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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Ol pessoal, Neste nosso quarto encontro, estudaremos os prefixos e sufixos do ingls que mais aparecem em provas de concursos. Bons estudos e forte abrao.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Prefixos e Sufixos

No h como ir para uma prova de concursos em que ser cobrada a matria ingls sem saber um pouco da utilizao de prefixos e sufixos. Eles tm a capacidade de alterar o significado das palavras e at mesmo mudar a sua classe gramatical. Dos dois tipos de afixos em ingls - prefixos e sufixos, os sufixos so aqueles que aparecem com maior incidncia e tm a funo de transformar a categoria gramatical das palavras a que se aplicam. Isto , um determinado sufixo ser sempre aplicado a uma determinada categoria de palavra e resultar sempre numa outra determinada categoria por exemplo, transformando um adjetivo em um substantivo. Os prefixos, por seu turno, em regra no alteram a categoria gramatical da palavra-base a que se aplicam, mas alteram o significado da palavra. Para ilustrar o que foi dito, pense na palavra uncomfortable. A raiz dessa palavra comfort, certo? O prefixo UN aparece garantindo a palavra o sentido contrrio (desconforto), oposto ao de sua raiz. J o sufixo, - BLE lhe d o carter adjetivo (confortvel).

O quadro abaixo, longe de ser exaustivo, apresenta os prefixos e sufixos mais comuns em ingls e suas funes: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 2

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Prefixos

Significado

Exemplo

un-

Oposio

uncomfortable

in-

Oposio

Inconvenient

over-

Excesso

Overtired

Suffixes

Significado

Exemplo

-ness

substantivo

Weakness

-ing

Gerndio

Going

-ed

Particpio passado

Worked

-less

Ausncia

Useless

-ive

Adjetivo

Productive

-able

Adjetivo

Countable

-ible

Adjetivo

Flexible

-er

comparativo

Richer 3

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

- est

Superlativo

Richest

-ous

adjetivo

Delicious

-ly

adverbio

Slowly

Agora vejamos textos e questes em que a FGV, o CESPE e a ESAF cobraram esse conhecimento:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

DICA: No leia o texto. V direto para as questes.

German to English translator A term very much in vogue today is the knowledge economy. This is a term that is justifiably considered vague and nebulous. sectors a Questions knowledge abound. What is exactly is a of? knowledge Why the economy? There seems to be no clear definition. What are the economy composed overwhelming allure of the knowledge economy? Why are sweeping statements made today that the economy of the world today is moving towards a knowledge-based economy? And a question closer to our hearts as language service providers: Are language services part of the knowledge economy? Does it matter if they are considered part of it or outside it? One definition of the knowledge economy, taken from todays overwhelmingly defines the popular web knowledge as the resource, use of wikipedia, knowledge knowledge economy

technologies (such as knowledge engineering and knowledge management) to produce economic benefits. Clearly, it is important for language services to be classified and advertised as a part, nay a critical and indispensable part, of the knowledge economy for three reasons: a) Language services ARE an integral part of todays knowledge economy. The wheels of globalization, itself predicated on a knowledge economy, would grind to a halt without language services. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 5

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE b) Language services are not accorded the recognition they deserve in todays comprehensive march towards globalization. Being classified as a component of the knowledge economy will confer on them the status they truly deserve. c) Payment for language services is not commensurate with the benefits they bring to the world economy. Once they get due recognition, pay scales will be revised accordingly by market forces. No one can argue that language services such as translation or interpretation do not produce economic benefits. What has to be driven home is the magnitude of economic benefits produced. i) While language services produce no tangible products or sales (apart from the language services sold themselves), the intangible effects of localization on product sales are substantial. ii) Language services also enhance global collaboration, nay, are the very factor that make it possible . Ask any two multinational companies what underpins their process of collaboration. The answer: a Memorandum of Understanding or some sort of Legal Agreement drawn up in the languages of the countries of the participating companies. So language services are required for global collaboration to even be initiated. And that global collaboration produces economic benefits is a fact. It is therefore, indisputable that language services are a knowledge technology and that they produce considerable intangible economic benefits that are critical to the production of a host of tangible economic benefits. That being established, we as language service providers, can go a step further, and claim that language services are the very bedrock of the knowledge economy. However, what is it that makes language services stand out as a special knowledge-based service? There exist today many knowledgebased technologies, www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 6

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE such as information technology, software engineering, artificial intelligence technologies, cognitive sciences, etc. Why are language services unique? An analogy with a natural phenomenon can drive home the point. Just as the light of the sun is the very essence of the suns ability to illumine, language is the very essence of all knowledge. Just as the light of the sun illumines all objects in the solar system, language is used to describe all known phenomena in our known universe, and therefore forms the very backbone of all human knowledge. While knowledge is domain-specific, language is metaknowledge. Language services are hence very special, since no knowledge is possible without language. Language services will thus form the very bedrock of the global knowledge economy going forward. It is time language services are accorded their rightful place in the global economy. In terms of recognition. In terms of stature. And yes, in terms of remuneration.

1 (FGV/SENADO/2008) and knowledge economy are (A) linked. (B) controversial. (C) exclusive. (D) disposable. (E) questionable. Comentrios

According to the text, language services

De acordo com o texto, servios de traduo/linquagem (language services) e conhecimento de economia (knowledge economy) so.... www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 7

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Vejamos o que o texto diz: Clearly, it is important for language services to be classified and advertised as a part, nay a critical and indispensable part, of the knowledge economy for three reasons: Da leitura das palavras em destaque, percebemos que o autor afirma ser claramente, servios de traduo/linguagem parte do conhecimento de economia. Observe o sufixo ly formando o advrbio clearly e os sufixos ed, -al, -ive, -able das alternativas de resposta formando adjetivos. Vejamos as alternativas de resposta:

(A) linked. = ligados (B) controversial. = controversos (C) exclusive. = exclusivos (D) disposable. = descartveis (E) questionable. = questionveis

Da anlise das alternativas, podemos afirmar que se os servios de traduo/linguagem fazem parte do conhecimento de economia, estas so duas coisas ligadas (linked).

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE clearly: claramente linked: ligados controversial: controversos exclusive: exclusivos disposable: descartveis questionable: questionveis

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

2 (FGV/SENADO/2008) and nebulous (lines 2-3) is (A) dim. (B) accurate. (C) inexact. (D) advantageous. (E) imprecise. Comentrios

The opposite of vague in considered vague

O oposto de vague na frase considered vague and nebulous : Vague deriva do latim e significa vago, indeterminado. As alternativas de resposta so: (A) dim. = vago, obscuro (B) accurate. = preciso www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 9

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (C) inexact. = inexato (D) advantageous. = vantajoso (E) imprecise = impreciso A palavra accurate a que tem significado oposto a vague. Observe os prefixos e sufixos em destaque.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE vague: vago, indeterminado dim: vago, obscuro accurate: preciso inexact: inexato advantageous: vantajoso imprecise: impreciso

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 3 (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) farther from them. (B) less sensitive to them. (C) more threatening to them. (D) more influenced by them. (E) nearer to them. Comentrios Quando o texto diz que a questo closer to our hearts, ele quer dizer que a questo .... Closer a forma comparativa de close, significa mais perto. Da anlise das alternativas, apenas a letra E trouxe um sinnimo de closer, que nearer. Logo, esta a alternativa correta. Lembrem-se que o sufixo er usado para formar o comparativo de adjetivos de 1-2 slabas. When the text states that a question is

closer to our hearts (line 9), it means this question is

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE closer: mais perto nearer: mais perto

