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R/3 System Release 4.6A/B

R/3 System Release 4.6A/B SAP Labs, Inc. Palo Alto, California

SAP Labs, Inc. Palo Alto, California

2000 by SAP AG. All rights reserved.

Neither this documentation nor any part of it may be copied or reproduced in any form or by any means or translated into another language, without the prior consent of SAP AG.

SAP AG makes no warranties or representations with respect to the content hereof and specifically disclaims any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. SAP AG assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document. The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. SAP AG reserves the right to make any such changes without obligation to notify any person of such revision or changes. SAP AG makes no commitment to keep the information contained herein up to date.

SAP, the SAP logo, R/2, R/3, ABAP, and other SAP-related products mentioned herein are registered or unregistered trademarks of SAP AG. All other products mentioned in this document are registered or unregistered trademarks of their respective companies.

Simplification Group SAP Labs, Inc. 3475 Deer Creek Road Palo Alto, CA 94304

www.saplabs.com/simple

simplify-r3@sap.com

Printed in the United States of America. ISBN 1-893570-43-6

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System Administration Made Easy

iii
iii

Contents at a Glance

iv
iv

Release 4.6A/B

What Is This Guidebook About?

........................................................................

xxii

Who Should Read This Book?

...........................................................................

xxii

Prerequisites

..........................................................................................................

xxiii

User

xxiii

System

....................................................................................................................

xxiv

How to Use This Guidebook

xxv

Organization

xxv

What’s New

xxv

Content

xxv

Conventions

...........................................................................................................

xxvi

Special Icons

......................................................................................................

xxvii

Overview

...............................................................................................................

1–2

Roles of an R/3 System Administrator

..............................................................

1–2

Within R/3

..............................................................................................................

1–2

External to R/3

.......................................................................................................

1–3

Traits of an R/3 System Administrator

..............................................................

1–4

R/3 System Guidelines

........................................................................................

1–4

Protect the System

1–5

Do Not Be Afraid to Ask for Help

...........................................................................

1–5

Network with Other Customers and Consultants

..................................................

...........................................................................

1–6

Keep It Short and Simple (KISS)

1–7

Keep Proper Documentation

.................................................................................

.......................................................................................................

1–7

Use Checklists

Use the Appropriate Tool for the Job

1–8

1–9

Perform Preventive Maintenance

1–9

.......................................................................... Do Not Change What You Do Not Have To

........................................................ Do Not Make System Changes During Critical Periods ......................................

................................................................

...................................................

1–10

1–11

Do Not Allow Direct Database Access

Keep all Non-SAP Activity Off the R/3 Servers

1–12

1–12

Minimize Single Points of Failure

........................................................................

1–13

Corollaries to Murphy’s Law

............................................................................

1–13

Special Definitions

1–14

Database server

1 –14

Application server

1–14

Instance

1–14

System

..................................................................................................................

1–14

System Administration Made Easy

v
v

Detailed Table of Contents

Overview

...............................................................................................................

2–2

What Is a Disaster?

...............................................................................................

2–2

Why Plan for a Disaster?

....................................................................................

2–3

Planning for a Disaster

.......................................................................................

Creating a Plan

......................................................................................................

What Are the Business Requirements for Disaster Recovery?

............................

Who will provide the

requirements?..............................................................................

What are the requirements?

.........................................................................................

When Should a Disaster Recovery Procedure Begin?

.........................................

Expected Downtime or Recovery Time

.................................................................

Expected Downtime

................................................................................................

Recovery Time

........................................................................................................

Recovery Group and Staffing Roles

.....................................................................

Types of Disaster Recovery

..................................................................................

Onsite

.....................................................................................................................

2–4

2–4

2–4

2–4

2–4

2–5

2–5

2–5

2–6

2–6

2–7

2–7

Offsite

.....................................................................................................................

2–7

Disaster Scenarios

................................................................................................

2–8

Three Common Disaster Scenarios

......................................................................

2–8

A Corrupt Database

................................................................................................

A Hardware Failure

................................................................................................. A Complete Loss or Destruction of the Server Facility

...........................................

2 –8

2–8

2–9

 

Recovery Script

2–10

Creating a Recovery Script

2–10

 

Recovery Process

2–10

Major Steps

...........................................................................................................

2–10

 

Crash Kit

..............................................................................................................

2–11

Business Continuation During Recovery

2–14

Offsite Disaster Recovery Sites

2–15

 

2–15

 

When the R/3 System Returns

............................................................................

2–15

Test your Disaster Recovery Procedure

.........................................................

2–15

Other Considerations

........................................................................................

2–16

Other Upstream or Downstream Applications

.....................................................

2–16

Backup Sites

........................................................................................................

2–17

Minimizing the Chances for a Disaster

...........................................................

2–17

 

Minimize Human Error

.........................................................................................

2–17

 

Minimize Single Points of Failure

........................................................................

2–18

 

Cascade Failures

2–18

Overview

...............................................................................................................

3–2

Restore

3–2

Strategy

3–2

 

Testing Recovery

....................................................................................................

3–3

 

Backup

..................................................................................................................

3–3

What to Backup and When

3–3

Database

3–3

 

Transaction Logs

3–5

.................................................................................

3–6

 

Backup Types

........................................................................................................

3–6

 

What Is Backed Up

.................................................................................................

3–7

 

How the Backup Is Taken

.......................................................................................

3–8

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Detailed Table of Contents

When the Backup Is Made

3–9

Backup Strategy Design

........................................................................................

3–9

Supplementary Backups

.......................................................................................

3–10

General Procedures

3–10

Backup

..................................................................................................................

