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$~i?~dEl~~~t.a'ofl?

Wl (Topics and Statements)

~2aono.rsuiuiiq r i i s ~ i s o ~ ~ d n ~ i ~ ~ ~ l i s1 o~ DIPL~~UO iso~du~l'~ i~ &am m u d ~nuGmi l c y w ~ w v d CO~IN nuluiiq 0nu6m~lun?o$a~tdu~n"p1w-~uiso~~o.~

Thailand is the "land of smile."

b. Thai economy

Thai economy is improving.

c. Thaipeople

Thai people are gentle.

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I.
2.
I

ih7adnq ~fludiuiuvl3auiu-~l a'oanu dud.rzTu'on dd.rznoueiiu w v d mads-mu ( h h d n d ) + rnnua~q(~6asi~i/u~n'urnaiso~~o.~)


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Exercise 1 statement. Write T for a topic and S for a statement.


1.

For each of the following items, indieate whether it is a topic or a

The education in Thailand.


Water shortage. Rice is the main staple in Asia. Freedom for everyon Studying a forei Some teenagers use
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2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

~&obic is a good exercise. Smoking is forbidden in some places. Buddhism in Thailand. Thai food is hot. Ramkhamhaeng University Writing a letter. Political campaign Life is hard. 15. Student activities.

(Fact statements and opinion statements)


d d Y

U Y O A ? ~ U ~ L ~ U U L ~ U ? ~ Y U H Y ~ U Y O ~ D I ~ ~ ~ L ~ ( I U I ~ ~ ~ ~ : I U ~ ~ ~

~3ads:Iunu~~mqn?7~8m~~unIm ~ ~ : I ~ ~ Id Is R : 1R unn .d I i& ufl ~ u3 ~ 1F dmu7.10 )F)~Q~~ iipd dno5uiulii~ui3nisoii~ 1 rdu nisim mskbnm nTsrsmanu du6u u'nn?iuds:mndn~~~~'~u"~~~~u~it~uu'~n?iud~n& (true) n~rs~n'un?i~~fl ~Sniimwa~n (false) fl6 d u ds:~unu~rnnnuAr~~unn ds:Iuadnd7~&nnu8m ~ m u g n a m h n dfl@;uu dq1~~7~75fi5:~I~m~fl~~j7~fi~~~4~"sil1u' udnisnign;asiN 1 N7 ~U'U~yunmu8mdu~fi~~~~"sq~d7una'num7u
U U

I Type of statement I
Fact Statement

Examples
a. Salt is sweet.

Notes

f@d"hhna'a ~699% iin2: IJ~zH~J~I~ "false" &I

b.
I

There are 60 students in this 9t0uqmTm~lIJms3~aau~in class.

di~ngii3~u ~~8lfm~dd~lnl1an~l
4 4)

c.

Buddhism is important to most Thai people.

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Opinion Statement

d.

Bangkok is the most beautiful city is Asia.

~~iu~~~r~uuiuss~ud n'uwmsgiuua~iieirry~nn dnramb~l~~aaiiu kn~iu8muar ~ 6 l - y ~ #an?i~fffii~un31~8mcff~ 1 & u i ~ n u f i u & ~ iieiuirnu 8mmsrn'PafiaJ

e.

Tess is an unfortunate character.

j ; o d

f.

Moneyismoreimportant than love.

Exercise 2
For each of the following items, indicate whether it is a fact statement or an opinion statement. Write F for a fact statement and 0 for opinion.
.

I
1

1.
2.
3.
i

It takes ten hours to go to Chiengrnai by train. Studying a foreign language is very difficult. Some traffic regulations are very old. Water boils when it is heated. On high mountain, we can hardly breathe. She looked happy.
1

II

\ 1
I I

4.
5.

6.
160

EN 205

7.

Democracy is the best form of government. Teen-age fads is interesting, Serious car accident occutfed this morning. One of the most popular subjects of English legend is the Excaliber.

8 .
9.

