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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE AULA 03

Ol pessoal, Nesta terceira aula veremos uma matria importante para a correta interpretao dos textos de ingls das provas de concursos: os pronomes. Aps a breve exposio acerca dos tipos de pronomes e de que forma so usados, vou mostrar como as bancas examinadoras tm abordado a matria. Forte abrao e bons estudos.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Pronomes

O pronome

a classe de palavras que acompanha ou substitui

um substantivo ou um outro pronome, indicando sua posio em relao s pessoas do discurso ou mesmo situando-o no espao e no tempo. Os pronomes nos ajudam a evitar repeties desnecessrias na fala e na escrita. As questes de prova no cobram isoladamente esta matria, mas no h como interpretar corretamente os textos e at mesmo as questes das provas de ingls da ESAF se voc no souber um pouco dos pronomes. O candidato muitas vezes dever saber a que se referem os pronomes. Os principais tipos de pronomes e os recorrentes em provas da ESAF so: pessoais (reto e oblquo), possessivos, reflexivos, indefinidos, relativos e demonstrativos. Vejamos da maneira mais objetiva possvel o que voc deve saber sobre cada um desses grupos:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Pronomes pessoais

Os pronomes pessoais (caso reto) so os Subject pronouns , tm a funo de sujeito na orao e, em portugus, correspondem :

I eu You tu, voc He ele She ela It ele, ela (usado para coisas e animais) We ns You vs, vocs They eles, elas

Os pronomes pessoais (caso obliquo) so os Object pronouns e tem assumem na orao a funo de objeto direto ou indireto: me me, mim you te, ti, o, a, lhe him o, lhe her a, lhe it o, a us nos you - vos, os, as, lhes them os, as, lhes

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Pronomes possessivos Os pronomes possessivos so usados para substituir a os adjetivos possessivos e os substantivos que os acompanham. Os adjetivos possessivos so:

my meu, minha, meus, minhas your teu, tua, teus, tuas, seu, sua, seus, suas his dele, seu, sua, seus, suas her dela, seu, sua, seus, suas its dele, dela, seu, sua, seus, suas (coisas ou animais) our nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas their deles, delas, seu, sua, seus, suas (pessoas, animais, coisas) Os pronomes possessivos so:

mine meu, minha, meus, minhas yours teu, tua, teus, tuas, seu, sua , seus, suas his seu, sua, seus, suas, dele hers seu, sua, seus, suas, dela ours nosso, nossa, nossos, nossas theirs seu, sua, seus, suas deles, delas

Agora veja como acontece a substituio: Ex.: They are my books = They are mine.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Pronomes reflexivos

Como o prprio nome j diz, os pronomes reflexivos em ingls so usados quando desejamos nos referir a ns mesmos, quando o sujeito faz e sofre a ao. Myself Me, mesmo(a), prprio(a), (a) mim mesmo(a) Yourself Te, si, mesmo(a), prprio(a), ti mesmo(a), voc mesmo(a) Himself Se, si, mesmo, prprio, a ele mesmo, a si mesmo Herself Se, si, mesma, prpria, a ela mesma, a si mesma Itself Se, si, mesmo, prprio, a ele mesmo, a si mesmo Ourselves ns, ns mesmos, a ns mesmos Yourselves vs, mesmos, a vs mesmos Themselves Se, si, mesmo(a), prprio(a), (a) eles/elas mesmo(a)s

Ex.: I saw myself in the mirror. (Eu me vi no espelho.)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Pronomes indefinidos

Os pronomes indefinidos em ingls so: some e any SOME- usado em frase afirmativas ou interrogativas quando a resposta esperada afirmativa. some - algum; alguma; um pouco de somebody/someone algum something - algo, alguma coisa Ex.: I have some doubts. Tenho algumas dvidas. Would you like some more wine? (Gostaria de um pouco mais de vinho?)

ANY- usado em frases interrogativas e negativas any - algum, alguma (frases interrogativas); qualquer (frases afirmativas); nenhum, nenhuma (frases negativas) anyone/anybody algum; ningum anything - alguma coisa; qualquer coisa; nada Ex.: Do you any money on you? (Voc tem algum dinheiro com voc?), Are you waiting for anybody? (Est esperando por algum

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Pronomes relativos Os pronomes relativos so aqueles usados para adicionar

informaes um objeto/sujeito de uma primeira orao. Os pronomes relativos em ingls so: who (quem, que); which (que, o qual, a qual); whose (de quem, cujo); e that (que). Veja as situaes em que cada um usado:

Who usado para o sujeito ou pronomes pessoais. Ex.: I told you about who lives here (Eu contei a voc sobre quem vive aqui.), The man who leads the group (O homem que lidera o grupo). Which usado para sujeito ou pronomes para animais ou coisas. Ex.: My dog, which is brown, is sleeping. (meu cachorro, que marrom, est dormindo) Whose tm o significado de cujo. Ex.: Do you know the boy whose father is dead? (voc conhece o garoto cujo pai est morto?) That usado para sujeito, pessoas, animais, coisas, nos casos onde define alguma coisa. Ex.: I do not like the car that is parked there (Eu no gosto do carro que est estacionado ali)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Pronomes demonstrativos

Os pronomes demonstrativos servem para indicar/mostrar algo, algum lugar, pessoa ou objeto. So eles: This usado no singular, significa: este, esta, isto. That usado no singular, significa: aquele, aquela, esse, essa.

These plural de this, significa: estes, estas. Those plural de that, significa: aqueles, aquelas.

Tendo esses grupos de pronomes em mente, vejamos como so as questes de prova.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Translation: getting it right For non-linguists, buying in translation is often a source of frustration. The suggestions in this brochure are aimed at reducing stress. Think international from the start. Avoid culture-bound clichs. References to your national sport may well fall flat. Ditto literary/cultural metaphors. Tread carefully with references to parts of the human body, viewed differently by different cultures. For written documents, dont box yourself in by linking your pitch to visuals that may not carry the same meaning outside your native country forcing translators to resort to cumbersome wordplay and workarounds. In January 1998 PM Tony Blair told a group of Japanese businessmen that his government intended to go the full monty in putting the UK economy on a sound footing. Blank faces: the film had not yet been released in Japan. Keep some local flavour if you like, but check with your foreign-text team to make sure that adaptation is possible. For written documents, be sure to include international calling codes for telephone and fax How important is style? Some translations are no-hopers from the start. Often these are raw machine translation, or the work of non-native speakers struggling away with a grammar book in one hand and a dictionary in the other. They are good for a laugh. Other translations are technically accurate, yet the sentences do not flow as smoothly as they might; word order or choice of vocabulary may be unduly influenced by the original language. They are not particularly effective for selling, but may be www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 9

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE good enough for readers who know the subject and can or have time to read between the lines.
(adapted from http://www.fit-ift.org/download/getright2-en.pdf)

1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) offer apologies. (B) sell devices. (C) spread gossip. (D) give advice. (E) create networks. Comentrios:

The function of this text is to

A questo quer saber a funo do texto. Vejamos o que diz o enunciado do texto: () The suggestions in this brochure are aimed at reducing stress. A frase diz que as sugestes deste (this pronome demonstrativo) folheto objetivam reduzir o stress. Vejamos as alternativas de resposta: (A) offer apologies. = oferecer desculpas (B) sell devices. = vender estratgias (C) spread gossip. = espalhar fofocas (D) give advice. = dar conselhos (E) create networks. = criar redes No enunciado do texto j encontramos a palavra suggestion que sinnimo de advice, sendo esta a alternativa correta.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE suggestion: sugesto this: este, esta brochure: folheto be aimed: ter objetivo offer apologies: oferecer desculpas sell devices: vender estratgias spread gossip: espalhar fofocas give advice: dar conselhos create networks: criar redes

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) When the suggestions are aimed at reducing stress (lines 4-5), this means they intend to (A) cut it out. (B) cut it down. (C) cut it up. (D) cut it off. (E) cut is loose. Comentrios: A questo diz que: Quando as sugestes objetivam reduzir o stress isto significa que elas pretendem (intend to): CUIDADO! FALSO COGNATO: Pretend: fingir Intend: pretender Vejamos as alternativas de resposta. Observem que todas esto usando o it, pronome objetivo que est sendo usado em substituio palavra stress. (A) cut it out. = planejar (B) cut it down. = reduzir (C) cut it up. = criticar (D) cut it off. = remover, recortar (E) cut is loose. = separar Nas alternativas de resposta apenas cut it down tem o mesmo significado de reduce. (linhas 4-5),

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE reduce: reduzir intend: pretender cut it out: planejar cut it down: reduzir cut it up: criticar cut it off: remover, recortar cut is loose: separar

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (lines 6-7) you (A) indulge in them. (B) try to use them. (C) challenge them. (D) misunderstand them. (E) keep away from them. Comentrios: A questo diz que:

When you avoid culture-bound clichs

Quando voc evita clichs ligados cultura, voc: Vejamos as alternativas. Observe que todas elas usam o them pronome objetivo em substituio da palavra clichs. (A) indulge = ceder (B) try to use = tentar usar (C) challenge = desafiar (D) misunderstand = confundir (E) keep away from = manter distncia Avoid e keep away so sinnimos neste caso.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE avoid: evitar indulge: ceder try to use: tentar usar challenge: desafiar misunderstand: confundir keep away from: manter distncia

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

4. (FGV/SENADO/2008)

When the text states that translators

resort to cumbersome wordplay and workaround (lines 13-14), it implies that translators ultimately (A) get rid of them. (B) make use of them. (C) look down on them. (D) get tired of them. (E) run out of them. Comentrios Quando o texto afirma que tradutores recorrem (resort) a trocadilhos complexos (linhas 13-14), isto implica que os tradutores.... Them nas alternativas de resposta est no lugar das palavras em ingls para trocadilhos: wordplay and workaround. (A) get rid = livrar-se (B) make use = usar (C) look down on = desprezar (D) get tired = cansar-se (E) run out of = esgotar-se A alternativa que trouxe uma palavra com a idia de recorrer (resort) foi a B, com o verbo make use.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE resort: recorrer wordplay and workaround: trocadilhos get rid: livrar-se make use: usar look down on: desprezar get tired: cansar-se run out of: esgotar-se

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

While there is no shortage of studies into the reasons why software projects fail (Ewusi-Mensah, 1997), the major risks of software development (Jones, 1994), or even the factors affecting project success (Cooke-Davies, 2002), the field of software engineering lacks a general model with which to investigate such failures. To date, studies have tended to be surveys of the factors 4 thought to play some part in a failure. ()
Jon McBride. A model for investigating software accident. In: Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, vol. 40, n. 1, Feb. 2008 (adapted)

5. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2009)

which, in lacks a general model with

which to investigate such failures (R.3), refers to investigate. Comentrios: Nesta questo, a Banca Examinadora cobrou o conhecimento do candidato acerca dos pronomes. Raras so as questes de prova que cobram isoladamente esta matria. No caso em tela, voc precisava saber os pronomes relativos. Como vimos, o pronome Which usado para sujeito ou pronomes para animais ou coisas. Ex.: My dog, which is brown, is sleeping. (meu cachorro, que marrom, est dormindo) Na frase da questo, which no poderia estar se referindo a investigate, que um verbo.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE lacks a general model with which to investigate such failures Which est se referindo palavra model.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

Information is a cornerstone of political education and socialization. The ability to find out about issues of public importance, and the capacity to inform oneself about the workings of government and its policies are examples of how information can be essential to the education of the informed and responsible citizen. Yet in this era of information overload, the subtle but vital difference between information and knowledge needs to be drawn in order to create virtual places that promote political education in the broadest sense. It is not, in fact, information per se which is useful but knowledge, information which has been distilled and contextualized so that it can impart meaning. The Internet is the ultimate reference library, chock-full of data supplied by individuals and institutions from around the world, usually for the free use of all comers. The danger of the Internet is that it threatens to overwhelm us with so much information that, instead of democratizing and enriching our political lives, it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 19

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Internet users know well that the abundance of informational riches can have a paralytic effect, rendering the viewer helpless to find anything. The huge quantity of information available creates an inverse relationship between speaking and listening, between information and understanding. The more people speak, the fewer people will actually be heard. In fact, the deluge of data ensures that we cannot find anything. It has also the effect of making us even more dependent than in the days before the flood on unaccountable, commercialized search tools and information filters to sort information and make it meaningful. Although these editors are machines, they are not neutral. The values and choices are embedded deep within the code and often not obvious to the user.
Beth Simone Noveck. Paradoxical partners: electronic communication and electronic democracy. In: Peter Ferdinand (Ed.). The Internet, democracy, and democratization. London: Frank Cass/Routledge, 2000, p. 23-4 (with adaptations).

Based on the text above, judge the following items.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

6. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010)

The expression chock-full (R.13) means

completely full or full to the limit. Comentrios:

A questo trata do significado da expresso chock-full, afirmando que significa completamente cheio ou cheio at o limite. Vejamos a frase em que a expresso aparece no texto:
The Internet is the ultimate reference library, chock-full of data supplied by individuals and institutions from around the world, usually for the free use of all comers. Veja as palavras-chave da frase e observe que muitas (em negrito) tm origem do latim e se aproximam do portugus: Internet is = verbo be, ser/estar, conjugado. PRESENTE SIMPLES (VERBO BE) I He She It You We They are is am (I am at work)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE ultimate reference library chock-full = completamente cheio, abarrotado, repleto data = informao supplied = passado do verbo supply, que significa fornecer PASSADO VERBOS REGULARES SUPPLY (FORNECER) I He She It You We They individuals and institutions from around the world = de todo o mundo usually free use = uso livre, gratuito comers = usurios A traduo para a frase seria: "A internet a biblioteca de referncia final, cheia de dados fornecidos por pessoas e instituies de todo o mundo, geralmente para o uso livre de todos. supplied supplied supplied

