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technical and vocational training involvement in the plantation sector involvement in the security services sector The above features show the inequality of educational opportunities in A. Location B. Race C. Gender D. Socioeconomic ANSWER : D


Sabah has 23 tribes and the largest among them is A. Bisaya B. Murut C. Rungus D. Kadayan ANSWER : B


Inclusive education is an education program for A. helping the parents teaching their children B. involving pupils in active learning C. children with special needs in regular classrooms D. train teacher about children with special needs

ANSWER : C healthy classroom climate that is emotionally important to create an environment conducive to learning and teaching 11. Which of the following statements shows teachers effort in creating this climate? A. allowing the pupils to elect B. be fair and considerate while marking assignments C. using materials that are appropriate to students' abilities D. ensure pupils are learning in a clean and tidy classroom ANSWER : C 12. Physical classroom management by the aspect of security, is by creating rules and practices in the classroom. What is the purpose of classroom rules established? A. to strengthen school discipline in control B. to restrict excessive freedom among students C. to control students' behaviour so as not to break the rules and culture of the school D. to control and to shape positive behaviour and prevent unwanted behaviour ANSWER : D


Which of the following describes the concept of cultural relevant pedagogy

curriculum and diversity groups?

A. a program of study B. description of educational content C. education vision statement D. experience gained from student ANSWER : A 14. Management of teaching and learning environment in the classroom that can be achieved with a friendly culture and methods of the following ways, except (A) (B) Plan appropriate learning objectives, clear and achievable by all students Encouraging pupils from certain ethnic and minority involved more active so they also prominent role (C) Lesson content and activities should involve the interaction of students from different cultures and backgrounds (D) Motivate appropriate for all students to diverse cultures so that they can understand the differences between cultures among themselves Answer : (D)


How does the culture of knowledge-based assessment of human nature can help a teacher? (A) (B) (C) (D) Establish communication Encourage students to interact with peers Students understand the uniqueness of personality Develop the potential of students to the maximum extent

Answer : (B)


Joined class created the following reasons except (A) (B) (C) (D) Not enough number of classrooms The number of students does not exceed 145 people The number of students in the classroom about 15 people The number of all teachers, including the headmaster about 10 people

Answer : (C) 17. Reception of a message by the receiver of the speaker according to Wilbur Schramm's communication model (1954) is: (A) (B) (C) (D) Source - Encoded- Alerts - Decode - Destinations Destination - Alerts - Resources - encode - Decode Alerts - Resources - encode - Decode - Destinations Resources - Alerts - Encode - Decode Destinations

Answer : (A)

18. The characteristics of an effective communication that can be shown by teachers are I II III IV be a good listener help pupils to answer tough questions using simple and clear words using physical movements such hand gestures and facial expressions

V (A) (B) (C) (D)

give presents to students that can answer questions I, II and III only I, III and IV only II, III and IV only III, IV and V only

Answer: (B) 19. Planning an action plan is important to create a culture-friendly environment. Based on that, what is the main purpose of an action plan? (A) (B) (C) (D) to identify existing problem to inculcate moral values in pupils to make pupils feel safe and secure to create good rapport between teacher and pupils

Answer: (D) 20. The best action plan to create culture-friendly environment related with (A) (B) (C) (D) use of the latest ICT relevant techniques and strategies conducive classroom arrangement interesting teaching aids Answer: (C)

SECTION B (40 Marks) Answers.

1.(a) Explain three characteristics of culture. i. Culture is learned and acquired. Not all things shared generally by a population for it to be considered cultural, it must be first learned as well as shared. Culture is shared and transmitted. Culture is passed on to succeeding generation through language or communication. Cumulative. People are able to retain certain features of their culture significant.

ii. iii.

(b) i. ii. iii.

Explain two main characteristics of society. Having sense of belonging and cooperation. Always changing. Has its own culture.