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 4 (FGV/SENADO/2008) that is (A) all-inclusive. (B) upcoming. (C) understandable. (D) overwhelming. (E) constructive. Comentrios O enunciado diz que uma marcha global aquela que : As alternativas so as seguintes: (A) all-inclusive. = inclusiva (B) upcoming. = prxima (C) understandable. = compreensvel (D) overwhelming. = avassaladora (E) constructive. = construtiva A melhor alternativa de resposta a letra a, j que global gera a idia de com a participao de todos, logo, inclusiva. a comprehensive march (line 27) is one

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE comprehensive march: marcha global all-inclusive: inclusiva upcoming: prxima understandable: compreensvel overwhelming: avassaladora constructive: construtiva Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

5 (FGV/SENADO/2008) The expression a host of tangible economic benefits (line 55) indicates these benefits are (A) scarce. (B) effective. (C) plentiful. (D) successful. (E) welcoming. Comentrios A expresso a host of tangible economic benefits indica que estes benefcios so... A expresso significa uma srie de benefcios econmicos tangveis. Vejamos as alternativas: (A) scarce. = escassos (B) effective. = eficazes (C) plentiful. = abundantes (D) successful. = bem sucedidos (E) welcoming. = acolhedores Da anlise, percebe-se apenas uma alternativa possvel, a letra C, com a idia de muito, abundante acompanhando a idia de uma srie...

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE a host: uma srie tangible: tangvel economic benefits: benefcios econmicos scarce: escassos effective: eficazes plentiful: abundantes successful: bem sucedidos welcoming: acolhedores

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

6 (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) unfit. (B) uniform. (C) unusual. (D) untidy. (E) useful.

When the text qualifies language services

as unique (line 63), it defines them as

Comentrios Quando o texto qualifica servios de traduo/linguagem como unique, ele os define como .... Unique significa nico. Vejamos as alternativas: www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 14

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

(A) unfit. = imprprios (B) uniform. = uniformes (C) unusual. = diferentes (D) untidy. = desarrumados (E) useful. = teis A alternativa que mais se aproxima de unique unusual.

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE unique: nico. unfit: imprprios uniform: uniformes unusual: diferentes untidy: desarrumados useful: teis

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

Information is a cornerstone of political education and socialization. The ability to find out about issues of public importance, and the capacity to inform oneself about the workings of government and its policies are examples of how information can be essential to the education of the informed and responsible www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 15

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE citizen. Yet in this era of information overload, the subtle but vital difference between information and knowledge needs to be drawn in order to create virtual places that promote political education in the broadest sense. It is not, in fact, information per se which is useful but knowledge, information which has been distilled and contextualized so that it can impart meaning. The Internet is the ultimate reference library, chock-full of data supplied by individuals and institutions from around the world, usually for the free use of all comers. The danger of the Internet is that it threatens to overwhelm us with so much information that, instead of democratizing and enriching our political lives, it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies. Internet users know well that the abundance of informational riches can have a paralytic effect, rendering the viewer helpless to find anything. The huge quantity of information available creates an inverse relationship between speaking and listening, between information and understanding. The more people speak, the fewer people will actually be heard. In fact, the deluge of data ensures that we cannot find anything. It has also the effect of making us even more dependent than in the days before the flood on unaccountable, commercialized search tools and information filters to sort information and make it meaningful. Although these editors are machines, they are not neutral. The values and choices are embedded deep within the code and often not obvious to the user.
Beth Simone Noveck. Paradoxical partners: electronic

communication and electronic democracy. In: Peter Ferdinand (Ed.). The Internet, democracy, and democratization. London: Frank Cass/Routledge, 2000, p. 23-4 (with adaptations).

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Based on the text above, judge the following items. 7. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) as innumerable. Comentrios: In line 27, unaccountable is the same

Nesta questo a banca cobrou o significado da palavra unaccountable e afirmou ser o mesmo que innumerable. Esta foi uma questo maliciosa que tinha a inteno de confundir o candidato. Veja por que:
Uncountable = innumerable = incontvel Unaccountable = inexplicvel, esquisito, irresponsvel

PREFIXO UN

Unaffected = no afetadas Prefixo UN contrrio, negativo Logo, affected=afetada

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE VOCABULRIO-CHAVE uncountable: incontvel innumerable: incontvel unaccountable: inexplicvel, esquisito, irresponsvel

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

8. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) There are reasons to doubt the reliability of the Internet as a source of useful, relevant and neutral information. Comentrios:

A questo afirma que h (there are) razes para duvidar (to doubt) da confiabilidade da internet como fonte (source) de informao til, relevante e neutra.
There are reasons to doubt the reliability of the Internet as a source of useful, relevant and neutral information.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

As palavras-chave da questo so os adjetivos useful, relevant e neutral. Vejamos no texto se encontramos palavras similares ou contrrias a estas:
() It is not, in fact, information per se which is useful but knowledge, information which has been distilled and contextualized so that it can impart meaning. () () The danger of the Internet is that it threatens to overwhelm us with so much information that, instead of democratizing and enriching our political lives, it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies. Internet users know well that the abundance of informational riches can have a paralytic effect, rendering the viewer helpless to find anything. The huge quantity of information available creates an inverse relationship between speaking and listening, between information and understanding. The more people speak, the fewer people will actually be heard. In fact, the deluge of data ensures that we cannot find anything. It has also the effect of making us even more dependent than in the days before the flood on unaccountable, commercialized search tools and information filters to sort information and make it meaningful. Although these editors are machines, they are not neutral. The values and choices are embedded deep within the code and often not obvious to the user. useful It is not information per se which is useful relevant irrelevancies neutral not neutral

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Logo, a questo est correta ao afirmar que h razes para duvidar da utilidade, relevncia e neutralidade das informaes na internet. O texto est dizendo exatamente isto. Aparece na questo o verbo there be que corresponde ao verbo haver no portugus, mas que, ao contrrio do portugus, flexiona para o plural e singular. THERE IS = para o singular THERE ARE = para o plural

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE there are: h reasons: razes doubt: dvida reliability: confiana source: fonte useful: util relevant: relevante neutral: neutro

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

The pre-Iraq war and pre-9/11 performance of some secret services is subject to harsh criticism and, in some countries, various investigations. Governments are accused to have taken essential decisions based upon dubious information. The different agencies are blamed for inter- and intra-agency rivalry blocking the efficiency of any early warning system. In addition, they are heavily criticized for delivering the message their political masters wanted to hear. We do not want to blame anybody. But we believe that it is necessary to rethink the whole business of secret services. Without knowing the details that obviously led to serious deficiencies, there are several fundamental problems with the work of secret services in open, democratic societies. In democracies, there is often a basic mistrust towards intelligence gathering. It seems to be a dirty job. Democracy asks for openness and transparency. People in democracies do not like the work in a shadow. Scientists and journalists refrain in general from cooperation with secret services. They are afraid to destroy their access to foreign countries and colleagues. Recruitment of qualified young people has become difficult. Dieter Farwick. Internet: <http://www.world securitynetwork. com/showArticle3.cfm?article_id=9226> (with adaptations).

From the text above, it can be deduced that

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

9.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

the American decision to declair war

against Iraq was based on doubtless information. Comentrios: As palavras decision e based aparecem na frase: Governments are accused to have taken essential decisions based upon dubious information. Fazendo a comparao, temos que: Item Texto x x Are accused Decision.. Was based .. On doubtless information. have taken decisions based upon dubious information x

American .. Governments

Feita a anlise, fica mais fcil observar que enquanto o item fala em deciso americana, o texto fala, de maneira geral, que governos so acusados de terem tomado decises (have taken decisions). Ao contrario do que est dito no texto (decises baseadas em informaes dbias, duvidosas), a alternativa fala em decises baseadas em informaes indubitveis (doubtless).