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE ultimate: final reference: referncia library: biblioteca chock-full: completamente cheio data: informaes supplied: fornecido, forneceu individuals: indivduos institutions: instituies around: em volta world: mundo usually: usualmente, geralmente free use: uso livre, gratuito comers: usurios

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

7. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) In the text, the expressions comers (R.15) and Internet users (R.19) refer to the same kind of people: those who access the Internet for information. Comentrios:

Como vimos nos comentrios da questo anterior, comers significa usurios, ou seja, sinnimo de Internet users. Logo, a questo est correta ao afirmar que as duas expresses se referem ao mesmo tipo (the same kind) de pessoas: aquelas que (who) acessam a internet em busca de informao. No enunciado da questo vejam que a palavra who est empregada como um pronome relativo, se referindo palavra people.
VOCABULRIO-CHAVE expressions: expresses internet users: usurios da internet refer: referir same: mesmo kind of people: tipo de pessoas those: aqueles/aquelas who: quem, que access: acessar

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 24

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

8. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) 16). Comentrios:

In it is actually drowning us in

irrelevancies (R.18), it refers to The danger of the Internet (R.15-

A questo se refere frase it is actually drowning us in


irrelevancies, afirmando que it se refere a The danger of the Internet. Vejamos o pargrafo a que se refere a questo:

The Internet is the ultimate reference library, chock-full of data supplied by individuals and institutions from around the world, usually for the free use of all comers. The danger of the Internet is that it threatens to overwhelm us with so much information that, instead of democratizing and enriching our political lives, it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies. O texto fala da internet, certo? The danger of the Internet is that it threatens it is

It pronome pessoal objetivo, ou seja, pronome pessoal do caso reto. It est substituindo o sujeito da orao e de todo pargrafo que Internet. Traduzindo, temos que: O perigo da internet que ela www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 25

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE ameaa (it threatens), ela est na verdade nos direcionando para irrelevncias (it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies).

Currently = atualmente CUIDADO! FALSO COGNATO!

x
actually = realmente, efetivamente

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE actually: realmente, efetivamente, de fato drowning: mergulhando us: nos irrelevancies: irrelevncias refer: referir danger: perigo

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Sharks in the water In the last year, Somalias pirates have attacked 120 vessels in the Gulf of Aden, choking commerce in a critical shipping lane (the transit route for 20 percent of the worlds oil), blocking aid supplies and driving up transport costs. The last few weeks have shown how hard it will be to defeat the pirates on the high seas, which seems like the international communitys approach. When British Marines tried to board a captured fishing dhow on Nov. 11, they had to go in with guns blazing and killed one possible hostage in the process. A week later, an Indian warship opened fire on what it thought was a pirate mother ship. But the target turned out to be a Thai fishing vessel. When pirates seized their most valuable prize ever on Nov. 15 the Sirius Star supertanker holding 2 million barrels of Saudi crude everyone kept their distance. As this suggests, Somalias seaborne bandits are making a mockery of all efforts to stop them. Pirates have only increased their efforts, ranging across an area bigger than the Mediterranean. The Sirius Star was taken 450 nautical miles southeast of Kenya, and with it, the Somalis now hold 300 hostages and 15 ships. The Somalias internationally recognized transitional government has invited foreign navies to do whats necessary to stop the pirates, even attacking them ashore if need be. The Security Council has affirmed that option. Moreover, nearly all of Somalias pirates come from one region (Puntland), live in a single town (Boosaaso) and stash captured vessels in one of three ports www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 27

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (Eyl, Hobyo or Haradhere) making interdiction that much easier. Andrew Linington of Nautilus UK, a seamans union that has had many of its members taken hostage, says the international community knows where the pirates are, they know the ports they use, they know the mother ships. Stopping them could be done, he says. But that would be expensive at a time when U.S. resources are tied up in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Rod Nordlant. Sharks in the water. Internet: <www.newsweek.com> (adapted).

According to the text, it is correct to affirm that

9. (CESPE/ ANTAQ/2009)

The efforts to stop the attacks have

forced the pirates to shrink the area of their activities. Comentrios: As palavras-chave aqui so: efforts, stop, attacks, forced, shrink, area, activities. No texto, temos que: Pirates have only increased their efforts, ranging across an area bigger than the Mediterranean. ITEM efforts to stop the attacks have forced the pirates to shrink the area TEXTO pirates have increased their efforts area bigger

Enquanto a questo fala que os esforos para impedir (stop) os ataques foraram (forced) os piratas a reduzir (shrink) a sua rea de 28 www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE atuao, o texto fala que os piratas aumentaram (increased) seus esforos, agindo em uma rea maior (bigger) que o Mediterrneo.

PRONOMES PESSOAIS CASO RETO SUJEITO I (eu) you (tu, voc) He (ele) she (ela) It (ele, ela [neutro]) We (ns) you (vocs, vs) they (eles, elas) my (meu) your (seu, sua) his (dele) her (dela) Its (dele, dela) Our (nosso, nossa) Your (seus, suas) Their (deles, delas) POSSESSIVO

The efforts () have forced the pirates to shrink the area of their activities.

Pirates have only increased their efforts, ranging across ()

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE efforts: esforos stop: parar attacks: ataques forced: forou shrink: reduzir area: area activities: atividade increased: aumentou bigger: maior

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

IMPORTANTE: ler os textos.

Lembre-se V direto

que para

no as

primeiro momento voc no dever questes e utilize o texto apenas para fins de consulta.

A world of connections Source: www.economist.com (Adapted) Jan 28th, 2010 To sceptics all this talk of twittering, yammering and chattering smacks of another internet bubble in the making. They argue that even a huge social network such as Facebook will struggle to make money because fickle networkers will not stay in one place for long, pointing to the example of MySpace, which was once all the rage but has now become a shadow of its former self. Last year the site, which is owned by News Corp, installed a new boss and fired 45% of its staff as part of a plan to revive its fortunes. Within companies there is plenty of doubt about the benefits of online social networking in the office. A survey of 1,400 chief information officers conducted last year by Robert Half Technology, a recruitment firm, found that only one-tenth of them gave employees full access to such networks during the day, and that many were blocking Facebook and Twitter altogether. The

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE executives biggest concern was that social networking would lead to social networking, with employees using the sites to chat with friends instead of doing their jobs. Some bosses also fretted that the sites would be used to leak sensitive corporate information.

