitavelmente evitvel (preventable). c) hardly take place. A opo C est incorreta. O texto no diz que insolvncia dificilmente (hardly) ocorre (take place), apenas afirma que ela ocorre. d) do not pose a threat. A opo D est incorreta. Insolvencies do occur no quer dizer que insolvncias no representam (do not pose) uma ameaa (threat). Perceba que o enunciado da questo quer apenas o significado da expresso, no quer sua interpretao para insolvncias, se elas so ou no ameaas.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

13

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

e) used to be more frequent. A opo E est incorreta. A opo afirma que insolvncias costumavam ser (used to be) mais freqentes. Esta frase est no passado e o texto est no presente.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

14

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Lembrete: No leia o texto, v direto para o enunciado da questo.

Irans top nuclear negotiator Saeed Jalili and EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana agreed yesterday to pursue talks aimed at resolving the nuclear crisis, state television reported. () Iran is facing a possible fourth round of U.N.Security Council sanctions over its refusal to halt enrichment, a process which makes nuclear fuel but also the core of an atomic bomb. The European Union and the United States have also imposed restrictions on the activities of Irans largest banks, which are running in parallel to the three sets of sanctions agreed by the Security Council.
Internet: <www.afp.google.com.article> (adapted).

5.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2008) Despite the talks between Jalili and Solana, Iran

still proceeds with its process to make nuclear fuel rich which is also the kernel of an atomic bomb. Comentrios: O primeiro passo buscar as palavras-chave da alternativa.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE Despite the talks between Jalili and Solana, Iran still proceeds with its process to make nuclear fuel rich which is also the kernel of an atomic www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 15

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE bomb. despite: apesar de (das) talks: conversas between: entre still: ainda proceeds: continuar process: processo make: fazer nuclear fuel rich: combustvel nuclear enriquecido which: que the kernel: semente atomic bomb: bomba atmica is also: tambm

Ao buscar no texto a frase que mais se assemelha a esta questo, encontramos: () a process which makes nuclear fuel but also the core of an atomic bomb. PALAVRAS-CHAVE ()Iran is facing a possible fourth round of U.N.Security Council sanctions over its refusal to halt enrichment, a process which makes nuclear fuel but also the core of an atomic bomb. refusal: recusa, negativa halt: parar process: processo nuclear fuel: combustvel nuclear www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 16

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE the core: caroo, semente but also: mas tambm Agora, compare: Item: process - make nuclear fuel rich - which is also the kernel of an atomic bomb. Texto: enrichment - process - makes nuclear fuel but also the core of an atomic bomb. Enquanto a alternativa fala em processo para fazer combustvel nuclear enriquecido, o qual tambm a semente da bomba atmica, o texto fala que o Iran continua com o processo de enriquecimento para fazer combustvel nuclear mas tambm a semente de uma bomba atmica. Assim como no texto, o item afirmou que o combustvel nuclear tambm a semente de uma bomba atmica. O tempo verbal utilizado aqui o presente simples. Observe os verbos em destaque: Despite the talks between Jalili and Solana, Iran still proceeds with its process to make nuclear fuel rich which is also the kernel of an atomic bomb. (...)Iran still proceeds..(...)O Iran ainda continua. O verbo est conjugado na 3 pessoa do presente simples: I proceed You proceed He, She, It proceeds (Iran = it) We proceed They proceed

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

17

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (...)which is. .................. (...)que which pronome que substitui process. O verbo be (is) est conjugado na 3 pessoa do presente simples: I am You are He, She, it is (process = it) We are They are

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

18

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Companies in the rich world are confronted with a rapidly ageing workforce. Nearly one in three American workers will be over 50 by 2012, and America is a young country compared with Japan and Germany. China is also ageing rapidly, thanks to its onechild policy. This means that companies will have to learn how to manage older workers better. Most companies are remarkably ill-prepared. There was a flicker of interest in the problem a few years ago but it was snuffed out by the recession. The management literature on older workers is a mere molehill compared with the mountain devoted to recruiting and retaining the young. Companies are still stuck with an antiquated model for dealing with ageing, which assumes that people should get pay rises and promotions on the basis of age. They have dealt with the burdens of this model by periodically downsizing older workers or encouraging them to take early retirement. This has created a dual labour market for older workers, of cosseted insiders on the one hand and unemployed or retired outsiders on the other. But this model cannot last. The number of young people, particularly those with valuable science and engineering skills, is shrinking. And governments are raising retirement ages and making it more difficult for companies to shed older workers, in a desperate systems. Feb 4th 2010 | From The Economist print edition [adapted] attempt to cope with their underfunded pension

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

19

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

6.

(ESAF/AFT/2010)

The

text

suggests

that

the

governments

of

industrialized countries are a) trying to stop companies dismissing older members of their workforce. b) refusing to employ younger workers because of their expensive pensions. c) cutting the retirement pensions of valuable workers on the basis of age. d) making desperate attempts to cope with an inefficient labour market. e) regretting their generosity to workers who have taken early retirement.

Comentrios: a) trying to stop companies dismissing older members of their workforce. A opo A est correta. A questo trata da atuao dos governos dos pases industrializados face ao problema da fora de trabalho envelhecida. Esta alternativa afirma que os governos esto tentando (are trying) impedir que empresas demitam os trabalhadores mais velhos. Nesse sentido, analisando a frase And governments are raising retirement ages and making it more difficult for companies to shed older workers, in a desperate attempt to cope with their underfunded pension systems. percebemos que exatamente isso o que o texto diz, que os governos esto dificultando que estes trabalhadores sejam demitidos (making it more difficult for companies to shed older workers). Logo, correta. b) refusing to employ younger workers because of their expensive pensions. A opo B est incorreta. O texto no diz os governos esto evitando (refusing) empregar trabalhadores jovens. Logo, incorreta.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

20

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE c) cutting the retirement pensions of valuable workers on the basis of age. A opo C est incorreta. A alternativa afirma que os governos esto promovendo cortes nas penses dos trabalhadores (cutting) com base no critrio de idade. No, observe que o texto fala em raising retirement ages, ou seja, aumentar o limite de idade para a aposentadoria, mas no cortar aposentadorias j efetivadas. d) making desperate attempts to cope with an inefficient labour market. A opo D est incorreta. O item fala que o governo est fazendo tentativas desesperadas (making desperate attempts) para lidar com um mercado penso. e) regretting their generosity to workers who have taken early retirement. A opo E est incorreta. O texto no afirma que o governo est arrependido (regreting, regreted) de sua generosidade para com aqueles que se aposentaram mais cedo. de trabalho ineficiente, enquanto o texto fala de tentativa desesperada para lidar com o problema do financiamento do sistema de

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE governments: governos industrialized countries: pases industrializados are trying: esto tentando to stop: parar companies: empresas dismissing: demitindo older: mais velhos

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

21

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE workforce: fora de trabalho refusing: negando to employ: empregar younger workers: trabalhadores jovens expensive pensions: penses caras cutting: cortando retirement: aposentadorias valuable workers: trabalhadores ativos age: idade making: fazendo attempts: enforos inefficient: ineficiente labour market: mercado de trabalho

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

22

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Sharks in the water In the last year, Somalias pirates have attacked 120 vessels in the Gulf of Aden, choking commerce in a critical shipping lane (the transit route for 20 percent of the worlds oil), blocking aid supplies and driving up transport costs. () The Somalias internationally recognized transitional government has invited foreign navies to do whats necessary to stop the pirates, even attacking them ashore if need be. The Security Council has affirmed that option. Moreover, nearly all of Somalias pirates come from one region (Puntland), live in a single town (Boosaaso) and stash captured vessels in one of three ports (Eyl, Hobyo or Haradhere) making interdiction that much easier. Andrew Linington of Nautilus UK, a seamans union that has had many of its members taken hostage, says the international community knows where the pirates are, they know the ports they use, they know the mother ships. Stopping them could be done, he says. But that would be expensive at a time when U.S. resources are tied up in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Rod Nordlant. Sharks in the water. Internet: <www.newsweek.com> (adapted).

