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Americans toss out around 3040% percent of edible food

(Baertlein & Scheyder, 2012).

Food waste is now estimated to account for more than one quarter of the total freshwater consumption (Britt, 2009).

300 million barrels of oil per year (Britt, 2009)

WHAT IS FOOD SPOILAGE?

SMELL

TOUCH

SIGHT

(Food Safety Education. Describe why food spoils.)

TASTE

WHAT CAUSES FOOD TO SPOIL?

Microorganisms

Air (Oxygen)

Chemical Processes

MICROORGANISMS

Bacteria

Mold

Attach to Fruit as it Grows Thrive in Warm, Moist Environment Some cases, Double Their Numbers in 20 Minutes Reproduction and Waste By-Products is Evidence
(USDA. Food Safety: Bacteria, Spoilage. )

MICROORGANISM IRONY
-Most Spoilage Bacteria- Not Harmful -Gravy and Sauces Invented to Cover Up Taste, Not Enhance it

-Pathogenic Bacteria( E. coli /Salmonella)do not affect taste, appearance, or smell of Food.
(Stradley (2004) Sauces-History of Sauces) (USDA. Food Safety: Bacteria, Spoilage. )

AIR (OXYGEN)

CHEMICAL PROCESSES

Naturally occurring enzymes


Convert glucose Feed their seed

Food Waste

Food Spoilage

Keep it Fresh!!

What is Fresh?

WHAT IS FRESHNESS?
Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines Freshness as:

The property of being pure and fresh (as if newly made); not stale or deteriorated. Freshness Tests: 1. Color Scale 2. Firmness Scale 3. Smell Scale

WHAT IS FRESHNESS?

Color Scale
0 3 5

Dark spots, Covered in bruises, Mold

Some dark spots or bruises, No mold

Bright color, no blemishes, no bruises, no mold

WHAT IS FRESHNESS?

Firmness Scale
0 3 5

Very soft, easily bruised, leaves indents when pushed.

Soft in areas where bruised, firm in areas not bruised. May leave indent in bruised areas.

Firm to the touch, Does not leave any indent when pressed.

WHAT IS FRESHNESS?

Smell Scale

No Odor

Odor of fruit, can smell peach, strawberry or banana scent.

Strong odor from fruit. Pungent sour or rotten smell. Super sweet scent (mold)

OUR 3 EXPERIMENTS
We want to know how different storage methods can keep our fruits fresher!
1)

2)

3)

How does light and dark environments affect the freshness of fruit? How does circulating and non-circulating air affect the freshness of fruit? How does different packaging effect the freshness of fruit

OUR FRUITS
Peaches

Bananas
Strawberries

INVESTIGATION 1

How does a light or dark environment affect the freshness of fruit?

OUR CLAIM
We believe that the fruit in the dark environment will stay fresher for longer

MEASUREMENTS AND FRESHNESS TESTS

Measurements
Weight Measurements Circumference of fruit

Freshness Test
Smell Test Firmness Test Smell Test

Photos
Each piece of fruit Cross section of fruit

PROCEDURE
Take all measurements, tests and photos. Place Dark fruit in dark area that will have no light on it for the duration of 2 weeks Place Light fruit in area that it will have a constant source of light for two weeks Take photographs every 2 days and record observations After two weeks retake measurements, photos and test for freshness again

PROBLEM!!

EVIDENCE

Dark Environment

Light Environment

EVIDENCE

Dark Environment

Light Environment

EVIDENCE

Dark Environment

Light Environment

RESULTS
Peach Light
Measurements Weight(g) Circumference(cm) Color Firmness Scent Initial 216.8g 24cm 5 5 1 Final 124.6g 19.1cm 1 1 0 Change 92.2g 4.9cm 4 4 1 % Loss 42.5% 20.4% Initial 190.4g 23.6cm 5 5 1