10. (ESAF/SUSEP/2010) According to paragraph 1, the site MySpace a) has turned into the most popular social network. b) attracts more networkers than Facebook. c) played a minor role as a social-networking site. d) convinced sceptics of its outstanding value. e) laid off almost half of its staff. Comentrios: De acordo com o pargrafo 1, o site MySpace. Vejamos no pargrafo o que falado sobre o site MySpace: ()MySpace, which was once all the rage but has now become a shadow of its former self. Last year the site, which is owned by News Corp, installed a new boss and fired 45% of its staff as part of a plan to revive its fortunes. Aqui a ESAF cobrou o conhecimento do pronome relativo which. Veja no quadro abaixo a que se refere o pronome:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

WHICH QUE, O QUE, O QUAL MySpace, which was once all the rage (MySpace, que j foi moda)

Last year the site, which is owned by (o site, que era propriedade da...)

a) has turned into the most popular social network. A opo A est incorreta. O texto no diz que o site MySpace se tornou (has turned) na mais popular rede social. Afirma que o MySpace, que j foi (was once) moda (all the rage) agora se tornou (has now become) uma sombra do que foi no passado (former self). LEMBRE-SE DO SUPERLATIVO (AULA 02) BIG .. THE BIGGEST pequenos) POPULAR.. THE MOST POPULAR ( MOST para adjetivos grandes) GOOD.. THE BEST (irregulares) (-EST para adjetivos

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PRESENT PERFECT HAVE/HAS+ VERBO NO PASSADO (TURNED) (BECOME)

MySpace has turned into the most popular social network. (se tornou) AO PASSADA FINALIZADA EM MOMENTO INDETERMINADO NO PASSADO.

b) attracts more networkers than Facebook. A opo B est incorreta. Como vimos, o texto diz que MySpace, que j foi (was once) moda (all the rage) agora se tornou (has now become) uma sombra do que foi no passado (former self). Logo, est incorreto dizer que o site atrai mais networkers (seguidores) do que Facebook. c) played a minor role as a social-networking site. A opo C est incorreta. De acordo com o texto, o MySpace j foi moda (MySpace, which was once all the rage). Logo, a alternativa est errada ao afirmar que o site desempenhou papel pequeno como um site de rede social. d) convinced sceptics of its outstanding value. A opo D est incorreta. O texto no diz que o site convenceu (convinced) cticos de seu (its aqui est o adjetivo possessivo do pronome pessoal it) extraordinrio (outstanding) valor.

e) laid off almost half of its staff. A opo E est correta. A alternativa afirma que o site demitiu (laid off) quase metade (almost half) dos seus funcionrios (staff), www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 34

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE que o mesmo que dizer que ele fired 45% of its staff, j que 45% quase a metade (50%) de algo. Fired sinnimo de laid off. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE has turned: se tornou the most popular: o mais popular social network: rede social attract: atrair more networkers than: mais networkers que played a minor role: desempenhou papel inferior, pequeno social-networking site: site de redes sociais convinced: convenceu skeptics: cticos outstanding: extraordinrio, excelente value: valor laid off: desmitiu almost half: quase metade staff: funcionrios which: que was: era, estava, passado do verbo be once: uma vez, j all the rage: na moda become: tornar-se shadow: sombra former: antigo, anterior last year: ano passado owned: possuia, propriedade installed: instalou, contratou new boss: novo chefe, patro fired: demitiu

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE plan: plano revive: reviver fortunes: fortunas

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE The long climb Source: www.economist.com st Oct, 2009 (Adapted) 1. The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal,

but it will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. The banking system will be a shadow of its former self, and the securitization markets, which buy and sell marketable bundles of debt, will presumably be a shadow of a shadow. Finance will be costlier and investment weak, so the stock of physical capital, on which prosperity depends, will erode. 2. The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Americas Treasury, in particular, must demonstrate that it is still a responsible shepherd of other countries savings.

11. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) In paragraph 2, the author mentions the fiscal strain now hobbling California. In other words, the fiscal a) policies which have been favouring Californias growth. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 37

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE b) pressure currently preventing Californias development. c) programmes successfully spoused by California. d) measures which have steadily gained acceptance. e) incentives recently promoted by the Californian government. Comentrios: O enunciado se refere frase the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Nessa frase aparecem duas palavras difceis. No se preocupe, se difcil para voc, ser, certamente, para a grande maioria dos candidatos. So raras as questes desse tipo, em que voc ter que usar o pargrafo inteiro para conseguir responder. Vamos identificar no pargrafo as palavras chaves que conhecemos: The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. S com as palavras-chave possvel concluir que o texto trata de crise (crisis), governo forte (forceful government), preocupaes (worries) e medidas fiscais (fiscal measures). Vamos tentar resolver a questo sem saber o significado das palavras-chave da frase the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Afinal, na hora da prova haver palavras que voc no saber o significado. Voc deve estar treinado para diminuir suas chances de erro. Com as palavras que identificamos no pargrafo, foi possvel concluir que a situao no positiva, o texto fala de crise, preocupaes, medidas fiscais e governo forte. Sendo assim, vamos tentar identificar as alternativas com idias positivas demais: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 38

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

a) policies which have been favouring Californias growth. (++) Nesta frase, o pronome relativo which est se referindo a policies (polticas). b) pressure currently preventing Californias development. (- -) c) programmes successfully spoused by California. (++)

d) measures which have steadily gained acceptance. (++) Aqui, o pronome relativo which est se referindo a measures (medidas). e) incentives recently promoted by the Californian government. (++)

Apenas a alternativa b trata de presso (pressure) que podemos relacionar com governo forte, rigoroso (forcefull government). A palavra preventing (impedindo) tambm tem idia negativa.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE fiscal strain: presso fiscal hobbling: atrasar, impedir policies: polticas favouring: favorecendo growth: crescimento pressure: presso currently: atualmente preventing: impedindo development: desenvolvimento programmes: programas www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 39

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE successfully: com xito spoused: aceito, recebido measures: medidas steadily: firmemente, regularmente gained: ganharam acceptance: aceitao incentives: incentivos recently: recentemente promoted: promoveram

Agora, diante das definies, perceba que a opo B the fiscal pressure currently preventing Californias Development (a presso fiscal atualmente impede o desenvolvimento da Califrnia) a apenas uma reescritura de the fiscal strain now hobbling California (a presso fiscal agora impedindo o progresso (hobbling) da Califrnia). Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

While Rome burns Source: www.economist.co.uk Sep 25th, 2008 (Adapted)

1.

American plans to buy up assets that are clogging the

financial system lack detail but no one doubts that a massive government intervention is coming. In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. European governments have yet to respond publicly to calls from Hank Paulson, the treasury secretary, to follow his lead. They look set to keep faith with the approach that they have used to handle the crisis so far staving off liquidity worries by allowing banks to use facilities at central banks to swap their assets in exchange for ready cash. 2. That makes many watchers nervous. The crisis in America has dramatically grown from one of liquidity to one of solvency as well. Lehman Brothers had access to the Federal Reserves discount window, after all, but still went under. The burning question now is whether banks have enough capital. On some measures, European banks look pretty well capitalized. The average tier-one ratio, which measures capital based on the riskiness of bank assets, stood at 8% in the first half of the year. That looks solid enough, if you assume that banks have a good handle on risk.

