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Signal Processing for Disturbance

Identification in Power Systems


EM Day, National Physical Laboratory, Middlesex, 29th November, 2007

Dr Ghanim Putrus BSc, MSc, PhD, CEng, MIET


Reader in Electrical Power Engineering
Director of Training Programmes for Industry
School of Computing, Engineering and Information Sciences
Northumbria University
Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
E-mail: ghanim.putrus@unn.ac.uk

Acknowledgment: Dr Janaka Wijayakulasooriya


Dr Peter Minns
Dr Chong Ng
Mr Edward Bentley
Reyrolle Protection (Siemens) 1
NaREC
Signal Processing for Disturbance
Identification in Power Systems

Presentation Outline
• Power Quality (PQ)
– Definition and introduction
• Disturbances Classification
• PQ Monitoring Techniques
• Signal Processing for Disturbance Identification
• Intelligent PQ Monitoring System (IPQMS)
• Summary

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What is a Power Quality Disturbance?
• Deviation (steady-state or transient) of voltage or
current waveforms from a pure sinusoidal form of a
specified magnitude.

So what?
– Signal distortion is normally associated with
relatively high frequency components, which flow
in the system, at relatively great distance from
their point of origin.
– This “non-ideal condition” create problems for the
power system, depending on the components that
cause the distortion, their magnitude, frequency
and duration.
3
Power Quality Disturbances

• Why now?
– Modern electrical equipment are sensitive to PQ
disturbances e.g. microprocessor-based
controllers, power electronic devices such as
SMPS, variable speed drives, etc.
– Modern equipment (same equipment!) largely
employ switching devices and hence have
become the major source of degradation of PQ.

4
Power Quality Events
• Steady-State Events
– These are long term abnormalities in the voltage/current
waveform.
– Information are best presented as a trend of disturbance
level over a period of time (relatively long), and then
analysed.

A
t, 0
n
e
r
r
u
C
-1

-2

-3
0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Tim e , s

Harmonics: Periodic waveforms having Voltage Flicker


integer multiple of the fundamental
(Voltage Modulation)
frequency
Interharmonics: Periodic waveforms
which are not integer multiple of the
fundamental frequency. 5
Power Quality Events
• Transition Events
– These are sudden abnormalities of relatively short duration,
occurring in the voltage/current waveform.
– They are normally detected when the instantaneous value of
the voltage/current exceeds a certain threshold.
– These events occur between two steady-state events or
superimposed on a steady-state event.
2

1 .5

0 .5

-0 .5

-1
0 0 .0 5 0 .1 0 .1 5 0 .2

Oscillatory transient Impulsive Transient


Change its polarity rapidly Unidirectional polarity
Frequency 20Hz to 200 kHz < 50ns to >1ms 6
Typical Typical Voltage
Disturbance Type Duration Magnitude
Nanosecond < 50 ns
Impulsive Micro second 50 ns~1 ms
Millisecond > 1 ms
Transients Low freq. 0.3~50 ms 0 ~ 4 pu
Medium freq. 20 μs 0 ~ 8 pu
Oscillatory
High freq. 5 μs 0 ~ 4 pu

Instantaneous 0.5~30 cycle 0.1~ 0.9 pu


Sag Momentary 30 cycl.~3 s 0.1~ 0.9 pu
Short 0.1~ 0.9 pu
Temporary 3s ~1 min
Power Duration
Variation
Instantaneous
Momentary
0.5~30 cycl.
30 cycl.~3 s
1.1~1.8 pu
1.1~1.4 pu
Swell 1.1~ 1.2 pu
Temporary 3 s ~ 1 min.
Quality Interruption
Momentary
Temporary
0.5 cycl.~3 s
3 s ~ 1 min.
< 0.1 pu
< 0.1 pu

Disturbances Long
Duration
Sustained Interruption
Under Voltages
> 1 min.
> 1 min.
0.0 pu
0.8~ 0.9 pu
Variation Over Voltages > 1 min 1.1~ 1.2 pu