Peach Dark
Final 135.5g 20.2cm 3 3 3 Change 54.9g 3.4cm 2 2 2 % Loss 28.8% 14.4%

Strawberry Light
Measurements Weight(g) Circumference(cm) Color Firmness Scent Initial 48.9g 13.3cm 5 5 3 Final 19.7g 5.5cm 0 1 1 Change 29.2g 7.8cm 5 4 2 % Loss 59.7% 58.6% Initial 42.7g 12.3cm 5 5 3

Strawberry Dark
Final 23.4g 7cm 0 1 1 Change 19.3g 5.3cm 5 4 2 % Loss 45.2% 43.1%

Banana Light
Measurements Weight(g) Circumference(cm) Color Firmness Scent Initial 217.8g 14cm 5 5 1 Final 161.8g
11.5cm Change

Banana Dark
% Loss 25.7% 17.9% Initial 211.6g 13.3% 5 5 1 Final 176.8g 12% 2 3 1 Change 34.8g 1.3% 3 1 3 % Loss 16.4% 9.8%

0 1 3

56.0g 2.5cm 5 4 2

RESEARCH

Light makes plants grow. So why did having a constant source of light cause it to not stay fresh?

SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS
Photosynthesis
Light

Energy Temperature

INVESTIGATION 2

How does circulating air and non-circulating air affect fruit freshness?

OUR CLAIM
Fruit

kept in non-circulating air will have a longer period of freshness.

PROCEDURE

Peach, strawberry, and banana were put in an airtight-bag and in the open air respectively and were observed for two week.
Pictures of each was taken every two days.

EVIDENCE

Non-Circulating Air

Circulating Air

EVIDENCE

Non-Circulating Air

Circulating Air

EVIDENCE

Non-Circulating Air

Circulating Air

RESULTS
Peach Open Air
Measurements Weight(g) Circumference(cm) Color Firmness Scent Initial 190.7g 22.7cm 5 5 1 Final 142.2g 21.1cm 4 4 3 Change 48.5g 1.6cm -1 -1 2 % Loss 25.4% 7.0%

Peach Non-Circulating
Initial 185.3g 23cm 5 5 1 Final 181.5g 22.8cm 5 4 3 Change 3.8g 0.2cm 0 -1 2 % Loss 2.1% 0.9%

Banana Open Air


Measurements Weight(g) Circumference(cm) Color Firmness Scent Initial 195.9g 12.8cm 5 5 1 Final 146.1g 11.0cm 0 1 2 Change 49.8g 1.8cm -5 -4 1 % Loss 25.4% 14.1%

Banana Non-Circulating
Initial 193.9g 12.8cm 5 5 1 Final 187.2g 12.5cm 3 3 3 Change 6.7g 0.3cm -2 -2 2 %Loss 3.5% 2.3%

Strawberry Open Air


Measurements Weight(g) Circumference(cm) Color Firmness Scent Initial 38.0g 11.0cm 5 5 3 Final 21.2g 5.0cm 1 1 0 Change 16.8g 6.0cm -4 -4 -3 % Loss 44.2% 54.5%

Strawberry Non-Circulating
Initial 38.9g 11.6cm 5 5 3 Final 37.1g 10.0cm 0 2 5 Change 1.8g 1.6cm -5 -3 2 % Loss 4.6% 13.8%

RESEARCH
Oxygen

interactions with other compounds. natural enzymes contained in the fruits.

The

Transpiration/Respiration.

RESULT: FRUITS IN NON-CIRCULATING AIR KEPT LONGER.


How

come ??????!

Air

is composed of 78% nitrogen, 21% of oxygen, and 1% of other gasses.

Ethylene

gas the ripening master

Restricted

air slows the action of ethylene.

RESPIRATION/TRANSPIRATION

We observed that there was water vapor in the bag. During the intake of air, fruits give off water.
AS fruits ripen, they take in oxygen and give off carbon dioxide. The higher the respiration, the higher the rate of spoilage.

OXIDATION

When oxygen mixes with chemical substances eg, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and enzymes reactions will take place which will make the fruits to turn brown.
The more fruits are kept away from oxygen, the more they stay longer.