12. (ESAF/ STN/2008) The author refers to assets that are clogging the financial system, which means they www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 41

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE a) could have affected it. b) are blocking it. c) will surely affect it. d) are perfecting it. e) were redesigning it. Comentrios: Novamente, sem saber o significado de clogging, vamos analisar a frase citada no enunciado e as alternativas, tentando identificar a que se referem os pronomes which e it, que aparecem no enunciado da questo e nas alternativas de resposta. O enunciado diz que: The author refers to assets that are clogging the financial system, which means they Which est se referindo frase retirada do texto para o enunciado: O autor se refere a assets that are clogging the financial system, que significa que eles (they aparece substituindo assets)... Nas alternativas de resposta aparece o pronome pessoal do caso oblquo it. As alternativas de resposta se referem frase: assets that are clogging the financial system They (sujeito) it (objeto) (recursos que esto interferindo no sistema financeiro assets that are clogging the financial system : o tempo verbal aqui o presente continuo (algo que est acontecendo agora) Observe que as alternativas de respostas esto em tempos verbais diferentes. Quando isso acontecer, voc j poder eliminar as alternativas que no estiverem www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 42

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE no mesmo tempo verbal da frase

correspondente no texto.

Ao analisar as alternativas, mesmo sem saber o vocabulrio, podemos concluir que apenas as alternativas b e d podem ser a resposta para a questo, j que as demais esto em tempos diferentes (passado e futuro). a) could have affected it. poderiam ter afetado b) are blocking it. c) will surely affect it. afetaro d) are perfecting it. e) were redesigning it. foram redesenhadas Vejam que das duas alternativas que esto no presente, uma tem idia positiva e outra negativa: b) are blocking it. (bloqueando) d) are perfecting it. (aperfeioando) Agora temos que saber qual assunto o texto trata para decidirmos entre as duas. Procure palavras conhecidas: sim, crise (crisis). Se o texto est falando de crise, a probabilidade de a resposta ser a letra b bem maior, certo? E no deu outra. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE assets : recursos, ativos, bens clogging: impedindo, interferindo financial system: sistema financeiro mean: significar

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE affected: afetado blocking: afetando surely: certamente perfecting: aperfeioando redesigning: reprojetar, refazer, redesenhar

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 13. (ESAF/ STN/2008) As regards investors in Europe at the moment, they are feeling a) nervous and upset. b) confident and optimistic. c) reassured, but cautious. d) slightly afraid. e) tense, but optimistic. Comentrios: No enunciado aparece o pronome they. Tente identificar a que ele se refere. Lembre-se que they pronome pessoal do caso reto, ou seja, est substituindo o sujeito da frase. As regards investors in Europe at the moment, they are feeling.. Veja que as alternativas s trazem adjetivos. O enunciado diz: quanto aos (as regards) investidores (investors), como esto se sentindo. H duas frases no texto com palavras-chave que aparecem tambm em duas das alternativas: In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. Nesta frase aparece a palavra reassurance, que significa resseguro, confiante. Na alternativa e est sendo afirmado que os investidores esto confiantes, mas cuidadosos. Contudo, o texto est negando que os investidores tenham tal confiana, segurana (veja que o texto diz: have no). That makes many watchers nervous.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Aqui no aparece a palavra investors, mas a palavra watchers, que significa observadores em geral (o que inclui, portanto, os investidores) a) nervous and upset. (nervosos e preocupados) b) confident and optimistic. (confiantes e otimistas) c) reassured, but cautious. (confiantes, mas cautelosos) d) slightly afraid. (levemente temerosos) e) tense, but optimistic. (tensos, mas otimistas)

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE assets : recursos, ativos, bens clogging: impedindo, interferindo financial system: sistema financeiro mean: significar affected: afetado blocking: afetando surely: certamente perfecting: aperfeioando redesigning: reprojetar, refazer, redesenhar

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 14. (ESAF/ STN/2008) The author reminds the readers that banks are assumed to have a good handle on risk. In other words, they a) do not take it. b) eliminate it. c) do not accept it. d) hardly ever face it. e) understand it well. Comentrios: No enunciado da questo parecem os pronomes that e they. Vejamos a que se referem: The author reminds the readers that banks are assumed to have a good handle on risk. In other words, they O that no est em sua funo de pronome nesta frase, tendo sido usado aqui apenas como conector de duas oraes. O they est se referindo a Banks, sujeito segunda orao da frase. Ateno: they no poderia substituir readers, j que readers objeto da primeira orao e they pronome pessoal do caso reto, s podendo substituir sujeito. A questo quer saber o que significa a expresso good handle na frase: banks are assumed to have a good handle on risk. Mesmo sem saber o significado da expresso, sabemos o

significado de banks (bancos) e de risk (risco). Vejamos as alternativas: a) do not take it. (no correm risco) b) eliminate it. (eliminam o risco) c) do not accept it. (no aceitam o risco) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 47

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE d) hardly ever face it. (dificilmente enfrentam o risco) e) understand it well. (entendem o risco) +

Voc no sabe a definio de good handle, ok. Mas a palavra good voc sabe que significa bom, algo positivo, certo? A resposta ento s pode ser a letra e. VOCABULRIO-CHAVE good handle: saber lidar remind: lembrar assumed: aceito, compreendido risk: risco take risks: assumir ricos eliminate: eliminar accept: aceitar hardly ever: dificilmente face: encarar, enfrentar understand: entender well: bem Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Time to Toss the Textbook Source: Newsweek July 4th 2005 (Adapted) Do we know how much the world economy affects the United States and vice versa? Economics textbooks once described the U.S. economy as mainly self-contained. Americans sold to each other; Americans savings were invested mostly in American investments (stocks, bonds, bank deposits). Trade was small. Globalization has shattered this model. More industries face foreign competition or depend on foreign markets. In 1960, exports and imports together totaled 9.5 percent of gross domestic product; in 2004, they were 25 percent of GDP. Savings and investments have also gone global. In 2003, Americans mainly through pension funds, banks and other big investors owned $3.1 trillion of foreign stocks and bonds, while foreigners owned more than $4.1 trillion of U.S. securities, says the International Monetary Fund. (Note: the $4.1 trillion excluded China.) All these factors modify the U.S. economy.