SUFIXO - LESS Doubtless = indubitvel sufixo - LESS = contrrio, negativo Logo, doubt=dvida, desconfiana

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOZ PASSIVA
Tanto na questo quanto no texto foi usada a voz passiva. Observe: the American decision to declair war against Iraq was based on doubtless information. decises (objeto) foram baseadas (passado be + based)

Governments are accused to have taken decisions based upon dubious information governos so acusados (presente be + accused)

VOZ PASSIVA (BE + VERBO NO PASSADO PARTICPIO)

PODE ESTAR NO PRESENTE OU NO PASSADO (is, are, was, were)

PALAVRAS-CHAVE declair: declarar war against Iraq: guerra contra o Iraque was based on: estava/era baseado doubtless: indibutvel are accused to: so acusados de have taken decisions: ter tomado decises essential: essencial based upon: baseado em dubious: dbio

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 10. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) security matters. Comentrios: No texto, a palavra political aparece em: In addition, they are heavily criticized for delivering the message their political masters wanted to hear. A questo afirma que questes polticas (poltical issues) no deveriam (should not) prevalecer sobre questes de segurana (security matters). No mesmo sentido, o texto fala em agncias de inteligncia sendo fortemente criticadas (heavily criticized) por sofrer influncia poltica. Item: should not prevail Texto: criticized political issues should not prevail over

heavily = duramente, fortemente Adjetivos + Sufixo LY = advrbio

Outro exemplo: hardly (dificilmente)

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PALAVRAS-CHAVE political issues: questes polticas should: deveria prevail over: prevalecer security matters: questes de segurana in addition: Ainda, em adio heavily: severamente criticized: criticado delivering: entrega political: politico masters: mestres want: querer hear: ouvir

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 11. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) open democracies welcome the action of

intelligence services. Comentrios: A questo fala em open democracies, que o texto trata na frase: In democracies, there is often a basic mistrust towards intelligence gathering. It seems to be a dirty job. Democracy asks for openness and transparency() Item open democracies welcome intelligence services Texto openness, transparency democracies mistrust, dirty intelligence gathering

Observamos que enquanto o item fala que democracias abertas acolhem sem restries (welcome) os servios de inteligncia, o texto fala em mistrust (desconfiana, suspeita) e ainda usa o adjetivo dirty ( que indica sujo, reprovao).

PALAVRAS-CHAVE open democracies: democracias abertas welcome: sem restries, bem-vindo mistrust: desconfiana towards: em direo intelligence gathering: coleta de inteligncia seem: parecer dirty job: trabalho sujo ask: perguntar, solicitar openness: abertura www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 26

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE transparency: transparncia

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

12.

(CESPE/ ABIN/2004)

mistrust (R.17) is synonymous with

distrust. Comentrios: A palavra mistrust aparece em: In democracies, there is often a basic mistrust towards

intelligence gathering. Trust significa confiana. PREFIXOS Mis Prefixos Dis Trust=confiana (mistrust e distrust = disconfiana) so usados para indicar o oposto

Logo, a resposta para esta questo CERTO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

This heavily armed group wears black uniforms and their faces are often masked, and their symbol includes a skull with crossed pistols. It is not some illegal paramilitary force but an elite battalion of the police in Rio de Janeiro known as Bope, the Battalion for Special Police Operations. They were created by the Department of Police to deal with kidnappings, but their job now is to take on the most dangerous drug gangs in the country, a battle fought with high-calibre weapons in the citys favelas and shanty towns. The launch of a new movie called Tropa de Elite (or Elite Squad) has put this police unit in the spotlight in an unprecedented way. The movie also points an accusing finger at the hypocrisy of rich young people who complain about violence in Brazilian society, but who use the drugs that finance the gangs which dominate many favelas. Some critics have accused the film of glamorising violence and making a hero of a police officer who endorses torture and acts outside the law, an interpretation rejected by the films director.
Internet: <news.bbc.co.uk> (adapted).

Based on the text, it can be deduced that

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

13. (CESPE/PMDF/2008) people agree that the police officer as shown in the film is an unquestionable hero. Comentrios: As palavras-chave aqui so: people, agree, police officer, unquestionable, hero. Ao busc-las no texto encontramos a frase: Some critics have accused the film of glamorising violence and making a hero of a police officer who endorses torture and acts outside the law, an interpretation rejected by the films director. Enquanto a questo afirma que as pessoas concordam (people agree) que o policial do filme um heri inquestionvel (unquestionable), o texto quando fala no policial heri aborda os crticos (critics) e suas acusaes (accused). Logo, ao contrrio do que a questo afirma, o policial um heri questionvel (questionable x unquestionable), j que sofre critcas. PREFIXO UN -

SUFIXO - BLE Unquestionable = inquestionvel Prefixo UN contrrio, negativo Logo, questionable= questionvel Outros exemplos: unlikely (inprovvel) unstable (instvel) unsustainable (insustentvel) Sufixo BLE vel, - vel Unquestionable = inquestionvel sustainable (sustentvel) stable(estvel) 29

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

VOCABULRIO-CHAVE people: pessoas agree: concordam police officer: policial unquestionable: inquestionvel hero: heri critics: crticos have accused: acusaram glamorising violence: glamorizar a violncia make: fazer endorses torture: aprovar a tortura acts outside the law: age fora da lei

Logo, a resposta para esta questo ERRADO.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

DICA: Antes de ler o texto, no perca tempo, v ao enunciado da questo. Veja o que a Banca Examinadora quer de voc.

Insolvencies/Guaranty Funds Source: www.iii.org Feb/ 2006 (Adapted) 1. function of the The regulation of insurance company solvency is a state. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services

Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed banks, securities firms, insurance companies and other financial services entities to affiliate and sell one anothers products, continues this practice. State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examinations. When a company is found to be in poor financial condition, regulators can take various actions to try to save it. Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

14. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) According to the text, insolvencies do occur, which means they a) actually happen. b) are undoubtedly preventable. c) hardly take place. d) do not pose a threat. e) used to be more frequent.

Comentrios: O enunciado da questo j remete o leitor expresso

insolvencies do occur. S ser necessrio encontrar esta expresso no texto. Vejamos a ltima frase do texto: ()Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators. Agora as palavras-chave e as alternativas de resposta:

PALAVRAS-CHAVE insolvencies: insolvncias occur: ocorrer, acontecer however: porm, no obstante despite: apesar de actually: efetivamente, de fato happen: acontecer undoubtedly: indubitavelmente preventable: evitvel hardly: dificilmente www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 32

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE take place: ocorrer pose a threat: representar uma ameaa used to be: costumava ser

a) actually happen. A opo A est correta. Insolvencies do occur significa que insolvncias efetivamente acontecem. Actually significa de fato, efetivamente. IMPORTANTE actually = realmente, efetivamente Adjetivos + Sufixo LY = advrbio Logo, actual = real, efetivo CUIDADO! FALSO COGNATO! Atualmente = nowadays, presently Outros exemplos: undoubtedly (indubitavelmente) hardly (dificilmente) frequently (frequentemente) usually (usualmente, habitualmente)

b) are undoubtedly preventable. A opo B est incorreta. Da leitura da frase Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators. percebe-se que apesar dos esforos dos reguladores, as insolvncias efetivamente ocorrem. Logo, no se pode afirmar que insolvncia seja indubitavelmente evitvel (preventable). c) hardly take place. A opo C est incorreta. O texto no diz que insolvncia dificilmente (hardly) ocorre (take place), apenas afirma que ela ocorre. d) do not pose a threat. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 33

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A opo D est incorreta. Insolvencies do occur no quer dizer que insolvncias no representam (pose) uma ameaa (threat). Perceba que o enunciado da questo quer apenas o significado da expresso e no a interpretao de que sejam ou no ameaas. e) used to be more frequent. A opo E est incorreta. A opo afirma que insolvncias costumavam ser (used to be) mais freqentes. No texto no h essa afirmao.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 15. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) In relation to the monitoring of the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance, the state regulators a) are currently designing two tools to follow it. b) might resort to actions designed to assist them. c) may decide to outsource any further analysis. d) have been assessing the most effective procedures. e) are likely to adopt the analysis of their statements.