10.

n1sciicruds~~credids~~~8n1~ (Writing Effective Sentences)


ds:lumds:nauti?udaudsu'nou 2 Ef?u Zo nindszniu ua:ninn3ui od~~lsiimulumsluu~~u3n'udo~di~ ~ionisriisurdoua~.jmaiu?anis~Guu dsdu~'LH'fluysormiuuu'ulu'~w"u.jwo ivmrui~mRds:lun$~u~sd~n'iGut.jl~' L ~ ~ N W E I ~~n:ui~m~.jds:1und~dau~&nou~furl'3~01iu~n'n13uin~d b~l[a$#a ; R ~ C ~ L P U~ ~ . j r d ~ u u r ~ ~ ~ d s :2 ~ds:lu~ u~)~3ild~~
a. b,

Larry sat.
In the third quarter, while his team fought to keep the ball, Larry sat on the bench with his hands clenched, hoping for a nod from Coach Riggs.

(Brown : 1984, 260)


&Larrysat" d3:1~~us$.jR~dd'i:1U~~n'nbg~13n'~

~ra3ids:lun - a LSU uti5Ini1~-1iwdt r9u

t~s:~u~C(~u~ ilsmouniumndsraiu sni rm:ninuam.j 1uuor:dds:lun


b l&~ulud-~uuuiudi.j i

kd
iiaZuia
~ilflji

$ a ~ aM i
a."In the third b. "while his team fought to keep the ball"
*

dszinn
YWUM~~

- when did this happen? ..


was happening?

Adverb clause

~ilfljl - what

#a ~117 N
C. "on the bench" d. "with his hands clenched"

dsartln

Aia4Bu7~

MUM^
qwuna8

uandi where did he sit? unnd; - what did he do ~::$ouoisud~nu$n

&

e. "hoping for a nod from" Coach Riggs

participle modifier

u~ndi - what did he want?

flilfiniw "Lany sat" b r ~ ~ u~ ~ u ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ d i ~ d s : : ~ u ~ d ~ d s : : ~ n ~ n i w u i n

EVERY MODIFIER CHANGES THE PICTURE.


0

Here is a suit. Here is an old suit. Here is an old suit of armor. Here is an old suit of armor that has been crated for shipping.

(Blumenthal :1966, 377) EN 205

1. nwudm~

m8maanui r t8~dszh.1~1 (Expressing ideas in sentences)


t

r m u a n u i i naiduudsdu?rtriazd5z~sa 1 I l i r ~ m ~ r n ~ R m a ~ l d d 8 h s ~lrl~~wd~Iuudsz~sa~~nu~sdsi~~n'n 1~5z1s~dr1sun75 ~auin~mr~~iuu rJ v d o z ~ q r t i u u I ~ ~ n I -uazcie~basmunu~uI~iau aui LUDU~IUOLS~J (topic) 69: d d duurda fi~qsRm&nu~:r8smsiir7 . *duqn'u topic uu rwo~rkiiinmu3mi2~:: rtisua:l:r~l$Ciq 3 u'orru:~i~unis~Iuu~~z?~uadd~a~iuruiuIm~um~u
4 U
V 4 d W

$ur~u~szmuaaudsz~sa 6 d u
a. b. c. Bees Fears about Bee stings

I .2 r ~ u u m ~ r r ~ n ~ r w ' a a ~ u i u r " r a 1 ~ ~ r iu a rt~m~n2iuRm nt:~~um


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a. b. c.

Bees depend on their stingers for self-defense. Fears about bees center on their aggressive behavior. Bee stings cause sudden pain and swelling.

~~a:rrivl6%r~u~du
Killer bees may invade North America in the next decade.

Exercise 3

Complete each of the following sentences with two different subjects. Write out two complete sentences.
Examples Watching the circus can be an unforgettable experience. Interviewing the Prime Minister can be an unforgettable

experience.

1
2.

----

are among our useful vehicles.


can be prevented. raced down the hill. may be affordable by all. can be dhgerous. is usually held at this time of the year. may be an interesting hobby.