15. (ESAF/ MPOG/2005) According to the author, globalization has shattered the previous model. In other words, globalization has a) destroyed it. b) regulated it. c) reinforced it. d) deepened it. e) strengthened it. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 49

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Comentrios: O pronome que aparece em todas as alternativas de resposta o it, o qual, no caso em tela, est exercendo a funo de pronome pessoal do caso oblquo (substituindo o objeto da ao). Na frase ...globalization has shattered the previous model.. o sujeito globalizao e o objeto o modelo anterior (previous model). Essa questo puramente de vocabulrio. O enunciado diz que de acordo com o autor, globalizao has shattered o modelo anterior. Voc ter que encontrar a palavra que mais se aproxima da idia de shattered. Vamos tentar resolver a questo sem saber a definio desta palavra. a) destroyed it. (destruiu) b) regulated it. (regulou) c) reinforced it. (reforou) d) deepened it. (aprofundou) e) strengthened it. (fortaleceu) A opo A est correta. Das alternativas de resposta, apenas a

primeira traz um significado negativo. A globalizao destruiu o modelo anterior. Logo, shattered est relacionado com destruir, acabar.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

External Audit Source: http://ec.europa.eu/budget Jan 16th, 2008 (Adapted) 1. The European Unions (EU) annual accounts and resource

management are overseen by its external auditor, the European Court of Auditors, which draws up an annual report for the Council and the European Parliament. The Courts main task is to conduct an external, independent audit of the European Communities annual accounts. As part of its activities, the Court of Auditors produces: . an annual report on the activities financed from the general budget, detailing its observations on the annual accounts and underlying transactions; . an opinion, based on its audits and given in the annual report in the form of a statement of assurance, on (i) the reliability of the accounts and (ii) the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions involving both revenue collected from taxable persons and payments to final beneficiaries; . special reports giving the findings of audits covering specific areas of management. 2. The Court of Auditors is entitled to access all documents required during the course of its audit.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 16. (ESAF/CGU/2008) The closing line of the text reports that the Court of Auditors is entitled to access all the documents in case. Therefore, it a) holds the legal right to access them. b) must obtain approval to look into them. c) has to seek legal permission from the EU. d) is the provider of all the papers in question. e) is held accountable for their safety.

Comentrios: Nesta questo aparecem os pronomes it, them e their. O pronome it aparece logo no enunciado, vejamos: O enunciado da questo diz: A ltima linha do texto afirma que o Tribunal de Contas est autorizado/habilitado (entitled) a acessar todos os documentos necessrios durante o andamento de suas auditorias. Therefore, it .... Portanto, ele....

importante perceber que o pronome it est se referindo ao sujeito da frase anterior, o Tribunal de Contas.

A questo remete o leitor closing line (linha final, frase final) do texto, que a seguinte: The Court of Auditors is entitled to access all documents required during the course of its audit.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

PALAVRAS-CHAVE to be entitled: ter o direito, ser autorizado access: acesso documents: documentos required: requeridos, exigidos, necessrios course: andamento, curso audit: auditoria therefore: portanto, ento hold: deter, possuir, considerar legal right: direito obtain: obter seek: buscar legal permission: permisso legal approval: autorizao provider: provedor papers: documentos accountable: responsvel held: considerado (passado verbo hold) safety: segurana

Agora, as opes de resposta:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE a) holds the legal right to access them. A opo A est correta. A alternativa afirma que o Tribunal de Contas possui o direito de acessar them (documentos necessrios). Them pronome pessoal do caso oblquo, ou, pronome objetivo. Aparece aqui substituindo o objeto da frase que documentos necessrios. Veja o quadro explicativo a seguir. IMPORTANTE PRONOMES PESSOAIS CASO RETO SUJEITO I (eu) you (tu, voc) He (ele) she (ela) it (ele, ela [neutro]) We (ns) you (vocs, vs) they (eles, elas) CASO OBLQUO OBJETO me (me, mim) you (lhe, o, a, te, ti, a voc) him (lhe, o, a ele) her (lhe, a, a ela) it (lhe, o, a) us (nos) you (vos, lhes, a vocs) them (lhes, os, as)

indispensvel que voc saiba claramente a diferena entre sujeito e objeto. Veja a frase do enunciado se completando com a opo (a):

()the Court of Auditors is entitled to access all the documents in case. SUJEITO OBJETO

Therefore, it (a) holds the legal right to access them. PRONOME/SUJEITO PRONOME/OBJETO www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 54

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

It Them

Court of Auditor documents

b) must obtain approval to look into them. A opo B est incorreta. O texto no diz que o Tribunal de Contas deva (must) obter autorizao para analisar documentos. c) has to seek legal permission from the EU. A opo E est incorreta. O Tribunal de Contas no tem que buscar (seek) permisso legal (legal permission) da Unio Europia para acessar them (documentos necessrios). d) is the provider of all the papers in question. A opo E est incorreta. O Tribunal de Contas no o provedor (provider) auditoria. e) is held accountable for their safety. A opo E est incorreta. A ltima linha do texto afirma que o Tribunal de Contas est autorizado/habilitado a acessar todos os documentos necessrios durante o andamento de suas auditorias. J a alternativa diz que o Tribunal de Contas considerado responsvel pela segurana dos documentos (their pronome possessivo deles/delas). Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A. de toda documentao em questo. Observe que a documentao da qual o texto trata aquela necessria no curso de uma

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE No preciso entender o texto todo para se sair bem na prova de ingls da ESAF. A banca s usa algumas frases para elaborar as questes. Nesse texto que acabamos de ver, apenas a primeira e a ltima frase foram usadas para desenvolver as questes.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

REVISO DO VOCABULRIO-CHAVE

A partir deste momento vamos revisar a aula por meio do quadro do vocabulrio-chave.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE suggestion: sugesto this: este, esta brochure: folheto be aimed: ter objetivo offer apologies: oferecer desculpas sell devices: vender estratgias spread gossip: espalhar fofocas give advice: dar conselhos create networks: criar redes reduce: reduzir intend: pretender cut it out: planejar cut it down: reduzir cut it up: criticar cut it off: remover, recortar cut is loose: separar avoid: evitar indulge: ceder try to use: tentar usar challenge: desafiar misunderstand: confundir www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 57

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE keep away from: manter distncia resort: recorrer wordplay and workaround: trocadilhos get rid: livrar-se make use: usar look down on: desprezar get tired: cansar-se run out of: esgotar-se ultimate: final reference: referncia library: biblioteca chock-full: completamente cheio data: informaes supplied: fornecido, forneceu individuals: indivduos institutions: instituies around: em volta world: mundo usually: usualmente, geralmente free use: uso livre, gratuito comers: usurios expressions: expresses internet users: usurios da internet refer: referir same: mesmo kind of people: tipo de pessoas those: aqueles/aquelas who: quem, que access: acessar actually: realmente, efetivamente, de fato drowning: mergulhando www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 58

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE us: nos irrelevancies: irrelevncias refer: referir danger: perigo efforts: esforos stop: parar attacks: ataques forced: forou shrink: reduzir area: area activities: atividade increased: aumentou bigger: maior has turned: se tornou the most popular: o mais popular social network: rede social attract: atrair more networkers than: mais networkers que played a minor role: desempenhou papel inferior, pequeno social-networking site: site de redes sociais convinced: convenceu skeptics: cticos outstanding: extraordinrio, excelente value: valor laid off: desmitiu almost half: quase metade staff: funcionrios which: que was: era, estava, passado do verbo be once: uma vez, j all the rage: na moda www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 59

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE become: tornar-se shadow: sombra former: antigo, anterior last year: ano passado owned: possuia, propriedade installed: instalou, contratou new boss: novo chefe, patro fired: demitiu plan: plano revive: reviver fortunes: fortunas fiscal strain: presso fiscal hobbling: atrasar, impedir policies: polticas favouring: favorecendo growth: crescimento pressure: presso currently: atualmente preventing: impedindo development: desenvolvimento programmes: programas successfully: com xito spoused: aceito, recebido measures: medidas steadily: firmemente, regularmente gained: ganharam acceptance: aceitao incentives: incentivos recently: recentemente promoted: promoveram assets : recursos, ativos, bens www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 60