3–10

Transaction Log Backup

.......................................................................................

3–10

Verifying Backups

.................................................................................................

...........................................................................................

3–10

Monitoring/Controlling

3–11

Database Integrity

3–11

3–11

Design Recommendations

3–12

A Strategy Checklist

3–12

Backup Procedures and Policies

..........................................................................

3–13

Tape Management

.............................................................................................

3–13

Tracking and Documenting

3–13

Labeling

3–13

Tracking

................................................................................................................

3–15

Handling

................................................................................................................

3–16

Retention Requirements

......................................................................................

3–17

Recommendations

................................................................................................

3–18

Storage

3–18

Offsite

3–18

Onsite

3–19

Performance

.......................................................................................................

3–20

Backup

.................................................................................................................

3–20

Backup Options

3–21

Back Up to Faster Devices

...................................................................................

3–21

Parallel Backup

.....................................................................................................

......................................................................

3–22

Backing Up to Disks, Then to Tape

3–22

Recovery

3–23

Restore Options

...................................................................................................

3–23

Useful SAP Notes

..............................................................................................

3–24

Overview

...............................................................................................................

4–2

Critical Tasks

4–3

The R/3 System

....................................................................................................

4–4

Database

...............................................................................................................

................................................................................................

....................................................................................................

4–6

Operating System

4–6

Other

4–7

Notes .....................................................................................................................

4–7

The R/3 System

4–8

Critical Tasks

4–9

Verify that R/3 Is Running

4–9

Verify that the Backups Ran Successfully

4–9

Users (Transaction AL08)

4–10

..........................................................................

4–11

Select Background Jobs/Graphical Job Monitor (Transaction SM37/RZ01)

......

4–11

CCMS Alert Monitor (Transaction RZ20)

............................................................

4–11

Users (Transactions SM04)

4–11

....................................................................

4–12

System Administration Made Easy

vii vii
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Detailed Table of Contents

 

Update Records (Transaction SM13)

4–12

System Log (Transaction SM21)

.........................................................................

4–13

Batch Input (Transaction SM35)

4–13

Work Processes (Transactions SM50 and SM51)

..............................................

4–14

Spool (Transaction SP01)

4–14

 

4–14

 

.................................................................... Workload Analysis of <SID> (Transaction ST03)

4–14

 

.........................................

4–15

 

ABAP Dump Analysis (Transaction ST22)

..........................................................

4–15

 

The R/3 System

....................................................................................................

5–2

 

Database

...............................................................................................................

5–3

Operating System

................................................................................................

5–3

Other

5–3

Notes

.....................................................................................................................

5–4

Database Performance (Transaction DB02)

.........................................................

5–4

CCMS Alert Monitor (Transaction RZ20)

..............................................................

5–4

Spool (Transaction SP01)

5–4

 

5–5

 

................................................................................... Transaction STMS (TMS System)

5–5

 

The R/3 System

....................................................................................................

6–2

   

Database

...............................................................................................................

................................................................................................

6–2

Operating System

6–3

Other

6–4

Notes

.....................................................................................................................

6–5

Database Performance (Transaction DB02)

.........................................................

6–5

 

The R/3 System

....................................................................................................

7–2

   

Database

...............................................................................................................

................................................................................................

7–3

Operating System

7–3

Other

7–4

Notes

.....................................................................................................................

7–4

Edit System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10)

............................................

7–4

Select Background Jobs (Transaction SM37)

.......................................................

7–5

User Maintenance (Transaction SU01)

.................................................................

7–5

 

The R/3 System

....................................................................................................

8–2

 

Database

...............................................................................................................

8–3

Operating System

................................................................................................

8–3

Other

8–4

Notes

.....................................................................................................................

8–4

Transaction SA38/SE38

........................................................................................

8–4

Transaction SE03/SCC4

8–4

Transaction SM01

8–5

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Detailed Table of Contents

Starting the R/3 System

......................................................................................

9–2

Start R/3—NT

........................................................................................................

9–3

Stopping the R/3 System

....................................................................................

9–5

Tasks to Be Completed Before Stopping the System

...........................................

9–6

System Message (SM02)

9–6

Check that No Active Users Are on the System (AL08/SM04)

.............................. 9–9

Check for Batch Jobs Running or Scheduled (SM37)

..........................................

9–11

Check for Active Processes on All Systems (SM51)

............................................

9–15

Check for External Interfaces

9–15

Stopping R/3

........................................................................................................

9–16

STOP R/3—NT

.....................................................................................................

9–16

Overview

.............................................................................................................

10–2

Major System Monitoring Tools

.......................................................................

10–2

CCMS Central Alert Monitor (Transaction RZ20)

10–2

Accessing the CCMS Alert Monitor (RZ20)

..........................................................

Current View and Alert View

................................................................................. Switching Between the Current and Alert Views

..................................................

10 –4

10–5

10–6

Finding an Alert

....................................................................................................

10–7

Configuring the Batch Job to Collect Historical Data (RZ21)

.............................

10–10

View the Alerts

....................................................................................................

10–12

Analyze the Alert Acknowledge the Alert

................................................................................................

........................................................................................ Provide System Configuration Information (Transaction RZ20)

.........................

Maintaining The Alert Thresholds for RZ20

........................................................

Hiding SAP Standard Monitor Sets Create a New Monitor Set

....................................................................

.................................................................................. Add a Monitor to the Monitor Set

........................................................................

10–13

10–14

10–15

10–17

10–19

10–23

10–24

System Administration Assistant (Transaction SSAA)

......................................

10–28

Specific Transaction Monitoring Overview

..................................................

