2
Objectives
1. Evaluatetheperformanceof gaspower cycles.
2. Developsimplifyingassumptions applicabletogaspower cycles.
3. Reviewtheoperationof reciprocatingengines.
4. Analyzebothclosedandopengas power cycles.
5. SolveproblemsbasedontheOttoandDiesel cycles.
6. Solveproblems based on the Brayton cycle; Brayton cyclewithregeneration;
andBraytoncyclewithintercooling, reheating, andregeneration.
7. Identify simplifying assumptions and perform secondlaw analysis on gas
power cycles.
3
Basic Considerations In Power Cycles Analysis
The analysis of many complex
processes can be reduced to a
manageable level by utilizing
someidealizations.
Most powerproducingdevices operateoncycles.
Ideal cycle: Acycle that resembles the actual cycle
closely but ismadeuptotallyof internallyreversible
processesiscalledanideal cycle.
Recall: Thermal efficiency of heat engines
Reversible cycles such as Carnot cycle have the
highest thermal efficiency of all heat engines operating
betweenthesametemperaturelevels.
Unlike ideal cycles, they are totally reversible, and
unsuitableasarealistic model.
4
1. Thecycledoes not involveany friction. Therefore,
theworkingfluiddoes not experienceany pressure
dropasit flowsinpipes or heat exchangers.
2. All expansion and compression processes take
placeinaquasiequilibriummanner.
3. Thepipes connectingthevarious components of a
system are well insulated, so heat transfer
throughthemisnegligible.
On both Pv and Ts diagrams, the area enclosed by the
process curve represents the net work of the cycle.
On a Ts diagram, the ratio of the area
enclosed by the cyclic curve to the area
under the heataddition process curve
represents the thermal efficiency of the
cycle.
Idealizations (simplifications) in the analysis of power cycles
5
Carnot Cycle  Its Value In Engineering
Pvand Tsdiagrams of a Carnot cycle.
Example: A steadyflow Carnot engine.
The Carnot cycle is composed of 4 totally reversible
processes: isothermal heat addition, isentropic expansion,
isothermal heat rejection, and isentropic compression.
For both ideal and actual cycles:Thermal
efficiency increases with an increase in the
average temperature at which heat is supplied
to the system or with a decrease in the
average temperature at which heat is rejected
from the system.
6
Airstandard Assumptions
The combustion process is replaced by a
heataddition process in ideal cycles.
1. The working fluid is air, which continuously
circulates in a closed loop and always
behaves as an ideal gas.
2. All the processes that make up the cycle
are internally reversible.
3. The combustionprocess is replaced by a
heatadditionprocess from an external
source.
4. The exhaustprocess is replaced by a
heatrejectionprocess that restores the
working fluid to its initial state.
Coldairstandard assumptions: When the working fluid is considered to be air
with constant specific heats at room temperature(25C).
Airstandard cycle:A cycle for which the airstandard assumptions are
applicable.
7
Overview of Reciprocating Engines
The reciprocating engine (basically a pistoncylinder device) is an invention that
has proved to be very versatile and has a wide range of applications.
Reciprocating engine is the
powerhouseof thevast majorityof
automobiles, trucks, light aircraft,
ships, electric power generators,
andmanyother devices.
8
Basic Components
Compressionratio:
The piston reciprocates in the cylinder between two fixed positions called the topdead
centre(TDC)  thepositionthat forms thesmallest volumeinthecylinder  andthebottom
deadcentre(BDC) positionthat forms thelargest volumeinthecylinder.
ThedistancebetweenTDCandBDCis calledthestrokeof
theengine. Thediameter of thepistoniscalledthebore.
9
Performance Characteristics
Classifications of IC Engines:
1. Sparkignition (SI) or Petrol engines
2. Compressionignition (CI) or Diesel
engines
Mean effective pressure (MEP):
Afictitious pressure that, if it is acted on the piston
during the entire power stroke, would produce the
sameamount of net work asthat producedduringthe
actual cycle.
Net work output per cycle:
10
Otto Cycle
Sequence of processes:
11
Thermal Efficiency of Otto Cycle
The heat supplied to the working fluid during
constantvolume heating (combustion),
The heat rejectedfrom the working fluid during
constantvolume cooling (exhaust),
Thermal efficiency,
Temperaturevolume relation,
Compression ratio,
12
General
Formulas required to solve problem based of Gas Power Cycle
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2


.

\

=


.

\

=
V
V
P
P
T
T
mRT PV =
For S=constant process
Ideal gas equation
For V=constant process
T Cv q
T mCv Q
A =
A =
For P=constant process
T Cp q
T mCp Q
A =
A =
13
Formulas required to solve problem based of OTTO Cycle
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2


.

\

=


.