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE clogging: impedindo, interferindo financial system: sistema financeiro mean: significar affected: afetado blocking: afetando surely: certamente perfecting: aperfeioando redesigning: reprojetar, refazer, redesenhar assets : recursos, ativos, bens clogging: impedindo, interferindo financial system: sistema financeiro mean: significar affected: afetado blocking: afetando surely: certamente perfecting: aperfeioando redesigning: reprojetar, refazer, redesenhar good handle: saber lidar remind: lembrar assumed: aceito, compreendido risk: risco take risks: assumir ricos eliminate: eliminar accept: aceitar hardly ever: dificilmente face: encarar, enfrentar understand: entender well: bem to be entitled: ter o direito, ser autorizado access: acesso documents: documentos www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 61

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE required: requeridos, exigidos, necessrios course: andamento, curso audit: auditoria therefore: portanto, ento hold: deter, possuir, considerar legal right: direito obtain: obter seek: buscar legal permission: permisso legal approval: autorizao provider: provedor papers: documentos accountable: responsvel held: considerado (passado verbo hold) safety: segurana

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QUESTES DA AULA Translation: getting it right For non-linguists, buying in translation is often a source of frustration. The suggestions in this brochure are aimed at reducing stress. Think international from the start. Avoid culture-bound clichs. References to your national sport may well fall flat. Ditto literary/cultural metaphors. Tread carefully with references to parts of the human body, viewed differently by different cultures. For written documents, dont box yourself in by linking your pitch to visuals that may not carry the same meaning outside your native country forcing translators to resort to cumbersome wordplay and workarounds. In January 1998 PM Tony Blair told a group of Japanese businessmen that his government intended to go the full monty in putting the UK economy on a sound footing. Blank faces: the film had not yet been released in Japan. Keep some local flavour if you like, but check with your foreign-text team to make sure that adaptation is possible. For written documents, be sure to include international calling codes for telephone and fax How important is style? Some translations are no-hopers from the start. Often these are raw machine translation, or the work of non-native speakers struggling away with a grammar book in one hand and a dictionary in the other. They are good for a laugh. Other translations are technically accurate, yet the sentences do not flow as smoothly as they might; word order or www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 63

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE choice of vocabulary may be unduly influenced by the original language. They are not particularly effective for selling, but may be good enough for readers who know the subject and can or have time to read between the lines.
(adapted from http://www.fit-ift.org/download/getright2-en.pdf)

1. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) offer apologies. (B) sell devices. (C) spread gossip. (D) give advice. (E) create networks. 2. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) cut it out. (B) cut it down. (C) cut it up. (D) cut it off. (E) cut is loose. 3. (FGV/SENADO/2008) (lines 6-7) you (A) indulge in them. (B) try to use them. (C) challenge them. (D) misunderstand them. (E) keep away from them.

The function of this text is to

When the suggestions are aimed at

reducing stress (lines 4-5), this means they intend to

When you avoid culture-bound clichs

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4. (FGV/SENADO/2008)

When the text states that translators

resort to cumbersome wordplay and workaround (lines 13-14), it implies that translators ultimately (A) get rid of them. (B) make use of them. (C) look down on them. (D) get tired of them. (E) run out of them.

While there is no shortage of studies into the reasons why software projects fail (Ewusi-Mensah, 1997), the major risks of software development (Jones, 1994), or even the factors affecting project success (Cooke-Davies, 2002), the field of software engineering lacks a general model with which to investigate such failures. To date, studies have tended to be surveys of the factors 4 thought to play some part in a failure. ()
Jon McBride. A model for investigating software accident. In: Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, vol. 40, n. 1, Feb. 2008 (adapted)

5. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2009)

which, in lacks a general model with

which to investigate such failures (R.3), refers to investigate.

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Information is a cornerstone of political education and socialization. The ability to find out about issues of public importance, and the capacity to inform oneself about the workings of government and its policies are examples of how information can be essential to the education of the informed and responsible citizen. Yet in this era of information overload, the subtle but vital difference between information and knowledge needs to be drawn in order to create virtual places that promote political education in the broadest sense. It is not, in fact, information per se which is useful but knowledge, information which has been distilled and contextualized so that it can impart meaning. The Internet is the ultimate reference library, chockfull of data supplied by individuals and institutions from around the world, usually for the free use of all comers. The danger of the Internet is that it threatens to overwhelm us with so much information that, instead of democratizing and enriching our political lives, it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies. Internet users know well that the abundance of informational riches can have a paralytic effect, rendering the viewer helpless to find anything. The huge quantity of information available creates an inverse relationship between speaking and listening, between information and understanding. The more people speak, the fewer people will actually be heard. In fact, the deluge of data ensures that we cannot find anything. It has also the effect of making us even more dependent than in the days before the flood on unaccountable, commercialized search tools and information filters to sort information and make it meaningful. Although these editors are machines, they are not neutral. The values and choices are embedded deep within the code and often www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 66

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE not obvious to the user.
Beth Simone Noveck. Paradoxical partners: electronic communication and electronic democracy. In: Peter Ferdinand (Ed.). The Internet, democracy, and democratization. London: Frank Cass/Routledge, 2000, p. 23-4 (with adaptations).

Based on the text above, judge the following items.

6. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010)

The expression chock-full (R.13) means

completely full or full to the limit. 7. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) In the text, the expressions comers (R.15) and Internet users (R.19) refer to the same kind of people: those who access the Internet for information. 8. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) In it is actually drowning us in

irrelevancies (R.18), it refers to The danger of the Internet (R.15www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 67

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 16). Sharks in the water In the last year, Somalias pirates have attacked 120 vessels in the Gulf of Aden, choking commerce in a critical shipping lane (the transit route for 20 percent of the worlds oil), blocking aid supplies and driving up transport costs. The last few weeks have shown how hard it will be to defeat the pirates on the high seas, which seems like the international communitys approach. When British Marines tried to board a captured fishing dhow on Nov. 11, they had to go in with guns blazing and killed one possible hostage in the process. A week later, an Indian warship opened fire on what it thought was a pirate mother ship. But the target turned out to be a Thai fishing vessel. When pirates seized their most valuable prize ever on Nov. 15 the Sirius Star supertanker holding 2 million barrels of Saudi crude everyone kept their distance. As this suggests, Somalias seaborne bandits are making a mockery of all efforts to stop them. Pirates have only increased their efforts, ranging across an area bigger than the Mediterranean. The Sirius Star was taken 450 nautical miles southeast of Kenya, and with it, the Somalis now hold 300 hostages and 15 ships. The Somalias internationally recognized transitional government has invited foreign navies to do whats necessary to stop the pirates, even attacking them ashore if need be. The Security Council has affirmed that option. Moreover, nearly all of Somalias pirates come from one region (Puntland), live in a single town (Boosaaso) and stash captured vessels in one of www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 68

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE three ports (Eyl, Hobyo or Haradhere) making interdiction that much easier. Andrew Linington of Nautilus UK, a seamans union that has had many of its members taken hostage, says the international community knows where the pirates are, they know the ports they use, they know the mother ships. Stopping them could be done, he says. But that would be expensive at a time when U.S. resources are tied up in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Rod Nordlant. Sharks in the water. Internet: <www.newsweek.com> (adapted).