Failed Updates (Transaction SM13)

.................................................................

10–32

10–32

Managing Update Terminates

............................................................................

User Training

......................................................................................................

System Log (Transaction SM21)

.......................................................................

Locks (Transaction SM12)

................................................................................ Active Users (Transactions SM04 and AL08)

...................................................

Single-Instance System (Transaction SM04)

.....................................................

Multi-Instance System (Transaction AL08)

........................................................

Work Processes (Transactions SM50 and SM51)

............................................

For a System with Application Servers

...............................................................

For a System Without Application Servers

.........................................................

ABAP Dump Analysis (Transaction ST22)

........................................................

Simple Selection

.................................................................................................

Free Selection

.....................................................................................................

10–35

10–37

10–38

10–41

10–43

10–44

10–45

10–46

10–46

10–47

10–48

10–49

10–49

System Message (SM02)

.................................................................................

Creating a Message

..........................................................................................

Editing a Message

............................................................................................. ABAP Editor (SE38)

..........................................................................................

10–51

10–52

10–54

10–55

For Information About a Program or Report

.......................................................

10–56

System Administration Made Easy

ix ix
ix ix

Detailed Table of Contents

Overview

.............................................................................................................

11–2

What is Security?

................................................................................................

Keeping Unauthorized People out of the System

.................................................

Keeping People out of Places Where They Should Not Be

.................................

Safeguarding the Data from Damage or Loss Complying with Legal, Regulatory, and Other Requirements

......................................................

..............................

11–2

11–2

11–2

11–3

11–3

Audits

..................................................................................................................

11–4

Financial Audit

.....................................................................................................

11–4

Security Audit Audit Considerations

......................................................................................................

...........................................................................................

11–5

11–5

Security Layers

..................................................................................................

11–6

Access Security

...................................................................................................

Physical Security

..................................................................................................

11–7

11–7

Network Security

.................................................................................................. Application Security

..............................................................................................

11–8

11–9

Operational Security

............................................................................................

11–9

Data Security

..................................................................................................... Application or R/3 Security

................................................................................

11–10

11–11

Controlling Access to R/3

...................................................................................

Prevent Multiple User Logins

..............................................................................

Preventing Changes in the Production System

................................................

11–11

11–11

11–11

Setting the Production System to “Not Modifiable” (Transactions SE03, SCC4)11–13

x
x

Client-Independent Changes (Transaction SE03)

.............................................. Client-Independent and Client-Dependent Changes (SCC4)

............................

Verifying that Dangerous Transactions Are Locked

.........................................

To List Locked Transactions

...............................................................................

11–14

11–15

11–17

11–24

Operational Security

.......................................................................................

Segregation of Duties

........................................................................................

Restricting Access to SAP* or DDIC

.................................................................

Change Management

........................................................................................

Sharing of User IDs

............................................................................................

Password Issues and Tasks

.............................................................................

11–25

11–25

11–26

11–27

11–27

11–28

Setting Password Standards Using Transaction RZ10

......................................

Eliminating Some Easy Passwords

.................................................................... Maintaining a Table of Prohibited Passwords

....................................................

Recording System Passwords Operating System Level

............................................................................

.....................................................................................

NT UNIX ................................................................................................................... Databases

.......................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................

11–29

11–29

11–30

11–31

11–35

11–35

11–36

11–36

DB2

.....................................................................................................................

11–36

Informix Microsoft SQL Server

...............................................................................................................

.........................................................................................

Oracle/UNIX

........................................................................................................

11–36

11–36

11–36

Oracle/NT

...........................................................................................................

11–37

Audit Tools

.......................................................................................................

11 –37

Audit Information System (Transaction SECR)

................................................

Complete Audit

...................................................................................................

User Defined Audit

.............................................................................................

11–37

11–38

11–42

Security Audit Log (SM20)

................................................................................

Running the Audit Log

........................................................................................

Setting Security Audit Log Parameters (SM19)

................................................

11–44

11–46

11–47

Release 4.6A/B

Detailed Table of Contents

 

Define Filter Group 1

11–49

Define Filter Group 2

11–50

 

User Security Audit Jobs

...................................................................................

11–54

Audit Tasks

11–57

Review that all Named Users are Valid

11–57

Reviewing Profiles for Accuracy and Permission Creep

...................................

11–58

Overview

.............................................................................................................

12–2

User Groups

12–2

Profile Generator

12–2

Recommended Policies and Procedures

12–3

User Administration

.............................................................................................

12–3

 

System Administration

.........................................................................................

12–5

 

New User Setup

12–7

Prerequisites

........................................................................................................

12–7

General Process or Procedure

.............................................................................

12–7

 

The User’s Desktop

12–7

Network Functionality

12–7

 

12–7

 

............................................

12–7

 

Installing the Frontend Software–SAP GUI

.........................................................

12–8

Installing SAP GUI from a File Server

12–8

How to Install the SAP GUI

12–8

 

....................................................

12–14

 

Adding Additional Systems

12–15

To Add Additional Systems in the SAP Logon

12 –15

Setting Up a New User (SU01)

12–16

Copying an Existing User (SU01)

.......................................................................

12–16

Creating a New User (SU01)

..............................................................................

12–21

Maintaining a User (SU01)

..............................................................................

12–24

Resetting a Password (SU01)

12–26

 

.............................................................

12–27

 

User Groups

.....................................................................................................

12–29

How to Create a User Group (SU01)

................................................................

12–30

Deleting a User’s Session (Transaction SM04)

............................................

12–32

How to Terminate a User Session

12–33

Active Users (Transactions SM04 and AL08)

...................................................