\

=
V
V
P
P
T
T
mRT PV =
For S=constant
process
Ideal gas equation
For V=constant process
T Cv q
T mCv Q
A =
A =
14
Example
An Otto cycle having a compression ratio of 9:1 uses air as the working fluid. Initially
P
1
=95 kPa, T
1
=17
o
C, and V
1
=3.8 liters. During the heat addition process, 7.5 kJ
of heat are added. Determine all T's, P's, q
th
, the back work ratio, and the mean
effective pressure.
Process Diagrams:
Review the Pv and Ts diagrams given above for the Otto cycle.
Assume constant specific heats with C
v
=0.718 kJ /kg K, k =1.4.
Process 12 is isentropic; therefore, recalling that r =V
1
/V
2
=9,
15
Q mC T T
in v
= ( )
3 2
Let q
in
=Q
in
/ m and m =V
1
/v
1
v
RT
P
kJ
kg K
K
kPa
m kPa
kJ
m
kg
1
1
1
3
3
0287 290
95
0875
=
=
=
. ( )
.
q
Q
m
Q
v
V
kJ
m
kg
m
kJ
kg
in
in
in
= =
=
1
1
3
3 3
75
0875
38 10
1727
.
.
.
16
T T
q
C
K
kJ
kg
kJ
kg K
K
in
v
3 2
6984
1727
0718
31037
= +
= +
=
.
.
.
Using the combined gas law (V
3
=V
2
)
P P
T
T
MPa
3 2
3
2
915 = = .
Process 34 is isentropic; therefore,
1
1 1.4 1
3
4 3 3
4
1 1
(3103.7)
9
1288.8
k
k
V
T T T K
V r
K
 
   
= = =
  
\ . \ .
\ .
=
17
Process 41 is constant volume. So the first law for the closed system gives, on a
mass basis,
Q mC T T
q
Q
m
C T T
kJ
kg K
K
kJ
kg
out v
out
out
v
=
= =
=
=
( )
( )
. ( . )
.
4 1
4 1
0718 12888 290
7171
The first law applied to the cycle gives (Recall Au
cycle
=0)
w q q q
kJ
kg
kJ
kg
net net in out
= =
=
=
( . )
.
1727 7174
10096
18
The thermal efficiency is
th Otto
net
in
w
q
kJ
kg
kJ
kg
or
,
.
. .
= =
=
10096
1727
0585 585%
The mean effective pressure is
max min max min
1 2 1 2 1 1
3
3
(1 / ) (1 1/ )
1009.6
1298
1
0.875 (1 )
9
net net
net net net
W w
MEP
V V v v
w w w
v v v v v v r
kJ
m kPa kg
kPa
m kJ
kg
= =
= = =
= =
19
Problem
Otto Cycle
934
An ideal Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 8. At the beginning of the
compression process, air is at 95 kPa and 27C, and 750 kJ/kg of heat is
transferred to air during the constantvolume heataddition process. Assuming
that thespecificheatsareconstantwithtemperature, determine:
a) the pressure & temperature at the end of heat addition process,
b) the net work output,
c) the thermal efficiency, and
d) the mean effective pressure for the cycle.
Answers: (a) 3898 kPa, 1539 K, (b) 392.4 kJ/kg, (c) 52.3 percent, (d ) 495 kPa
20
Premature ignition of the fuel produces audible noise called engine knock. It hurts
performanceandcauses enginedamage.
Autoignition places upper limit on compression ratios that can be used in SI engines.
Specificheat ratio, kaffects thethermal efficiencyof theOttocycle.
Engine Knock (Autoignition)
21
Diesel Cycle: Ideal Cycle for CI Engines
The combustion process takes place over a
longer interval  fuel injection starts when
the piston approaches TDC and continues
duringthefirst part of power stroke.
Hence, combustion process in the ideal
Diesel cycleis approximatedas aconstant
pressureheatadditionprocess.
Indiesel engines, onlyairis compressedduringthecompressionstroke, eliminating
the possibility of autoignition. These engines can be designed to operate at higher
compressionratios, typically between12and24.
Fuelsthat arelessrefined(thusless expensive) canbeusedindiesel engines.
22
12Isentropiccompression
23Constantpressureheat addition
34Isentropicexpansion
41Constantvolumeheat rejection.
Sequence of processes:
Note:
Petrol and diesel engines differ only in the
manner the heat addition (or combustion)
process takes place.
It is approximated as a constant volume
process in the petrol engine cycle and as
a constant pressure process in the Diesel
engine cycle.
23
Cutoff ratio,
Thermal Efficiency of Diesel Cycle
Heat supplied to the working fluid during the
constantpressure heating (combustion),
Heat rejected from the working fluid during
the constantvolume cooling (exhaust),
Thermal efficiency of Diesel cycle (general),
24
Formulas required to solve problem based of DIESELCycle
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2


.

\

=


.