Voltage Magnitude Imbalance Steady state


Phase Imbalance Steady state
Imbalance
Steady state 0 ~ 0.1%
DC Offset
Steady state 0 ~ 20%
Waveform Harmonics
Steady state 0 ~ 2%
Distortions Interharmonics
Notching Steady state
Steady state 0 ~ 1%
Based on IEEE Noise
Intermittent 0.1 ~ 7%
Standards 1159 Voltage Flicker
< 10 s .95~1.05 pu 7
Power Frequency Variations
PQ Monitoring Equipment

Handheld Portable

Fixed PQ monitor/analyser Networked multipoint PQ monitors


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PQ Monitoring Techniques
• Time Domain
- Using filters or DSP techniques
- Straightforward design, but inflexible, complex and response can be
slow.
-Does not provide much insight into the signal (e.g. frequency
information of the signal is not directly observable)

• Time and/or Frequency Domain


- Frequency analysis (e.g. FFT)
- Time/frequency analysis (e.g. Wavelet transform)
- Good extraction capability for PQ analysis, flexible, but require large
DSP computational power. FFT response is limited to one cycle of the
signal.

• Artificial Intelligence
- Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
- Good extraction capability, flexible, fast response, can adapt to
changes in the system. Need appropriate training.
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An Ideal PQ Monitoring System would be
able to:
Capture and Extract disturbance waveform

Categorize disturbance (steady-state or transient)

Extract disturbance features and Identify components

Classify the disturbance (according to IEEE standards 1159)

Do a Trend analysis

Do Contribution analysis and Locate the source

PQ Report and Advice 10


Block Diagram of the “Intelligent PQ Monitoring System”
Sampled Voltage and/or Current Waveforms

Disturbance Extraction

Extracted Waveforms

Event Categorization

Captured Transition Events Captured Steady- State Events

Feature
Transition Feature Extractor Steady-State Feature Extractor
Extraction
Transition Disturbance Feature Vector Steady-State Disturbance Feature Vector

Event
Transition Event Classification Steady-State Event Classification
Classification
Transition Disturbance Types Steady-State Disturbance Types

Oscillatory Impulsive Momentary Over Supply Harmonic


Transient Transient Supply Voltage Interruption Distortion
Interruption
Voltage Under
Voltage Voltage
Sag
Swell

Power Quality Storage Display


Reports 11
Disturbance Extraction
Identify the presence of a disturbance and extracting
its components
4

e(t)
1

-1

Re(C ) ⋅ Vr (t ) + Im(C ) ⋅ Vr (t − )
50

40
T -2

-3

-4

4
30

e(t ) = v(t ) −
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 3 50 400

20

C
10

Extracted Disturbance
0

-10

-20

-30
0 50 1 00 150 200 250 300 350 400
r= C
where,
Voltage Waveform 1. 01

⎡ T ⎤
T
C = ∫ ⎢v(t ) ⋅ Vr (t ) + j ⋅ v(t ) ⋅ Vr (t − )⎥ ⋅ dt
1

0. 99

0⎣
4 ⎦ 0. 98

r
0. 97

0. 96

0. 95
1 1. 2 1 .4 1 .6 1 .8 2 2 .2 2 .4 2 .6 2.8 3

RMS Variation
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Example
V o lta g e W a ve fo rm
2

Volta ge (pu)
0

-2
0 0.1 0.2 0 . 3E x tra c te
0 . d4 N o is e 0 . 5 0.6 0.7 0.8
2
Volta ge (pu)

-2
0 0.1 0.2 0 . 3 R M S 0V. o4 lta g e 0 . 5 0.6 0.7 0.8
2
rm s (pu)

1.5

0.5
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8

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Event Categorization

Steady Transition
State State

Captured
Event

Captured
Event Captured
Event

Intermediate
Intermediate Steady State
Transition State

State Model 14
Example

5 2

Vs (p.u.)
Vs (p.u.)