12–34

Single-Instance System (Transaction SM04)

.....................................................

12–35

Multi-Instance System (Transaction AL08)

12–36

Overview

.............................................................................................................

13–2

Starting and Stopping the Database

...............................................................

Starting the Database

..........................................................................................

Stopping the Database

........................................................................................

13–2

13–2

13–3

Database Performance

.....................................................................................

13–4

Overview

..............................................................................................................

13–4

Database Activity (ST04)

..................................................................................... Database Allocation (DB02)

................................................................................

13–4

13–7

Scheduling Database Tasks (DB13)

................................................................

13–9

System Administration Made Easy

xi xi
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Detailed Table of Contents

 

Determining the Tape (Label) Necessary for a Backup

....................................

13–13

Deleting an Entry from the Planning Calendar (DB13)

.....................................

13–14

Checking the Database Backup (DB12)

........................................................

13–15

Initializing Backup Tapes

13–18

......................................................

13–19

Online Backup – Using SQLserver 7.0 Enterprise Manager

13–19

Offline Backup – Using NTBackup

....................................................................

13–24

Database Error Logs

.......................................................................................

13–28

R/3 – ST04

13–28

...............................................

13–28

Verify Database Consistency

.........................................................................

13–29

Run Update Statistics

13–29

System passwords

..........................................................................................

13–30

SQL server

13–30

Contents

.............................................................................................................

14–1

Printer Setup (SPAD)

14–2

How to Set Up the Printer in the R/3 System

14–2

Check the Spool for Printing Problems (Transaction SP01)

........................

14–9

Check that Old Spools are Deleted (SP01)

...................................................

14–12

Printing the Output (SP01)

14–15

Printing the Screen

14–18

 

14–21

 

................................................................. Check TemSe Consistency (SP12)

................................................................

14–23

Overview

.............................................................................................................

15–2

Operating System Tasks

15–2

Operating System Alert (AL16)

15–2

System Logs (OS06)

...........................................................................................

15–3

NT Event Logs

......................................................................................................

15–5

Checking File System Space Usage (RZ20)

15–6

Changing the Alert Threshold (RZ20)

......................................................................

15–9

Cleaning Out Old Transport Files

15–11

Other Tasks

......................................................................................................

15–12

Clean the Tape Drive

15–12

Uninterruptible Power Supply

............................................................................

15–13

Check the Uninterruptible Power Supply

............................................................

15 –13

Check your UPS Shutdown Process

..................................................................

15–13

Check Maintenance Contracts

..........................................................................

15–14

Review Hardware or a System Monitor Paging System

...................................

15–15

 

Overview

.............................................................................................................

16–2

Check that All Application Servers Are Up (Transaction SM51)

..................

16–2

Background (Batch) Jobs

16–3

Regularly Scheduled Jobs

16–4

Performance

16–4

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Release 4.6A/B

Detailed Table of Contents

Housekeeping Jobs

16–4

Others

...................................................................................................................

16–5

Performance Factors for Background Jobs

16–5

Creating and Scheduling a Batch Job (SM36)

....................................................

16–8

Background Jobs (SM37)

16–15

Checking the Job Log

.........................................................................................

16–17

Using the Job Tree

16–18

Graphical Job Monitor (Transaction RZ01)

.......................................................

16–19

Batch Input Jobs, New or Incorrect (SM35)

......................................................

16–20

Operation Modes

.............................................................................................

16–21

To Define the Operation Mode (RZ04)

16–23

Assign an Instance Definition to an Operation Mode (RZ04)

16–25

The First Time You Generate an Instance Operation Mode

16–25

Adding a New Operation Mode

16–26

Defining Distribution of Work Processes (RZ04)

16–29

Assigning Operation Modes (SM63)

16–32

Backups

............................................................................................................

16–36

Periodic Archivals

..............................................................................................

16–36

Backup the Database

........................................................................................

16–36

Performing a Full Server Backup

16–36

16–38

Database

16–38

Operating System Level Backups

16–40

UNIX ...................................................................................................................

16–40

NT

16–40

Checking Consumable Supplies

16–42

Table Maintenance (Transaction SM31)

..........................................................

17–2

Creating an Entry in the Table (SM31)

17–2

Deleting an Entry from a Table (SM31)

17–6

Change Control

..................................................................................................

17–9

Managing SAP Notes

17–9

 

.......................................................

17–12

Transporting Objects

......................................................................................

17–15

Transports into the Production System

.............................................................

17–15

Transporting Objects

.........................................................................................

17–15

TMS Method

17–16

Operating System Method

..................................................................................

17–16

Standard Transport Process

17–17

Importing the Entire Import Buffer

17–18

Special Transports from SAP

............................................................................

17–18

......................................................................

17–19

Releasing a Request (Transport) TMS Method of Transporting

17–24

The Main TMS Screen

........................................................................................

17–24

Adding a Special Transport into the Import Buffer

17–25

Using TMS to Import a Transport Request

.........................................................

17–27

Check the Transport Log

17–32

OS Method of Transporting

...............................................................................

17–34

Adding a Special Transport Into the Import Buffer

17–34

Importing the Transport

17–34

 

...............................................

17–35

System Administration Made Easy

xiiixiii
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Detailed Table of Contents

Checking the Transport Log

...............................................................................

17–36

Overview

.............................................................................................................

18–2

Basic Troubleshooting Techniques

18–2

Gather Data

18 –2

Analyze the Problem

18–3

......................................................................................

18–3

Make only One Change at a Time

........................................................................

18–3

Document the Changes

........................................................................................