According to the text, it is correct to affirm that

9. (CESPE/ ANTAQ/2009)

The efforts to stop the attacks have

forced the pirates to shrink the area of their activities.

A world of connections Source: www.economist.com (Adapted) Jan 28th, 2010 To sceptics all this talk of twittering, yammering and chattering smacks of another internet bubble in the making. They argue that even a huge social network such as Facebook will struggle to make money because fickle networkers will not stay in one place for long, pointing to the example of MySpace, which was www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 69

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE once all the rage but has now become a shadow of its former self. Last year the site, which is owned by News Corp, installed a new boss and fired 45% of its staff as part of a plan to revive its fortunes. Within companies there is plenty of doubt about the benefits of online social networking in the office. A survey of 1,400 chief information officers conducted last year by Robert Half Technology, a recruitment firm, found that only one-tenth of them gave employees full access to such networks during the day, and that many were blocking Facebook and Twitter altogether. The executives biggest concern was that social networking would lead to social networking, with employees using the sites to chat with friends instead of doing their jobs. Some bosses also fretted that the sites would be used to leak sensitive corporate information.

10. (ESAF/SUSEP/2010) According to paragraph 1, the site MySpace a) has turned into the most popular social network. b) attracts more networkers than Facebook. c) played a minor role as a social-networking site. d) convinced sceptics of its outstanding value. e) laid off almost half of its staff.

The long climb Source: www.economist.com st Oct, 2009 (Adapted) 1. The world economy is fitfully getting back to normal,

but it will be a new normal. This phrase has caught on, even if people disagree about what it means. In the new normal, as www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 70

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE defined by Pimcos CEO, Mohamed El-Erian, growth will be subdued and unemployment will remain high. The banking system will be a shadow of its former self, and the securitization markets, which buy and sell marketable bundles of debt, will presumably be a shadow of a shadow. Finance will be costlier and investment weak, so the stock of physical capital, on which prosperity depends, will erode. 2. The crisis invited a forceful government entry into several of capitalisms inner sanctums, such as banking, American carmaking and the commercial-paper market. Mr El-Erian worries that the state may overstay its welcome. In addition, national exchequers may start to feel some measure of the fiscal strain now hobbling California. Americas Treasury, in particular, must demonstrate that it is still a responsible shepherd of other countries savings.

11. (ESAF/ AFRFB/2009) In paragraph 2, the author mentions the fiscal strain now hobbling California. In other words, the fiscal a) policies which have been favouring Californias growth. b) pressure currently preventing Californias development. c) programmes successfully spoused by California. d) measures which have steadily gained acceptance. e) incentives recently promoted by the Californian government.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE While Rome burns Source: www.economist.co.uk Sep 25th, 2008 (Adapted)

1.

American plans to buy up assets that are clogging the

financial system lack detail but no one doubts that a massive government intervention is coming. In Europe jittery investors have no such reassurance. European governments have yet to respond publicly to calls from Hank Paulson, the treasury secretary, to follow his lead. They look set to keep faith with the approach that they have used to handle the crisis so far staving off liquidity worries by allowing banks to use facilities at central banks to swap their assets in exchange for ready cash. 2. That makes many watchers nervous. The crisis in America has dramatically grown from one of liquidity to one of solvency as well. Lehman Brothers had access to the Federal Reserves discount window, after all, but still went under. The burning question now is whether banks have enough capital. On some measures, European banks look pretty well capitalized. The average tier-one ratio, which measures capital based on the riskiness of bank assets, stood at 8% in the first half of the year. That looks solid enough, if you assume that banks have a good handle on risk.

12. (ESAF/ STN/2008) The author refers to assets that are clogging the financial system, which means they a) could have affected it. b) are blocking it. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 72

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE c) will surely affect it. d) are perfecting it. e) were redesigning it.

13. (ESAF/ STN/2008) moment, they are feeling a) nervous and upset. b) confident and optimistic. c) reassured, but cautious. d) slightly afraid. e) tense, but optimistic.

As regards investors in Europe at the

14. (ESAF/ STN/2008) The author reminds the readers that banks are assumed to have a good handle on risk. In other words, they a) do not take it. b) eliminate it. c) do not accept it. d) hardly ever face it. e) understand it well.

Time to Toss the Textbook Source: Newsweek July 4th 2005 (Adapted) Do we know how much the world economy affects the United States and vice versa? Economics textbooks once described the U.S. economy as mainly self-contained. Americans sold to each other; 73

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Americans savings were invested mostly in American investments (stocks, bonds, bank deposits). Trade was small. Globalization has shattered this model. More industries face foreign competition or depend on foreign markets. In 1960, exports and imports together totaled 9.5 percent of gross domestic product; in 2004, they were 25 percent of GDP. Savings and investments have also gone global. In 2003, Americans mainly through pension funds, banks and other big investors owned $3.1 trillion of foreign stocks and bonds, while foreigners owned more than $4.1 trillion of U.S. securities, says the International Monetary Fund. (Note: the $4.1 trillion excluded China.) All these factors modify the U.S. economy.

15. (ESAF/ MPOG/2005) According to the author, globalization has shattered the previous model. In other words, globalization has a) destroyed it. b) regulated it. c) reinforced it. d) deepened it. e) strengthened it.

External Audit Source: http://ec.europa.eu/budget Jan 16th, 2008 (Adapted)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 1. The European Unions (EU) annual accounts and resource

management are overseen by its external auditor, the European Court of Auditors, which draws up an annual report for the Council and the European Parliament. The Courts main task is to conduct an external, independent audit of the European Communities annual accounts. As part of its activities, the Court of Auditors produces: . an annual report on the activities financed from the general budget, detailing its observations on the annual accounts and underlying transactions; . an opinion, based on its audits and given in the annual report in the form of a statement of assurance, on (i) the reliability of the accounts and (ii) the legality and regularity of the underlying transactions involving both revenue collected from taxable persons and payments to final beneficiaries; . special reports giving the findings of audits covering specific areas of management. 2. The Court of Auditors is entitled to access all documents required during the course of its audit.

16. (ESAF/CGU/2008) The closing line of the text reports that the Court of Auditors is entitled to access all the documents in case. Therefore, it a) holds the legal right to access them. b) must obtain approval to look into them. c) has to seek legal permission from the EU. d) is the provider of all the papers in question. e) is held accountable for their safety.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 03 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

GABARITO

1-D 9-E

2-B 10-E

3-E 11-B

4-B 12-B

5-E 13-A

6-C 14-E

7-C 15-A

8-E 16-A

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