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A dependent clause is a clause that does not express a complete thought.

A clause can be dependent because of the presence of a: 1. Marker Word (Before, after, because, since, in order to, although, though, whenever, wherever, whether, while, even though, even if) 2. Conjunction (And, or, nor, but, yet) What follows is a list of common subordinating conjunctions used in the English language:

after although as as if as long as as much as as soon as as though because before even even if even though if if only if when if then inasmuch

FUTURE TIME CLAUSES Read the example sentences WHEN When I finish writing the reports, I will go out with my friends. She will move to ?zmir when she finds a good job. When the party is over, well clean the house. BEFORE Before I go to Bodrum, Ill book a room. Murat will visit all his relatives before he joins the army. They wont transfer any players before they sign the advertising agreement. AFTER After her sister prepares dinner, theyll invite their neighbours. My father will buy a new car after he saves enough money. What will you do after you finish the French course? AS SOON AS They will go to the beach as soon as they have their breakfast. All the players in the national team will go on holiday as soon as the Europian Championship is over. Dont worry mom. I will phone you as soon as I arrive Paris.

UNTIL You can go out. I will wait until she calls. They wont start the match until the rain stops. I wont buy anything new until I pay all my debts. IF If I go home early tonight, I will watch the Olympic Games. Tar?k will buy a new TV set if the prices goes down. If you pass the test, what will you do? HAVE YOU NOTICED THE STRUCTURE when, after, before, as soon as, until, if are followed by SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE. Main clauses in these sentences are followed by future will.

Verbs in time clauses and conditionals follow the same patterns as in other clauses except:

In clauses with time words like when, after, until we often use the present tense forms to talk about the future: Ill come home when I finish work. You must wait here until your father comes. They are coming after they have had dinner.

in conditional clauses with if or unless we often use the present tense forms to talk about the future: We wont be able to go out if it is raining. If Barcelona win tomorrow they will be champions. I will come tomorrow unless I have to look after the children.

We do not normally use will in clauses with if or with time words: Ill come home when I will finish work. We wont be able to go out if it will rain. rains. It will be nice to see Peter when he will get home gets home. You must wait here until you father will come comes.

but we can use will if it means a promise or offer: I will be very happy if you will come to my party. We should finish the job early if George will help us.

"if" clauses and hypotheses


Some clauses with if are like hypotheses so we use past tense forms to talk about the present and future. We use the past tense forms to talk about the present in clauses with if :

for something that has not happened or is not happening:

He could get a new job if he really tried

He cannot get a job because he has not tried.

If Jack was playing they would probably win

Jack is not playing so they will probably not win.

If I had his address I could write to him

I do not have his address so I cannot write to him.

We use the past tense forms to talk about the future in clauses with if:

for something that we believe or know will not happen:

We would go by train if it wasnt so expensive

We wont go by train because it is too expensive.

I would look after the children for you at the weekend if Iwas at home

I cant look after the children because I will not be at home.

to make suggestions about what might happen: If he came tomorrow we could borrow his car. If we invited John, Mary would bring Angela. When we are talking about something which did not happen in the past we use the past perfect in the if clause and amodal verb in the main clause:

If you had seen him you could have spoken to him

You did not see him so you could not speak to him

You could have stayed with us if you had come to London

You couldnt stay with us because you didnt come to London.

If we hadnt spent all our money we could take a holiday.

We have spent all our money so we cant take a holiday

If I had got the job we would be living in Paris

I did not get the job so we are not living in Paris.

If the main clause is about the past we use a modal with have:

If you had seen him you could have spoken to him.

You did not see him so you could not speak to him.

You could have stayed with us if you had come to London.

You couldnt stay with us because you didnt come to London.

If you had invited me I might have come.

You didnt invite me so I didnt come.

If the main clause is about the present we use a present tense form or a modal without have:

If I had got the job we would be living in Paris now.

I did not get the job so we are not living in Paris now.

If you had done your homework you would know the answer.

You did not do your homework so you do not know the answer.