18–3

Get the Complete Error Message

18–4

Get the SAP Patch Level

18–5

..................................................................................... Determining What Support Packages Have Been Applied

.................................

18–6

Overview

.............................................................................................................

19–2

Critical Assumption

..............................................................................................

19–2

Priority of Evaluation

19–3

General Procedure

19–3

R/3

19–4

Workload Analysis of the System (Transaction ST03)

19–4

Buffers (ST02)

19–8

..................................................................................

19–10

Database

...........................................................................................................

19–11

Operating System

............................................................................................

19–11

Operating System Monitor (OS07)

....................................................................

19–11

Hardware

19–15

CPU and Disk

....................................................................................................

19–15

Memory

..............................................................................................................

19–15

Overview

.............................................................................................................

20–2

Logging on to SAPNet

20–3

Online Services

20–4

Solving a Problem with SAPNet

20–5

Searching for SAP Notes

20–5

Customer Messages

20–8

.............................................................................

20–9

How

.....................................................................................................................

20–11

Viewing Customer Messages

............................................................................

20–13

Viewing Customer Messages

.............................................................................

20–14

Registering a Developer or Object

20–15

Registering a Developer

....................................................................................

20–15

Developer Requests Developer Key

20–16

The System Administrator Gets the Access Key

................................................

20–16

Registering a Developer

20–17

Enter the Developer Key

20–18

Deleting a Developer

.........................................................................................

20–19

Registering an Object

........................................................................................

20–19

Developer Requests Object Key

20–20

The System Administrator Gets the Access Key:

...............................................

20–20

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Enter the Object Key

20–23

Delete an Object

................................................................................................

20–23

Online Correction Support

20–24

Getting the Latest SPAM version

......................................................................

20–25

Downloading Support Packages

.......................................................................

20–27

Specific Support Package-Related Notes

20 –28

Downloading Suppor Packages

20–30

Overview

.............................................................................................................

21–2

Useful SAP Notes

21–3

.............................................................................................. Connecting to SAPNet–R/3

21–3

Researching a Problem with SAPNet-R/3

.......................................................

21–6

Finding Notes in the SAPNet-R/3

........................................................................

21–6

Entering Customer Messages (Problems) into SAPNet-R/3

21–10

Getting Status on Your Message

21–15

Review the Action Log

........................................................................................

21–16

Display Long Text

...............................................................................................

21–17

Reopen

21–18

Confirm

21–21

Registering a Developer or Object

21–22

Registering a Developer

....................................................................................

21–22

Developer Requests Developer Key

21–23

The System Administrator Gets the Access Key

................................................

21–23

Enter the Developer Key

21–25

Registering an Object

........................................................................................

21–26

Developer Requests Object Key

21–26

The System Administrator Gets the Access Key

................................................

21–27

Enter the Object Key

21–29

Opening a Service Connection

......................................................................

21–30

Order of Access to Systems

...............................................................................

21–30

Overview

.............................................................................................................

22–2

Retrieving Files from SAP, SAPSERV4

...........................................................

22–2

Connecting to SAPSERV4 Using a GUI (NT)

.....................................................

22–3

An Example of an FTP Client

..............................................................................

22–4

Connecting to SAPSERV4 Using the Command Prompt

22–6

Navigating in SAPSERV4

.....................................................................................

22–6

Connecting at the Command Prompt

..................................................................

22–6

Downloading Files

............................................................................................... Partial Organization of SAPSERV4

...................................................................

22–9

22–10

Unpacking a CAR File

22–13

Unpacking a File

.................................................................................................

22–13

Special SAPNet Notes

22–14

EarlyWatch Session

........................................................................................

22–14

Overview

.............................................................................................................

23–2

Changing System Profile Parameters (Transaction RZ10)

...........................

23–2

Support Packages

...........................................................................................

23–11

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Strategy

23–12

High-Level Process of Applying Support Packages

23–12

23–13

............................... Getting Information on the Support Package from SAPNet–R/3

......................

23–15

 

To View All Notes

23–17

To View a Specific Note

23–21

Requesting SPAM or a Support Package from SAPNet–R/3

...........................

23–22

Downloading a Support Package (Hot Package) – SAPNet–R/3

23–24

Uploading the Support Package from a CD or SAPNet–Web

..........................

23–25

Support Package Collection CD

.........................................................................

23–26

SAPNet–Web

......................................................................................................

23–26

Updating SPAM

.................................................................................................

23–29

Applying the Support Package

..........................................................................

23–31

Object Conflicts

 

23–37

Regression Testing

23–39

...............................................................

23–39

Kernel Upgrade

................................................................................................

23–40

Restart Option 1

23–41

Restart Option 2

23–41

Client Copy

.......................................................................................................

23–42

Special Notes

......................................................................................................

23–42

Useful SAP Notes

...............................................................................................

23–43

Processing Notes

23–43

Creating a Client

................................................................................................

23–44

Copying a Client

23–47

Copying on the Same System/SID

.....................................................................

23–47

Copying to a Different System/SID

.....................................................................

23–50

 

Post-Client Copy Tasks

.....................................................................................

23–52

Deleting a Client

23–52

Delete Client Transaction

23–53

Reviewing the Client Copy Log

23–54

Production Refresh Strategies

23–56

Database Copy of Production System

23–57

Benefits

...............................................................................................................

23–57

Disadvantages

....................................................................................................

23–57

Client Copy of the Production System with Data

..............................................

23–57

Advantages

.........................................................................................................

23–57

Disadvantages

....................................................................................................

23–57

Client Copy of the Production System – Without Data

23–58

Advantages

.........................................................................................................

23–58

Disadvantages

....................................................................................................

