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POWER IN RC AND RL CIRCUITS In a purely resistive AC circuit, all of the energy delivered by the source is dissipated in the form

of heat by the resistance. In a purely capacitive/inductive circuit AC circuit, all of the energy delivered by the source is stored by the capacitor/inductor during a portion of the voltage cycle and then returned to the source during another portion of the cycle so that there is no net energy conversion to heat. When there is both resistance and capacitance (resistance and conductance), some of the energy is alternately stored and returned by the capacitance/inductance and some is dissipated by the resistance. The amount of energy converted to heat is determined by the relative values of the resistance and the capacitive/inductive reactances. Note: When the resistance is greater than the capacitive/inductive reactances, more of the total energy delivered by the source is dissipated by the resistance than is stored and returned by the inductor. When the reactance is greater than the resistance more of the total energy is stored and returned than is converted to heat. The power in resistor is called the TRUE POWER (PT) in watts. The power in capacitor/inductor is called the REACTIVE POWER (Pr) in VAR. The resultant of PT and Pr is the apparent power (Pa) in volt-ampere. IMPEDANCE PHASORS CAPACITIVE CIRCUIT INDUCTIVE CIRCUIT

POWER PHASOR

POWER TRIANGLE

February 26, 2011

SIGNIFICANCE OF POWER FACTOR (PF=cos) The power factor is important in determining how much useful power (true power) is transferred to a load. Power factor is the percentage of electricity that is delivered to your house and used effectively, compared to what is wasted. The highest power factor is 1, which means that all the electricity that is being delivered to your home is being used effectively for its purpose. Generally, a power factor as close to 1 as possible is desirable, because then most of the power transferred from the source to the load is useful or true power. True power goes only one way from source to load and performs work on the load in terms of energy utilization. Reactive power simply goes back and forth between the source and the load with no net work to be done. Energy must be used in order for work to be done. Note: With a low power factor, the utility has to deliver more electricity to do the same work.

EQUATIONS:

February 26, 2011

EXAMPLE 1

Given:

REQUIRED: PT & PF

Solution: For PF

For PT
PT = I2R PT = (4.49mA)2 1K PT = 20.16mW

February 26, 2011

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

To increase power factor, add capacitor:

February 26, 2011