INVESTIGATION 3

How does the type of packaging affect the freshness of fruit?

vs
Brown Bag Green Bag

OUR CLAIM
The

fruit kept in the green bag will have a longer period of freshness.

PROCEDURE

EVIDENCE
Brown Bag Peaches

Green Bag Peaches

EVIDENCE
Brown Bag Day 0 Brown Bag Day 14

EVIDENCE
Green Bag Day 0 Green Bag Day 14

EVIDENCE
Sample Sample DayCross Cross Section Section (0) Day 0
Brown Bag Cross Section (14) Green Bag Cross Section (14)

EVIDENCE
Brown Bag Green bag

EVIDENCE
Brown Bag Green Bag

RESULTS/EXP #3
FRUIT FRESHNESS READINGS
Msrmnts. Wt. (gm) Circum.(cm) Color Firmness Scent Initial 192.8 13 5 5 1 BANANA BROWN BAG Final Change 158.8 34.0 11.5 1.5 0 -5 1 -4 4 3 PEACH BROWN BAG Final Change 180.2 18.0 22.1 1.1 5 0 3 -2 % Loss 17.6% 11.5% Initial 202 13.5 5 5 1 BANANA GREEN BAG Final Change 198 4.0 13 0.5 4 -1 3 -2 3 2 PEACH GREEN BAG Final Change 190.2 0.1 23.4 0.0 5 0 5 0 % Loss 2.0% 3.7%

Msrmnts. Wt. (gm) Circum.(cm) Color Firmness

Initial 198.2 23.2 5 5

% Loss 9.1% 4.7%

Initial 190.3 23.4 5 5

% Loss 0.1% 0.0%

Scent

STRAWBERRY BROWN BAG Msrmnts. Wt. (gm) Circum.(cm) Initial 38.0 11.0 Final 17.3 4.3 Change 20.7 6.7 % Loss 54.5% 60.9% Initial 37 11.4

STRAWBERRY GREEN BAG Final 34.2 na Change 2.8 #VALUE! % Loss 7.6% #VALUE!

Color
Firmness Scent

5
5 3

1
1 0

-4
-4 -3

5
5 3

0
2 5

-5
-3 2

STORAGE RESULTS
PEACH GREEN BAG

1st

Initial 190.3

Final 190.2

Change 0.1

% Loss 0.1%

BANANA GREEN BAG

1st

1st

STRAWBERRY NON-CIRCULATING Initial 38.9 Final 37.1 Change % Loss 1.8 4.6%

Initial 202.0

Final Change % Loss 198.0 4.0 2.0%

PEACH NON-CIRCULATING

2nd

STRAWBERRY OPEN AIR


BANANA NON-CIRCULATING

Initial 185.3

Final 181.5

Change 3.8

% Loss 2.1%

2nd

2nd

Initial 38.0

Final 21.2

Change % Loss 16.8 44.2%

Initial
193.9

Final Change % Loss


187.2 6.7 3.5%

PEACH BROWN BAG

STRAWBERRY DARK

3rd

Initial 198.2

Final 180.2

Change 18.0

% Loss 9.1%

BANANA DARK

3rd
16.4%

Initial
42.7

Final
23.4

Change % Loss
19.3 45.2%

3rd

Initial

Final Change % Loss

211.6 PEACH OPEN AIR

176.8

34.8

STRAWBERRY BROWN BAG % Loss 25.4% BANANA BROWN BAG

4th

Initial 190.7

Final 142.2

Change 48.5

4th

Initial 38.0

Final 17.3

Change % Loss 20.7 54.5%

4th

Initial

Final Change % Loss

192.8

158.8

34.0

17.6%

RESEARCH

Ethylene Gas

C2H4 + 3 O2 -> 2 CO2 + 2 C2H4 + 3 O2 -> 2 CO2 + 2 H2O. H2O.