According to the text, it is correct to affirm that

7. (CESPE/ ANTAQ/2009)

All of Somalias pirates come from one region,

what makes their interdiction quite easy.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

23

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Comentrios: As palavras All, Somalias pirates, come, one region, interdiction, quite easy. Vejamos o que diz o texto: Moreover, nearly all of Somalias pirates come from one region (Puntland), live in a single town (Boosaaso) and stash captured vessels in one of three ports (Eyl, Hobyo or Haradhere) making interdiction that much easier. ITEM All Somalias pirates (They 3 pessoa do plural) come (presente simples do verbo come) one region interdiction quite easy one region interdiction much easier come TEXTO nearly all Somalias pirates

O texto afirma que quase todos (nearly all) os piratas da Somlia vm (come) de uma regio, o que no o mesmo que dizer que todos (all) os piratas da Somlia vm de uma nica regio. H tambm outro erro na questo, quando ela afirma que a interdio torna-se quite easy (muito fcil), ao passo que o texto diz que a interdio torna-se muito mais fcil (much easier). Quando o texto diz muito mais fcil est comparando com alguma outra situao, no significa, necessariamente, que a interdio seja algo muito fcil de ser feita, e sim, mais fcil do que em outras situaes.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

24

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE all: todos Somalias pirates: piratas da Somlia come: vir one region: uma regio interdiction: interdio quite easy: muito fcil nearly all: quase todos much easier: muito mais fcil

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

25

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

PASSADO SIMPLES E PRESENTE PERFEITO

O Passado Simples o tempo verbal em ingls que equivale ao pretrito perfeito do indicativo do portugus, indicando uma ao j concluda. Os verbos em ingls so divididos entre regulares e irregulares. Os regulares so conjugados da mesma maneira para todas as pessoas, apenas com o acrscimo de ED para formao do passado. Os irregulares tambm so conjugados da mesma maneira para todas as pessoas quando esto no passado (com exceo do verbo be que pode ser was ou were), mas no so formados apenas com o acrscimo de ED (exemplos: write, wrote; have, had; be, was/were)

PASSADO VERBOS REGULARES ANNOUNCE (ANUNCIAR) I He She It You We They announced announced announced I He She It You We They

PASSADO VERBOS IRREGULARES THINK (PENSAR) thought thought

thought

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

26

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PASSADO VERBOS IRREGULARES COME INTO FORCE (ENTRAR EM VIGOR) I He She It You We They came (didnt come) came (didnt come) came (didnt come) I He She It You We They were (werent) was (wasnt) PASSADO VERBOS IRREGULARES BE (SER, ESTAR) was (wasnt)

Como vocs observaram, os verbos regulares recebem o acrscimo de ed ao infinitivo para formar o passado simples (simple past) e o particpio passado (past participle). Nos verbos irregulares, no h nenhum tipo de regra que estabelea como ser formado o passado. necessrio decorar o passado dos verbos irregulares mais importantes, aqueles que realmente caem em prova, tais como o verbo be. PASSADO DO VERBO BE (SER, ESTAR) I He She It You We They were was was I He She It You We They werent Were wasnt Was wasnt Was I ? He ..? She.? It ? You ? We .? They?

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

27

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

O Presente Perfeito o tempo verbal mais recorrente em provas de concursos, portanto, ateno. Este um tempo verbal que no tem um equivalente em portugus. Normalmente, indica aes que ocorreram no passado e perduram at o presente, concludas. composto por dois verbos: um auxiliar e outro principal. O auxiliar o verbo have (no presente simples), ou seja: have (para: I, you, we, they) ou has (para: he, she, it). O verbo principal sempre deve estar no particpio (passado particpio). So trs as situaes em que o Presente Perfeito pode aparecer: aes de um passado indeterminado e aes recentemente

a) Aes iniciadas que ocorreram em um tempo passado, sendo que suas conseqncias perduram at o tempo presente. Neste caso, o Present Perfect geralmente utilizado com: since, for, lately, recently, up to now; b) Pode indicar aes passadas, em um tempo desconhecido,

indeterminado; c) Em aes recentemente concludas o Present Perfect usado, geralmente, com a palavra just.

Importante observar que o been pode ser usado ou no. Veja o quadro abaixo:

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

28

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PRESENTE PERFEITO I He She It You We They have has + been + verbo passado (1) (dealt) + verbo no passado (2) (dealt) been (sido) pode ser usado ou no. have

O USO DESSE TEMPO VERBAL (tanto no 1 quanto no 2 modelo) PODE TER DOIS SIGNIFICADOS DIFERENTES: Acontecido em algum momento indeterminado no passado (foram tratados). Repetidas vezes no passado ou iniciado no passado e ainda no terminado (tem sido tratados).

Agora, vejamos questes que cobraram esses dois tempos verbais:

Lembre-se de no ler o texto. V direto para as questes para s depois buscar as palavras-chave no texto.

Companies in the rich world are confronted with a rapidly ageing workforce. Nearly one in three American workers will be over 50 by 2012, and America is a young country compared with Japan and Germany. China is also ageing rapidly, thanks to its onechild policy. This means that companies will have to learn how to manage older workers better. Most companies are remarkably ill-prepared. There was a flicker of interest in the problem a few years ago but it was snuffed out by the recession. The management literature on older workers 29 www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE is a mere molehill compared with the mountain devoted to recruiting and retaining the young. Companies are still stuck with an antiquated model for dealing with ageing, which assumes that people should get pay rises and promotions on the basis of age. They have dealt with the burdens of this model by periodically downsizing older workers or encouraging them to take early retirement. This has created a dual labour market for older workers, of cosseted insiders on the one hand and unemployed or retired outsiders on the other. But this model cannot last. The number of young people, particularly those with valuable science and engineering skills, is shrinking. And governments are raising retirement ages and making it more difficult for companies to shed older workers, in a desperate systems. Feb 4th 2010 | From The Economist print edition [adapted] attempt to cope with their underfunded pension

8. (ESAF/AFT/2010)

In paragraph 2, the author claims that the

recent economic recession has a) awakened an interest in science and engineering among younger workers. b) caused the number of young people seeking jobs in business to increase. c) extinguished what little interest firms had shown in how to manage an older staff. d) made a mountain of business management out of a managerial molehill. e) led many firms to dismiss older workers in their periodic staff reductions.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

30

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Comentrios: Esta foi uma questo totalmente no Passado Simples. a) awakened an interest in science and engineering among younger workers. A opo A est incorreta. A questo faz remisso ao pargrafo 2 e recente recesso econmica. A alternativa afirma que a recesso enfraqueceu (awakened, passado de awake, verbo regular) o interesse em cincia e engenharia. Observe que no texto, especificamente na frase There was a flicker of interest in the problem a few years ago but it was snuffed out by the reces sion. no mencionado nada disso. A frase fala em problema (fora de trabalho envelhecida) e que houve interesse no problema at que ocorreu a recesso, que acabou com o interesse no problema. b) caused the number of young people seeking jobs in business to increase. A opo B est incorreta. O texto no diz que a recesso elevou a procura dos jovens por empregos nas empresas. Pode at ser que isso tenha acontecido, mas o texto no diz. O verbo caused passado de cause. Observe que um verbo regular. c) extinguished what little interest firms had shown in how to manage an older staff. A opo C est correta. A alternativa acompanha o texto ao afirmar que a recesso extinguiu o interesse das firmas em como lidar com funcionrios idosos (There was a flicker of interest in the problem a few years ago but it was snuffed out by the recession.).

