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Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2011.10.08 Lucia Athanassaki, Richard P. Martin, John F. Miller (ed.), Apolline Politics and Poetics: International Symposium. Athens: European Cultural Centre of Delphi, 2009. Pp. xxxv, 702. ISBN 9789608852044. 40.00 (pb).

Reviewed by Froma I. Zeitlin, Princeton University (fiz@princeton.edu) (The reviewer apologizes for the lateness of this review.) It must have been a truly gala occasion. More than thirty-five scholars gathered at Delphi in July 2003 for a week- long International Symposium, whose subject, fittingly enough, given the location, was the god Apollo himself. Though the aim was to investigate the range of influence exercised by Apollo and his oracle on ancient political, religious, and cultural life, much of the volume is devoted to the literary tradition, both Greek and Roman. It took six years to produce this 700 page volume, consisting of thirty-three often-expanded essays, and a lengthy introduction by Lucia Athanassaki, Richard Martin, and John Miller, the organizers of the symposium. The first part, REPRESENTATIONS, contains essays on the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (5 contributions), Homer and Hesiod (3), Lyric (4), Tragedy (3), Vase Painting (2), Roman Epic and Lyric (3), and finally, the Survival of Apollo (1). The second and shorter part, SOCIETY, is further subdivided: Politics and Ideology (4), Apollo, Delphi, and the Social Order (5), and Siting Apollo (3), a more miscellaneous category, which takes up Sparta, Kos, and a look at Delphic Apollo between medicine and magic. One misses a piece on the Homeric Hymn to Hermes as well as greater attention to the iconographical tradition outside of vase painting, especially sculpture, where the god is a favorite subject for representation. A detailed review of each of the essays is obviously out of the question, but the twenty-page introduction gives a useful summary, first of each heading, and then of every paper in that section (much appreciated by this reviewer). Individual bibliographies follow each essay. There is no list of contributors and no indices, and very little cross-referencing from one essay to another. Authors and titles are listed at the end of this review. This volume, like all such collections, offers a wide-ranging assortment of topics and a few genuinely provocative pieces, but without a whiff of the post-modern. The quality of submissions is generally way above the line; my personal favorites were Felson, Griffith, Kavroulaki, and Graf, but virtually all the essays were stimulating and informative, even if I did not agree with all their methods and, at times, too ingenious conclusions.

2 The Homeric Hymn to Apollo is an obvious starting point for investigating the gods representation as foundational of the two most important cult sites, Delos and Delphi. These essays take a variety of approaches, ranging from close structural and semantic readings to historical reference. Strauss Clay queries the reasons for the Pythia's absence in the Hymn and concludes that the poets reworking of the myth is slanted towards an Olympian hegemony, untainted by any female and chthonic associations. Nagy offers a characteristically Nagyan semantic analysis comparing the Hymn and Hesiods proem in the Theogony to argue for the shift from the local to the Panhellenic and sketches out an evolutionary pattern that differentiates the solo performer (like Apollo himself) from the choral group. Richardson intriguingly argues for a tripartite structure instead of the usual division into Delian and Pythian parts, namely, the birth narrative, the foundation of the oracle at Delphi (including the victory over the serpent), and the appointment of the Cretan priests of Apollo. He stresses the emphasis on cultic and aetiological associations, along with suggestions of historical 6th-century references to the reorganization of the Pythian games and the events of the so-called Sacred War. Continuing the search for historical context, Aloni boldly contends that the hymn was composed for a festival in honor of Delian and Pythian Apollo, held only once at Delphi (523-22 BCE) at Polycrates behest, and authored by the poet Cynaethus (whom Aloni also identifies as the poet of the Odyssey). Like Richardson, he emphasizes the novel idea of Cretan priests, who, in Alonis view, given their proverbial identity as liars, provides a traditional paradigm that is synonymous with fiction, irony, and comic effect, all with the aim of undermining Delphic authority. Finally, Karanika studies the two examples of the word, ololyg, each occurring in the Delian and Delphic sections, and each in epiphanic circumstances, one at the birth of the god and the other at the installation of his cult at Delphi; through semantic analysis of other occurrences in epic, lyric, and tragedy, Karanika suggests the significance of the ritual cry as it evolves in its usage and its status as related to the paean cry, typically uttered by men. Homer and Hesiod are the subject of the next three essays. Maronitis explores the respective characterizations of the god in each epic, noting especially his role as citharode and archer, which comes to the fore in the Odyssey, as befits a hero who, like Apollo, excels in both activities. Scully draws attention to the notable absence of Apollo in the Theogony, in order to suggest that the idealized representation of Olympian harmony in the poem substitutes Zeus, as the embodiment of the new dispensation, in place of Apollo's more typical role as chorgos of this harmony. Bassi, on the other hand, turns to the curious presence of the stone at Delphi that stood as a marker or sma of Cronus defeat in disgorging the substitute of Zeus after the latter was successfully born, and investigates the relationship of visual and tangible objects to the flow of narrative in respect of time and space. A shift from hexameters to lyric poetry provides the next transition that consists of four essays. DAlessio leads off with a new look at Pindar's fragmentary first hymn, adducing both recent papyrus scraps and poetic parallels. He proposes that the addressee was not Zeus but Apollo; as such, the early papyrus edition would be closer to the Theognidea and hymn of Alcaeus, which both begin with poems to the god of Delos and Delphi. Felson, in an excellent piece, ambitiously looks Apollo in three Pindaric odes. Like most gods, she observes, he acts in two registers, the one "human

6 Kakridis, Fania, Apollo the Lover (633-40) Cartledge, Paul, Sparta's Apollo(ne)s (643-54) Rutherford, Ian, The Koan-Delian Ritual Complex: Apollo and Theoria in a Sacred Law from Kos (655-87) Zanetto, Giuseppe, Delphic Apollo between Medicine and Magic (689-99) Comment on this review in the BMCR blog Read Latest Index for 2011 Change Greek Display Books Archives Available for Review BMCR Home Bryn Mawr Classical Commentaries

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