Comentrios: O enunciado da questo diz: In relation to the monitoring of the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance, the state regulators (Em relao ao monitoramento da sade financeira de companhias licenciadas a oferecer seguro, os reguladores estatais...) Vejamos onde o texto est tratando de monitoring. DICA: Observe que das 10 palavraschave, 6 so verdadeiros cognatos, ou seja, palavras que se assemelham ao portugus. Felizmente elas so maioria! Mas cuidado, h os falsos cognatos. No se preocupe com eles agora. Eles so minoria.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE relation: relao monitoring: monitoramento financial health: sade financeira

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE companies: companhias licensed: licenciadas provide: oferecer, fornecer, produzir state regulators: reguladores estatais

O texto trata do assunto monitoring na seguinte frase: State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examinations.

MAIS PALAVRAS-CHAVE through: atravs analysis: anlises detailed: detalhadas annual: anual financial statements: demonstraes financeiras insurers: segurador, seguradora are required: so demandados, solicitados to file: seguir periodic: peridico on-site examinations: exame, investigao in loco

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Da leitura, verificamos que h duas maneiras atravs, por meio (through) das quais os reguladores estatais monitoram a sade financeira das companhias: analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examination. Agora, apenas com a leitura dessa frase, sem se preocupar inicialmente com a traduo do que est destacado em azul, vejamos as opes de resposta:

a) are currently designing two tools to follow it. A opo A est incorreta. O texto no diz que os reguladores estatais esto atualmente (currently) desenvolvendo (designing) duas ferramentas (tools) para monitoramento da sade financeira das seguradoras. O autor apenas afirma que os reguladores estatais monitoram a sade financeira das companhias de seguro atravs de 2 ferramentas: analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers e periodic on-site examination.

Currently = atualmente CUIDADO! FALSO COGNATO!

x
actually = realmente, efetivamente

b) might resort to actions designed to assist them. A opo B est correta. O verbo to resort to significa recorrer a, apelar a. J might resort to d a idia de probabilidade. A opo www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 37

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE afirma que possvel que os reguladores do mercado de seguros recorram s ferramentas citadas no texto. Logo a afirmativa est corretssima, uma vez que o autor afirma que os reguladores estatais monitoram a sade financeira das companhias atravs da analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file e do periodic on-site examination, duas aes desenvolvidas para lhes assistir.

c) may decide to outsource any further analysis. A opo C est incorreta. O autor no diz que os reguladores podem (may) decidir por terceirizar (outsource) anlises mais profundas (further forma comparativa do adjetivo far). d) have been assessing the most effective procedures. A opo C est incorreta. No texto no h qualquer meno ao verbo assess (avaliar, estimar, calcular) ou outro com idia similar. Logo, est errado afirmar que os reguladores estatais esto avaliando os procedimentos mais efetivos. e) are likely to adopt the analysis of their statements. A opo E est incorreta. No se pode afirmar pela leitura do texto que os reguladores estatais esto tendentes a adotar a anlise de suas demonstraes. Totalmente errada.

Sufixo -LY

Forma adjetivos e advrbios slowly: lentamente likely: provavelmente, tendente lively: vivaz www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 38

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

PALAVRAS-CHAVE currently: atualmente designing: desenvolvendo tool: ferramenta resort to: recorrer a outsource: terceirizar further: mais profundo, mais distante assess: avaliar, estimar, calcular most effective procedures: procedimentos mais efetivos likely: provvelmente, tendente adopt: adotar Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra B.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Land of Promise Source: www.economist.com/specialreports April 12th 2007 (Adapted) 1. In 2003 Goldman Sachs, an investment bank, selected

Brazil, along with Russia, India and China, as one of the BRICsthe developing countries that would share dominance of the world economy by 2050. 2. In some ways Brazil is the steadiest of the BRICs. Unlike China and Russia it is a full-blooded democracy; unlike India it has no serious disputes with its neighbours. It is the only BRIC without a nuclear bomb. The Heritage Foundations Economic Freedom Index, which measures such factors as protection of property rights and free trade, ranks Brazil (moderate free) above the other BRICs (mostly unfree). One of the main reasons why Brazils growth has been slower than Chinas and Indias is that Brazil is richer and more urbanized. 3. The survey will argue that disgruntlement persists because Brazil is a battleground between progress and inertia. Since independence was proclaimed by the son of the Portuguese king, Brazil has been adding layer upon layer of change rather than sweeping away the old and starting afresh.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 16. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 1, four countries are referred to as a) unlikely to play a key role in the world economic scenario. b) the slowest-growing economies of the present. c) likely to dominate the world economy in the future. d) the fastest-growing economies over the past 50 years. e) being todays richest and most prosperous economies.

Comentrios: Logo no enunciado, mesmo para quem tem apenas noes bsicas de ingls, j d para saber que para responder a questo bastar ler o pargrafo 1. A questo quer saber o que o texto do pargrafo 1 diz sobre os quatro pases. Ento vamos ler apenas o pargrafo 1 e tentar identificar o vocabulrio-chave: In 2003 Goldman Sachs, an investment bank, selected Brazil, along with Russia, India and China, as one of the BRICs- the developing countries that would share dominance of the world economy by 2050.

Significado desse vocabulrio em destaque

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PALAVRAS-CHAVE investment bank: banco de investimentos selected: selecionou developing countries: pases em desenvolvimento would share dominance: compartilharo domnio world economy: economia mundial

DICA: Observe que das 10 palavraschave, 6 so verdadeiros cognatos, ou seja, palavras que se assemelham no portugus e no ingls. Felizmente elas so a maioria! Mas cuidado, h os falsos cognatos, que so minoria, mas no se preocupe com eles agora.

O que podemos extrair deste pargrafo, observando as palavraschave em destaque : Em 2003, um banco de investimentos selecionou o Brasil, juntamente com a Rssia, a ndia e a China para ser um BRICs pases em desenvolvimento que compartilharo o domnio da economia mundial at 2050. Temos a as seguintes palavras chaves: E quanto a esses quatro pases,vamos s opes de resposta:

a) unlikely to play a key role in the world economic scenario. A opo A est errada. No improvvel (unlikely) que os 4 pases tenham papel chave (key role) no cenrio da economia mundial. O primeiro pargrafo afirma exatamente o contrrio. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 42

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Unlikely = Improvvel Prefixo UN contrrio, negativo Logo, likely=provvel

b) the slowest-growing economies of the present. A opo B est errada. O texto no afirma que essas quatro economias esto crescendo de modo mais lento atualmente. O texto claro ao se referir ao tempo futuro, ano de 2050. Nem se trata aqui de saber ingls, mas de observar datas. IMPORTANTE Slowest = mais lento, devagar Sufixo EST para formar superlativos da maioria dos adjetivos curtos em ingls. Para os adjetivos longos usamos o MOST.

c) likely to dominate the world economy in the future. A opo C est correta. Como vimos no comentrio da opo a, likely significa provvel. O texto afirma que os 4 pases provavelmente dominaro a economia mundial. d) the fastest-growing economies over the past 50 years. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 43

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

A opo D est errada, o texto no diz que as 4 economias cresceram de modo mais acelerado nos ltimos 50 anos. Como vimos no comentrio do item b, -EST est formando o superlativo do adjetivo fast (rpido, acelerado).