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

31

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

d) made a mountain of business management out of a managerial molehill. A opo D est incorreta. De acordo com a alternativa, a recesso teria transformado (made, passado de make) uma montanha de negcios em um pequeno monte, ou seja, teria reduzido os negcios. O texto no diz isso. e) led many firms to dismiss older workers in their periodic staff reductions. A opo E est incorreta. A alternativa afirma que a recesso levou (led, passado de lead) as empresas a demitir os trabalhadores mais velhos. O texto no diz isso. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE awakened:acordou, passado do verbo awaken caused: causou, passado do verbo cause extinguished: extinguiu, passado do verbo extinguish made: fez, passado do verbo make led: levou, conduziu, passado do verbo lead

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

32

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

The pre-Iraq war and pre-9/11 performance of some secret services is subject to harsh criticism and, in some countries, various investigations. Governments are accused to have taken essential decisions based upon dubious information. The different agencies are blamed for inter- and intra-agency rivalry blocking the efficiency of any early warning system. In addition, they are heavily criticized for delivering the message their political masters wanted to hear. We do not want to blame anybody. But we believe that it is necessary to rethink the whole business of secret services. Without knowing the details that obviously led to serious deficiencies, there are several fundamental problems with the work of secret services in open, democratic societies. In democracies, there is often a basic mistrust towards intelligence gathering. It seems to be a dirty job. Democracy asks for openness and transparency. People in democracies do not like the work in a shadow. Scientists and journalists refrain in general from cooperation with secret services. They are afraid to destroy their access to foreign countries and colleagues. Recruitment of qualified young people has become difficult. Dieter Farwick. Internet: <http://www.world securitynetwork. com/showArticle3.cfm?article_id=9226> (with adaptations).

From the text above, it can be deduced that

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

33

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

9.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

the American decision to declair war against

Iraq was based on doubtless information. Comentrios: As palavras decision e based aparecem na frase: Governments are accused to have taken essential decisions based upon dubious information. Fazendo a comparao, temos que: Item Texto x x Are accused Decision.. Was based .. On doubtless information. have taken decisions based upon dubious information x

American .. Governments

Feita a anlise, fica mais fcil observar que enquanto o item fala em deciso americana, o texto fala, de maneira geral, que governos so acusados de terem tomado decises (have taken decisions). Ao contrario do que est dito no texto (decises baseadas em informaes dbias, duvidosas), a alternativa fala em decises baseadas em informaes indubitveis (doubtless).

SUFIXO LESS Doubtless = indubitvel sufixo - LESS = contrrio, negativo Logo, doubt=dvida, desconfiana

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

34

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOZ PASSIVA
Tanto na questo quanto no texto foi usada a voz passiva. Observe: the American decision to declair war against Iraq was based on doubtless information. decises (objeto) foram baseadas (passado be + based)

Governments are accused to have taken decisions based upon dubious information governos so acusados (presente be + accused)

VOZ PASSIVA (BE + VERBO NO PASSADO PARTICPIO)

PODE ESTAR NO PRESENTE OU NO PASSADO (is, are, was, were)

PALAVRAS-CHAVE declair: declarar war against Iraq: guerra contra o Iraque was based on: estava/era baseado doubtless: indibutvel are accused to: so acusados de have taken decisions: ter tomado decises essential: essencial based upon: baseado em dubious: dbio

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 35

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

10.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

qualified young people have never been

interested in becoming a secret agent. Comentrios: Para resolver esta questo temos que saber um pouquinho de gramtica, especificamente o tempo verbal chamado presente perfeito. Tanto o item quanto a frase em que encontramos a resposta no texto esto no presente perfeito, veja: qualified young people have never been interested in becoming a secret agent. (1) Recruitment of qualified young people has become difficult. (2)

PRESENTE PERFEITO I He She It You We They have has + (never) been + verbo passado (1) (interested) + verbo no passado (2) (become) been (sido) pode ser usado ou no. have

O USO DESSE TEMPO VERBAL (tanto no 1 quanto no 2 modelo) SIGNIFICA: Acontecido em algum momento indeterminado no passado, que continua at o momento atual. (Jovens qualificados NUNCA ESTIVERAM INTERESSADOS em se tornar agentes secretos) (O recrutamento de jovens qualificados SE TORNOU difcil)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

36

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Observe que o texto apenas afirma que o recrutamento de jovens qualificados se tornou difcil. A partir dessa afirmativa no possvel concluir que jovens nunca (never) estiveram interessados em serem recrutados.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE qualified: qualificado young people: jovens never: nuca been interested: estado interessado secret agent: agente secreto recruitment: recrutamento become: tornar-se

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

37

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE FUTURO

O futuro no ingls basicamente formado pelo verbo auxiliar will. tambm ser identificada pela expresses: Tomorrow amanh The day after tomorrow depois de amanh Next week prxima semana Next weekend prximo final de semana Next month prximo ms Next year prximo ano

will + verbo no infinitivo usado para expressar ao futura, que pode

FUTURO I He She It You We They will + verbo infinitive (I will work tomorrow Eu trabalharei amanh)

Vale lembrar que o futuro tambm feito com a expresso going to. Be going to uma estrutura que pode ser usada para falarmos de planos futuros de forma informal.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

38

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Going to enfatiza a idia de inteno, de uma deciso que j foi tomada. Ex.: Mark is going to cross Ireland. His friends are going to help him. amigos iro ajud-lo). (Marcos ir atravessar a Irlanda. Seus

Agora vejamos como cai em prova:

The long climb Source: www.economist.com st Oct, 2009 (Adapted) 1. The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal, but it

will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. The banking system will be a shadow of its former self, and the securitization markets, which buy and sell marketable bundles of debt, will presumably be a shadow of a shadow. Finance will be costlier and investment weak, so the stock of physical capital, on which prosperity depends, will erode. 2. The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Americas Treasury, in particular, must demonstrate that it is still a responsible shepherd of other countries savings.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

39

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

11. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) defined as a) both real and active. b) absolutely extraordinary. c) not very active or busy. d) sustainable and rapid. e) unpredictable.

In paragraph 1, growth in the new order is

Comentrios: A questo nos remete ao Pargrafo 1 e expresso growth in the new order. Voc dever escolher a opo que mais se assemelha definio de growth in the new order dada pelo texto. Vejamos como o texto trata do assunto: The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal, but it will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE growth: crescimento new order: nova ordem world economy: economia mundial getting back to normal: voltando ao normal will be: futuro do verbo be (ser) - ser subdued: passado do verbo subdue (reduzir) reduzido, reduziu unemployment: desemprego will remain: futuro do verbo remain (continuar) - continur high: alto www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 40

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Qual a opo que mais retrata o crescimento econmico (growth) na nova ordem mundial: a) both real and active. A opo A est incorreta. A alternativa caracteriza a nova ordem como real e active (ativa, rpida, vigorosa). A definio positiva e est errada. Veja que o texto fala em alto desemprego (high unemployment) e crescimento reduzido (subdued). b) absolutely extraordinary. A opo B est incorreta. Assim como a alternativa a, a alternativa b traz uma definio positiva da nova ordem: absolutamente extraordinria (absolutely extraordinary). c) not very active or busy. A opo C est correta. O texto define o crescimento na nova ordem como: (...) growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. Temos aqui que o crescimento ser reduzido e desemprego continuar alto, logo, pode-se dizer que o crescimento no ser muito vigoroso, ativo (active, busy). d) sustainable and rapid. A opo D est incorreta. Aqui a definio de crescimento tambm positiva, sustainable e rapid (sustentvel e rpido). e) unpredictable. A opo E est incorreta. O texto no diz que o crescimento na nova ordem mundial inprevisvel (unpredictable).

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

41

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE DICA: Apenas na alternativa c, resposta para a questo, foi apresentada uma definio negativa para o crescimento na nova ordem mundial. Mesmo sem saber a definio de subdued daria para acertar a questo.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

The technological developments of the last decade have allowed us to use new forms of communication (telefax, electronic data-traffic) on an enormous scale. Our society is increasingly becoming an information society, in which the availability of information and the use of information channels have become essential parts of societal intercourse. This technological development implies that old ways of protecting data, which is vital to a considerable section of our society, have become inadequate. New ways must be found to guarantee that data flow be secret, undamaged and/or authenticated when necessary. The combination of advanced mathematical techniques with the enormous growth of the possibilities for automatic dataprocessing has resulted in very strong systems of cryptography, that is, systems that are powerful, sophisticated, and virtually impregnable. Encryption, which in this study will be understood to mean the automatic processing of data in such a way as to make them incomprehensible to third parties, therefore seems an ideal www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 42

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE solution for guaranteeing secrecy as well as authentication and integrity of data in digital data exchange. Indeed, it is increasingly being used to that purpose by a considerable part of our society. On the other hand, the use of encryption by criminals, who will also increasingly make use of technological developments, creates problems for the investigation and finding of evidence by the judicial authorities, owing to the same development of strong cryptographic systems. Encryption can also threaten the work of national security agencies. Internet: <rechten.uvt.nl> (adapted).