0 0

-5 -2
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
(a) Sampled voltage w aveform (a) Sampled voltage waveform
5 0.2

Ve (p.u.)
Ve (p.u.)

0 0

-5 -0.2
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

(b) Extracted disturbance w aveform (b) Extracted disturbance w aveform


4 4

STATE
STATE

3 3

2 2

1 1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45

(c) State transition (c) State transition


2
Vc (p.u.)

Vc (p.u.)
0.1
0 0

-2 -0.1

0.1 0.102 0.104 0.106 0.108 0.11 0.112 0.114 0.116 0.118 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.21 0.22 0.23
(d) Captured PQ event w aveform time(s) (d) Captured PQ event waveform time(s)

Identification of a voltage disturbance Identification of a voltage sag event


during a capacitor switching generated by a remote fault on the
power network
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Feature Extraction

Captured Captured
Transient Steady-state
Event Event
Waveforms Waveforms

Feature Transient Feature Steady State Feature


Extraction Extractor Extractor
( Using DWT ) ( Using FFT )

Transient Disturbance Feature Vector Steady State Disturbance Feature Vector


( 63 elements ) ( 2 elements )

16
Example: Oscillatory Transient

17
Example: Steady-state Feature Space

0 .4

0 .3 5

0 .3
Harmonic Distortion
0 .2 5

0 .2

0 .1 5

0 .1
No disturbance
Under Voltage
0 .0 5 Over Voltage

0
0 .6 0 .7 0 .8 0 .9 1 1 .1 1 .2 1 .3 1 .4

18
Time Domain Harmonic Extraction

0.8
| H( jω ) |

n=2
0.6
n=4
0.4

0.2
n=8 n=6
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Hz

19
Frequency Domain Harmonics Extraction

Fourier Transform: t +T0


1
F ( nω 0 ) =
T0 ∫t
f (t ) ⋅ e − jnω t dt 0

250 10

200 8

Amplitude of the Step


Output of FT
(Magnitude of the 7th
150 order harmonic voltage) 6

Function
Magnitude

100 Step 4
Function

50 2

0 0
0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
t (sec)

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Fast Individual Harmonic Extraction
(FIHE)
mth order Harmonic Extraction
⎡⎡ 2mπ 2mπ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤⎤
T ⎢⎢ sin( m ω 0 t ) sin( mω 0 t − ) sin( mω 0 t + ) ⎥ ⎢ M n sin(nω0t ) ⎥ ⎥
t+ 0 3 3
4 6 ∞ ⎢⎢ 2mπ 2mπ ⎥ ⎢ 2nπ ⎥ ⎥
β m (t ) = ∑ ⎢⎢cos(mω0t ) cos(mω0t − 3 ) cos(mω0t + 3 )⎥⎥ ⋅ ⎢ M n sin(nω0t − 3 )⎥ ⎥⎥ dt
T0 ∫t n = 2 k −1 ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎥
n≠3 k ⎢ ⎢ 1 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ M sin(nω t + 2 nπ ⎥⎥
⎢ ⎢⎣ )
⎥⎦ ⎣⎢ 3 ⎦⎥ ⎥⎦
n 0
⎣ 2 2 2

α abc (t )

mth order harmonic reconstruction


3 −1
abc m (t ) = ⋅ α abc (t ) ⋅ β m (t )
2
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Fast Individual Harmonic Extraction
(FIHE)
ω
5
ω1+ω5
A

ω1
idc=ih5

ih1 ω7+ω5
ω7 B
ih7
ih5

ih7 ih1
C

1st
1st 11th

300Hz

300Hz

300Hz
100Hz

200Hz
250Hz

5th 5th 7th


7th 17th 13th
11th 23th
13th
Freq Freq

600

900
(Hz)

300
550

650

(Hz)
250

350
50

22
Evaluation of Response Time

Step function β’m (t) of the FIHE


10

8 200

Amplitude
Amplitude

6 150

4 100

2 50

0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
t (sec) t (sec)

Extracted harmonic component (abcm)