IMPORTANTE Growing = crescendo ou crescimento, a depender da frase em que aparece. Sufixo ING pode formar gerndio de verbos, mas tambm substantivos.

e) being todays richest and most prosperous economies. A opo E est errada. Como vimos, o texto no diz que as 4 economias so as mais ricas nem tampouco as mais prsperas no presente (today).

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra C.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 17. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 2, the author compares Brazils

growth to Chinas and Indias and, therefore, defines it as a) not being as fast. b) dependent on the latter. c) unexpectedly higher. d) not as stable. e) the least steady.

Comentrios:

Agora vamos ao pargrafo 2. Neste pargrafo o autor compara o crescimento do Brasil ao da China e ndia. Observe que a questo quer saber como definido o crescimento (growth) do Brasil.

DICA: A Banca quer que o candidato consiga identificar as caractersticas do crescimento no do na Brasil forma que de aparecem texto

adjetivos. Destaque os adjetivos.

In some ways Brazil is the steadiest of the BRICs. Unlike China and Russia it is a full-blooded democracy; unlike India it has no serious disputes with its neighbours. It is the only BRIC without a nuclear bomb. The Heritage Foundations Economic Freedom Index, which measures such factors as protection of property rights and free trade, ranks Brazil (moderate free) above the other BRICs (mostly unfree). One of the

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE main reasons why Brazils growth has been slower than Chinas and Indias is that Brazil is richer and more urbanized. Primeiro perceba que o tema central tratado neste pargrafo a economia brasileira. Observe as palavras-chave em destaque vermelho. Esses so os adjetivos para responder questo. Ao identificar, seno todos, pelo menos alguns dos adjetivos do texto, podemos matar a questo:

PALAVRAS-CHAVE steadiest = mais estvel full-blooded = forte moderate-free = moderadamente livre slower = mais lento (prefixo er para comparativo) richer = mais rico (prefixo er para comparativo) more urbanized = mais urbanizado (prefixo er para comparativo)

Vejamos as opes de resposta: a) not being as fast. A opo A est correta. Na ltima frase do pargrafo 2 o autor afirma que a razo para que o crescimento econmico brasileiro seja mais lento (slower than) que o da China e da ndia que o Brasil mais rico (richer) e mais urbanizado (more urbanized). A opo descreve o crescimento do Brasil como no sendo to rpido (quanto ao da China e ndia not as fast as China).

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE b) dependent on the latter. A opo B est incorreta. No h no texto qualquer afirmao de que o crescimento brasileiro seja dependente dos outros pases. Latter significa ltimo ou mencionado em segundo lugar. Voltando ao enunciado da questo, o segundo pas mencionado foi ndia. Contudo, observe que mesmo sem saber o significado desta palavra no h no texto qualquer meno dependncia. Pelo contrrio, quem tem o mnimo de conhecimento em ingls e conseguiu identificar a palavra FREE (livre) no pargrafo 2, j poderia sacar que esse item est incorreto.

c) unexpectedly higher. A letra C est incorreta. Lembre-se que estamos falando de crescimento. O item fala unexpectedly higher (un-expectedly = inesperado lembrem-se do prefixo un)(high-er=mais alto). Se voltarmos aos adjetivos que marcamos no texto no h essa afirmao. No confunda com richer (na ltima frase do pargrafo 2) com higher richer no texto est se referindo ao pas Brasil e no ao crescimento. No necessariamente um pas que mais rico ter um crescimento mais elevado (comparem China e EUA, por exemplo).

d) not as stable. A letra D est incorreta. Na primeira frase do pargrafo temos: In some ways Brazil is the steadiest of the BRICs(). Logo, Brasil o mais estvel. Como j vimos acima, stead (estvel) +est = superlativo (mais estvel). O item diz not as stable (no to estvel). Veja bem:

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

stead = stable =

estvel

e) the least steady. A letra E est incorreta. O crescimento brasileiro no o menos (LEAST) estvel. Na primeira frase do pargrafo temos: In some ways Brazil is the steadiest of the BRICs(). Logo, Brasil o mais estvel.

MORE x

LESS

MOST x LEAST

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra A.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Brazils President is Wildly Popular Source: Special Double Issue Newsweek Dec 31st, 2007/ Jan 7th, 2008 (Adapted) 1. For Brazilian President Luiz Incio Lula da 2007 has

been a good year. The economy is surging, even as the United States shows signs of weakness. Rising real wages, school enrollments and life expectancy have finally nudged Brazil into the United Nations elite of high human development nations. One by one Lula has seen top aides and allies fall to corruption scandals, but so far nothing seems to dim his aura. Now some of Lulas most ardent devotees in the ruling Workers Party (PT) are even pushing to change the Constitution to allow him to run for a third consecutive term in office. All the stars are aligned, says Walter Molano, a specialist in emerging markets with BCP Securities.

18. (ESAF/CGU/2008) The text reports that the Brazilian economy is surging. In other words, a) its scenario had urged caution. b) its growth has been slowing down. c) it will emerge in the near future. d) it is undergoing a process of growth. e) its development has been hindered.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Comentrios: Tambm nessa questo j podemos ir direto ao ponto. A questo se refere economia brasileira e pede que encontremos a alternativa que mais se assemelha idia de is surging. Vejamos a frase: The economy is surging, even as the United States shows signs of weakness.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE is surging: est surgindo, aumentando rapidamente shows signs: mostra sinais weakness: fraqueza

IMPORTANTE Sufixo -NESS Forma substantivos abstratos: weakness, richness

Vejamos as alternativas:

a) its scenario had urged caution. A opo A est incorreta. O texto fala que a economia est surgindo e no que tenha necessitado de cautela.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

b) its growth has been slowing down. A opo B est incorreta. O crescimento no est diminuindo, pelo contrrio. c) it will emerge in the near future. A opo C est incorreta. O Presidente Lula no diz que a economia ir emergir no futuro prximo. d) it is undergoing a process of growth. A opo D est correta. O que o Presidente diz que a economia est surgindo, logo corresponde idia de que est passando por um processo de crescimento. e) its development has been hindered. A opo E est incorreta. O texto no diz que o desenvolvimento tem sido impedido. Aqui voc precisaria saber o significado de hinder (impedir), contudo, daria para acertar a questo sabendo o vocabulrio da opo d.

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE

Tackling Corruption for Growth and Development Source: www.ausaid.gov.au 18th Jan 2008 (Adapted) 1. Corruption is a major impediment to broadbased

growth and development, undermining government revenue and expenditure on the delivery of basic services such as law and justice, health care, education, and the maintenance of essential infrastructure. The World Bank Institute has estimated that more than US$1 trillion is paid in bribes each year and, over the long run, countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times. 2. Corruption weakens institutions and makes states more vulnerable to crisis. It has the potential to undermine security in our partner countries and in the Asia-Pacific region more broadly. Security can be threatened when governments fail to deliver services, uphold law and order, maintain public confidence in institutions, or control the use of resources. 3. Corruption can lead to money politics and undermine the decisions of democratically elected governments. It can also open the way for a variety of other crimes such as money laundering and trafficking in drugs, arms, and people.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 19. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 1, tackling corruption and the increase of national incomes are described as a) minor governmental concerns. b) dissociated matters. c) major private initiatives. d) unrelated issues. e) closely linked.