12. (CESPE/STJ/2009)

Encryption means mechanical processing of data

so as to turn them understandable to the end user. Comentrios: A questo trata da definio de Encryption. No texto, ela aparece na frase: Encryption, which in this study will be understood to mean the automatic processing of data in such a way as to make them incomprehensible to third parties, () ITEM Encryption mechanical processing of data turn them understandable to the end user = = TEXTO Encryption automatic processing of data make them incomprehensible to third parties

Da comparao acima perceba que h muitas contradies entre a questo e o texto. Por exemplo, enquanto a questo fala que criptografia www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 43

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (encryption) um processo mecnico de informao, o texto fala em processo automtico.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE encryption: criptografia means: significa mechanical: mecnico processing of data: processamento de dados turn: tornar understandable: inteligvel end user: receptor final automatic: automtico make: fazer incomprehensible: incompreensvel third parties: terceiros

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

44

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

FUTURO DO PRETRITO E PRETRITO MAIS-QUE-PERFEITO DO SUBJUNTIVO

Os tempos verbais do futuro do pretrito e do pretrito mais-que-perfeito so formados em ingls com o uso do would, um verbo auxiliar. Veja o quadro abaixo:

WOULD WOULD PROVOKE (provocaria) WOULD WORSEN (pioraria) WOULD HAVE PROVOKED (teria provocado) Equivale aos nossos tempos verbais do futuro do pretrito (ex: "Eu iria" fica "I would go") e do pretrito mais-que-perfeito do subjuntivo ("Eu teria ido" fica "I would have gone") WOULD + VERBO PRESENTE

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

45

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

ATENO: NO LEIA O TEXTO, V DIRETO PARA O COMENTRIO E PARA AS QUESTES.

A apatia do crescimento Fonte: CartaCapital 03/12/03 (Com adaptaes) provvel que nos prximos trimestres a economia brasileira recupere a sua capacidade de crescimento, fruto de uma menor conteno monetria (juros altos) e das melhores expectativas dos consumidores e investidores. Todavia, a magnitude deste crescimento incerta. Os ltimos nmeros de variao do Produto Interno Bruto, divulgados na ltima quarta-feira 26,foram muito decepcionantes. O PIB (Produto Interno Bruto) caiu 1.5% no terceiro trimestre em relao ao mesmo trimestre do ano anterior. Note-se que no trimestre anterior o decrscimo tinha sido de 1.1%, ou seja, a recesso continuou se aprofundando. Os investimentos tambm prosseguiram em queda (9.1%). O consumo das famlias caiu 3.7%. Em comparao com o trimestre anterior, o crescimento foi de apenas 0.4%. Em relao a este ltimo nmero, os analistas esperavam um crescimento de 1.5% em funo do melhor ambiente econmico que prevaleceu no terceiro trimestre. Os ltimos indicadores de atividades tm sido mais favorveis, o que possibilitar que em 2004 o Pas apenas reponha o crescimento perdido nos ltimos trimestres.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

46

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

13. (ESAF/IPEA/2004)

O PIB (Produto Interno Bruto) caiu 1.5% no

primeiro trimestre em relao ao mesmo trimestre do ano anterior. a) The Brazilian internal production decreased by 1.5%. b) The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) went up by 1.5%. c) Investment levels went down by 1.5%. d) Brazilian investment predictions reached 1.5%. e) The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) fell by 1.5%. Comentrios: Primeiro vamos achar as palavras-chave da frase em portugus: O PIB (Produto Interno Bruto) caiu 1.5% no primeiro trimestre em relao ao mesmo trimestre do ano anterior. Agora veja a alternativa que diz isso em ingls: e) The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) fell by 1.5%. A opo B est errada j que usou o verbo went up que significa subir, aumentar.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

47

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 14. (ESAF/IPEA/2004) ... a recesso continuou se aprofundando. a) Recession was prevented from increasing. b) Recession remained less severe. c) Recession kept on deepening. d) Recession levels continued to lower. e) Recession continued to be fought. Comentrios: Vejamos qual alternativa traduz melhor a frase: ... a recesso continuou se aprofundando. As palavras-chave so: continuou e aprofundando. Essas duas palavras s aparecem na alternativa c: kept e deepening, que significam exatamente isso. a) Recession was prevented from increasing. b) Recession remained less severe. c) Recession kept on deepening. d) Recession levels continued to lower. e) Recession continued to be fought.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

48

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 15. (ESAF/IPEA/2004) Os ltimos indicadores de atividades tm sido mais favorveis. a) Have been more sensible. b) Had been more optimistic. c) Would be absolutely gloomy. d) Have been more favourable. e) Will be less pessimistic. Comentrios: A questo exige conhecimento do tempo verbal presente perfeito. S para relembrar, veja o quadro a seguir:

PRESENTE PERFEITO I He She It You We They


Acontecido em algum momento ou repetidas vezes no passado ou iniciado no passado e ainda no terminado. (tem sido)

have has + been have

As alternativas a e d so as nicas que esto no presente perfeito. a) Have been more sensible. (perceptvel) d) Have been more favourable. (favorvel)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

49

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PALAVRAS-CHAVE GDP (Gross Domestic Product): PIB (Produto Interno Bruto) fell: caiu (passado do verbo fall) went up: subiu, aumentou (passado do verbo go up) prevented: impedido, evitado (passado do verbo prevent) increasing: aumento recession: recesso remained: mantido (passado do verbo remain) less: menos, mnimo, inferior severe: severo, rigoroso kept: mantido (passado do verbo keep) deepening: aprofundando continued: continuou (passado do verbo continue) lower: abaixar, diminuir fought: combateu (passado do verbo fight) sensible: perceptvel optimistic: otimista absolutely: absolutamente gloomy: pessimista favourable: favorvel less: menos pessimistic: pessimista

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

50

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

While Rome burns Source: www.economist.co.uk Sep 25th, 2008 (Adapted)

1.

American plans to buy up assets that are clogging the

financial system lack detail but no one doubts that a massive government intervention is coming. In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. European governments have yet to respond publicly to calls from Hank Paulson, the treasury secretary, to follow his lead. They look set to keep faith with the approach that they have used to handle the crisis so far staving off liquidity worries by allowing banks to use facilities at central banks to swap their assets in exchange for ready cash. 2. That makes many watchers nervous. The crisis in America has dramatically grown from one of liquidity to one of solvency as well. Lehman Brothers had access to the Federal Reserves discount window, after all, but still went under. The burning question now is whether banks have enough capital. On some measures, European banks look pretty well capitalized. The average tier-one ratio, which measures capital based on the riskiness of bank assets, stood at 8% in the first half of the year. That looks solid enough, if you assume that banks have a good handle on risk.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

51

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

16. (ESAF/ STN/2008)

In paragraph 1, the author refers to a massive

government intervention which a) would worsen the scenario. b) is presently out of the question. c) would provoke constraints. d) is certainly on the way. e) seems highly questionable. Comentrios: No pargrafo 1, o autor se refere (refers) interveno governamental massiva (massive government intervention) que est se aproximando, chegando (is coming). () a massive government intervention is coming. a) would worsen the scenario. A opo A est incorreta. A alternativa afirma que a interveno governamental pioraria (would worsen) o cenrio. O texto no diz isso. b) is presently out of the question. A opo B est incorreta. Enquanto o texto diz que a interveno governamental massiva (massive government intervention) est se aproximando (in coming), aqui est sendo afirmado que a interveno governamental est fora de questo (out of the question). c) would provoke constraints. A opo C est incorreta. O texto no diz que a interveno provocaria (would provoke) constrangimento (constraints). d) is certainly on the way. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

52

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A opo D est correta. A interveno certamente est a caminho (on the way) o mesmo que dizer a interveno est se aproximando (in coming) e) seems highly questionable. A opo E est incorreta. No h no texto qualquer indicao de que a interveno parece (seems) altamente questionvel, duvidosa (questionable).

