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Baculovirus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Baculovirus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The baculoviruses are a family of large rod-shaped viruses that can be divided to two genera: nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV) and granuloviruses (GV). While GVs contain only one nucleocapsid per envelope, NPVs contain either single (SNPV) or multiple (MNPV) nucleocapsids per envelope. The enveloped virions are further occluded in granulin matrix in GVs and polyhedrin for NPVs. Moreover, GV have only single virion per granulin occlusion body while polyhedra can contain multiple embedded virions. [1]

Baculoviruses have very species-specific tropisms among the invertebrates with over 600 host species having been described. Immature (larval) forms of moth species are the most common hosts, but these viruses have also been found infecting sawflies, mosquitoes, and shrimp. Although baculoviruses are capable of entering mammalian cells in culture [2] they are not known to be capable of replication in mammalian or other vertebrate animal cells. Baculoviruses contain circular double-stranded genome ranging from 80–180 kbp.

Contents Historical influence 1 Baculovirus life cycle 2 Structure of the virion 3 Major envelope
Contents
Historical influence
1
Baculovirus life cycle
2
Structure of the virion
3
Major envelope glycoprotein gp64
4
Applications
5
Biosafety
6
Taxonomy
7
Evolution
8
See also
9
References
10
Further reading
11
External links
12

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baculovirus

Baculovirus

Baculovirus Virus classification Group: Family: Baculoviridae Group I (dsDNA) Genera Alphabaculovirus Betabaculovirus

Virus classification

Group:

Family: Baculoviridae

Group I (dsDNA)

Genera

Alphabaculovirus

Betabaculovirus

Deltabaculovirus

Gammabaculovirus

Historical influence

The earliest records of baculoviruses (http://www.baculovirus.com) can be found in the literature from as early as the sixteenth century in reports of “wilting disease” infecting silk-producing larva. Starting in the 1940s they were used and studied widely as biopesticides in crop fields. Since the 1990s they have been utilized for producing complex eukaryotic proteins in insect cell cultures (see Sf21, High Five cells). These recombinant proteins have been used in research and as vaccines in both human and veterinary medical treatments (for example, the most widely used vaccine for prevention of H5N1 avian influenza in chickens was produced in a

Baculovirus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baculovirus

baculovirus expression vector). More recently it has been found that baculoviruses can transduce mammalian cells with a suitable promoter. [3] These medical and potential medical uses have accelerated the number of publications on baculoviruses since 1995.

Baculovirus life cycle

The baculovirus life cycle involves two distinct forms of virus. Occlusion derived virus (ODV) is present in a protein matrix (polyhedrin or granulin) and is responsible for the primary infection of the host while the budded virus (BV) is released from the infected host cells later during the secondary infection.

Typically, the initial infection occurs when a susceptible host insect feeds on plants that are contaminated with the occluded form of the virus. The protein matrix dissolves in the alkaline environment of the host midgut (stomach), releasing ODV that then fuse to the columnar epithelial cell membrane of the host intestine and are taken into the cell in endosomes. Nucleocapsids escape from the endosomes and are transported to nucleus. This step is possibly mediated by actin filaments. Viral transcription and replication occur in the cell nucleus and new BV particles are budded out from the basolateral side to spread the infection systemically. During budding, BV acquires a loosely fitting host cell membrane with expressed and displayed viral glycoproteins.

Diagram of a NPV life cycle

Diagram of a NPV life cycle

Baculovirus infection can be divided to three distinct phases, early (0–6 h post-infection), late (6–24 h p.i.) and very late

phase (18–24 to 72 h p.i.). While BV is produced in the late phase, the ODV form is produced in the very late phase acquiring the envelope from host cell nucleus and embedded in the matrix of occlusion body protein. These occlusion bodies are released when cells lyse to further spread baculovirus infection to next host. The extensive lysis of cells frequently causes the host insect to literally melt, thus the reason for the historic name "wilting disease." To adapt survival in the wild, ODV-polyhedrin particles are resistant to heat and light inactivation, whereas BV is more sensitive to environment.

Structure of the virion

The most studied baculovirus is Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The virus was originally isolated from the alfalfa looper (a lepidopteran) and contains a 134-kbp genome with 154 open reading frames (ORF). The major capsid protein VP39 together with some minor proteins forms the nucleocapsid (21 nm x 260 nm) that encloses the DNA with p6.9 protein.

BV acquires its envelope from the cell membrane and requires a glycoprotein, gp64, to be able to spread systemic infection. This protein forms structures called peplomers on one end of the budded virus particle but is not found on ODV (although several other proteins are only associated with the ODV form). Some differences also exist in the lipid composition of the viral envelope of the two forms. While BV envelope consists of phosphatidylserine, ODV contains phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.

Baculovirus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Major envelope glycoprotein gp64

During the viral evolution, the baculoviral envelope glycoproteins have undergone changes. Ld130, also known as baculovirus F-protein from Lymantria dispar (LdMNPV) is suggested to be an ancestral envelope fusion protein which has been replaced by non-orthologous gene replacement with gp64 in AcMNPV, Bombyx mori (BmNPV) and Orgyia pseudotsugata (OpMNPV) while they still retain the ld130 gene.

Gp64 is a homotrimeric membrane glycoprotein which is polarly present on the rod-shaped virion. It consists of 512 amino acids (aa) with four glycosylation sites at asparagine residues and has N-terminal signal sequence (20 aa), oligomerization and fusion domains and hydrophobic transmembrane domain near the C-terminus (7 aa).

hydrophobic transmembrane domain near the C-terminus (7 aa). It is produced in both early and late

It is produced in both early and late phases of the infection cycle with a maximal rate of synthesis occurring in

24–26 h p.i

cell surface, since only 33% of synthesized protein reaches cell surface as monomeric gp64 is degraded within

the cells.