Fruit Susceptibility to Ethylene


Optimal Storage Temp. Product Bananas Peaches Strawberries ( o F) 56-60 31-32 32 Opti ma l Humi di ty % 85-95 90-95 90-95 Sensitive to Ethylene Approx. Production Ethylene 3) Storage Life Medium High Very Low No Yes No 2-4 weeks 3-7 days Chill sensitive stored at 3540 F Comments

Apples Apricots Blackberries Grapes Melons, Honey Dew Nectarines Oranges Pears Plums Pumpkins Raspberries Tangerines
3)

30-40 31-32 32-33 31-32

90-95 90-95 90-95 85

High High Very Low Very Low

Yes Yes No Yes

1-12 months 1-3 weeks 2-3 days 2-8 weeks

50-55 31-32 32-35 29-31 31-32 50-55 31-32 32-35

85-95 90-95 90-95 90-95 90-95 65-70 90-95 90-95

Medium High Very Low High High No Very Low Very Low

Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 2-7 months 2-5 weeks 2-3 months 2-3 days 2-4 weeks

Products sensitive to ethylene should not be stored together with products producing ethylene.

Exposure to ethylene may soften the flesh, adding bitter taste to the product or/and accelerate ripening.

(Engineering Tool Box, The. Fruits and Vegetables-Optimum Storage Conditions)

WHAT IS SO SPECIAL ABOUT THE GREEN BAG?

BAGS LINED WITH ZEOLITE

(Beattie,S. April 2009. Spend Smart. Eat Smart)

THINK ABOUT THE FUTURE

Scientists

+ Technology + Genetic Code

GENETICALLY ENGINEER FRUIT TO RIPEN HOW AND WHEN WE WANT

(Curry, E.A. Dr. 1998. Ethylene in Fruit Physiology)

CONCLUSION
Become Proactive! Only buy what you need to use or learn the appropriate methods of storing fruit. One bad apple really does spoil the bunch!

FURTHER QUESTIONS
What effect does humidity have on ethylene gas production? Why do strawberries lose their freshness so quickly? What effect does refrigeration have on fruit freshness? What are the different levels of ethylene production between different fruits? Does keeping the picked fruit with their caps or vines one extend freshness period.

BEST WAY TO STORE OUR FRUITS

Bananas: On a hook. Prevents bruising due to pressure from counter.

Strawberries: Eat straight away or Freeze. Place in fridge in a single layer Peaches Ripen in a brown bag Store in a plastic bag

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Beattie,S. 3 April 2009. Spend Smart. Eat Smart. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. Retrieved from http://blogs.extension.iastate.edu/foodsavings/2009/04/03/do-greenbags-keep-produce-fresh/
Blair, B. (n.d.). The basics of light..Retrieved April 5, 2012, from http://violet.pha.jhu.edu/~wpb/spectroscopy/basics. Html Carter, J.S. (2004).Photosynthesis. Retrieved April 5, 2012, from http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/photosyn.htm Curry, E.A. Dr. March 10, 1998. Ethylene in Fruit Physiology. WSU Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center. Post Harvest Network. Retrieved April 8, 21012 from http://postharvest.tfrec.wsu.edu/pages/PC98M

BIBLOGRAPHY CONTINUED
Engineering Tool Box, The. Fruits and Vegetables-Optimum Storage Conditions. Retrieved April 8, 2012 from http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/fruits- vegetables-storageconditions-d_710.html
Gomez, C. (2011). Does light affect ripe fruit? Retrieved April 5, 2012, from http://www.ehow.co.uk/info_8724265_light-affect-ripefruit.html#ixzz1rhSXtnpn Naik, A. (2011).Photosynthesis for kids. Retrieved April 5, 2012, from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/photosynthesis-for-kids.html Purdue Chemistry Department.(n.d.).The atom and electromagnetic radiation. Retrieved April 5, 2012, from http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch6/ atom_emr.html

BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED
U.S FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. (2009). Microbiological Safety of Controlled and Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce.
Workman, Harrison, M. (1973). Effects of superatmospheric oxygen on post- harvest. Retrieved from http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/datastore/23416.pdf