2.(a) List four social classes in the traditional Malay society. i. ii. iii. iv. v. Sultan Socialites Kelaspembesar General public Slaves

(b) i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

List six taboos that are present among the various cultural societies in Malaysia. Not allowed out of house after Maghrib in fear of being possessed. Will develop burgeoning belly if one sleeps after eating. Restricted from peeking or one will have develop an eye sore. Bathing at night will cause aching sense in the bones. Restricted from sitting at faade of house in fear of getting married late. One will develop boil if one sits on pillow.

3 (a) According to Max Weber, there are five social classes in society that leads to inequality in education opportunity. State six factors that lead to inequality in education opportunity in Malaysia. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Social class Gender Minority group Special needs group Culture Socio-economic status

(b) Issues on the education inequality are among the prior challenges of Malaysia Ministry of Education. Elaborate two efforts that have been done by the Malaysia Ministry of Education in order to reduce educational inequality among the rural population. (i) Schools are provided with wireless access for example SchoolNet to reduce the gap in ICT access among rural school pupils. (ii) Kumpulan Wang Simpanan Pelajar Miskin is given by the government to reduce the burden of the poor family in rural areas to enable the children to attend school.

4 (a) Education gap between urban and rural areas is the development of history education remains unequal locations. State five supervisory action plans in terms of physical facilities to help improve rural education. (i) In order to increase the ICT access in rural areas, government has given the allocation for building the ICT Lab, at least one for each school. (ii) Government has allocated the budget to build new school building to replace the old buildings so the pupils will be more motivated to come to school. (iii) Computers are being distributed to all the school in rural areas so that the pupils will be exposed to the technology parallel with the pupils in city. (iv) In the new building, there is also the science laboratory built so that the pupils are able to experience learning science in the proper room with fully equip science apparatus. (v) All the books in the library are being replace with new and latest version in order to open the pupils mind about the new world.

(b) The establishment of Sekolah Wawasan is one of the Malaysia government's efforts to create unity among the multi-racial population. State five importance of the establishment of Sekolah Wawasan. (i) To strengthen the unity in a plural society in Malaysia. Spirit of unity and racial integration began to be emphasized since in primary school is better for children. (ii) To unite students of different races in this country by stick to one rules of education. (iii)Sekolah Wawasan which houses three different school streams will allow students to master English SRJK because English proficiency among

students in SRJK quite weak. All students can understand the culture, language, and thinking of other races. (iv)To provide opportunities for teachers and staff from each school to interact and share information on education innovation more frequently. (v) To give the opportunity to every races to be more tolerant and able to create healthy competition, academically.

SECTION C (40 marks) Answer any two questions.


Socio-cultural diversity in multiethnic system influences the development of educational system and learning environment directly. One of the influences is hidden curriculum.

(a) Explain five features of hidden curriculum in current Malaysian education system. (10 m)

It includes the learning experience that the pupils obtained wherever they learnt. It can become the learning objectives which are related to the learning outcomes. It is hard to be measured quantitatively as it includes the importance of values in learning to both teacher and pupils. Sometimes, it is already in the curriculum objectives or goals but it is not written. It may exist differently according to the location, environment, background, teacher and pupils. It may help pupils to internalize norms, beliefs, values and assumptions which are expressed as rules, rituals and regulations.


Discuss the implications of the hidden curriculum in school towards sociocultural communities. (10 m)

Socioeconomic status -pupils from lower backgrounds tend to perform poorly on achievement measures.

Low teacher expectations -personal biases or prejudices against pupils from different backgrounds. -teachers assumptions about the impact of certain pupils characteristics gave in the classroom. Standardized test bias -skills and behaviors do not exist apart from cultural variables such as prior knowledge, language styles differences, etc


Pupils who come from various ethnicities bring distinct uniqueness of their culture into the classroom.