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE refer: referir-se massive: massiva/o government intervention: interveno would worsen: pioraria scenario: cenrio presently: agora, logo out of the question: fora de questo would provoke: provocaria constraints: constrangimento certainly: certamente, seguramente on the way: a caminho seem: parecer highly: altamente questionable: questionvel

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

53

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Offshore oil discoveries in Brazil to end Middle East Supremacy? In the last couple of months, several major offshore oil discoveries in Brazil have made headlines. The discovery of two oil fields has given new life to the idea that Brazil could become the worlds largest oil producer in the coming decades. The discovery of the Carioca field, estimated to hold 33 billion barrels, could alone increase Brazils future oil production capacity by 1-1.5 million barrels per day (bpd). This would make it the third largest oil field in the world and turn Brazil into the seventh largest producer of oil. In addition, Brazils national oil company PETROBRAS reported in November 2007 that the offshore Tupi field may hold 8 billion barrels of recoverable crude. Western news sources have been buzzing with the idea that Brazil could become an energy source large enough to undermine the current supremacy of the Middle East. The need for the U.S. and Europe to diversify away from current oil suppliers is obvious; these suppliers are largely based in instable and growingly anti-Western regions, such as the Middle East, North Africa and West Africa. Brazil, as one of the leading Latin American economies, is still considered to be one of the most stable oil producing regions. Peter Zeihan, VP analysis at Strategic Forecasting, believes that Brazils discoveries of what may be two of the worlds three biggest oil finds in the past 30 years could help end the Western Hemispheres reliance on Middle East crude. He indicated that the new discoveries would result in a decrease of Saudi Arabias position as largest oil producer and exporter. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 54

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE The position taken by Strategic Forecastings Zeihan is based on the belief that Brazil will be pumping several million barrels of crude daily by 2020, but an increase of 1- 1.5 million bpd in crude oil production is just a drop in the ocean. At present, the Gulf region transports about 17-18 million bpd to world markets. Total global demand is predicted to be about 112-115 million bpd, with around 55-60 million bpd produced by OPEC to counter lower production in other regions. To end the Middle Eastern supremacy, the world will need, in addition to the Brazilian discoveries, a tripling of Canadian oil sands output and higher fuel efficiency. The U.S. alone imports around 10 million bpd of crude oil, showing that Brazils 1-1.5 million bpd could only supply 10%-15% of imports. And this percentage would decrease as import volumes are increased if and when the American economy recovers. So as long as Gulf-based producers are still supplying around 23% of total U.S. imports, the need for stability in the Middle East will remain.
Internet: <www.resourceinvestor.com> (adapted).

17. (CESPE/PETROBRS/2009) According to the text, A several months ago, discoveries of important offshore oil reserves made Brazil hit international headlines. B Brazil will be the largest oil producer all over the world by the next year. C todays Brazil capability of producing oil reaches about 1-1.5 million barrels per day. D by the end of last year, PETROBRAS announced that Tupi field may contain 8 billion barrels of recoverable crude. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 55 middle of

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE E at present, Brazil is the third largest oil producer in the world.

Comentrios: A. Nesta alternativa, as palavras-chave so: several, months, ago,

dicoveries, offshore, oil reserves, brazil, headlines. No texto, podemos encontr-las na frase: In the last couple of months, several major offshore oil discoveries in Brazil have made headlines. Observe a comparao a seguir:

Item several months ago discoveries offshore oil reserves Brazil international headlines

Texto last couple of months discoveries offshore oil Brazil headlines

Feita a comparao entre o item e o texto, observamos que enquanto o primeiro fala em vrios (several) meses, o segundo fala em dois (couple) meses. Logo, incorreta.

B. Nesta opo de resposta, as palavras-chave so: Brazil, will be, largest, oil producer, middle, next year. No texto, temos a frase:

The discovery of two oil fields has given new life to the idea that Brazil could become the worlds largest oil producer in the coming decades.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

56

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Item Brazil will be largest oil producer middle of next year Texto Brazil could become largest oil producer coming decades

Enquanto o item fala que o Brasil ser (will be) o maior produtor de petrleo at o meio do ano que vem, o texto fala que o Brasil poder se tornar (could become) o maior produtor nas prximas dcadas. No texto a idia de probabilidade. No quadro abaixo veja outros verbos que indicam probabilidade. MODAL VERBS Can: poder ou saber fazer Could: poderia ou era capaz Permisso Habilidade Possiblidade GRAU DE PROBABILIDADE

May: poderia ou provvel Might: talvez seja possvel

Possibilidade Probabilidade

MUST

CAN/MAY Must: dever Possibilidade Obrigao Proibio MIGHT www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 57 COULD

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

C. Nesta opo aparecem as palavras: capability, producing oil, reaches, 1-1.5 million barrels, day. Vejamos no texto: The discovery of the Carioca field, estimated to hold 33 billion barrels, could alone increase Brazils future oil production capacity by 1-1.5 million barrels per day (bpd). A questo fala que a produo brasileira chega hoje (todays Brazil capability) a 1-1.5 milhes de barris por dia, certo? J o texto fala em produo futura (Brazils future) de 1-1.5 barris por dia. Logo, incorreta. D. As palavras-chave da alternativa so: PETROBRAS, announced, Tupi field, may, contain, 8 billion barrels, recoverable crude. No texto, temos que: In addition, Brazils national oil company PETROBRAS reported in November 2007 that the offshore Tupi field may hold 8 billion barrels of recoverable crude. Acompanhando o texto, a alternativa afirma que a Petrobrs anunciou (annouced = reported) que o campo Tupi pode (may-idia de forte probabilidade) conter (contain = hold) 8 bilhes de barris de petrleo recupervel (recoverable crude). Logo, correta.

E. As palavras-chave so: present, Brazil, the third largest, oil producer, world. No texto, vejamos:

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

58

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE This would make it the third largest oil field in the world and turn Brazil into the seventh largest producer of oil. Observe que o texto fala em would make it the third largest oil field, sendo que o it se refere ao campo de petrleo (field) e no ao Brasil. Quanto ao Brasil, enquanto a questo fala em 3 lugar, o texto fala que ele se tornaria (would turn) o 7 maior produtor de petrleo. importantssimo que voc saiba o verbo would para a prova. Veja no quadro abaixo:

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE several: muitos months: meses ago: atrs discoveries: descobertas offshore: alto mar oil reserves: reservas de petrleo headlines: manchetes last: ltimo couple: dois, casal major: maior, principal will be: ser

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

59

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE largest: o maior oil producer: produtor de petrleo middle: meio next year: prximo ano oil fields: campos de petrleo could become: poderia se tornar coming decades: nas prximas dcadas capability: capacidade reach: alcanar barrels: barris alone: sozinho increase: aumento, acrscimo announced: anunciou may: poder (probabilidade) contain: conter recoverable crude: petrleo recupervel reported: reportou hold: conter would make: faria third largest: terceiro maio turn: transformar, mudar seventh largest: stimo maior

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

QUESTO 39 18. (CESPE/PETROBRS/2009) Based on the text, choose the incorrect option. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 60

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

A Western media sources have been considering the possibility that Brazil could weaken the present leadership of the Middle East in terms of oil production. B Some mid eastern producers are unstable and are not friendly towards the USA or Europe. C Brazil, one of the main Latin American economies, is taken as a steady oil producing region. D Peter Zeihan defends the idea that discoveries in Brazil could help to finish the Occident dependence on some mid-eastern countries. E Europe and the USA will soon be self-sufficient in oil production. Comentrios: A. A alternativa apresenta as seguintes palavras-chave: Western media sources, have been considering, Brazil, could weaken, leadership of the Middle East. No texto, temos que: Western news sources have been buzzing with the idea that Brazil could become an energy source large enough to undermine the current supremacy of the Middle East.