Comentrios: A questo remete o leitor ao Pargrafo 1. Antes de ler o pargrafo, vejamos o enunciado. In paragraph 1, tackling corruption and the increase of national incomes are described as Agora, antes de se preocupar com o significado das palavras chaves, vamos ao pargrafo 1 do texto identificar onde est a resposta da questo. countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times. Agora, conforme o enunciado, a banca quer saber como tackling corruption (combate corrupo) e the increase of national incomes (aumento da renda nacional) so descritos no texto.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE PALAVRAS-CHAVE tackling: tentar resolver, lidar, atacar (problema, tarefa), combater tackle: tentar resolver, lidar, atacar (problema, tarefa), combater improve: melhorar rule of law: legislao corruption: corrupo increase: aumentar national incomes: renda, salrio, pagamento, honorrio described: descritos minor: menor, inferior, secundrio concerns: preocupaes dissociated: dissociar, desagregar matters: negcio, questo, causa, caso major: maior, principal. private: privado initiatives: iniciativas unrelated: no relacionado issues: questes closely linked: intimamente ligado a) minor governmental concerns. A opo A est incorreta. O texto no diz que corrupo e aumento da renda so preocupaes governamentais secundrias, inferiores (minor concerns). Veja como a corrupo e o aumento da renda nacional esto descritos no texto: countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A opo B est incorreta. O texto afirma que pases que combatem a corrupo (tackle corruption) podem aumentar em 4 vezes (four times) a renda nacional (increase their national incomes). Logo, no se pode dizer que o combate corrupo e o aumento da renda so questes dissociadas. O texto afirma que um influencia o outro. IMPORTANTE PASSADO PARTICPIO dissociated: dissociada (o) related: relacionada (o) unrelated: prefixo UN negao, logo, no relacionada linked: ligada (o) weakened: enfraquecida (o) c) major private initiatives. A opo C est incorreta. O texto diz countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times, ou seja, fala em pases que combatem a corrupo. A alternativa est errada ao afirmar que o combate corrupo e o aumento da renda nacional so iniciativas principalmente privadas. d) unrelated issues. A opo D est incorreta. Esta afirmao tambm feita na alternativa B e est incorreta. Como vimos, o texto afirma que pases que combatem a corrupo (tackle corruption) podem aumentar em 4 vezes a renda nacional (increase their national incomes). Logo, no se pode dizer que o combate corrupo e o aumento da renda so questes (issues) dissociadas. e) closely linked. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 55

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE A opo E est correta. Se o texto afirma que pases que

combatem a corrupo (tackle corruption) podem aumentar em 4 vezes a renda nacional (increase their national incomes), isso quer dizer que o combate corrupo e o aumento da renda so intimamente ligados (closely linked). Close significa perto, closely transforma o adjetivo em advrbio, traduzido por intimamente, bem perto. IMPORTANTE closely = intimamente Adjetivos + Sufixo LY = advrbio Outros exemplos: hardly (dificilmente) frequently (frequentemente) usually (usualmente, habitualmente)

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra E.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE 20. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 2, institutions are said to be weakened by corruption. In other words, they a) seem to be immune to this practice. b) have the legal means to prevent it. c) remain unaffected by this practice. d) are undoubtedly affected by it. e) are in charge of legally handling it.

Comentrios: O enunciado da prpria questo destaca que no pargrafo 2 dito que as instituies so enfraquecidas (weakened) pela corrupo. Tendo isso em vista, voc dever encontrar a opo que mais se aproxima dessa idia. Observe que nem ser preciso ler o pargrafo 2 para responder questo. a) seem to be immune to this practice. A opo A est incorreta. Como vimos a questo trata das instituies e o enunciado afirma que as mesmas se enfraquecem pela corrupo. Ao contrrio, a alternativa diz que as instituies parecem (seem) estar imunes a esta prtica (corruption). b) have the legal means to prevent it. A opo B est incorreta. A opo afirma que as instituies tm os meios legais (legal means) para prevenir (prevent) a corrupo (it). Veja que no isso que o texto diz. Conforme o enunciado da questo, no pargrafo 2 dito que as instituies so enfraquecidas pela corrupo.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE c) remain unaffected by this practice. A opo C est incorreta. Ao contrrio do que o texto e o enunciado da questo afirmam, essa alternativa diz que as instituies continuam (remain) no sendo afetadas (unaffected) por esta prtica (corruption). IMPORTANTE Unaffected = no afetadas Prefixo UN contrrio, negativo Logo, affected=afetada

d) are undoubtedly affected by it. A opo D est correta. Se o enunciado da questo afirmou que as instituies se enfraquecem com a corrupo, esta alternativa est correta ao dizer que as instituies so undoubtedly (indubitavelmente) afetadas pela corrupo. IMPORTATE Undoubtedly = indubitavelmente Prefixo UN contrrio, negativo Sufixo LY forma advrbio (- mente)

e) are in charge of legally handling it. A opo E est incorreta. Esta opo diz que as instituies so as responsveis (be in charge) por lidar legalmente (legally handling) com a corrupo. O texto no faz tal afirmao. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 58

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PALAVRAS-CHAVE institutions: instituies said: passado de say dizer weakened: enfraquecido seem: parecer legal means: meios legais prevent: prevenir affected: afetado, passado de affect Undoubtedly: indubitavelmente be in charge: ser o responsvel legally handling: lidar legalmente

Logo, a resposta para esta questo a letra D.

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REVISO DO VOCABULRIO-CHAVE

A partir deste momento vamos revisar a aula por meio do quadro do vocabulrio-chave.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE clearly: claramente linked: ligados controversial: controversos exclusive: exclusivos disposable: descartveis questionable: questionveis vague: vago, indeterminado dim: vago, obscuro accurate: preciso inexact: inexato advantageous: vantajoso imprecise: impreciso closer: mais perto nearer: mais perto comprehensive march: marcha global all-inclusive: inclusiva upcoming: prxima understandable: compreensvel overwhelming: avassaladora constructive: construtiva a host: uma srie tangible: tangvel www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 60

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE economic benefits: benefcios econmicos scarce: escassos effective: eficazes plentiful: abundantes successful: bem sucedidos welcoming: acolhedores unique: nico. unfit: imprprios uniform: uniformes unusual: diferentes untidy: desarrumados useful: teis uncountable: incontvel innumerable: incontvel unaccountable: inexplicvel, esquisito, irresponsvel there are: h reasons: razes doubt: dvida reliability: confiana source: fonte useful: util relevant: relevante neutral: neutro declair: declarar war against Iraq: guerra contra o Iraque was based on: estava/era baseado doubtless: indibutvel are accused to: so acusados de have taken decisions: ter tomado decises essential: essencial based upon: baseado em www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 61

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE dubious: dbio political issues: questes polticas should: deveria prevail over: prevalecer security matters: questes de segurana in addition: Ainda, em adio heavily: severamente criticized: criticado delivering: entrega political: politico masters: mestres want: querer hear: ouvir open democracies: democracias abertas welcome: sem restries, bem-vindo mistrust: desconfiana towards: em direo intelligence gathering: coleta de inteligncia seem: parecer dirty job: trabalho sujo ask: perguntar, solicitar openness: abertura transparency: transparncia people: pessoas agree: concordam police officer: policial unquestionable: inquestionvel hero: heri critics: crticos have accused: acusaram glamorising violence: glamorizar a violncia