Trimerization with intermolecular cysteine-bonds seems to be a crucial step for protein transport to

Gp64 is essential for efficient budding of the virion and for the cell-to-cell transmission during the infection cycle as well as binding to cell surface i.e. causing viral trophism and endosome mediated uptake to the cell. The major function of the gp64 is causing the pH-mediated envelope fusion to the endosome. Although gp64 has variety of essential functions, it has been reported that gp64-null baculoviruses can be substituted with other viral glycoproteins such as Ld130, G-protein of Vesicular stomatitis virus resulting functional virus.

Applications

Baculovirus expression in insect cells represents a robust method for producing recombinant glycoproteins. [4][5] Baculovirus-produced proteins are currently under study as therapeutic cancer vaccines with several immunologic advantages over proteins derived from mammalian sources. [6]

Biosafety

Baculoviruses are incapable of infecting mammals and plants. [7] They have a restricted range of hosts that they can infect that is typically restricted to a limited number of closely related insect species. Because baculoviruses are not harmful to humans they are considered a safe option for use in research applications.

Taxonomy

This family has been divided into four genera: Alphabaculovirus (lepidopteran-specific

Baculovirus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baculovirus

nucleopolyhedroviruses), Betabaculovirus (lepidopteran-specific Granuloviruses), Gammabaculovirus (hymenopteran-specific nucleopolyhedroviruses) and Deltabaculovirus (dipteran-specific nucleopolyhedroviruses). [8]

Evolution

Baculoviruses evolved from with the Nudiviruses 310 million years ago. [9]

See also

Cypovirusthe Nudiviruses 310 million years ago. [ 9 ] See also BacMam References 1. Rohrmann, George

BacMam310 million years ago. [ 9 ] See also Cypovirus References 1. Rohrmann, George F (2011).

References

1.

Rohrmann, George F (2011). Baculovirus Molecular Biology (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK49500/) (2nd ed.). Bethesda: National Center for Biotechnology Information.

^

2.

Hofmann, C. (1995). "Efficient Gene Transfer into Human Hepatocytes by Baculovirus Ve ctors". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 92 (22): 10099. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.22.10099 (http://dx.doi.org

^

/10.1073%2Fpnas.92.22.10099).

3.

^

Lackner, A; Genta, K; Koppensteiner, H; Herbacek, I; Holzmann, K; Spieglkreinecker, S; Berger, W; Grusch, M

(2008). "A bicistronic baculovirus vector for transient and stable protein expression in mammalian cells". Analytical

Biochemistry 380 (1): 146–8. doi:10.1016/j.ab.2008.05.020 (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.ab.2008.05.020). PMID 18541133 (//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18541133).

4.

Altmann, Friedrich; Staudacher, E; Wilson, IB; März, L (1999). "Insect cells as hosts for the expression of recombinant glycoproteins". Glycoconjugate Journal 16 (2): 109–23. doi:10.1023/A:1026488408951

^

(http://dx.doi.org/10.1023%2FA%3A1026488408951). PMID 10612411 (//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed

/10612411).

5.

Kost, T; Condreay, JP (1999). "Recombinant baculoviruses as expression vectors for insect and mammalian cells". Current Opinion in Biotechnology 10 (5): 428–33. doi:10.1016/S0958-1669(99)00005-1 (http://dx.doi.org /10.1016%2FS0958-1669%2899%2900005-1). PMID 10508635 (//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10508635).

^

6.

^

Betting, David J.; Mu, Xi Y.; Kafi, Kamran; McDonnel, Desmond; Rosas, Francisco; Gold, Daniel P.; Timmerman,

John M. (2009). "Enhanced immune stimulation by a therapeutic lymphoma tumor antigen vaccine produced in insect cells involves mannose receptor targeting to antigen presenting cells" (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles /PMC2683685). Vaccine 27 (2): 250–9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.10.055 (http://dx.doi.org

/10.1016%2Fj.vaccine.2008.10.055). PMC 2683685 (//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2683685). PMID 19000731 (//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19000731).

7.

Ignoffo CM. (1975) Baculoviruses for Insect Pest Control: Safety Considerations, Summers M, Engler R, Falcon LA, Vail PV (eds.) American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, p52

^

8.

^

Jehle JA, Blissard GW, Bonning BC, Cory JS, Herniou EA, Rohrmann GF, Theilmann DA, Thiem SM, Vlak JM

(2006) On the classification and nomenclature of baculoviruses: a proposal for revision. Arch Virol

151(7):1257-1266

9.

Theze, J.; Bezier, A.; Periquet, G.; Drezen, J.-M.; Herniou, E. A. (2011). "Paleozoic origin of insect large dsDNA viruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (38): 15931. doi:10.1073/pnas.1105580108

^

(http://dx.doi.org/10.1073%2Fpnas.1105580108).

Further reading

Federici, Brian A.; Granados, Robert R. (1986). The Biology of baculoviruses . Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-5988-0. The Biology of baculoviruses. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-5988-0.

Baculovirus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baculovirus

Miller, Lois (1997). The baculoviruses . New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-45641-9. The baculoviruses. New York: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-45641-9.

External links

Viralzone: Baculoviridae (http://www.expasy.org/viralzone/all_by_species/13.html) : Baculoviridae (http://www.expasy.org/viralzone/all_by_species/13.html)

Index of Viruses - Baculoviridae (2006). In: ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen- Osmond, C (Ed), Columbia University, New York, USA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb /Ictv/fs_index.htm(http://www.expasy.org/viralzone/all_by_species/13.html) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK49500/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK49500/

http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/dspace/handle/1957/9989

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