Item Western media sources have been considering Brazil leadership of the Middle East = = = = =

Texto Western media sources have been buzzing with the idea Brazil undermine (minar, enfraquecer) supremacy Middle East

could weaken (enfraquecer) =

A partir da comparao acima, percebe-se que o item est apenas parafraseando o texto. Logo, correta. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 61

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

B. As palavras-chave so: mid eastern producers, unstable, not friendly, USA, Europe. O texto diz o seguinte: The need for the U.S. and Europe to diversify away from current oil suppliers is obvious; these suppliers are largely based in instable and growingly antiWestern regions, such as the Middle East, North Africa and West Africa. Item mid eastern producers unstable not friendly USA, Europe = = = = = Texto Middle East suppliers instable anti-Western (anti-ocidentais) U.S. and Europe

No h contradies entre o texto e a alternativa. Nos dois momentos est sendo dito que os produtores de petrleo do Oriente Mdio so instveis e no amigveis para com os EUA e a Europa (anti-ocidentais). Logo, correta. C. Aqui, a palavras-chave : Brazil, one of the main Latin American economies, is taken as a steady oil producing region. Vejamos no texto: Brazil, as one of the leading Latin American economies, is still considered to be one of the most stable oil producing regions. Tanto o texto quanto a alternativa afirmam que o Brazil considerado uma das regies produtoras de petrleo mais estveis (stable = steady). Logo, correta.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

62

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE D. As palavras-chave que aparecem na alternativa so: Peter Zeihan, defends, discoveries, Brazil, could help, finish, Occident dependence, mid-eastern countries. O texto diz que: Peter Zeihan, VP analysis at Strategic Forecasting, believes that Brazils discoveries of what may be two of the worlds three biggest oil finds in the past 30 years could help end the Western Hemispheres reliance on Middle East crude. Item Peter Zeihan defends discoveries Brazil could help finish Occident dependence = = = = = = = Texto Peter Zeihan believes discoveries Brazils could help end Western Hemispheres reliance on Middle East

mid-eastern countries =

Partindo da comparao acima, observa-se que o item est apenas reescrevendo o que est dito no texto. Logo, correta.

E. A alternativa diz que os EUA e a Europa logo sero (will soon be) autosuficientes na produo de petrleo, certo? Errado. O texto no diz isso em nenhum momento. Ao contrrio, em uma de suas passagens afirma que The U.S. alone imports around 10 million (...), ou seja, os EUA so grandes importadores de petrleo e por isso, no auto-suficientes. Logo, incorreta.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

63

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE Western media sources: fontes da mdia ocidental have been considering: considerou, tem considerado could weaken: poderia enfraquecer leadership: liderana Middle East: Oriente Mdio Western news sources: fontes de notcias ocidentais buzzing with the idea: levantando a idia could become: poderia tornar-se energy source: fonte de energia undermine: minar, enfraquecer current: atual supremacy: supremacia unstable: instvel not friendly: no amigvel stable: estvel steady: estvel defend: defender believe: acreditar end: finalizar reliance: confiana crude: petrleo will soon be: logo ser

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

64

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

REVISO DO VOCABULRIO-CHAVE

A partir deste momento vamos revisar a aula por meio do quadro do vocabulrio-chave.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE web: web, rede make: fazer waves: onda swaying: balanando sweeping: arrebatando, varrendo, tomando conta swindling: trapaceando swerving: desviando swinging: balanando while: enquanto, considerando net access: acesso interne popular: popular homes of Brazilians: lares brasileiros internet cafes: ciber cafs known: conhecido become: tornar-se hugely: amplamente, largamente www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 65

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE whereas: enquanto, ao passo que, considerando que wherefore: por isso whenever: quando whence: onde whereby: como, de que forma, por meio do qual when: quando article: artigo inform: informar that: que has/have: ter reputation: reputao harbouring: abrigo dark areas: areas obscuras imply: implicar can be used for: pode ser usado para exquisite ends: requintados/extraordinrios fins sober objectives: objetivos sbrios genuine aims: objetivos verdadeiros sensible reasons: razes sensatas grim purposes: propsitos cruis/ameaadores insolvencies: insolvncias occur: ocorrer, acontecer however: porm, no obstante despite: apesar de actually: efetivamente, de fato happen: acontecer undoubtedly: indubitavelmente preventable: evitvel hardly: dificilmente take place: ocorrer www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 66

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE pose a threat: representar uma ameaa used to be: costumava ser despite: apesar de (das) talks: conversas between: entre still: ainda proceeds: continuar process: processo make: fazer nuclear fuel rich: combustvel nuclear enriquecido which: que the kernel: semente atomic bomb: bomba atmica is also: tambm refusal: recusa, negativa halt: parar process: processo nuclear fuel: combustvel nuclear the core: caroo, semente but also: mas tambm governments: governos industrialized countries: pases industrializados are trying: esto tentando to stop: parar companies: empresas dismissing: demitindo older: mais velhos workforce: fora de trabalho refusing: negando to employ: empregar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 67

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE younger workers: trabalhadores jovens expensive pensions: penses caras cutting: cortando retirement: aposentadorias valuable workers: trabalhadores ativos age: idade making: fazendo attempts: enforos inefficient: ineficiente labour market: mercado de trabalho all: todos Somalias pirates: piratas da Somlia come: vir one region: uma regio interdiction: interdio quite easy: muito fcil nearly all: quase todos much easier: muito mais fcil awakened:acordou, passado do verbo awaken caused: causou, passado do verbo cause extinguished: extinguiu, passado do verbo extinguish made: fez, passado do verbo make led: levou, conduziu, passado do verbo lead declair: declarar war against Iraq: guerra contra o Iraque was based on: estava/era baseado doubtless: indibutvel are accused to: so acusados de have taken decisions: ter tomado decises essential: essencial www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 68

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE based upon: baseado em dubious: dbio qualified: qualificado young people: jovens never: nuca been interested: estado interessado secret agent: agente secreto recruitment: recrutamento become: tornar-se growth: crescimento new order: nova ordem world economy: economia mundial getting back to normal: voltando ao normal will be: futuro do verbo be (ser) - ser subdued: passado do verbo subdue (reduzir) reduzido, reduziu unemployment: desemprego will remain: futuro do verbo remain (continuar) - continur high: alto encryption: criptografia means: significa mechanical: mecnico processing of data: processamento de dados turn: tornar understandable: inteligvel end user: receptor final automatic: automtico make: fazer incomprehensible: incompreensvel third parties: terceiros GDP (Gross Domestic Product): PIB (Produto Interno Bruto)

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

69

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE fell: caiu (passado do verbo fall) went up: subiu, aumentou (passado do verbo go up) prevented: impedido, evitado (passado do verbo prevent) increasing: aumento recession: recesso remained: mantido (passado do verbo remain) less: menos, mnimo, inferior severe: severo, rigoroso kept: mantido (passado do verbo keep) deepening: aprofundando continued: continuou (passado do verbo continue) lower: abaixar, diminuir fought: combateu (passado do verbo fight) sensible: perceptvel optimistic: otimista absolutely: absolutamente gloomy: pessimista favourable: favorvel less: menos pessimistic: pessimista refer: referir-se massive: massiva/o government intervention: interveno would worsen: pioraria scenario: cenrio presently: agora, logo out of the question: fora de questo would provoke: provocaria constraints: constrangimento certainly: certamente, seguramente www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 70

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE on the way: a caminho seem: parecer highly: altamente questionable: questionvel several: muitos months: meses ago: atrs discoveries: descobertas offshore: alto mar oil reserves: reservas de petrleo headlines: manchetes last: ltimo couple: dois, casal major: maior, principal will be: ser largest: o maior oil producer: produtor de petrleo middle: meio next year: prximo ano oil fields: campos de petrleo could become: poderia se tornar coming decades: nas prximas dcadas capability: capacidade reach: alcanar barrels: barris alone: sozinho increase: aumento, acrscimo announced: anunciou may: poder (probabilidade) contain: conter www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 71

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE recoverable crude: petrleo recupervel reported: reportou hold: conter would make: faria third largest: terceiro maio turn: transformar, mudar seventh largest: stimo maior Western media sources: fontes da mdia ocidental have been considering: considerou, tem considerado could weaken: poderia enfraquecer leadership: liderana Middle East: Oriente Mdio Western news sources: fontes de notcias ocidentais buzzing with the idea: levantando a idia could become: poderia tornar-se energy source: fonte de energia undermine: minar, enfraquecer current: atual supremacy: supremacia unstable: instvel not friendly: no amigvel stable: estvel steady: estvel defend: defender believe: acreditar end: finalizar www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 72

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE reliance: confiana crude: petrleo will soon be: logo ser