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE make: fazer endorses torture: aprovar a tortura acts outside the law: age fora da lei insolvencies: insolvncias occur: ocorrer, acontecer however: porm, no obstante despite: apesar de actually: efetivamente, de fato happen: acontecer undoubtedly: indubitavelmente preventable: evitvel hardly: dificilmente take place: ocorrer pose a threat: representar uma ameaa used to be: costumava ser relation: relao monitoring: monitoramento financial health: sade financeira companies: companhias licensed: licenciadas provide: oferecer, fornecer, produzir state regulators: reguladores estatais through: atravs analysis: anlises detailed: detalhadas annual: anual

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE financial statements: demonstraes financeiras insurers: segurador, seguradora are required: so demandados, solicitados to file: seguir periodic: peridico on-site examinations: exame, investigao in loco currently: atualmente designing: desenvolvendo tool: ferramenta resort to: recorrer a outsource: terceirizar further: mais profundo, mais distante assess: avaliar, estimar, calcular most effective procedures: procedimentos mais efetivos likely: provvelmente, tendente adopt: adotar investment bank: banco de investimentos selected: selecionou developing countries: pases em desenvolvimento would share dominance: compartilharo domnio world economy: economia mundial steadiest = mais estvel full-blooded = forte moderate-free = moderadamente livre slower = mais lento (prefixo er para comparativo) richer = mais rico (prefixo er para comparativo) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 64

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE more urbanized = mais urbanizado (prefixo er para comparativo) tackling: tentar resolver, lidar, atacar (problema, tarefa), combater tackle: tentar combater resolver, lidar, atacar (problema, tarefa),

improve: melhorar rule of law: legislao corruption: corrupo increase: aumentar national incomes: renda, salrio, pagamento, honorrio described: descritos minor: menor, inferior, secundrio concerns: preocupaes dissociated: dissociar, desagregar matters: negcio, questo, causa, caso major: maior, principal. private: privado initiatives: iniciativas unrelated: no relacionado issues: questes closely linked: intimamente ligado institutions: instituies said: passado de say dizer weakened: enfraquecido seem: parecer legal means: meios legais prevent: prevenir affected: afetado, passado de affect Undoubtedly: indubitavelmente be in charge: ser o responsvel legally handling: lidar legalmente

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QUESTES DA AULA German to English translator A term very much in vogue today is the knowledge economy. This is a term that is justifiably considered vague and nebulous. Questions abound. What exactly is a knowledge economy? There seems to be no clear definition. What are the sectors a knowledge allure economy of the is composed of? Why Why the are overwhelming knowledge economy?

sweeping statements made today that the economy of the world today is moving towards a knowledge-based economy? And a question closer to our hearts as language service providers: Are language services part of the knowledge economy? Does it matter if they are considered part of it or outside it? One definition of the knowledge economy, taken from todays overwhelmingly defines the popular knowledge web knowledge as the resource, use of wikipedia, economy

knowledge technologies (such as knowledge engineering and knowledge management) to produce economic benefits. Clearly, it is important for language services to be classified and advertised as a part, nay a critical and indispensable part, of the knowledge economy for three reasons: a) Language services ARE an integral part of todays knowledge economy. The wheels of globalization, itself predicated on a knowledge economy, would grind to a halt without language services. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 66

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE b) Language services are not accorded the recognition they deserve in todays comprehensive march towards globalization. Being classified as a component of the knowledge economy will confer on them the status they truly deserve. c) Payment for language services is not commensurate with the benefits they bring to the world economy. Once they get due recognition, pay scales will be revised accordingly by market forces. No one can argue that language services such as translation or interpretation do not produce economic benefits. What has to be driven home is the magnitude of economic benefits produced. i) While language services produce no tangible products or sales (apart from the language services sold themselves), the intangible effects of localization on product sales are substantial. ii) Language services also enhance global collaboration, nay, are the very factor that make it possible . Ask any two multinational companies what underpins their process of collaboration. The answer: a Memorandum of Understanding or some sort of Legal Agreement drawn up in the languages of the countries of the participating companies. So language services are required for global collaboration to even be initiated. And that global collaboration produces economic benefits is a fact. It is therefore, indisputable that language services are a knowledge technology and that they produce considerable intangible economic benefits that are critical to the production of a host of tangible economic benefits. That being established, we as language service providers, can go a step further, and claim that language services are the very bedrock of the knowledge economy. However, what is it that makes language services stand out as a special knowledge-based www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 67

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE service? There exist today many knowledgebased technologies, such as information technology, software engineering, artificial intelligence technologies, cognitive sciences, etc. Why are language services unique? An analogy with a natural phenomenon can drive home the point. Just as the light of the sun is the very essence of the suns ability to illumine, language is the very essence of all knowledge. Just as the light of the sun illumines all objects in the solar system, language is used to describe all known phenomena in our known universe, and therefore forms the very backbone of all human knowledge. While knowledge is domain-specific, language is meta-knowledge. Language services are hence very special, since no knowledge is possible without language. Language services will thus form the very bedrock of the global knowledge economy going forward. It is time language services are accorded their rightful place in the global economy. In terms of recognition. In terms of stature. And yes, in terms of remuneration. 1 (FGV/SENADO/2008) and knowledge economy are (A) linked. (B) controversial. (C) exclusive. (D) disposable. (E) questionable. 2 (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) dim. (B) accurate. (C) inexact. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 68 The opposite of vague in considered According to the text, language services

vague and nebulous (lines 2-3) is

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (D) advantageous. (E) imprecise. 3 (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) farther from them. (B) less sensitive to them. (C) more threatening to them. (D) more influenced by them. (E) nearer to them. 4 (FGV/SENADO/2008) that is (A) all-inclusive. (B) upcoming. (C) understandable. (D) overwhelming. (E) constructive. 5 (FGV/SENADO/2008) The expression a host of tangible economic benefits (line 55) indicates these benefits are (A) scarce. (B) effective. (C) plentiful. (D) successful. (E) welcoming. 6 (FGV/SENADO/2008) (A) unfit. (B) uniform. (C) unusual. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 69 When the text qualifies language services a comprehensive march (line 27) is one When the text states that a question is

closer to our hearts (line 9), it means this question is

as unique (line 63), it defines them as

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE (D) untidy. (E) useful.

Information is a cornerstone of political education and socialization. The ability to find out about issues of public importance, and the capacity to inform oneself about the workings of government and its policies are examples of how information can be essential to the education of the informed and responsible citizen. Yet in this era of information overload, the subtle but vital difference between information and knowledge needs to be drawn in order to create virtual places that promote political education in the broadest sense. It is not, in fact, information per se which is useful but knowledge, information which has been distilled and contextualized so that it can impart meaning. The Internet is the ultimate reference library, chockfull of data supplied by individuals and institutions from around the world, usually for the free use of all comers. The danger of the Internet is that it threatens to overwhelm us with so much information that, instead of democratizing and enriching our political lives, it is actually drowning us in irrelevancies. Internet users know well that the abundance of informational riches can have a paralytic effect, rendering the viewer helpless to find anything. The huge quantity of information available creates an inverse relationship between speaking and listening, between information and understanding. The more people speak, the fewer people will actually be heard. In fact, the deluge of data ensures that we cannot find anything. It has also the effect of making us even more dependent than in the days before the flood on unaccountable, commercialized search tools and information filters to sort information and make it meaningful. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 70

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Although these editors are machines, they are not neutral. The values and choices are embedded deep within the code and often not obvious to the user.
Beth Simone Noveck. Paradoxical partners: electronic

communication and electronic democracy. In: Peter Ferdinand (Ed.). The Internet, democracy, and democratization. London: Frank Cass/Routledge, 2000, p. 23-4 (with adaptations).