---- - ----

3.
4.

5.
6-

-----------

7.
8.
9.

needs lots of practise and endurance. may not be difficult. is the cause of air pollution.

10-

----

Exercise 4

Complete each of the following sentences with two different predicates. Write out two complete sentences.
Examples
=

- -Food supplement can be healthful.

Food supplement may -be dangerous if not wed properly.

1. 2.

Flood --Typhoon ---English Club Summer vacation Music Planting flowers Thai history --poetry

3.

4.
5.

6.

7.
8.

----.

9.
10.

Teen-age fads Part-time job


,

Exercise 5

Rewrite each of the following sentences, substituting s.&cific nouns or


.+

verbs for the words in bold type.


Examples
J

People went into the place. Firefighters rushed into the factory.
1.

An animal cried in the area near the place.

2.

An insect bit the person.

--

3.
4.

A building is on the street.

This item comes fromanother'country. , My relative makes articles d clothing. Mrs. Robinson walked past the people. Most of them went out of the town hall. Those people did the performance pb&ly. Emily had a new one. ~ e & things stir up the student body.

5.

6.
7.

8.
9.

1 0.

2.

ni3durhuaaiads::T~fi (Expanding 'sentences with modifiers)


MI~X~J~~IC~~:I~R~~GUU ~LR:~)UR:LEUAU~~&J ~~~~UIB %I35
d
Y

tduhuamad~ 7 &o7~r~ud~uau~ulun1~d5:~7~ ~~~d3~~7u~umRttd614n~(il d v uon~~n~d~uaarntnciiu"u 3s ~~ wiooyd~:lu~n'h ~~~u~dd~ d~urruiu ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ B : ~ ~ ~ J ~ ~ I C ~ ~ ~ rtn:Id U~~IU~~: A' 4' ~m o7 8I: ~ h~ ur ~~~u~u~u~QwI:~Q ~u :Q ~~u un ~ u d ~ n ~ ~ r ~ d 1 ~
Which? What kind? How many? How?
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When? Where? Why?


I
l
I
,

To what degree or extent?

The house burned.

a. The frame house burned, (What kind?) b. ~ h frame c house on State Street burned. (Which one?)
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c. During the night, the frame house bumed (When?) d. The frame ho'use bumed to the ground (To what extent?) e. Because the flames spread quickly, the house bumed to the ground, (Why?) (Brown :1984, 266)
I

3~fqrnfi wndqr~uRniod7~$7ut;ru~t:~i3ult;rj7 n7~dud?uuux1turid o:d7\@.hu ~linunt.r~unduiu ~d~~~~~m~u~u~rSn7'~ldm~~P trn7:w dd~uuu~u~~ vKIM'~fimfimuauru~~nud~rd7~~~37uau7ua'm~~uiu

Exercise 6
Expand each of the following sentences by adding a modifier that answers
the question in parentheses. The modifiers may' be single words, phrases, or clauses.

Examples

M a r y has to stay home tonight. (why?)


because her mother is sick.

1.
2.

John could find a less expensive place to stay. (When?) Thailand is called "the land of smiles". ,(Why?) The days seem to be longer. (When?) Billy was engaged to a girl. (Which one?) Unemployment may remain at present levels. ' (For how long?) ,, . That is not clear. (What?) Flash flood caused a great tro Stars appear to twinkle, wh The boy should consult his family. (When?) The economic situation seemed to be critical. (To what extent?)

3.
4.

5.

6. 7.
8.

9.

10.

Exercise 7 ,

Expand each of the following sentences by adding at least two modifiers. The modifiers maybe single words, phrases, or clauses.

Examples
The lion pawed. The disturbed lion paws at its cage.

1.

The boy started to cry. The man found his purse.

2.

Safari World is a place.


The woman has to stay home. There was a storm. That book is interesting. The concert was great. The professor gave a lecture. The road is narrow. The student wants to make a friend.