QUESTES DA AULA

The web makes waves in Brazil There is no doubt that the web has caught on in Brazil as its web-using population has doubled in just three years. In July 2008 more than 23.7 million Brazilians went online according to figures gathered by web statistics firm IBOPE/NetRatings. The figure is up 28% on the same time in 2007 and continues the trend of booming net use. Proof that it has caught on can be seen in statistics which suggest Brazilians spend the longest time surfing from home than any other nationality. By contrast, North Americans spend 20 hours 30 minutes and Germans 21 hours browsing the web every month. While net access is popular in the homes of Brazilians, with 35.4 million homes connected to the web in July 2008, internet cafes, or Lan houses as they are known in Brazil, are becoming hugely popular. So popular that they are springing up in underground stations and fast food restaurant. The dark side

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

73

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE The internet has a reputation for harbouring some dark areas and for that reason, a rigorous check is done before anyone can use a computer in a Lan house. (adapted from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7642224.stm)

1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The title of this article refers to a movement that is (A) swaying. (B) sweeping. (C) swindling. (D) swerving. (E) swinging. 2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) The underlined word in While net access is popular (line12) can be replaced by (A) Whereas. (B) Wherefore. (C) Whenever. (D) Whence. (E) Whereby. 3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) When the article informs that it has a reputation for harbouring some dark areas (lines19-20), this implies the Internet can be used for (A) exquisite ends. (B) sober objectives. (C) genuine aims. (D) sensible reasons. (E) grim purposes. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 74

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Insolvencies/Guaranty Funds Source: www.iii.org Feb/ 2006 (Adapted) 1. The regulation of insurance company solvency is a function

of the state. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed banks, securities firms, insurance companies and other financial services entities to affiliate and sell one anothers products, continues this practice. State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic onsite examinations. When a company is found to be in poor financial condition, regulators can take various actions to try to save it. Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators.

4. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) According to the text, insolvencies do occur, which means they a) actually happen. b) are undoubtedly preventable. c) hardly take place. d) do not pose a threat. e) used to be more frequent.

Irans top nuclear negotiator Saeed Jalili and EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana agreed yesterday to pursue talks

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

75

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE aimed at resolving the nuclear crisis, state television reported. () Iran is facing a possible fourth round of U.N.Security Council sanctions over its refusal to halt enrichment, a process which makes nuclear fuel but also the core of an atomic bomb. The European Union and the United States have also imposed restrictions on the activities of Irans largest banks, which are running in parallel to the three sets of sanctions agreed by the Security Council.
Internet: <www.afp.google.com.article> (adapted).

5.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2008)

Despite the talks between Jalili and Solana,

Iran still proceeds with its process to make nuclear fuel rich which is also the kernel of an atomic bomb.

Companies in the rich world are confronted with a rapidly ageing workforce. Nearly one in three American workers will be over 50 by 2012, and America is a young country compared with Japan and Germany. China is also ageing rapidly, thanks to its one-child policy. This means that companies will have to learn how to manage older workers better. Most companies are remarkably ill-prepared. There was a flicker of interest in the problem a few years ago but it was snuffed out by the recession. The management literature on older workers is a mere molehill compared with the mountain devoted to recruiting and retaining the young. Companies are still stuck with an antiquated model for dealing with ageing, which assumes that people should get pay rises and promotions on the basis of age. They have dealt with the burdens of this model by www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 76

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE periodically downsizing older workers or encouraging them to take early retirement. This has created a dual labour market for older workers, of cosseted insiders on the one hand and unemployed or retired outsiders on the other. But this model cannot last. The number of young people, particularly those with valuable science and engineering skills, is shrinking. And governments are raising retirement ages and making it more difficult for companies to shed older workers, in a desperate attempt to cope with their underfunded pension systems. Feb 4th 2010 | From The Economist print edition [adapted]

6. (ESAF/AFT/2010)

In paragraph 2, the author claims that the

recent economic recession has a) awakened an interest in science and engineering among younger workers. b) caused the number of young people seeking jobs in business to increase. c) extinguished what little interest firms had shown in how to manage an older staff. d) made a mountain of business management out of a managerial molehill. e) led many firms to dismiss older workers in their periodic staff reductions.

Sharks in the water In the last year, Somalias pirates have attacked 120 vessels in the Gulf of Aden, choking commerce in a critical shipping lane (the transit route for 20 percent of the worlds oil), blocking aid supplies and driving up transport costs. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 77

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE () The Somalias internationally recognized transitional government has invited foreign navies to do whats necessary to stop the pirates, even attacking them ashore if need be. The Security Council has affirmed that option. Moreover, nearly all of Somalias pirates come from one region (Puntland), live in a single town (Boosaaso) and stash captured vessels in one of three ports (Eyl, Hobyo or Haradhere) making interdiction that much easier. Andrew Linington of Nautilus UK, a seamans union that has had many of its members taken hostage, says the international community knows where the pirates are, they know the ports they use, they know the mother ships. Stopping them could be done, he says. But that would be expensive at a time when U.S. resources are tied up in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Rod Nordlant. Sharks in the water. Internet: <www.newsweek.com> (adapted).

According to the text, it is correct to affirm that

7. (CESPE/ ANTAQ/2009)

All of Somalias pirates come from one region,

what makes their interdiction quite easy.

Companies in the rich world are confronted with a rapidly ageing workforce. Nearly one in three American workers will be over 50 by 2012, and America is a young country compared with Japan and Germany. China is also ageing rapidly, thanks to its one-child policy. This means that companies will have to learn how to manage older workers better.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

78

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Most companies are remarkably ill-prepared. There was a flicker of interest in the problem a few years ago but it was snuffed out by the recession. The management literature on older workers is a mere molehill compared with the mountain devoted to recruiting and retaining the young. Companies are still stuck with an antiquated model for dealing with ageing, which assumes that people should get pay rises and promotions on the basis of age. They have dealt with the burdens of this model by periodically downsizing older workers or encouraging them to take early retirement. This has created a dual labour market for older workers, of cosseted insiders on the one hand and unemployed or retired outsiders on the other. But this model cannot last. The number of young people, particularly those with valuable science and engineering skills, is shrinking. And governments are raising retirement ages and making it more difficult for companies to shed older workers, in a desperate attempt to cope with their underfunded pension systems. Feb 4th 2010 | From The Economist print edition [adapted]

8. (ESAF/AFT/2010)

In paragraph 2, the author claims that the

recent economic recession has a) awakened an interest in science and engineering among younger workers. b) caused the number of young people seeking jobs in business to increase. c) extinguished what little interest firms had shown in how to manage an older staff. d) made a mountain of business management out of a managerial molehill. e) led many firms to dismiss older workers in their periodic staff reductions.

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

79

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

The pre-Iraq war and pre-9/11 performance of some secret services is subject to harsh criticism and, in some countries, various investigations. Governments are accused to have taken essential decisions based upon dubious information. The different agencies are blamed for inter- and intra-agency rivalry blocking the efficiency of any early warning system. In addition, they are heavily criticized for delivering the message their political masters wanted to hear. We do not want to blame anybody. But we believe that it is necessary to rethink the whole business of secret services. Without knowing the details that obviously led to serious deficiencies, there are several fundamental problems with the work of secret services in open, democratic societies. In democracies, there is often a basic mistrust towards intelligence gathering. It seems to be a dirty job. Democracy asks for openness and transparency. People in democracies do not like the work in a shadow. Scientists and journalists refrain in general from cooperation with secret services. They are afraid to destroy their access to foreign countries and colleagues. Recruitment of qualified young people has become difficult. Dieter Farwick. Internet: <http://www.world securitynetwork. com/showArticle3.cfm?article_id=9226> (with adaptations).

From the text above, it can be deduced that

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

80

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 9. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) the American decision to declair war against Iraq

was based on doubtless information. 10. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) qualified young people have never been

interested in becoming a secret agent. The long climb Source: www.economist.com st Oct, 2009 (Adapted) 1. The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal, but it

will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. The banking system will be a shadow of its former self, and the securitization markets, which buy and sell marketable bundles of debt, will presumably be a shadow of a shadow. Finance will be costlier and investment weak, so the stock of physical capital, on which prosperity depends, will erode. 2. The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Americas Treasury, in particular, must demonstrate that it is still a responsible shepherd of other countries savings.

11. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) defined as a) both real and active.

In paragraph 1, growth in the new order is

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

81

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE b) absolutely extraordinary. c) not very active or busy. d) sustainable and rapid. e) unpredictable. The technological developments of the last decade have allowed us to use new forms of communication (telefax, electronic data-traffic) on an enormous scale. Our society is increasingly becoming an information society, in which the availability of information and the use of information channels have become essential parts of societal intercourse. This technological development implies that old ways of protecting data, which is vital to a considerable section of our society, have become inadequate. New ways must be found to guarantee that data flow be secret, undamaged and/or authenticated when necessary. The combination of advanced mathematical techniques with the enormous growth of the possibilities for automatic dataprocessing has resulted in very strong systems of cryptography, that is, systems that are powerful, sophisticated, and virtually impregnable. Encryption, which in this study will be understood to mean the automatic processing of data in such a way as to make them incomprehensible to third parties, therefore seems an ideal solution for guaranteeing secrecy as well as authentication and integrity of data in digital data exchange. Indeed, it is increasingly being used to that purpose by a considerable part of our society. On the other hand, the use of encryption by criminals, who will also increasingly make use of technological developments, creates problems for the investigation and finding of evidence by the judicial authorities, owing to the same development of strong www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 82

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE cryptographic systems. Encryption can also threaten the work of national security agencies. Internet: <rechten.uvt.nl> (adapted).

12. (CESPE/STJ/2009)

Encryption means mechanical processing of data

so as to turn them understandable to the end user.

A apatia do crescimento Fonte: CartaCapital 03/12/03 (Com adaptaes) provvel que nos prximos trimestres a economia brasileira recupere a sua capacidade de crescimento, fruto de uma menor conteno monetria (juros altos) e das melhores expectativas dos consumidores e investidores. Todavia, a magnitude deste crescimento incerta. Os ltimos nmeros de variao do Produto Interno Bruto, divulgados na ltima quarta-feira 26,foram muito decepcionantes. O PIB (Produto Interno Bruto) caiu 1.5% no terceiro trimestre em relao ao mesmo trimestre do ano anterior. Note-se que no trimestre anterior o decrscimo tinha sido de 1.1%, ou seja, a recesso continuou se aprofundando. Os investimentos tambm prosseguiram em queda (9.1%). O consumo das famlias caiu 3.7%. Em comparao com o trimestre anterior, o crescimento foi de apenas 0.4%. Em relao a este ltimo nmero, os analistas esperavam um crescimento de 1.5% em www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 83

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE funo do melhor ambiente econmico que prevaleceu no terceiro trimestre. Os ltimos indicadores de atividades tm sido mais favorveis, o que possibilitar que em 2004 o Pas apenas reponha o crescimento perdido nos ltimos trimestres.

13. (ESAF/IPEA/2004)

O PIB (Produto Interno Bruto) caiu 1.5% no

primeiro trimestre em relao ao mesmo trimestre do ano anterior. a) The Brazilian internal production decreased by 1.5%. b) The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) went up by 1.5%. c) Investment levels went down by 1.5%. d) Brazilian investment predictions reached 1.5%. e) The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) fell by 1.5%. 14. (ESAF/IPEA/2004) ... a recesso continuou se aprofundando. a) Recession was prevented from increasing. b) Recession remained less severe. c) Recession kept on deepening. d) Recession levels continued to lower. e) Recession continued to be fought.

15. (ESAF/IPEA/2004) Os ltimos indicadores de atividades tm sido mais favorveis. a) Have been more sensible. b) Had been more optimistic. c) Would be absolutely gloomy. d) Have been more favourable. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 84

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE e) Will be less pessimistic.

While Rome burns Source: www.economist.co.uk Sep 25th, 2008 (Adapted)

1.

American plans to buy up assets that are clogging the

financial system lack detail but no one doubts that a massive government intervention is coming. In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. European governments have yet to respond publicly to calls from Hank Paulson, the treasury secretary, to follow his lead. They look set to keep faith with the approach that they have used to handle the crisis so far staving off liquidity worries by allowing banks to use facilities at central banks to swap their assets in exchange for ready cash. 2. That makes many watchers nervous. The crisis in America has dramatically grown from one of liquidity to one of solvency as well. Lehman Brothers had access to the Federal Reserves discount window, after all, but still went under. The burning question now is whether banks have enough capital. On some measures, European banks look pretty well capitalized. The average tier-one ratio, which measures capital based on the riskiness of bank assets, stood at 8% in the first half of the year. That looks solid enough, if you assume that banks have a good handle on risk.

16. (ESAF/ STN/2008)

In paragraph 1, the author refers to a massive 85

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE government intervention which a) would worsen the scenario. b) is presently out of the question. c) would provoke constraints. d) is certainly on the way. e) seems highly questionable.

Offshore oil discoveries in Brazil to end Middle East Supremacy? In the last couple of months, several major offshore oil discoveries in Brazil have made headlines. The discovery of two oil fields has given new life to the idea that Brazil could become the worlds largest oil producer in the coming decades. The discovery of the Carioca field, estimated to hold 33 billion barrels, could alone increase Brazils future oil production capacity by 1-1.5 million barrels per day (bpd). This would make it the third largest oil field in the world and turn Brazil into the seventh largest producer of oil. In addition, Brazils national oil company PETROBRAS reported in November 2007 that the offshore Tupi field may hold 8 billion barrels of recoverable crude. Western news sources have been buzzing with the idea that Brazil could become an energy source large enough to undermine the current supremacy of the Middle East. The need for the U.S. and Europe to diversify away from current oil suppliers is obvious; these suppliers are largely based in instable and growingly anti-Western regions, such as the Middle East, North Africa and West Africa. Brazil, as one of the leading Latin American economies, is still considered to be one of the most stable oil producing regions. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 86

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Peter Zeihan, VP analysis at Strategic Forecasting, believes that Brazils discoveries of what may be two of the worlds three biggest oil finds in the past 30 years could help end the Western Hemispheres reliance on Middle East crude. He indicated that the new discoveries would result in a decrease of Saudi Arabias position as largest oil producer and exporter. The position taken by Strategic Forecastings Zeihan is based on the belief that Brazil will be pumping several million barrels of crude daily by 2020, but an increase of 1- 1.5 million bpd in crude oil production is just a drop in the ocean. At present, the Gulf region transports about 17-18 million bpd to world markets. Total global demand is predicted to be about 112-115 million bpd, with around 55-60 million bpd produced by OPEC to counter lower production in other regions. To end the Middle Eastern supremacy, the world will need, in addition to the Brazilian discoveries, a tripling of Canadian oil sands output and higher fuel efficiency. The U.S. alone imports around 10 million bpd of crude oil, showing that Brazils 1-1.5 million bpd could only supply 10%-15% of imports. And this percentage would decrease as import volumes are increased if and when the American economy recovers. So as long as Gulf-based producers are still supplying around 23% of total U.S. imports, the need for stability in the Middle East will remain.
Internet: <www.resourceinvestor.com> (adapted).

17. (CESPE/PETROBRS/2009) According to the text, A several months ago, discoveries of important offshore oil reserves made www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 87

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Brazil hit international headlines. B Brazil will be the largest oil producer all over the world by the middle of next year. C todays Brazil capability of producing oil reaches about 1-1.5 million barrels per day. D by the end of last year, PETROBRAS announced that Tupi field may contain 8 billion barrels of recoverable crude. E at present, Brazil is the third largest oil producer in the world. 18. (CESPE/PETROBRS/2009) Based on the text, choose the incorrect option. A Western media sources have been considering the possibility that Brazil could weaken the present leadership of the Middle East in terms of oil production. B Some mid eastern producers are unstable and are not friendly towards the USA or Europe. C Brazil, one of the main Latin American economies, is taken as a steady oil producing region. D Peter Zeihan defends the idea that discoveries in Brazil could help to finish the Occident dependence on some mid-eastern countries. E Europe and the USA will soon be self-sufficient in oil production.

GABARITO

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

88

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 01 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 1-B 6-A 11-C 16-D 2-A 7-E 12-E 17-D 3-E 8-C 13-E 18-E 4-A 9-E 14-C 5-C 10-E 15-D

www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

89