Elaborate five suitable teaching and learning approaches that can be used by teachers in the multi-racial classroom. (10 m)

Cooperative learning apply this in class containing pupils of different cultures (eg: pupils achieve the learning goals through cooperation) Collaborative approach evoke close cooperation between the two parties-(eg: pupils get to discuss, exchange opinions/ideas in the group harmoniously) Material-centered learning - use suitable material while teaching. It provides opportunity for interaction and communication among pupils and teacher Directive directives given by teacher. Teacher arranges and organizes all instructions systematically from simple to complex to guide pupils to attain objectives. Pupils are facilitated to works as one. Review the future method it aids pupils thoughts to analyze and

evaluate the benefits of working together as a team despite cultural difference. This method makes their life more meaningful

Generative encourage pupils to generate ideas creatively and critically. It should be done accordance with their culture.

Contextual method- use learning materials that are associated with the real-life situation


Discuss five ways that can be used by teachers to prevent the learning process from being monopolized by pupils from specific race only. (10 m)

-Teachers need to plan teaching and learning activities that give opportunities for pupils to interact and create a friendly atmosphere among pupils, regardless of ethnicity. -Create learning environment that builds value and appreciate the differences between ethnic groups -Encourage students to share knowledge and ideas from different cultural perspectives. -Teachers can carry out activities in a group of mixed race. Students get to know friends from different races during the student conduct group activities. -Teachers need to have knowledge about cultural diversity that exists among their students. It helps teachers to plan suitable activities for their students. -Treat students fairly without distinction between ethnicity and descent students.


Verbal and non-verbal communication is the key of success in management of teaching and learning in classroom.


Discuss five ways in which non-verbal communication can be used by teacher while conducting teaching and learning process in classroom. (10 m) 1. Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits:

Happiness Friendliness Warmth Liking Affiliation Thus, if teacher smile frequently you will be perceived as more

likable, friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and students will react favorably and learn more. 2. Gestures: If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as boring, stiff and unanimated. A lively and animated teaching style captures students' attention, makes the material more interesting, facilitates learning and provides a bit of entertainment. Head nods, a form of gestures, communicate positive reinforcement to students and indicate that you are listening.

3. Posture and body orientation: You communicate numerous messages by the way you walk, talk, stand and sit. Standing erect, but not rigid, and leaning slightly forward communicates to students that you are approachable, receptive and friendly. Furthermore, interpersonal closeness results when you and your students face each other. Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided; it communicates disinterest to your class.

4. Paralinguistics: This feature of nonverbal communication includes such vocal elements as:

Tone Pitch Rhythm Loudness

For maximum teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these elements of your voice. One of the major criticisms is of instructors who speak in a monotone. Listeners perceive these instructors as boring and dull. Students report that they learn less and lose interest more quickly when listening to teachers who have not learned to modulate their voices. 5. Proximity: Cultural norms speak a comfortable distance for interaction with students. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading students' space. Some of these are rocking, leg swinging and tapping.

Typically, in large college classes space invasion is not a problem. In fact, there is usually too much distance. To counteract this, move around the classroom to increase interaction with your students. Increasing proximity enables you to make better eye contact and increases the opportunities for students to speak.


Explain five implications faced by pupils if teacher failed to carry out the effective communication in classroom. (10 m)


Students fail to receive message clearly. This is because effective

communication is able to give clear direction and vision. Without proper direction from teacher, the pupils will be left to use his own decision on how to accomplish certain task, which can lead to confusion and frustration. 2. Pupils cannot hear clearly. Effective communication provides clarity to avoid any confusion. Without clarity, messages can be ambiguous, lacking definition and so on. Misunderstandings commonly occur when pupil dont understand exactly what is being communicated to or expected of them. Clarity comes through effective communication: asking questions and repeating messages to the sender. 3. Promote less effective class control. Due to the absence of effective communication in classroom, teacher will go through difficulties in recognizing attending and non attending behavior of students in class. This will make pupil to make a lot of noises and be uncontrollable in classroom thus it promote a threatening learning atmosphere in classroom. 4. Lesson objectives cannot be achieved. This is because without effective interaction and communication a teacher can never understand their pupil well. For example, their learning style, what they can do, what they cannot do and so on. So, whenever teacher conducts a lesson, pupil will be confused and lost as it

is beyond their capabilities. This is true as there are individual differences in each pupil. 5. Students are less interested to learn. That is because the students could not understand what was being taught by the teacher.