23–58

Useful Transactions

............................................................................................

A–2

Transaction

Code Switches

A–2

Transaction Code Table

........................................................................................

A–2

Other System Administration Resources

.........................................................

B–2

SAP Resources

B–2

Books

......................................................................................................................

B–3

CDs

.........................................................................................................................

B–4

Training Classes

B–4

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Other B–5 ....................................................................................................................... White papers B–5 ........................................................................................................... SAPNet, Selected Items of Interest B–5 ........................................................................

Third-Party Resources

..........................................................................................

B–7

Books: B–7 .....................................................................................................................

R/3

B–7

UNIX

B–8

NT

B–8

OS/400 B–9 ....................................................................................................................

Microsoft SQL Server

B–9

DB2 B–10 .......................................................................................................................

Oracle

B–10

Other Topics

B–10

Magazines:

B–11

Helpful Third-Party Information B–11 .............................................................................

Web Sites

............................................................................................................

B–11

SAP B–11 .......................................................................................................................

SAP Affiliated B–12 ........................................................................................................

 

Third Party

B–12

 

Internet News Groups

B–12

Other Resources

B–13

Operating System

.................................................................................................

B–13

 

Database

B–13

Other Helpful Products: Contributed by Users

..............................................

B–13

UNIX

 

B–14

 

Backup

..................................................................................................................

B–14

Monitor

..................................................................................................................

B–14

Scheduler

..............................................................................................................

B–14

Spool Management

B–14

Other

.....................................................................................................................

B–14

NT

........................................................................................................................

B–14

Backup

..................................................................................................................

B–14

Monitor

..................................................................................................................

B–14

Remote Control

B–15

Scheduler ..............................................................................................................

B–15

Spool Management

B–15

Other

.....................................................................................................................

B–15

Common, Both UNIX and NT

..............................................................................

B–15

Network

 

B–16

Overview C–2 ...............................................................................................................

R/3 Notes

C–2 ..............................................................................................................

Operating System Notes C–6 .....................................................................................

Common to Multiple Operating Systems

C–6

NT C–6 ..........................................................................................................................

UNIX

C–8

Database Notes

C–9

DB2 / UDB C–11 ........................................................................................................... Informix C–12 ................................................................................................................

Oracle

..................................................................................................................

C–13

System Administration Made Easy

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Upgrade Discussion

............................................................................................

D–2

Reasons Not to Upgrade

.......................................................................................

D–2

When to Upgrade

D–2

Other Considerations D–3 .......................................................................................... Software Issues D–3 ..................................................................................................... Hardware D–3 ............................................................................................................... Performance D–4 ..........................................................................................................

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The combined experience in SAP and general systems administration of those who contributed to this book is measured in decades. I hope that I am able to share with you some of their wisdom.

I also wish to express appreciation to the following individuals who provided time, material, expertise, and resources which helped make the Release 4.6A/B guidebook possible:

Customers and partners: Bill Robichaud, Bridgestone/Firestone; Chad Horwedel, XXX; Doris Steckel, Agilent/HP; Gary Canez, Motorola; Hanumantha Kasoji, Celanese Acetate; John Blair, Steelcase; Joyce Courtney, Infineon; Laura Shieh, John Muir Mt Diablo Health System; Kerry Ek, Finteck; Lynne Lollis, e.coetry/Chaptec; Otis Barr, Ceridian; Paul Wiebe, TransAlta; Richard Doctor, Acuson; Sam Yamakoshi, Timothy Rogers; Tony Schollum, Ernst & Young; Thomas Beam, NCUA; HP; Udesh Naicker, HP.

SAP AG: Andreas Graesser, Dr. Arnold Niedermaier, Dr. Carsten Thiel, Fabian Troendle, Georg Chlond, Dr. Gert Rusch, Herbert Stegmueller, Joerg Schmidt, Dr. Meinolf Block, Michael Demuth, Michael Schuster, Dr. Nicholai Jordt, Otto Boehrer, Rudolf Marquet, Stephen Corbett, Dr. Stefan Fuchs, Thomas Arend, Thomas Besthorn, Dr. Uwe Hommel, Uwe Inhoff, and Dr. Wulf Kruempelman.

SAP America: “Casper” Wai-Fu Kan, Daniel Kocsis, Daniel-Benjamin Fig Zaidspiner, Jackie Wang, Lance Pawlikowski, Maria Gregg, Sue McFarland.

SAP Labs: Dr. Arnold Klingert, Jaideep Adhvaryu, “Jody” Honghua Yang, John Wu, Kitty Yue, Nihad Al- Ftayeh, Peter Aeschlimann, Philippe Timothee, Dr. Thomas Brodkorb.

SAP UK: Peter Le Duc. Contributing authors: Patricia Huang, SAP America; Jerry Forsey, SAP America.

QA testers: Brad Barnes, e.coetry; Claudia Helenius; Jeff Orr, Utilx; Lynne Lollis, e.coetry; Marc Punzalan, Heat and Control; Patrick McShane, Bramasol.

Documentation and production: Rekha Krishnamurthy, John Kanclier, Kurt Wolf.

Gary Nakayama, CPA SAP Labs, Inc., 2000

System Administration Made Easy

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Release 4.6 A/B

What Is This Guidebook About?

xxii

Who Should Read This Book?

...............................................................................

xxii

How to Use This Guidebook

xxv

What’s New

xxv

.............................................................................................................. Special Icons

xxvii

Introduction

What Is This Guidebook About?