Distorted signal with step function added
400 200

Amplitude
200 100
Amplitude

0
0

-100
-200

-200
-400
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
t(sec) t (sec)

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Performance Analysis

With low order filter With higher order filter


By filter (2 nd order filter) By filter (6 th order filter)

200 200

By FIHE By FIHE
150 150

Amplitude
Amplitude

100 100
By FT By FT

50 50

0 0
0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 0.055 0.06 0.065 0.07 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 0.055 0.06 0.065 0.07
t (sec) t (sec)

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Non-Recursive Technique using ANN

X ⎛ k ωn ⎞
Y k (n )d = V k sin ⎜⎜ + φk ⎟⎟ Desired
⎝ fs ⎠

Y k ( n ) = f (X , W ) Actual

V k = Y k (n )2 + Y k+ (n )2

Y k+ ( n ) = f + (X ,W ) Actual

⎛ k ωn ⎞
Y k+ (n )d = V k cos ⎜⎜ + φk ⎟⎟ Desired
⎝ fs ⎠
X = [S ( n − M + 1) S ( n − M ) ... S ( n − 1) S ( n)]
T

Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm used for training the ANN
∂ε 2
W new = W old − α
(i ) (i )

∂W ( i )
2
(
where ε 2 = (Yk (n) d − Yk (n) ) + Yk (n) d − Yk (n)
+ +
)
2
25
Response to a step increase of 5th
harmonic component

2nd order filter

6th order filter

Kalman Filter

ANN

26
Performance Analysis

1.1

0.9

0.8

0.7
FIHE
ANN IHE
0.6
FFT
0.5
Butterworth Filter

0.4
0.48 0.49 0.5 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.58

Response to a step increase of 5th harmonic component

27
Maximum Error in FFT Caused by Normal
System Frequency Variations

40

35

30

ERROR IN
25 FUNDAMENTAL
% PEAK ERROR

FREQUENCY

20
ERROR IN 3RD
HARMONIC
15

ERROR IN 5TH
10
HARMONIC

5 ERROR IN 7TH
HARMONIC

0
47.5 48 48.5 49 49.5 50 50.5 51 51.5 52 52.5

-5
FUNDAMENTAL FREQUENCY hZ

28
Maximum Error in CWT Caused by Normal
System Frequency Variations
2.5

1.5
MAX ERROR %

FUNDAMENTAL
3RD HARMONIC
1
5TH HARMONIC
7TH HARMONIC

0.5

0
47.5 48 48.5 49 49.5 50 50.5 51 51.5 52 52.5

-0.5
FREQUENCY Hz

29
Maximum Error in ANN Technique Caused
by Normal System Frequency Variations

30
Correction for Error due to Normal
System Frequency Variations

• The error could be avoided if the sampling period is


adjusted digitally to make one wavelength of the
adjusted fundamental signal equal to 0.02 s.
Measurements with e.g. FFT will then give correct
results as far as the effects of frequency deviation are
concerned.

31
Event Classification
Transition Event Feature Vector Steady State Event Feature Vector
( 63 elements ) ( 2 elements )

Transient Event Steady State Event


Event Classifier Classifier
Classification ( SAANN-1 ) ( SAANN-2 )

Transient Event Classes Steady State Event Classes

Oscillatory Impulsive Momentary Over Supply


Transient Transient Supply Voltage Interruption Harmonic
Interruption Distortion

Under Normal
Voltage Voltage Voltage Condition
Sag Swell

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The ‘Intelligent’ PQ Monitoring System (IPQMS)

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Summary
• Use of DSP techniques in PQ monitoring and
analysis results in powerful, accurate and small size
equipment.
• DSP based equipment is capable of maintaining
accuracy in the “non-ideal environment” of power
systems.
• Including Artificial Intelligence in PQ equipment, will
help in:
– Classifying and locating the source of distortion and its
contribution
– Perform long term feature analysis of disturbance levels
– Provide methods to identify trends over a period of time
and suggest possible solutions!

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