\

=
V
V
P
P
T
T
mRT PV =
For S=constant
Ideal gas equation
For V=constant
T mCv Q A =
For P=constant
T mC Q
p
A =
Cutoff ratio,
25
Problem
Diesel Cycle
951
An ideal diesel engine has a compression ratio of 20 and uses air as the working
fluid. The state of air at the beginning of the compression process is 95 kPa and
20C. If the maximum temperature in the cycle is not to exceed 2200 K,
determine:
a) the thermal efficiency, and
b) the mean effective pressure.
Assume constant specific heats for air at room temperature.
Answers: (a) 63.5 percent, (b) 933 kPa
26
For thesame compression ratio, thermal efficiency of Otto cycleis greaterthan that
of theDiesel cycle.
As the cutoff ratio decreases, the thermal
efficiency of the Diesel cycle increases.
When r
c
=1, the efficiencies of the Otto
and Diesel cycles are identical.
Thermal efficiencies of large diesel engines
range from about 35 to 40 percent.
Higher efficiency and lower fuel costs
make diesel engines attractive in
applications suchas inlocomotiveengines,
emergency power generation units, large
ships, andheavy trucks.
27
Problem
Diesel Cycle
959
A sixcylinder, fourstroke, 4.5L compressionignition engine operates on the
ideal Diesel cyclewithacompression ratio of 17. The air is at 95kPaand 55C
at the beginning of the compression process and the engine speed is 2000 rpm.
Theengineuses light diesel fuel withaheatingvalueof 42,500kJ/kg, anairfuel
ratio of 24, and a combustion efficiency of 98 percent. Using constantspecific
heatsat 850K, determine:
a) the maximumtemperature in the cycle and the cutoff ratio,
b) the net work output per cycle and the thermal efficiency,
c) the mean effective pressure,
d ) the net power output, and
e) the specific fuel consumption, in g/kWh, defined as the ratio of the
mass of the fuel consumed to the net work produced.
Answers: (a) 2383 K, 2.7 (b) 4.36 kJ, 0.543, (c) 969 kPa, (d ) 72.7 kW, (e) 159 g/kWh
28
Approximating the combustion process as
a constantvolume or a constantpressure
heataddition process is overly simplistic
andnot quiterealistic.
A better approach would be to model the
combustion process in both SI and CI
engines as a combination of two heat
transfer processes, oneat constant volume
andtheother at constant pressure.
The ideal cycle based on this concept is
calledthedual cycle.
Dual Cycle: Realistic Ideal Cycle for CI Engines
Note: Both the Otto and the Diesel cycles can be obtained
as special cases of the dual cycle.
29
BRAYTON CYCLE: THE IDEAL CYCLE FOR GASTURBINE
An opencycle gasturbine engine. A closedcycle gasturbine engine.
The combustion process is replaced by a constantpressure heataddition process
fromanexternal source, andtheexhaust processisreplacedbyaconstantpressure
heatrejectionprocesstotheambient air.
12Isentropiccompression(inacompressor)
23Constantpressureheat addition
34Isentropicexpansion(inaturbine)
41Constantpressureheat rejection
30
Ts and Pv diagrams for
the ideal Brayton cycle.
Pressure
ratio
Thermal
efficiency of the
ideal Brayton
cycle as a
function of the
pressure ratio.
31
The fraction of the turbine work
used to drive the compressor is
called the back work ratio.
The two major application areas of gas
turbine engines are aircraft propulsion
and electric power generation.
The highest temperature in the cycle is
limited by the maximumtemperature that
the turbine blades can withstand. This
also limits the pressure ratios that can be
used in the cycle.
The air in gas turbines supplies the
necessary oxidant for the combustion of
the fuel, and it serves as a coolant to
keep the temperature of various
components within safe limits. An airfuel
ratio of 50 or above is not uncommon.
32
Effect of the pressure ratio on the net work done.
w w w
C T T C T T
C T T T C T T T
C T
r
C T r
net turb comp
p p
p p
p
p
k k p p
k k
=
=
=
=
( ) ( )
( / ) ( / )
( ) ( )
( )/
( )/
3 4 2 1
3 4 3 1 2 1
3 1 1
1
1 1
1
1
1
Note that the net work is zero when
/( 1)
3
1
1
k k
p p
T
r and r
T
 
= =

\ .
33
For fixed T
3
and T
1
, the pressure ratio that makes the work a maximum is obtained
from:
dw
dr
net
p
= 0
This is easier to do if we let X = r
p
(k1)/k
w C T
X
C T X
net p p
=
3 1
1
1
1 ( ) ( )
dw
dX
C T X C T
net
p p
= =
3
2
1
0 1 1 0 0 [ ( ) ] [ ]
Solving for X
Then, the r
p
that makes the work a maximum for the constant property case and fixed
T
3
and T
1
is
34
Formulas required to solve problem based of BRAYTONCycle
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2


.

\

=


.

\

=
V
V
P
P
T
T
mRT PV =
For S=constant process
Ideal gas equation
For P=constant process
T Cp q
T mCp Q
A =
A =
Pressure
ratio
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