Release 4.6 of the System Administration Made Easy Guidebook continues in the direction of the 4.0 version. The primary focus is the importance of the on-going nature of system administration. This book is written for an installed system, where all installation tasks have been completed. Installation and related tasks, which are usually performed once, have not been included in this guidebook.

We have tried to group items and tasks in job role categories, which allows this guidebook to be a better reference book.

Real world practical advice from consultants and customers has been integrated into this book. Because of this perspective, some of the statements in this book are blunt and direct. Some of the examples we have used may seem improbable, but “facts can be, and are, stranger than fiction.”

Because system administration is such a large area, it is difficult to reduce the volume to what can be called “Made Easy.” Although material in this book has been carefully chosen, it is by no means comprehensive. Certain chapters can be expanded into several books [two examples are the chapters on disaster recovery (chapter 2) and security (chapter 11)].

Although there are chapters on problem solving and basic performance tuning, these chapters are only introductions to the subjects. This guidebook is not meant to be a trouble shooting or performance tuning manual. Installation tasks are not presented. We assume that your SAP consultant has completed these tasks.

The target audience for this guidebook is:

The customer person or team where:

The R/3 administrator is from a small to mid-size company with a small (one to three people) technical team.

Each team member in the team has multiple job responsibilities.

The system administrator has a basic knowledge of the operating system and database.

The junior consultant

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Release 4.6 A/B

Introduction

Who Should Read This Book?

Senior consultants, experienced system administrators, and DBAs may find portions of this guidebook very elementary, but hopefully useful.

To help you use this guidebook, and to prevent this guidebook from becoming as thick as an unabridged dictionary, we defined a baseline for user knowledge and system configuration. The two sections below ( User and System) define this baseline. Review these sections to determine how you and your system match. This book is also written with certain assumptions about your knowledge level and the expectation that particular system requirements have been met.

We assume that you have a baseline knowledge of R/3, the operating system, and the database. If you lack knowledge in any of the following points, we recommend that you consult the many books and training classes that specifically address your operating system and database.

You should know how to complete the following tasks at the:

R/3 System level:

Be able to log on to R/3

Know how to navigate in R/3 using menus and transaction codes There are screens that do not have menu paths and the only way to access them is by

using the transaction codes. In the “real world,” navigating by transaction codes is faster and more efficient than menus. Operating system level:

Be familiar with the file and directory structure Be able to use the command line to navigate and execute programs Set up a printer Perform a backup using standard operating system tools or third-party tools Perform basic operating system security Copy and move files Properly start and stop the operating system and server Database level Properly start and stop the database Perform a backup of the database

Introduction Who Should Read This Book? Senior consultants, experienced system administrators, and DBAs may find portions

R/3 runs on more than five different versions of UNIX. In many cases, significant differences exist between these versions. These differences contributed to our decision to not go into detail at the operating system level.

System Administration Made Easy

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Introduction

Who Should Read This Book?

For an ongoing productive environment, we assume that the:

R/3 System is completely and properly installed Infrastructure is set up and functional

The following checklist will help you determine if your system is set up to the baseline assumptions of this book. If you can log on to your R/3 System, most of these tasks have already been completed.

Is the backup equipment installed and tested?

Is the Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) installed? Is a server or system monitor available?

Are the following utility software installed (as appropriate)? Backup program Hardware monitors System monitors UPS control R/3 System Is R/3 installed according to SAP’s recommendation? Is the TPPARAM file configured?

(In Release 4.6, TMS creates a file to be used as the TPPARAM file.) Is the TMS/CTS configured? Is the SAProuter configured? Is the OSS1 transaction configured? Is the ABAP workbench configured? Has initial security been configured (default passwords changed)? Are the NT sapmnt share or UNIX NFS sapmnt exports properly configured? Is the online documentation installed? Can users log on to R/3 from their desktops?

For optimal results, we recommend that the minimum screen resolution be set as follows:

For the users, 800

600

For the system administrator, 1024 768 and a minimum color depth of 256 colors

The Release 4.6 GUI displays better with 64K colors.

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Release 4.6 A/B

Introduction

This guidebook is organized in the following fashion:

How to Use This Guidebook

The first two chapters provide a high-level view of disaster recovery and backup and recovery.

Chapters 4-8 are helpful checklists that help the system administrator complete various tasks, including daily, weekly, and yearly.

These chapters also provide helpful transaction codes and where in the book these codes are found.

Chapter 9 discusses how to stop or start the R/3 System. Chapters 10-13 involve the following topics:

R/3 administration Security administration User administration Database administration (SQL Server)

The rest of the book covers subjects such as operations, troubleshooting, remote services, change management, and SAPNet R/3 –Frontend (formerly known as OSS). The four appendices cover useful transactions, other resources, SAPNet R/3–Frontend notes, and a discussion on upgrades.

All the task procedures are classified in one section and by job roles, where related tasks are placed together. Regardless of the job schedule, all jobs related to a job role are grouped in one place.

This guidebook evolved from the previous versions of this guidebook and incorporates customer and consultant comments. Send us your comments, so we can make future versions better meet your needs.

The new features of the Release 4.6 guidebook are:

System Administration Assistant (transaction SSAA), chapter 10 New chapters on:

Security (chapter 11) Microsoft SQL Server / Windows NT (chapter 13) Basic problem solving (chapter 17 ) Basic performance tuning (chapter 22)

System Administration Made Easy

xxv xxv
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Introduction

What’s New

The procedures to perform regularly-scheduled tasks have been moved to the Roles section. The unscheduled tasks section from the 4.0B guidebook has become a role-oriented section. This change accommodates customers who perform scheduled tasks at times other than the times presented in this guidebook. Therefore, all the task procedures are classified in one section and by job roles, where related tasks are placed together. Regardless of the job schedule, all jobs related to a job role are grouped in one place.