Based on the text above, judge the following items. 7. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) as innumerable. 8. (CESPE/TCU-TI/2010) There are reasons to doubt the reliability of the Internet as a source of useful, relevant and neutral information. The pre-Iraq war and pre-9/11 performance of some secret services is subject to harsh criticism and, in some countries, various investigations. Governments are accused to have taken essential decisions based upon dubious information. The different agencies are blamed for inter- and intra-agency rivalry blocking the efficiency of any early warning system. In addition, they are heavily criticized for delivering the message their political masters wanted to hear. We do not want to blame anybody. But we believe that it is necessary to rethink the whole business of secret services. Without knowing the details that obviously led to serious deficiencies, there are several fundamental problems with the work of secret services in open, democratic www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 71 In line 27, unaccountable is the same

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE societies. In democracies, there is often a basic mistrust towards intelligence gathering. It seems to be a dirty job. Democracy asks for openness and transparency. People in democracies do not like the work in a shadow. Scientists and journalists refrain in general from cooperation with secret services. They are afraid to destroy their access to foreign countries and colleagues. Recruitment of qualified young people has become difficult. Dieter Farwick. Internet: <http://www.world securitynetwork. com/showArticle3.cfm?article_id=9226> (with adaptations).

From the text above, it can be deduced that 9.(CESPE/ ABIN/2004) the American decision to declair war against

Iraq was based on doubtless information. 10. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) security matters. 11. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) intelligence services. 12. (CESPE/ ABIN/2004) mistrust (R.17) is synonymous with distrust. This heavily armed group wears black uniforms and their faces are often masked, and their symbol includes a skull with crossed pistols. It is not some illegal paramilitary force but an elite battalion of the police in Rio de Janeiro known as Bope, the Battalion for Special Police Operations. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 72 open democracies welcome the action of political issues should not prevail over

CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE They were created by the Department of Police to deal with kidnappings, but their job now is to take on the most dangerous drug gangs in the country, a battle fought with high-calibre weapons in the citys favelas and shanty towns. The launch of a new movie called Tropa de Elite (or Elite Squad) has put this police unit in the spotlight in an unprecedented way. The movie also points an accusing finger at the hypocrisy of rich young people who complain about violence in Brazilian society, but who use the drugs that finance the gangs which dominate many favelas. Some critics have accused the film of glamorising violence and making a hero of a police officer who endorses torture and acts outside the law, an interpretation rejected by the films director.
Internet: <news.bbc.co.uk> (adapted).

Based on the text, it can be deduced that

13.

(CESPE/PMDF/2008) people agree that the police officer as

shown in the film is an unquestionable hero.

Insolvencies/Guaranty Funds Source: www.iii.org Feb/ 2006 (Adapted) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 73

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1.

The regulation of insurance company solvency is a

function of the state. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999, which allowed banks, securities firms, insurance companies and other financial services entities to affiliate and sell one anothers products, continues this practice. State regulators monitor the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance in their state through analysis of the detailed annual financial statements that insurers are required to file and periodic on-site examinations. When a company is found to be in poor financial condition, regulators can take various actions to try to save it. Insolvencies do occur, however, despite the best efforts of regulators.

14. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) According to the text, insolvencies do occur, which means they a) actually happen. b) are undoubtedly preventable. c) hardly take place. d) do not pose a threat. e) used to be more frequent. 15. (ESAF/SUSEP/2006) In relation to the monitoring of the financial health of companies licensed to provide insurance, the state regulators a) are currently designing two tools to follow it. b) might resort to actions designed to assist them. c) may decide to outsource any further analysis. d) have been assessing the most effective procedures. e) are likely to adopt the analysis of their statements.

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Land of Promise Source: www.economist.com/specialreports April 12th 2007 (Adapted) 4. In 2003 Goldman Sachs, an investment bank, selected

Brazil, along with Russia, India and China, as one of the BRICsthe developing countries that would share dominance of the world economy by 2050. 5. In some ways Brazil is the steadiest of the BRICs. Unlike China and Russia it is a full-blooded democracy; unlike India it has no serious disputes with its neighbours. It is the only BRIC without of a nuclear bomb. and The Heritage trade, Foundations ranks Brazil Economic Freedom Index, which measures such factors as protection property rights free (moderate free) above the other BRICs (mostly unfree). One of the main reasons why Brazils growth has been slower than Chinas and Indias is that Brazil is richer and more urbanized. 6. The survey will argue that disgruntlement persists because Brazil is a battleground between progress and inertia. Since independence was proclaimed by the son of the Portuguese king, Brazil has been adding layer upon layer of change rather than sweeping away the old and starting afresh.

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16. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 1, four countries are referred to as a) unlikely to play a key role in the world economic scenario. b) the slowest-growing economies of the present. c) likely to dominate the world economy in the future. d) the fastest-growing economies over the past 50 years. e) being todays richest and most prosperous economies.

17. (ESAF/CGU/2008)

In paragraph 2, the author compares Brazils

growth to Chinas and Indias and, therefore, defines it as a) not being as fast. b) dependent on the latter. c) unexpectedly higher. d) not as stable. e) the least steady.

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Brazils President is Wildly Popular Source: Special Double Issue Newsweek Dec 31st, 2007/ Jan 7th, 2008 (Adapted) 1. For Brazilian President Luiz Incio Lula da 2007 has

been a good year. The economy is surging, even as the United States shows signs of weakness. Rising real wages, school enrollments and life expectancy have finally nudged Brazil into the United Nations elite of high human development nations. One by one Lula has seen top aides and allies fall to corruption scandals, but so far nothing seems to dim his aura. Now some of Lulas most ardent devotees in the ruling Workers Party (PT) are even pushing to change the Constitution to allow him to run for a third consecutive term in office. All the stars are aligned, says Walter Molano, a specialist in emerging markets with BCP Securities.

18. (ESAF/CGU/2008) The text reports that the Brazilian economy is surging. In other words, a) its scenario had urged caution. b) its growth has been slowing down. c) it will emerge in the near future. d) it is undergoing a process of growth. e) its development has been hindered.

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CURSO ON LINE INGLS TEORIA E EXERCCIOS - SENADO AULA 04 PROFESSORA: ALINE ANDRADE Tackling Corruption for Growth and Development Source: www.ausaid.gov.au 18th Jan 2008 (Adapted) 1. Corruption is a major impediment to broadbased

growth and development, undermining government revenue and expenditure on the delivery of basic services such as law and justice, health care, education, and the maintenance of essential infrastructure. The World Bank Institute has estimated that more than US$1 trillion is paid in bribes each year and, over the long run, countries that tackle corruption and improve the rule of law can increase their national incomes by as much as four times. 2. Corruption weakens institutions and makes states more vulnerable to crisis. It has the potential to undermine security in our partner countries and in the Asia-Pacific region more broadly. Security can be threatened when governments fail to deliver services, uphold law and order, maintain public confidence in institutions, or control the use of resources. 3. Corruption can lead to money politics and undermine the decisions of democratically elected governments. It can also open the way for a variety of other crimes such as money laundering and trafficking in drugs, arms, and people. 19. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 1, tackling corruption and the increase of national incomes are described as a) minor governmental concerns. b) dissociated matters. c) major private initiatives. d) unrelated issues. e) closely linked. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 78

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20. (ESAF/CGU/2008) In paragraph 2, institutions are said to be weakened by corruption. In other words, they a) seem to be immune to this practice. b) have the legal means to prevent it. c) remain unaffected by this practice. d) are undoubtedly affected by it. e) are in charge of legally handling it.

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GABARITO

1- A 8- C 15- B

2- B 9- E 16- C

3-E 10- C 17- A

4-A 11- E 18- D

5-C 12- C 19- E

6-C 13- E 20- D

7-E 14- A

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