In the table below, you will find some of the text conventions used throughout this guide.

Column Title Column Title
Column Title
Column Title

Sans-serif italic

Screen names or on-screen objects (buttons, fields, screen text, etc.)

Monospace

User input (text the user types verbatim)

Name1

Name2

Menu selection Name1 is the menu name, and Name2 is the item on the menu

Sample R/3 Release 4.6 Screen

Menu Bar Standard Toolbar Screen Title Application Toolbar User menu SAP standard menu Workplace Menu Workplace
Menu Bar
Standard Toolbar
Screen Title
Application Toolbar
User menu
SAP standard menu
Workplace Menu
Workplace
Status Bar

Application toolbar:

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Introduction

Special Icons

The screenshots shown in this guide are based on full user authorization (SAP_ALL). Depending on your authorizations, some of the buttons on your application toolbar may not be available.

Workplace menu:

Depending on your authorizations, your workplace menu may look different from screenshots in this guide which are based on SAP_ALL. The User menu and SAP standard menu buttons provide different views of the workplace menu.

To learn how to build user menus, see Authorizations Made Easy guidebook Release

4.6A/B.

In this guidebook, we show the technical names of each transaction. To match our

settings, choose Extras

Settings and select Show technical names.

Throughout this guide special icons indicate important messages. Below are brief explanations of each icon:

Introduction Special Icons The screenshots shown in this guide are based on full user authorization (SAP_ALL).
Exercise caution when performing this task or step. An explanation of why you should be careful
 

Exercise caution when performing this task or step. An explanation of why you should be careful is included.

 
Exercise caution when performing this task or step. An explanation of why you should be careful
This information helps you understand the topic in greater detail. It is not necessary to know

This information helps you understand the topic in greater detail. It is not necessary to know this information to perform the task.

 
Introduction Special Icons The screenshots shown in this guide are based on full user authorization (SAP_ALL).

These messages provide helpful hints and shortcuts to make your work faster and easier.

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Introduction

Special Icons

xxviii xxviii
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Release 4.6 A/B

Overview 1 –2 Roles of an R/3 System Administrator 1–2 Traits of an R/3 System

Overview

1–2

Roles of an R/3 System Administrator

1–2

Traits of an R/3 System Administrator

1–4

R/3 System Guidelines

1–4

Corollaries to Murphy’s Law

................................................................................

1–13

Special Definitions

................................................................................................

1–14

System Administration Made Easy

1 –1

Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics

Overview

This chapter is about the roles that a system administrator plays. These roles cross all

functional areas, and the number and intensity of the tasks depends on the size of the company. In a small company, one person can be the entire system administration department. In a larger company, however, this person is probably part of a team. The

purpose of this “definition” is to help clarify the roles of a system administrator. This chapter is a list of commonly used system administration terms and their definitions.

At the end of this chapter is a list of 14 R/3 System guidelines, which a system administrator must be aware of while working with the system.

Sample guidelines include:

Keep it short and simple (KISS) Use checklists Do not allow direct database access

Depending on the size of the company and available resources, R/3 administrator(s) may range from one person to several specialized people in several departments.

Factors that affect an R/3 system administrator’s tasks, staffing, and roles:

Company size Available resources (the size of the Basis group) Availability of infrastructure support for:

Desktop support Database Network Facilities

The R/3 system administrator may wear many hats both in or directly related to, R/3 and indirectly or external to R/3.

User administrator

Set up and maintain user accounts Security administrator Create and maintain SAP security profiles Monitor and manage security access and violations

1–2
1–2

Release 4.6A/B

Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics

System administrator Maintain the system’s health Monitor system performance and logs Transport administrator Transport changes between systems Manage change requests Batch scheduler

Roles of an R/3 System Administrator

Create and manage the scheduling of batch jobs Backup operator

Schedule, run, and monitor backup jobs of the SAP database and any required operating system level files

Disaster recovery technical manager

Create, test, and execute the SAP disaster recovery plan Programmer

Apply SAPNet R/3 note fixes to programs Data Dictionary (DDIC) manager

Change the Data Dictionary (when applicable) Data Base Administrator (DBA)

DBA for the specific database on which the system is running Manage database specific tasks Maintain the database’s health and integrity Operating system administrator Manage the operating system access and user IDs Manage operating system specific tasks Network administrator Manage network access and user IDs Manage network support and maintenance Server administrator

Manage the servers Desktop support

Supports the user’s desktop PC Printers

Facilities Manages facilities-related support issues, such as:

Power/utilities Air conditioning (cooling)

System Administration Made Easy

1–3
1–3

Chapter 1: R/3 System Administration Basics

Traits of an R/3 System Administrator

Physical server access

An R/3 system administrator should:

Have a proper attitude

Protect and safeguard the system. The system administrator is the guardian of the system.

Know when to call for help The ability to know when you need to get help is a strength. The weakness is not knowing when to get help and getting into trouble.

Be willing to work the hours required to support the system Certain tasks must be done after hours or on weekends to avoid disrupting normal business operations.

Be technically competent When necessary, the company must invest in training for the Basis staff.

You must also take responsibility for your own training and education, whether your company pays for it or not.

Be a team-player

The system administrator will have to work with various functional groups, users, the IS staff, and others to successfully complete the necessary tasks.

When working on an R/3 System:

Protect the system Do not be afraid to ask for help Network with other customers and consultants Keep it short and simple (KISS) Keep proper documentation Use checklists Use the appropriate tool for the job Perform preventive maintenance Do not change what you do not have to